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Title:

The hardness tests and the Charpy test


Objective:
1. To analysis the hardness number of the material
2. To test the resistance of the material towards an impact load
Apparatus:
I. Vickers Hardness Test instrument, a rod of mild steel and a rod of carbonate steel.
II. Rockwell Hardness Test instrument, a rod of round shaped !!" steel with a center
hole and a rod of carbonate steel without a center hole.
III. "rinell Hardness Test instrument, a rod of mild steel and a rod of carbonate steel.
IV. Charpy Test instrument, a rod of mild steel and a rod of carbonate steel.
Introduction:
The Hardness Test is a measurement of the resistance of the material to indentation,
which indicates its stren#th. The indenter can be either rounded or pointed and is made of
a material much harder than the test piece, for e$ample hardened steel and diamond.
There are % methods to test the hardness of the materials&
PART A
Vickers Hardness Test
Two techni'ues to test the hardness of a material are (noop Test )called nup* and
Vickers Test )also known as diamond pyramid*. +or each test, small diamond with
pyramid #eometry is used to indent the material surface.
The force used is much li#hter than the force used in Rockwell and "rinell test.
The preparation of the specimen must be correct, to insure the measurement of the
indent is e$act.
(noop and Vickers Hardness ,umber are fi$ed which is H( and HV and the
scale of both techni'ues are almost alike.
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"oth techni'ues refer to the micro hardness methods based on the force and the
measurement of the indent.
"oth are suitable to measure small -alue hardness of the selected specimen,
especially (noop, which is used to measure brittle materials such as ceramic.
Brinell Hardness Test
"rinell test uses the force of a sphere shaped indenter on the specimen surface,
.ust like the Rockwell Test.
To test the hardness of a steel )or carbide tun#sten*, the diameter of the
indentation used is 1/.//mm)/.%01 in.*.
Harder material re'uires more force.
"rinell Hardness ,umber, H" ser-es as both function, as the diameter and the
ma#nitude, which is the final result of an indentation.
The force for each ma#nitude produced with the standard force between 2// and
%/// k# where the incensement of 2// k# in the test, follows a specified time
)between 1/ and %/ seconds*.
Rockwell Hardness Test
The most routinely used techni'ue to measure the hardness of a material because
of its simplicity and doesn3t re'uire specific skills.
few scales can be used from few possibility different techni'ues that are used
widely for many types of steel and alloy, from the soft materials to a more hard
material.
The Rockwell scale is known as HR, and its followed by a suitable identity.
4$ample, 5/HR" refers to the " scale of the Rockwell Hardness with the -alue of
5/ and 6/HR%/7 refers to the Rockwell Hardness of the -alue of 6/ in the %/7
scale.

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The table below shows the -alues of the steel sphere used &
!teel sphere
center point
)mm*
8oad )k#f*
Cast irons and
steel
Copper and
Cu9l alloys
luminum Titanium and
other alloys
:;<
2
=%/ <;<
2
= 1/ :;<
2
= 2 :;<
2
= 1
1 %/ 1/ 2 1
2 12/ 1/ 2/ 1
2 >2/ 22/ 122 22
1/ %/// 1/// 2// 1//
PART B
Charpy Test



+i#ure 1
?ne of the impact ener#y tests used to determine the resistance towards load
impulse, which directly chan#es the plastic shape that is known to be brittle.
The elasticity state refers to the difficulty of the impact to chan#e the plastic shape
of the materials.
%
"rittle fracture leads to a clear, shinny and surfaces results while elastically
fracture results with a typical clea-a#e te$ture.
Charpy test is a test to measure the resistance of the material towards the load
impulse.
The impacted specimen with small fracture or no e-en chan#e in the plastic shape
of the material is known as brittle.
+racture of plastic deformation mechanisms in-ol-ed, is said to be in elasticity.
The elasticity fracture results with the typical clea-a#e te$ture while the brittle
fracture leads to a clear, shinny and surfaces.
Method:
PART A
a* Vickers Hardness Test (BS 427:1!1"
1* The specimen )carbonate steel* is correctly place on an-il of the Vickers
Hardness instrument.
2* The specimen is bein# focused and chan#ed it below the indenter e$actly.
%* The @!TRT3 button is pressed and the machine will shine with the sound
showed that the machine is readily operated.
1* 7hen the @!TRT3 li#ht #oes off, the indenter is assured that it doesn3t
touches the specimen3s surface.
2* Chan#e the indenter with the lens.
6* The width of the corner is measured and noted.
>* !tep 196 is repeated for the other area of the steel and for the mild steel.
#" Rockwell Hardness Test
1* The specimen is correctly placed on the an-il of the Rockwell Hardness
instrument.
2* The base of the instrument is slowly rotated the 84< will started to mo-e
until it reaches @!4T3.
%* The test is automatically started.
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1* The readin# is taken after @TI3
2* !tep 191 is repeated for the other area of the steel
c" Brinell Hardness Test
1* The mild steel was placed correctly on the an-il of the instrument.
2* The base of the instrument is slowly rotated until the specimen touches the
indenter.
%* The ri#ht holder of the machine is ad.usted until it reaches the 1///k#f
load and wait until 12 minutes.
1* The holder is mo-ed forward a#ain.
2* The base is anti9clockwise rotated.
6* The specimen is remo-ed, and the readin# is taken by usin# the
microscope.
>* !tep 191 is repeated for carbonate steel.
PART B

