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MEDICAL
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
& ALTERNATING CURRENT
P H Y S I C S
S T U D Y M A T E R I A L
NARAYANA INSTITUTE OF CORRESPONDENCE COURSES
F N S H O U S E , 6 3 K A L U S A R A I M A R K E T
S A R V A P R I Y A V I H A R , N E W D E L H I - 1 1 0 0 1 6
PH.: (011) 32001131/32/50 FAX : (011) 41828320
Websi t e : w w w . n a r a y a n a i c c . c o m
E- mai l : i n f o @ n a r a y a n a i c c . c o m
2004 NARAYANA GROUP
This study material is a part of NARAYANA INSTITUTE OF CORRESPONDENCE COURSES for PMT, 2008-09. This is meant
for the personal use of those students who are enrolled with NARAYANA INSTITUTE OF CORRESPONDENCE COURSES, FNS
House, 63, Kalu Sarai Market, New Delhi-110016, Ph.: 32001131/32/50. All rights to the contents of the Package rest with
NARAYANA GROUP. No other Institute or individual is authorized to reproduce, translate or distribute this material in any form,
without prior information and written permission of the institute.
PREFACE
Dear Student,
Heartiest congratulations on making up your mind and deciding to be a doctor to serve the society.
As you are planning to take various Pre-Medical Entrance Examinations, we are sure that this STUDY PACKAGE is
going to be of immense help to you.
At NARAYANA we have taken special care to design this package which will not only help but also guide you to compete
for various Pre-Medical Entrance Examinations including CBSE-PMT, DPMT, AIIMS, AFMC, JIPMER, BHU and other State
PMTs.
The salient features of this package include :
! Power packed division of units and chapters in a scientific way, with a correlation being there.
! Sufficient numbers of questions with solutions have been added in Physics and Chemistry to let the students have a
feel of Board and competitive examinations.
! Our revised edition of packages with exercises on new pattern includes Multiple-Choice Questions, Questions from
Competitive Examinations, True & False Questions, Fill in the Blanks, Assertion & Reason Type Questions and
Subjective Questions.
These exercises are followed by answers in the last section of the chapter including Hints and Solutions to subjective
questions. This package will help you to know what to study, how to study, time management, your weaknesses and how to
improve your performance.
We, at NARAYANA, strongly believe that quality of our package is such that the students who are not fortunate enough to
attend to our Regular Classroom Programs, can still get the best of our quality through these packages.
We feel that there is always a scope for improvement. We would welcome your suggestions and feedback.
Wish you success in your future endeavours.
THE NARAYANA TEAM
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
While preparing the study package, it has become a wonderful feeling for the NARAYANA TEAM to get the wholehearted
support of our Staff Members including our Designers. They have made our job really easy through their untiring efforts and
constant help at every stage.
We are thankful to all of them.
THE NARAYANA TEAM
CONT ENT S CONT ENT S CONT ENT S CONT ENT S CONT ENT S
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
& ALTERNATING CURRENT
Theory
Solved Examples
Exercises
True and False Statements
Fill in the Blanks
Assertion-Reason Type Questions
Multiple Choice Questions
MCQs Asked in Competitive Examinations
Subjective Questions
Answers
C
O
N
T
E
N
T
S
C
O
N
T
E
N
T
S
C
O
N
T
E
N
T
S
C
O
N
T
E
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Physics : Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current
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CONTENTS
! !! !! Introduction
! !! !! Magnetic Flux
! !! !! Elecromagnetic Induction
! !! !! Flemings Right Hand Rule
! !! !! Self Induction
! !! !! Mutual Induction
! !! !! Growth and Decay of Current in
L-R Circuit (Transient current)
! !! !! Average Value of AC over Half Cycle
! !! !! AC Through LR Circuit
! !! !! AC Through CR Circuit
! !! !! AC Through LCR Circuit
! !! !! Power in LCR Circuit
! !! !! Choke Coil
! !! !! Transformer
! !! !! Solved Examples
! !! !! Exercise
! !! !! Answers
A credit cards number, expiration date, and
cardholder name are coded into a magnetized pattern
in a stripe on the back. When the card is swiped
through a card reader, the moving stripe bathes the
readers circuitry in a varying magnetic field that
induces current in the circuits. These currents transmit
the information in the stripe to the cardholders bank.
What would happen if the card were not swiped, but
just sat motionless in the readers slot?
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
& ALTERNATING CURRENT
Physics : Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current
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MAGNETIC FLUX
The magnetic flux streaming through an area is also referred to as the flux linked with that area. It also represents
the number of magnetic lines of induction passing through that area.
Let A
!
= a small plane area, represented as a vector normal to its plane,
B
!
= magnetic induction of the magnetic field at the site of A
!
(considered to be uniform over A
!
)
then = the magnetic flux linked with A
!
Where

