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Project Report

On
Skin Response Meter
By:
Joshi Dhruv (34)
Gorakh Yash (2)
Gos!a"i #runa$ (2%)

B& 'ech (e"ester ) *$ectronics an+ ,o""unication *n-ineerin-
.ov / Dec 2010
(u2"itte+ to3
Depart"ent o4 *$ectronics an+ ,o""unication *n-ineerin-3
5& )& Pate$ ,o$$e-e o4 *n-ineerin-
Ganpat 5niversity3 #herva / 362 %11
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
.ov 7 Dec 2010
CE RT I F I CAT E
T O W H O M S O E V E R I T M A Y C O N C E R N
'his is to certi4y that 8r& Dhruv Joshi3 Yash Gorakh an+ #runa$ Gos!a"i3
stu+ent o4 B& 'ech (e"ester ) (*$ectronics an+ ,o""unication *n-ineerin-)
have co"p$ete+ 8ini Project tit$e+ 9(kin Response 8eter: in the year 2010&
8rs& Priyanka Pate$ ;ea+
(i-n *, Depart"ent
INDE
SR. NO. TOPIC
!. A"str#$t
%. A$kno&'e()*ent
+. P#rts List
,. Cir$-it Di#)r#*
.. Cir$-it Des$ription
/. P#rts Des$ription
0. App'i$#tion
1. Con$'-sion
2. 3i"'io)r#p45
A3STRACT

;u"an skin o44ers so"e resistance to current an+ vo$ta-e& 'his resistance
chan-es !ith the e"otiona$ state o4 the 2o+y& 'he circuit propose+ here "easures chan-es
in the skin resistance 4o$$o!in- chan-es in the "enta$ state&
;ere !e are usin- touch pa+ to sense the chan-e in the resistance o4 the
skin& 'he touch pa+ is connecte+ to <,1 (,=3140) !hich is a resistance/to/vo$ta-e
converter& <t converts the resistance sense+ 2y the touch pa+ into appropriate vo$ta-e an+
-ives the output to <,2 (>83?1)&'his <, is use+ to -ive the input to the >*Ds&)aria2$e
resistor )R3 is use+ to a+just the input vo$ta-e o4 <,2 &)R4 is use+ to contro$ the
2ri-htness o4 the >*Ds&'hus3 usin- this circuit !e can "easure the "enta$ stress&

AC6NOWLEDGEMENT
Project o4 9(kin Response 8eter: is use+ to per4or" +esire+ tasks in unstructure+
environ"ents !ithout continuous -ui+ance& @e have +esi-ne+ this project un+er the
-ui+ance o4 "a+a" Priyanka Pate$ !ho has "a+e -reat e44orts in "akin- our project
success4u$& 'his project is very creative in e$ectronic !or$+&
Yours sincerely,
Joshi Dhruv
Gorakh Yash
Goswami Krunal
PARTS LIST
RESISTORS78
R1 10 kA
R2 1kA
VARIA3LE RESISTORS78
VR1 100kA
VR2 kA
VR3 0kA
VR4 kA
SEMICONDUCTORS78
<, ,=3140 (Resistance to vo$ta-e converter)
<, >83?1 (5se+ 4or >o-arith"ic Disp$ay)
MISCELLANEOUS78
>1/ >3 >*Ds
(1 Push to O. (!itch
Battery ?) +c 2attery
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
Des$ription7
<n the re$aBe+ state3 the resistance o44ere+ 2y the skin is as hi-h as 2 "e-a/
oh"s or "ore3 !hich re+uces to 00 ki$o/oh"s or $ess !hen the e"otiona$
stress is too hi-h& 'he re+uction in skin resistance is re$ate+ to increase+
2$oo+ 4$o! an+ per"ea2i$ity 4o$$o!e+ 2y the physio$o-ica$ chan-es +urin-
hi-h stress& 'his increases the e$ectrica$ con+uctivity o4 the skin&
'he circuit uses a sensitive a"p$i4ier to sense variations in the skin
resistance& <, ,=3140 (<,1) is +esi-ne+ as a resistance/to/vo$ta-e
converter that outputs varyin- vo$ta-e 2ase+ on the skinCs
con+uctivity& <t is !ire+ as an invertin- a"p$i4ier to -enerate
constant current to skin in or+er to "easure the skin resistance&
'he invertin- input (pin 2) o4 <,1 is connecte+ to -roun+ (throu-h
preset )R1) an+ one o4 the touch p$ates3 !hi$e the non/invertin-
input (pin 3) is -roun+e+ +irect$y& 'he output 4ro" <,1 passes
throu-h current/$i"itin- resistor R1 to the secon+ touch p$ate&
R1 act as a 4ee+2ack resistor a$on- !ith the skin !hen the touch
p$ates "ake contact !ith the skin& (o the -ain o4 <,1 +epen+s on the
4ee+2ack provi+e+ 2y R1 an+ the skin& <n the invertin- "o+e o4 <,13
a positive input vo$ta-e to its pin 2 throu-h the 4ee+2ack net!ork
"akes its output $o!.
<4 the skin o44ers very hi-h resistance in the re$aBe+ state3 input
vo$ta-e to pin 2re+uces an+ the output re"ains hi-h& 'hus the -ain
o4 <,1 varies +epen+in- on the current passin- throu-h the skin3
!hich3 in turn3 +epen+s on the skin response an+ e"otiona$ state& <n
the stan+2y state3 touch p$ates are 4ree& =s there is no 4ee+2ack to
<,13 it -ives a hi-h output (aroun+ D vo$ts)&
@hen the touch p$ates are shorte+ 2y the skin3 the 4ee+2ack
circuit co"p$etes an+ the output vo$ta-e re+uces to 4 vo$ts or $ess
+epen+in- on the resistance o4 the skin& Eor easy visua$ o2servation3
an >*D +isp$ay is a$so inc$u+e+& <, >83?1 (<,2) is use+ to -ive a
$o-arith"ic +isp$ay throu-h >*D in+ications& <t can sink current
4ro" pin 16 to pin 10 !ith each incre"ent o4 12 "i$$ vo$ts at its
input pin & 5sin- )R3 you can a+just the input vo$ta-e o4 <,23
!hi$e usin- )R4 you can contro$ the 2ri-htness o4 the >*Ds&
<4 you are stresse+ or have i$$ 4ee$in-3 skin resistance +ecreases an+
the 2$ue >*D $i-hts up 4o$$o!e+ 2y the re+ >*D a$on- !ith a
+e4$ection o4 the "eter to!ar+s the $o!er si+e& <n short3 the re+ >*D
an+ Fero "eter rea+in- in+icate you are stresse+3 an+ the -reen >*D
an+ hi-h "eter rea+in- in+icate you are re$aBe+&
PARTS DESCRIPTION
IC CA+!,97
Features
8O(E*' <nput (ta-e
/ )ery ;i-h <nput <"pe+ance (G<.) /1&'A ('yp)
/ )ery >o! <nput ,urrent (<$) /10p= ('yp) at H1)
/ @i+e ,o""on 8o+e <nput )o$ta-e Ran-e ()$,R) / ,an 2e
(!un- 0&) 2e$o! .e-ative (upp$y )o$ta-e Rai$
/ Output (!in- ,o"p$e"ents <nput ,o""on 8o+e Ran-e
I Direct$y Rep$aces <n+ustry 'ype %41 in 8ost =pp$ications
I P2/Eree P$us =nnea$ =vai$a2$e (Ro;( ,o"p$iant)

