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Differs from a bridge in a way that former uses logical addresses and the latter uses physical

addresses.
Router A Router is a network device that is used to separate different segments in a network to
improve performance and reliability. A router works like a bridge but can handle different
protocols.
Gateway A Gateway is a network device that connects dissimilar net-works. It establishes an
intelligent connection between a local network and external networks with completely differently
structures.
Gateway node often acts as a proxy server and a firewall.
An internal or external Local Area Network adapter with a built-in wireless radio and antenna.
Allows you to setup your work station or home office with considering the proximity or availability
of hard line network access.
Network design problem consists of the following three general element :
Enviornment given- Location of hosts, servers, terminals, the projected traffics.
Performance constraints-Network reliability, traffic, throughput, and host/client computer
speeds.
Internetworking variables- Network topologies, and capacities.

>>>NOTE:- The 80-20 rule: in a properly designed small to medium-sized network
environment, 80 percent of the traffic on a given network segment is local (destined for a
target in the same work-group), and not more than 20 percent of the network traffic need
to move across a backbone (the spine that connects various segments or subnetworks).
1) When/ why hubs and switches are used?
Answer) Whenever one needs to form a network among multiples nodes network devices, a device
like hub or switch is needed.
2) How does a hub works?
Answer) Hub is a multiport repeater, which broadcasts all information to all other ports. It causes
unnecessary network traffic. Hence it is called non-intelligent or dump device. [You can think of a
hub as a dump postman who does not know the house number, so he goes to every house and asks
the owner if the letter is his?]
3) Why repeaters?
Answer) When a signal travels along a cable, the tends to lose strength. A repeater is a device that
boots or regenerates a networks signal as it passes through and rebroadcasts it.
4) When are repeaters required?

Answer) Repeaters are mainly used for extending the range when the total length of network cable
exceeds the standards set, for example, in fast Ethernet, this is 100 metres. And if you have to
connect two computers that are more than 100 metres apart you need repeater.
These days, there are wireless repeaters also available. Wireless repeaters extend the range of
wireless signals.
5) How does switch works?
Answer) A switch has same as that of a hubs- i.e., to connect multiple computers. But a switch is
a smart device (not dump as hub) .It can identify the intended destination ( use mail address for
this ) and send the information only to the target computer(s). [Here, a switch is like a smart
postman who knows the addresses of the recipients and goes only to the house where the letter
is to be delivered. ]
A switch does not share the media /bandwidth among all its connected computers.
No unnecessary traffic generated
Can send and receive information at the same time.
Switches, however, expensive than hubs.
6) Difference between hub and switch.
HUB SWITCH
Repeats the incoming traffic to all
connections.
Sends traffic only to appropriate
connections.
Offer single lane connection, hence either
send or receive at a time.
Establishes two-lane communication,
facilitating send and receives at the same
time.
Shares bandwidth among its connection Does not share bandwidth, each connection
gets full bandwidth.
Inexpensive choice. Expansive than hubs.s