= angle between A
!
and B
!
=
A B
! !
(dot product of A
!
and B
!
)
= (A) (B) (cos )
Note : Magnetic flux is a scalar quantity. If the area is not in one plane, we can still determine the total flux
through the area, considering continuous small area elements d A
!
which are reasonably plane and then
summing up or integrating the flux elements through these area.
total flux through the area A
B A
! !

or = B. dA

! !
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
Whenever the magnetic flux linked with an electric circuit or loop changes, an emf is induced in the circuit .This
phenomenon is called electro-magnetic induction.
There are three laws concerning this phenomenon. These are Faradays 1st and IInd Laws and Lenzs Law.
The three laws can be summarized in one equation given by
Instantaneous induced emf in the loop = (the rate of change of magnetic flux )
Emf Induced =
( )
dt
d
The negative sign only shows that the induced emf tends to oppose the very cause of its generation i.e. change of
magnetic flux inducing the emf.
If the circuit is closed, a current starts flowing through it. Such current, in turn, produces a magnetic field whose
direction is such that it opposes the very change of original magnetic field or flux. However, if the circuit is not
closed, the induced emf cannot set up a current in the circuit. Even then the current that would have resulted due
to the change of flux is in same direction as for the closed loop.
INTRODUCTION
W
e know that electric current produces magnetic field. But the mutual relationship of
electricity and magnetism does not stop here. We shall see that under certain conditions
a magnetic field can be used to produce an electric current. No current is induced in
a loop of wire that is stationary in a constant magnetic field. However, if the magnetic field
changes with time, or if the wire loop moves across or is rotated in the field, a current is induced
in the wire.
The use of this interrelationship of electricity and magnetism are legion. One of the familiar
example is in the playing of a casette tape. The music you hear was encoded as tiny variations in
a magnetic field. These variations produce electrical impulses, which are amplified and drive
the speakers. The speakers, in turn, utilize electromagnetic interactions to translate the electrical
impulses back into audible sound.
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FLEMINGS RIGHT HAND RULE
This simple rule helps to determine the direction of the induced emf in a straight conductor moving with a velocity
perpendicular to the length of the conductor and also perpendicular to the magnetic field. The rule is as given
below:
(a) Stretch the thumb and the first finger of the right hand, perpendicular to each other, keeping both in the plane
of the palm.
(b) Stretch the second finger (middle finger) perpendicular to the palm.
(c) Orient the outstretched thumb such that it represents the direction of the velocity (motion).
(d) Orient the first finger so that it represents the direction of the magnetic field.
(e) Then the second finger will represent the direction of the induced emf
i.e. First finger field, thumb motion, second finger Current (induced)
INDUCED CHARGE DUE TO FLUX CHANGE
When the magnetic flux lined with a closed circuit of known resistance changes, the induced emf tends to set up
a current in the circuit i.e. the charges flow in directed motion to set up the current. Let the total charge flow be
q .
Then q = t I
R
t
t
t
R
emf

It may be noted that the flow of charge does not depend on the rate at which magnetic flux is changed. It rather
depends on the total flux change.
ROTATION OF A COIL IN A MAGNETIC FIELDEMF INDUCED
When a plane coil (having N turns) of area A each, rotates in a uniform magnetic field (B) with a constant angular
velocity ( ) about an axis coinciding with the plane of the coil and perpendicular to the uniform magnetic field
(B) the emf induced (e) in the coil as a function of time t is given by e = NAB sin ( !t)
The induced emf in the coil is sinusoidal. When the plane of the coil is parallel to B
!
, the induced emf is maximum.
When the plane is perpendicular to B
!
, the induced emf is zero.
Example 1 :
Determine the magnitude of the emf generated between the ends of the axle of a railway carriage, 1 m in length,
when it is moving with a velocity of 36 km/hr along a horizontal track, given horizontal component of Earths
magnetic field B
H
= 4 10
5
Tesla and angle of dip = 60
o
.
Solution :
Note : When the carriage runs over the horizontal track, the axle sweeps a horizontal area and hence it sweeps
magnetic flux created by vertical component of Earths magnetic induction (B
V
).
B
V
= B
H
tan