PINS
1& O44set .u$$
o can 2e e44ecte+ !ith a 10kA potentio"eter connecte+ across
'er"ina$s 1 an+ an+ !ith its s$i+er ar" connecte+ to 'er"ina$4&

%& <.)& <.P5'
o <nverte+ input
3& .O./<.)& <.P5'
o .on/invertin- input
4& )/
o .e-ative input
& )J
o Positive input
D. (tro2e
o (tro2e input
Description
'he ,=3140= an+ ,=3140 are inte-rate+ circuit operationa$ a"p$i4iers that co"2ine the
a+vanta-es o4 hi-h vo$ta-e P8O( (Po!er 8O(E*') transistors !ith hi-h vo$ta-e 2ipo$ar
transistors on a sin-$e "ono$ithic chip& 'he ,=3140= an+ ,=3140 Bi8O( operationa$
a"p$i4iers 4eature -ate protecte+ 8O(E*' (P8O() transistors in the input circuit to
provi+e very hi-h input i"pe+ance3 very $o! input current3 an+ hi-h spee+ per4or"ance&
'he ,=3140= an+ ,=3140 operate at supp$y vo$ta-e 4ro" 4) to 3D) (either sin-$e or
+ua$ supp$y)& 'hese operationa$ a"p$i4iers are interna$$y phase co"pensate+ to achieve
sta2$e operation in unity -ain 4o$$o!er operation3 an+ a++itiona$$y3 have access ter"ina$ 4or
a supp$e"entary eBterna$ capacitor i4 a++itiona$ 4reKuency ro$$/o44 is +esire+& 'er"ina$s
are a$so provi+e+ 4or use in app$ications reKuirin- input o44set vo$ta-e nu$$in-& 'he use o4
P8O( 4ie$+ e44ect transistors in the input sta-e resu$ts in co""on "o+e input vo$ta-e
capa2i$ity +o!n to 0&) 2e$o! the ne-ative supp$y ter"ina$3 an i"portant attri2ute 4or
sin-$e supp$y app$ications& 'he output sta-e uses 2ipo$ar transistors an+ inc$u+es 2ui$t/in
protection a-ainst +a"a-e 4ro" $oa+ ter"ina$ short circuitin- to either supp$y rai$ or to
-roun+&
3LOC6 DIAGRAM7
Applications
I Groun+/Re4erence+ (in-$e (upp$y ="p$i4iers in
=uto"o2i$e an+ Porta2$e <nstru"entation
I (a"p$e an+ ;o$+ ="p$i4iers
I >on- Duration 'i"ersL8u$tivi2rators
(secon+s/8inutes/;ours)
I Photocurrent <nstru"entation
I Peak Detectors
I =ctive Ei$ters
I ,o"parators
I Po!er (upp$ies
IC LM+2!.
Feaures
3 +BLstep3 30 +B ran-e
Drives >*Ds3 >,Ds3 or vacuu" 4$uorescents
Bar or +ot +isp$ay "o+e eBterna$$y se$ecta2$e 2y user
*Bpan+a2$e to +isp$ays o4 ?0 +B
<nterna$ vo$ta-e re4erence 4ro" 1&2) to 12)
Operates !ith sin-$e supp$y o4 3) to 2)
<nputs operate +o!n to -roun+
Output current pro-ra""a2$e 4ro" 1 "= to 30 "=
<nput !ithstan+s H3) !ithout +a"a-e or 4a$se outputs
Outputs are current re-u$ate+3 open co$$ectors
Direct$y +rives ''> or ,8O(
'he interna$ 10/step +ivi+er is 4$oatin- an+ can 2e
re4erence+ to a !i+e ran-e o4 vo$ta-es

A(:-st Pin C-rrent7 ,urrent 4$o!in- out o4 the re4erence a+just pin !hen the re4erence
a"p$i4ier is in the $inear re-ion&
LED C-rrent Re)-'#tion7 'he chan-e in output current over the speci4ie+ ran-e o4 >*D
supp$y vo$ta-e ()>*D) as "easure+ at the current source outputs& =s the 4or!ar+ vo$ta-e
o4 an >*D +oes not chan-e si-ni4icant$y !ith a s"a$$ chan-e in 4or!ar+ current3 this is
eKuiva$ent to chan-in- the vo$ta-e at the >*D ano+es 2y the sa"e a"ount&
Line Re)-'#tion7 'he avera-e chan-e in re4erence output vo$ta-e ()R*E) over the
speci4ie+ ran-e o4 supp$y vo$ta-e ()J)&
FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM7
Description:
'he si"p$i4ie+ >83?1 4unctiona$ +ia-ra" is inc$u+e+ to -ive the -enera$ i+ea o4
the circuitCs operation& = hi-h input i"pe+ance 2u44er operates !ith si-na$s 4ro"
-roun+ to 12)3 an+ is protecte+ a-ainst reverse an+ overvo$ta-e si-na$s& 'he si-na$
is then app$ie+ to a series o4 10 co"paratorsM each o4 !hich is 2iase+ to a +i44erent
co"parison $eve$ 2y the resistor strin-& the resistor strin- is connecte+ to the interna$
1&2) re4erence vo$ta-e& <n this case3 4or each 3 +B that the input si-na$ increases3 a
co"parator !i$$ s!itch on another in+icatin- >*D& 'his resistor +ivi+er can 2e
connecte+ 2et!een any 2 vo$ta-es3 provi+in- that they are at $east 1&) 2e$o! )J
an+ no $o!er than )N&
'he >83?1 is re$ative$y $o!/po!ere+ itse$43 an+ since any nu"2er o4 >*Ds can 2e
po!ere+ 4ro" a2out 3)3 it is a very e44icient +isp$ay +river& 'ypica$ stan+2y supp$y
current (a$$ >*Ds OEE) is 1&D "=& ;o!ever3 any re4erence $oa+in- a++s 4 ti"es that
current +rain to the )J (pin 3) supp$y input& Eor eBa"p$e3 an >83?1D !ith a 1 "=
re4erence pin $oa+ (1&3k) !ou$+ supp$y a$"ost 10 "= to every >*D !hi$e +ra!in-
on$y 10 "= 4ro" its )J pin supp$y& =t 4u$$/sca$e3 the <, is typica$$y +ra!in- $ess
than 10O o4 the current supp$ie+ to the +isp$ay
Applications
!"D Dis#lay
Reci$ier %ircuis
&recision Full'wave (vera)e Deecor
&recision Full'wave &eak Deecor
%asca*e* +%s $or muli#le ,-*. Dis#lays
!i/ui* %rysal Dis#lays
(u*io &ower 0eers
APPLICATIONS
8easure"ent o4 very $ess currents (in p=)
;e$p4u$ in +etection o4 stress P its pro-nosis in "e+icine
,an 2eco"e a part o4 2i--er syste" use+ in "e+ica$
app$ications
*Btre"e$y e44ective too$ 4or neuro$o-ists
CONCLUSION
Fro* o-r Skin Response Meter; &e $on$'-(e t4#t; it is #
<ers#ti'e p'#t=or* t4#t #''o&s (e<e'op*ents o= <#rio-s #pp'i$#tions.
It &orks on # -ni>-e p4eno*enon o= $4#n)e in t4e skin resist#n$e
&it4 t4e *ent#' stress. It *e#s-res t4e resist#n$e #n( )i<es t4e 'e<e'
o= stress #s #n o-t$o*e.T4-s? it $#n "e #$$o**o(#te( into #n5 '#r)er
(e<i$e =or *e(i$#' #pp'i$#tions.
BIBLOGRAPHY
www1elecronics4u1com
www1e$yma)1com
www1naional1com
www1inersil1com