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NAME __________

HUN 1201 Nutrition


Metabolic Worksheet
Chapter 7 Assignment
This Metabolic Worksheet is designed to enhance your understanding of the metabolic
pathways that the human body uses to produce energy from the foods that we eat.
To complete the worksheet, simply click on each blank and type in your answers. Save
the completed worksheet to your computer and submit it to the Chapter 7 Assignment
dropbox.
Carbohydrate (Glucose) In The Energy Pathways
A. GLYCOLYSIS: The breakdown of glucose to pyruvate to energy
There are __________ carbons in a glucose molecule. One glucose molecule will
produce __________ pyruvate molecules consisting of __________ carbons each.
The metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to pyruvate is known as
__________, which occurs in the __________ of the cell and the process is
__________, which means without oxygen. Limited energy in the form of
__________ is produced during glycolysis.
B. THE LACTIC ACID CYCLE: An alternate anaerobic pathway to energy
production.
If enough oxygen is NOT available, especially during high-intensity exercise,
pyruvate converts to __________, which accumulates in the __________ due to
limited availability of oxygen and limited clearance of __________. When muscles
relax, circulating blood carries lactic acid to the __________, which will then convert
it to __________. The conversion of lactic acid to glucose is known as the
__________.
C. THE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID (TCA) CYCLE: The aerobic pathway to
energy production.
If enough oxygen is available to the cell, pyruvate converts to a 2-carbon compound
known as __________. The CoA part of acetyl CoA is a coenzyme that comes
from the B vitamin, __________. If enough oxygen is available to the cell and the
cell needs more ATP (energy), acetyl CoA enters the __________ . Other names for
the TCA cycle include __________ and __________. The TCA cycle occurs in the
__________ of the cell and the process is __________, which means with oxygen.
If pyruvate continues through the energy pathway, two of the three carbons in
pyruvate combine with coenzyme A to become __________ and the third carbon is
expelled as __________. Pyruvate can convert to __________ or __________, but
acetyl CoA cannot convert to __________ or __________.
Acetyl CoA will proceed through the TCA cycle ONLY if the cell needs more
__________. Acetyl CoA that does not enter the TCA cycle will be converted and
stored as __________. When acetyl CoA enters the TCA cycle, it converts to several
other compounds that produce __________, __________, and provides __________
atoms. The TCA cycle provides __________ atoms for the electron transport chain to
produce __________ and __________.
D. THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC): The pathway to abundant
energy production
When acetyl CoA converts to other compounds in the TCA cycle, __________ atoms
with their energetic __________ are removed from those compounds. The ETC
occurs in the __________ of the cell and the process is __________, which means
with oxygen.
The transfer of hydrogen to the ETC is made possible because of __________ made
from B vitamins. As hydrogen with electrons is passed down the ETC, it releases
energy which is captured in __________. At the end of the ETC, very low-energy
hydrogen atoms combine with oxygen to form __________. The number of
__________ atoms that enter the ETC determines the amount of __________ that will
be produced.
Fat In The Energy Pathways
When dietary fat is needed for energy, the 3-carbon backbone of the triglyceride
molecule, known as __________, enters the energy pathway between the compounds
__________ and __________. The __________ portions of a triglyceride are taken
apart, 2 carbons at a time, through a process known as __________. A fatty acid that
contains 20 carbons will yield __________ acetyl CoA molecules.
The 2-carbon fragments of a fatty acid can enter the energy pathway only as
__________ compounds that can enter the TCA cycle ONLY if the cell needs more
__________. Acetyl CoA from triglyceride that is not used for ATP (energy) will be
converted and stored as __________. If acetyl CoA from triglyceride enters the TCA
cycle, the process continues through the __________ to produce abundant ATP
(energy) and water.
When a triglyceride molecule breaks down into its basic units, __________ can be
used to make glucose, but __________ cannot be used to make glucose.
Protein In The Energy Pathways
Before protein can enter the energy pathway, enzymes must first __________
(remove nitrogen groups from) the amino acids. The process produces the compound
__________ that can then be used to make other amino acids or excreted as
__________.
An amino acid that can enter the energy pathway between glucose and pyruvate is
referred to as a __________ amino acid. An amino acid that can enter the energy
pathway as acetyl CoA is referred to as a __________ amino acid. Amino acids that
convert to pyruvate can go up to make __________ or go down to make
__________. Amino acids that convert to acetyl CoA will enter the TCA cycle
ONLY if the cell needs more __________. Amino acids that convert to acetyl CoA
cannot be used to make __________. After acetyl CoA enters the TCA cycle, the
process continues on through the __________ as described previously for dietary
carbohydrate and fat.
Just like dietary carbohydrate and fat that is used for energy, dietary protein can also
provide __________ atoms that will enter the electron transport chain to produce
__________. If ATP (energy) is NOT needed from amino acids, they will be
converted and stored as __________.
Summary Of Energy Metabolism
All dietary carbohydrate, fat, and protein can break down to the common compound
__________ that can enter the TCA cycle. Acetyl CoA enters the TCA cycle only if
the cell needs more __________. Most of the ATP (energy) made is produced in the
part of the energy pathway known as the __________.
Abundant ATP (energy) comes from the dietary fat because fat provides more
__________. The more hydrogen atoms provided, the more __________ will be
produced. If eaten in excess of the bodys needs, all dietary carbohydrate, fat, and
protein will be converted and stored as __________.