Charpy Test
1* The indenter specimen is positioned at the ma$imum hei#hts and at the
stress9concentratin# notch.
2* The pendulum is swin# from the initial hei#ht to the final hei#hts towards
the piece.
%* The necessary to fracture the test piece is directly calculated from
difference hei#hts.
RESULTS:
PART A
a" Vickers Hardness Test
Carbonate steel
Readin#s d1)Am* d2)Am* VH,
1 %%2.> %/1.1 15%
2 %/6.2 %/1.> 2//
% %/2.2 %12.% 102./
2
Averae 101.>
Bild steel
Readin#s d1)Am* d2 )Am* VH,
1 %>/./ %6%.% 1%5./
2 %>%.2 %61.% 1%>./
% %>/.2 %61.5 1%5./
Averae 1%>.>
#" Rockwell Hardness Test
!!" steel
Readin#s Rockwell Hardness ,umber
1 26.6
2 26.>
% 2>./
Averae 26.5
Carbonate !teel
Readin#s Rockwell Hardness ,umber
1 21.1
2 21.0
% 22./
Averae 21.>
c" Brinell Hardness Test
8oad )1///k#f*
Bild steel
Readin#s Center line for the notch
part d )mm*
"rinnel Hardness Test
number )"H,*
1 %.22 11>
2 %.2/ 121
% %.2/ 121
Averae 110.>
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Carbonate !teel
Readin#s Center line for the notch
part d )mm*
"rinell Hardness Test
,umber )"H,*
1 2.5/ 120
2 2.52 121
% 2.5/ 120
Averae 12>.%
Charpy Test
!teel bsorb 4ner#y )Coule*
Bild steel 200./
Carbonate steel 21.2

Bild steel
Carbonate steel
>
!AL!ULATIO"S:
a" Vickers Hardness Test
Vickers Hardness ,umber )VH,* is defined as&
VH,= 8oad impacted where& := load impacted
!urfaces area d= dD E d 2
2
= 2: sin 1%6;2
dF

= 1.521 +;dF )less then*
#" Rockwell Hardness Test
Rockwell Hardness Test )RHT* is defined as&
HRC= 1//9 d where& the depth of the indent
/.//2

c" Brinell Hardness Test
"rinell Hardness ,umber is defined as&
"H,= 8oad impacted
!urface area of sphere indenter
= :
<;2 )<9 G<F 9 dF *
= :
H<h
7here& : = 8oad impacted )k#f*
< = !phere center point )mm*
d = Indenter center line )mm*
H = Indenter depth )mm*
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#IS!USSIO":
PART A
1* (nowin# that the Vickers Hardness test and the "rinell Hardness test were usin#
both mild steel and carbonate steel while the Rockwell Hardness test used both
!!" steel and hi#h 'uality of carbonate steel.
2* The -alues of the "H, and VH, are much hi#her for carbonate steel compared to
the -alues of mild steel.
%* The -alue of Rockwell Hardness ,umber is hi#her for the !!" steel than the
-alue of the hi#h 'uality of carbonate steel.
1* Howe-er, the -alue of the center line of the indenter for mild steel are much
hi#her compared to the carbonate steel in the Vickers and "rinell hardness test.
PART B
1* +rom the results, based on the shape of the test piece after the pendulum swin# wasI
a* The mild steel was not fully break that is the end of the specimen is still
connected with each other.
b* The carbonate steel is fully broken.
2* ll this happened is because of )a* has hi#her plasticity properties compared to the
)b* The carbonate steel has hi#h carbon that caused it more ductile.
%* The carbonate steel is much harder and brittle while the mild steel is ductile and
elastic. This caused the carbonate steel cannot absorb the impact ener#y. Thus, it
made the test piece break into two. 7hile, for the mild steel, which is softer and more
elastic can absorb the ener#y.
1* The hi#h carbon carbonate steel reduced the ability to absorb the impact ener#y.
2* s the assumption, the carbonate steel can chan#e the shape easily when there is
impacted ener#y put on it. The surface of this steel is shinny and smooth. 7hile the
surface of the mild steel is results with typical clea-a#e on it.
6* There is /.2J carbon in the mild steel. The carbonate steel has almost 52J carbon.
The amount of carbon affected the mechanical properties of the materials.
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ERRATUM:
PART A
1* The imperfect surfaces of each steel such as rusty surface.
2* !teel3s surfaces ha-e lots of small indentation that result in only small area left
for new indentation.
%* :osition of the specimen not e$actly localiKe as wanted.
!O"!LUSIO":
PART A
The !!" steel is the hardest steel, followed by carbonate steel and lastly the mild
steel.
PART B
+rom the aspect of stren#th ness of steels, the mild steel ha-e the most stren#th
followed by the carbonate steel. 7here as, the !!" steel is the hardest, followed
by carbonate steel and lastly the mild steel.
RE$$E"!ES
1* Cliffe LTechnical Betallur#yM pa#e 12/ N 121
2* !er#al LBaterial, Their ,ature, +abrication and :ropertiesM pa#e 11% N 112, >1 N
>2
%* Rollesan LBetallur#y for 4n#ineersM pa#e 12
1* "ritish !tandard, 1%1 :art 2 )1020*
2* "ritish !tandard, 12>& 1061
6* "ritish !tandard, 12/& 1062
>* "ritish !tandard, 1%1, :art 2 & 1020
1/
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