= (0.4 10
4
) (tan 60
o
) = 0.6928 10
4
T
l = 1 m
v = 36 km/hr = 10 m/s
Then, the induced emf across the ends of the axle
e = l B
V
v
= (1) ( )
4 -
10 0.6928
3
25

,
_

= 5.773 10
4
Volt
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Example 2 :
A metallic disc of radius 25 cm is kept rotating at a constant speed of 1800 r.p.m. about its own axis, directed
parallel to a uniform magnetic field of induction B = 0.1 Tesla. If the rotation is anticlockwise when seen in the
direction of the field, find the magnitude and direction of the emf induced in the disc.
Solution :
Consider small length element dl. emf dV is developed across it
dV = Bvdl
Then dv Bvd

l
= B d " " =
2
2
l
B
Length of the rod l = 0.25 m
Number of revolutions per sec, N
30
60
1800

revolution/s
B = 0.1 tesla
Induced emf e =
2
l B.2 N.
2
2

2
l
= ( ) ( ) ( )
2
l N B
( )( ) ( )( ) 0.1 30 10 25
2
2 -

= 0.589 V
By Flemings R.H. Rule, this emf is such that end K is positive & end L is negative.
Example 3 :
A circular coil of 200 turns and mean radius 30 cm is placed in a uniform magnetic field of induction 0.02 Tesla
and is free to rotate about an axis coinciding with its own plane, but perpendicular to the uniform magnetic field.
The coil is in closed circuit having a total resistance of 50 . If the plane of the coil is initially perpendicular to the
field, find the charge flown through the circuit, when the coil is rotated through (i) 60
o
(ii) 180
o
.
Solution :
Initially angle 0
0

( )
as A|| B
! !
Intially flux NAB
0
cos 0
o
= NAB
Final flux o
o
60
NABcos NAB cos 60 NAB
2
1

NAB 180 cos NAB


o
180
o

(i)
1
= change in flux during rotation for 0 to 60
o
NAB NAB
2
1


NAB
2
1


1
q (induced charge in the circuit)
R
NAB

2
1
R
1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
-2
1
1/ 2 200 30 10 0.02
q
50


C 10 31 . 11
3

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(ii)
2
change in the magntic flux during rotation from
o o
0 to 180
= (NAB) (NAB)
= 2NAB

2
q = induced charge
=
R
NAB 2
= 4.52 10
3
C
Example 4 :
A small conducting loop of area 1 mm
2
is placed in the plane of a long straight wire at a distance of 20 cm from
it. Current in the straight wire changes from 100 A to zero in 0.01 second. Find the average emf induced during
this period.
Solution :
Average emf
t t
e
2 1



Here
1
linked with the loop = B.A. =
A
d 2
I
0

Weber 10 ) 10 (
2 . 0 2
100 10 4
11 6
7

(= final flux) = 0.
So, volt 10
01 . 0
0 10
e
8
11

Example 5:
Figure shows a square loop of side 5 cm being moved towards right at a constant speed of 1 cm/s. The front edge
enters the 20 cm wide magnetic field at t = 0. Find the emf induced in the loop at (a) t = 2s, (b) t = 10 s, (c)
t = 22 s and (d) t = 30s.

20 cm
5 cm
B = 0.6 T
Solution:
(a) At t = 2 s, the loop is partly inside the magnetic field. Hence emf = Bvl = 0.6T 0.01 m/s 0.05 m = 3 10
4
volt.
(b) At t = 10 s, the loop is fully inside the magnetic field. As the field is uniform therefore no emf is generated.
(c) At t = 20 s, the loop just starts coming out of the magnetic field. So at t = 22 s, it is partly inside and partly
outside the field & also it is moving. Hence
emf = Bvl = 0.6 T 0.01 m/s 0.05 m = 3 10
4
volt
(d) At t = 30 s, the loop is fully outside the magnetic field. Therefore, no emf is generated.
It may be used that the current generated in the loop at t = 2s is anticlock wise, whereas t = 22 s, the current
is clockwise.
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Example 6 :
A uniform magnetic field B exists in a cylindrical region of radius 10 cm as shown in figure. A uniform conducting
wire of length 80 cm and resistance 4.0 is bent into a square frame abcd and is placed with one side along a
diameter of the cylindrical region. If the magnetic field increases at a constant rate of 0.010 T/s, find the current
induced in the frame.

a
b
c
d
Solution :
Flux linked with the square loop is only due to flux change in one half of the circular area. so
B.A
! !
(where A = r
2
/2) = BA cos 0 = BA
In the loop, emf
dt
d
E

=
d
(BA)
dt
2
dB r dB
E A
dt 2 dt


=
2

(0.1)
2
(0.01) = 1.57 10
4
volt
Current in the loop I =
4
E 1.57 10

R 4

Amp.
= 3.9 10
5
Amp.
Current in the loop will be from a to b, so that it can create a magnetic field opposite to the existing magnetic field
because the magnetic field is increasing. Had the magnetic field been decreasing, the current would be from b to a.
Example 7 :
A right-angled triangle abc, made from a metallic wire, moves at a uniform speed v in its plane as shown in figure.
A uniform magnetic field B exists in the perpendicular direction. Find the emf induced (a) in the loop abc, (b) in
the segment bc, (c) in the segment ac and (d) in the segment ab. Given length of bc = l.
a
b
c
v
B
!
Solution :
(a) As the loop moves in a uniform magnetic field, net emf induced in the loop is zero.
(b) Part bc of the loop is a straight wire and its length is perpendicular to the velocity. Hence emf. V
bc
= Bvl.
Here V
b
< V
c
, so that end b is negative compared to end c i.e. V
b
V
c
= Bvl.
(c) Part ac has length parallel to velocity so, net emf V
ac
= 0.
(d) Part ab moves such that its length makes

with its velocity v.


So V
ab
= Bv(l
1
) sin

(where l
1
= l length of ab = l sin

)
= Bv(l/sin

) sin

= Bvl. Here V
a
> V
b
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Example 8 :
A rectangular frame of wire abcd has dimensions 32 cm 8.0 cm and a total resistance of 2.0

. It is pulled out
of a magnetic field B = 0.020 T by applying a force of 3.2 10
5
N. It is found that the frame moves with constant
speed. Find (a) this constant speed, (b) the emf induced in the loop, (c) the potential difference between the points
a and b and (d) the potential difference between the points c and d.

a
b
c
d
F
Solution :
(a) Due to change in magnetic flux, emf generated is e = Bvl.
R
Bvl

R
e
I
. This current causes magnetic force F
m
(= BIl) on the frame towards the left. As the loop
moves with constant speed, so F must equal F
m
.
So F = F
m
.

2 2
Bv B
F BI B. . v
R R
l l
" "

5
2 2 2 2
FR 3.2 10 2
v 25m/ s
B (0.02) (0.08)


"
(b) Emf induced E = Bv" =
5
2 2
FR FR 3.2 10 2
B . 0.04 V
B 0.02 0.08 B

l
l l
(c) E =
FR
Bv
B
"
"
because all the emf is produced across the element ab only.
However due to current flowing through ab, there is a potential drop across ab
Net V
ab
= E Ir where r is resistance of part ab.
Also
E 0.04 V 8 cm 8
I 0.02 A and r R. 2 =0.2
R 2 40 cm 40

So V
ab
= 0.04 0.02 0.2 = 0.036 volt
(d) No emf is generated across cd. However due to current flow there is potential drop between c and d.
V
cd
= IR = 0.02 A 0.2

= 0.04 volt.
Example 9:
Figure shows a square frame of wire placed coplanar with a long, straight wire. The wire carries a current i given
by i = i
0
sin . t Find (a) the flux of the magnetic field through the square frame, (b) the emf induced in the frame.
a
b
i
Solution:
(a) Current i through the straight wire creates magnetic field B within the loop. As this B is not constant, we have
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to adopt method of integration. Let us consider a small area (shown shaded). Flux d through shaded part
= B.dA
###! !
=
0
i
adx
2 x

so total flux through the loop, is


a
i
dx
x
1
]
1

b
a b
ln
2
a i

x
dx

2
a i
d
0
b a x
b x
0
(b) is directly proportional to i. Therefore when i changes w.r.t. time (as per i = i
0
sin
t
), also changes and
therefore emf is generated in the loop.
Here i = i
0
sin t
So,
t i
dt
di
cos
0
Induced emf.
dt
di

b
a b
ln
2
a

dt
d
e
0

,
_


=
t cos i
b
a b
ln
2
a

0
0

1
]
1

Example 10 :
Region I shown in the figure is free of magnetic field and the region II has a uniform magnetic field
B
!
, directed
into the plane of the paper. ACD is a semi circular conducting loop of radius r with centre at O, the plane of the
loop coinciding with the plane of the paper. The loop is now made to rotate with a constant angular velocity
about an axis passing through O and perpendicular to the plane of the paper. The effective resistance of the loop
is R.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
B
D
O
A
C
"
Region I Region II
(i) Obtain an expression for the magnitude of the induced current in the loop.
(ii) Show the direction of the current when the loop is entering the region II.
(iii) Plot a graph between the induced emf and the time of rotation for one period of revolution.
Solution :
(i) At any instant t, when the circular loop has entered the region II and has its diameter inclined to the border
of region II. Let be the angle between the diameter and the boundary.
A (area of the loop inside the magnetic field of induction
2
1
B) r
2

!
= magnetic flux linked with the loop

,
_

r
2
1
2
(B)
e (induced emf in the loop)
( )
dt
d

2
1 d
r B
2 dt


X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
Region I Region II
!
B r
2
1
2
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Since = constant, the above equation indicates the emf is steady when the loops is just partly or just
completely inside the magnetic field
(ii) The induced emf reverses its direction after when the loop enters into or emerges out of the magnetic field
i.e., the direction reverses every half revolution.
When area inside the field is increasing, the current will be anitclockwise so as to produce a magnetic field
upwards.By Lenzs Law, this upward magnetic field attempts to neutralise. But when the loop is coming out
of the field, area is decreasing, the current direction is oppsoite i.e. clockwise
Therefore we can write as below, a single expression for induced emf.
e = (1)
n
1
]
1

B r
2
1
2
where n indicates the number of half time periods spent.
(iii) Graph of e t is
T/2 T
t
e
SELF INDUCTION
When electric current flowing through a coil (or a solenoid) changes, the magnetic field inside the coil changes
proportionally. Due to this, flux linked with the coil also changes. This change of flux causes an induced emf in the
same coil. This induced emf has a tendency to oppose the change of flux and thereby oppose the change of
current.
Let flux linked with the coil
I = current in the coil
Then I
and LI
Here L is a constant of proportionality and is called coefficient of self induction or self inductance. Its S.I. unit is Henry.
So, 1 Henry =
Ampere 1
Weber 1
Also,
dt
dI
L
dt
d

Induced emf e =
dt
dI L
Here sign appears because induced emf is in such a direction that it opposes the change of current. For
example, if the current in the circuit is increasing, the induced emf tends to produce current in opposite direction,
so that the growth of current is effectively opposed.
Self inductance of a long solenoid
Let a solenoid be quite long (practically infinite). Let its cross section be A, length be l and no of turns per unit
length be n. On passing current i through the solenoid,
nI B
0

Then flux through each turn is i n A B
0
A
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Emf induced in one turn is
0
d d
e nA
dt dt


i
Total emf in nl turns is E = Ne = nle =
dt
d
A n
2
0
i
l
Comparing with E = L
dt
di
, we get
L = l A n
2
0

Alternative, we can use the term total flux linked with N turns ( )
l
, whereas flux with one turn is .
Then
1
= N
Then total emf E = N.(e) =
( ) d N
d
N
dt dt

_


,

( )
dt
d
l


Therefore total emf induced is the rate of change of total linked flux (which, is N times the flux linked with a single turn)
Energy Stored in a Solenoid
Let emf = e be induced emf at any instant and dq a very small charge being sent against this opposing emf.
Let external work needed be dW to push this charge dq through the solenoid circuit.
Then dW = e . dq = e I dt
dW =
dt
dI
L
Idt = L . I . dI
Total work
0
dI
I
W LI

=
2
LI
2
1
Energy Density Inside a Solenoid
Energy density is the magnetic energy contained within a unit volume of the magnetic field.
Let Solenoid length = L and cross sectional area = A.
Energy stored in the solenoid is
2
I L
2
1
U
and volume of solenoid = AL

2 2
0
I AL n
2
1
U

( )
( )
0
2
0
2
0
volume . B
2
1
Volume
nI
2
1

Energy density
Volume
U
U
d

0
2
d
2
B
U

Self inductance of a circular coil


Let a coil have N turns, each of radius r.
Then due to current i in the coil, B = N field due to one turn = N.
0
2
i
r

=
0
2
Ni
r

2 2 0
i
N. N.BA N . r
2r


l
2
0
N r
i
2

E (induced emf) =
2
0
2
l
d N r di
dt dt


Also E = L
dt
di
, so by comparison, we can write
L =
2
r N
2
0

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MUTUAL INDUCTION
If two electric circuits are arranged in such a manner that the magnetic field due to the current in one circuit is
partly or wholly linked with the other circuit, the two circuits are said to be electro-magnetically coupled circuits.
Then, if the current in one circuit changes, the magnetic field inside the circuit changes. Therefore, magnetic flux
linked with the other circuit also changes. Hence the latter opposes the change of magnetic flux within itself by
inducing an emf in itself. Thus change of current in one circuit causes induced emf in the other circuit. This
phenomenon is called Mutual Induction.
The circuit in which the current is made to change is called the primary circuit, whereas the circuit, which
opposes the change of current in the primary is called the secondary circuit.
The induced emf in the secondary, due to the change of current in the primary is called mutually induced emf.
The coefficient of mutual induction between two coupled circuits is the magnetic flux linked with the secondary,
per unit current in the primary.It is also called Mutual inductance. Let
i
1
=

current in the primary
2
the magnetic flux linked with the secondary due to i
1
current in the primary.
Then
2 1
MI
2
e (induced emf in the secondary)
2
d

dt

e
2
= M
dt
dI
1
Similarly if current I
2
in the secondary circuit changes, it causes a change in flux linked with the primary, and
thereby an emf is induced in the primary. Then,
2 1
MI
and e
1
=
dt
d
2

e
1
= M
dt
dI
2
Note : For a given alignment (i.e., electromagnetic coupling) of the pair of circuits, M is a constant.
The coefficient of mutual indcution between two given elecro-magnetically coupled circuit can also be defined as
the induced emf in one circuit per unit rate of change of current in other circuit.
SI (MKS) unit of the coefficients of self-induction (L) and mutual induction (M) is the same i.e., 1 henry or 1 H.
Example 11 :
Calculate the coefficient of self induction of a solenoid coil of 2000 turns, length 0.5 m and radius 5 cm, when the
core is filled with
(i) air
(ii) soft iron (
r
for soft iron = 1000)
Solution :
N = 2000 turns, l = 0.5 m, A = ( )
2
2 -
10 5
(i) For air core ( ) 1
r

( )( ) ( )( ) l A n L
2
0 air

( ) ( )( )( ) 0.5 10 5
0.5
2000
10 4
2 -
2
7

,
_



= 1.579 H
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(ii) For soft iron core
( )
0
1000 , Therefore
( )( )
air iron soft
L 1000 L
= 1579 H
Example 12 :
An average emf of 20 V is induced in an inductor when the current in it is changed from 2.5 A in one direction to
the same value in the opposite direction in 0.1 s. Find the self-inductance of the inductor.
Solution :
Here I = I
2
I
1
= 2.5 (2.5) = 5.0 A
t = 0.1 second
Average emf =
t
I
L

L =
avg
e . t
20 volt 0.1 sec
0.4 Henry
I 5.0A

Example 13 :
The current in a solenoid of 240 turns, having a length of 12 cm and a radius of 2 cm, changes at a rate of
0.8 A/s. Find the emf induced in it.
Solution :
N = 240, l = 0.12 m,
2 2
A r (.02)
2 7 2 2
0
N A 4 10 (240) (0.02)
L
0.12 l


= 7.58 10
4
H
emf induced
A/s 0.8 H 10 7.58
dt
di
L | e |
4

= 6.06 10
4
volt
GROWTH AND DECAY OF CURRENT IN L-R CIRCUIT (TRANSIENT STAGE)
(a) Growth of current in LR circuit :
Consider a coil of a conductor having a self inductance only, a source of constant
potential difference, a pure resistor and an open key in a closed series circuit. Let
V
0
= the steady p.d. of the source
R = pure resistance in the circuit
L = pure self inductance in the circuit
2R L
V
0
Key
When the key K is open, there is no current in the circuit. Let at time t = 0, the key be closed (i.e., switched on).
The source tends to set up a current in the circuit, which the self-inductor opposes, by self inducing an opposite
emf in the circuit. The steady source maintains its p.d. and gradually overcomes the opposition of self inductance.
During this interval the inductors opposition weakens, the current grows and finally attains a steady value. Let
this steady value be I
0
.
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If
i = the current at time t, during the growth,
iR = the p.d. across the pure resistor,
dt
di
L
= the self induced emf across the self inductor
Then by Kirchoffs law to the closed circuit
0
dt
Ldi
Ri V
0

Separating the variables i and t we have
dt
L
1
Ri V
di
0

..... (i)
Integrating both sides, and putting initial condition i.e. i = 0 at t = 0, we get

,
_


t
L
R
0
e 1
R
V
i
..... (ii)
Graphically this is shown here
x
i
O
O
t
i
0
The current grows as time progresses and gradually becomes steady.
Equation (ii) shows that
(i) When t
0
0
V
i i
R

(ii)
R
L
has the dimensions of time.
R
L
is called time constant of the LR circuit and denoted by
When t = =
R
L
then 0 0
1
i i 1 0.632I
e
_


,
(b) Decay of Current in LR circuit
Consider an electric circuit as shown below
(1)
(2)
K
R
L
V
(i) the source of emf sets up a current in the L.R. circuit, which eventually becomes steady = i
0
(say) After the
steady state is set in, let at time t = 0,
(ii) the L.R. circuit is therefore, cut off from its source and becomes a closed circuit. The induced emf across
the self inductor spends itself in setting a current in the circuit, and in the process potential difference across
the inductor grade and the current in the circuit finally vanishes.
At any instant t after the switch off of the source, let i = current in the circuit
Then by Kirchoffs loop theorem, 0 Ri
dt
di
L +
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Separating the variables i and t and integrating and putting the initial condition i.e., i = i
0
when t = 0
We get i =
/ t
0
e i

where

R
L

time constant
i.e., the current decreases exponentially.
Graphically :
The current decays exponentially
X
i
0
i
O
O
t
R
L
= time constant
= time required for the current to decay to value of
( )
0
0
i 368 . 0 . e . i
e
i
starting from maximum current i
0
.
Example 14:
A circuit has L = 0.1 H and R = 10.0 . Find the value of time after which the current in this LR circuit builds
upto (a) 90% (b) 99.9% of the steady state value.
Solution :
(a) Here I = 0.9 I
0
. Substituting this value in current equation, we get 0.9 I
0
= I
0
(1
/ t
e
)
1 . 0 e
/ t

/ t
e
= 10
/ t
= log
e
10 = 2.303

L
t 2.303 2.303
R

0.1H
2.303
10

= 0.023 second
(b) Here I = 0.999 I
0
.
Therefore, 0.999 I
0
= I
0
(1
/ t
e
)

t /
e 0.001

/ t
e
= log
e
10
3
= 6.9

R
L
6.9 6.9 t
second. 0.069 second
10
0.1
6.9
Example 15:
A coil of resistance 40 is connected across a 4.0 V battery 0.10 s after the battery is connected, the current in
the coil is 63 mA. Find the inductance of the coil.
Solution :
Here E = 4.0 V, R = 40 , t = 0.1 sec, I = 6.31 10
2
A.
) e 1 (
R
E
I
/ t

6.3 10
2
=
40
4

,
_

1 . 0
e 1
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1 . 0
e
= 0.37
e
0.1 1
log
0.37
_

,
= 1.0
1
e
0.37
1

1
]
0.1
0.1
L
R

L = 0.1 40 = 4.0 H.
Example 16 :
A R-L circuit has L = 1.0 H and R = 20 . It is connected across a current source having an emf of 2.0 V at t
= 0. Find rate of change of current w.r.t. time at t = 100 ms.
Solution :
Here
) e 1 ( I I
/ t
0


Differentiating both sides
( )


,
_


/ t
0
e
t
I
dt
dI
=
t / 0
I t
e

Here
0
E 2 L 1
I = = 0.1A, ! = = =0.05s
R 20 R 20

So
05 . 0
1 . 0
e
05 . 0
1 . 0 1 .
dt
dI

0

= 0.2 (e
2
) = 0.027 Amp/second
Example 17 :
A coil has an inductance 50 H and a resistance 30
"
. If it is connected across a battery of constant emf 100 V,
at time t = 0, find
(i) time constant of the circuit
(ii) the maximum steady current in the circuit
(iii) current in the circuit at t = 0.1 sec.
(iv) time t. when the current is one half of the steady value
(v) electromagnetic energy stored in the circuit at the steady state
(vi) power dissipated in the circuit at time t = 0.1 sec.
Solution :
(i) