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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears
Appendix C
ProBe and Tooth Alignment Modifkations
[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A88, Gear Classification and Inspection
Handbook].
Cl. Purpose. This Appendix is provided to give
additional information on modified tooth forms
which can be controlled with the Specification of
Modified Profile, or Tooth Alignment Inspection
Chart Tolerances.
C2. Tolerance K Charts for Modified Tooth
Profiles. In addition to inspecting tooth profiles
in general, prome inspection charts are extremely
valuable for determining and controlling undercut
(if present) and profile modifications such as tip
and root relief. The inspection trace of the tooth
profile can be interpreted to determine the actual
form (see Fig 9-20). Specifying a modified K
Chart can be used to control specific form
characteristics.
It may be desirable for specifying applications
to tighten the tolerance near the pitch diameter to
limit hoZIow (minus) profile in the center. Fig
C-l shows a K Chart drawing specification of a
modified AGMA tolerance with reduced
tolerance near the pitch diameter. Figure C-2
shows an example of this modified tolerance with
an additional modification specifying a sloped
profile. Another modified K Chart is illustrated
in Fig C-3. In this example, form control is
specified for both tip and root relief, using a K
Chart and points determined by specific degrees
of roll.
NOTE: The use of a modified K Chart
to tolerance the tooth form may add
expense to the manufacture, and limit the
methods which can be used to achieve the
desired results.
C3. Tolerance K Charts for Modified Tooth
Alignment Form. Tooth alignment form may be
modified to include special characteristics such as
crown or taper. It is recommended that tolerances
for such special characteristics be superimposed
on the tooth alignment tolerance.This is illustrated
in Fig C-4 through Fig C-6 for the case of a
crown modification. Figure C-4 shows a typical
(0.00 1 in) Tooth Alignment K Chart tolerance
only, and Fig C-5 shows crown tolerance (0.0003
to 0.0008 in) only. Figure C-6 shows the
recommended method of specifying tooth
alignment and crown tolerances in a single chart.
C3.1 Charts of Gears with Crowned Teeth.
The amount and position of crowning on gear
teeth can be checked on tooth alignment
inspection instruments, as shown by the charts in
Figs C-7 and C-8. The charts in Fig C-7 are the
adjacent sides of external spur gear teeth, whereas
those in Fig C-8 are of the adjacent sides of
external helical gear teeth. When both types of
gears have the same amount of crowning in the
face width, the charts are similar. If the teeth had
an alignment variation, there would be a slope in
the charted lines in addition to the curvature
shown in Figs C-7 and C-8. It should be noted
that the high points of the crowning, on adjacent
sides of the teeth, lie in the plane normal to the
helix, and are therefore displaced in the axial
direction. The charts will indicate the location and
magnitude of this displacement as shown in Fig
C-8.
C3.2 Charts of Gears with Tapered Teeth.
Tooth alignment inspection insmments can also
be used for checking the taper of gear teeth.
Charts in Fig C-9 are the adjacent sides of the
teeth of an external spur gear having tapered
teeth. Here, it will be noticed that the charted
lines are not parallel to each other, and that the
departure of the charted lines from the datum
lines indicate the deviation in parallelism of the
sides of the teeth.
Figure C-10 shows charts of a left-hand
extemal helical gear having the same amount of
taper. In the case of the helical teeth however,
there is also a minus alignment variation. This is
indicated by the charted lines deviating more on
one end of the tooth space than on the other. The
ANWAGMA 126 2000-A88
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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears
deviation in alignment is indicated by the sloping most applications the difference is considered
dotted line on the chart, located midway between negligiile. However, in the case of extremely
the charted lines. modified tooth alignment forms, such as taper on
It should be noted that some generative tooth
a cantilever mounted pinion, this difference can
alignment checking instruments position the probe
become significant. Correction of measured values
on centerline, while others offset the probe
by the cosine of the pressure angle is appropriate
tangentially within the plane of action, thus
for such highly modified forms Alternatively, the
maintaining true normal tooth contact. Location
nominal tooth alignment trace may be defined to
of the probe on centerline results in
include the modification. This reduces measured
measurements tangential to the pitch diameter values to the level of variations only, rather than
rather than the base diameter. The difference in variations plus modification. Differences in
measured values is related to the cosine of the measurement due to system configuration should
pressure angle, or less than 10 percent. Thus, for then be negligible.
(RECOMMENDED) (RECOMMENDED) (NO; RECOMMENDED)
(a) Standard (b) Modified Charts
Fii C-l K Type Chart Reduced at Pitch Diameter
Zero
Tolerant
OD
(5)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
C-2 Sloped I( Type
OD
Numbers (1)
thru (5) would
be the specified
Roll Angles
33% C-3 Modified K Chart with Tip
and Root Relief Chart
ANSI/AGMA 127
zooo-A88
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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears
HIGH POINT OF TOOTH CHART
/
MUST BE TANGENT TO
REFERENCE LINE
0
TOLERANCE
0.001
t
FACEWIDTH
Fig C-4 Tolerance Only
SPECIFIED ZONE
FOR HIGH POINT\
HIGH POINT OF CROWN TOOTH
CHARTMUSTBETANGENTTO
REFERENCE LINE IN THIS AREA
EDGE ROUND
REF:NRENCE - O
CROWN
TOLERANCE
0.0003
0.0008
* = DRADWW~~;~N
Fig C-5 Crown Tolerance Only
HIGH POINT OF CROWN TOOTH
SPECIFIED ZONE
CHART MUST BE TANGENT TO
0.0003 MIN. FOR HIGH POINT
REFERENCE LINE IN THlS AREA
EDGE ROUND
:~~ -0
0.0008 MAX.
UNCTIONAL FACE
* = DRAWlNO DESIGN
DIMENSIONS
Fig C-6 Total Tooth Alignment and Crown Tolerance Specification
ANSI/AGh4A 128 2000-A88
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Gear Chsification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears
FACE
FACEWlDlH
Fig C-7 Chart of ExtemaI Spur Gear
Having Crowned Teeth
NOlE:THEHlGHPOiNT
OF THE CROWN ARE
LOCATED AT AND ARE
As SHOWN BELOW.
NG FOlNlER
Fii C-8 Chart of External He&l Gear
Having Crowned Teeth
FACE
Fig C-9 Chart of External Spur Gear
Having Tapered Teeth
FACEWIDTH
Fig C-10 Chart of Helical Gear Having
Tapered Teeth and a Lead Deviation
AIUWAGMA
129 2000-A88
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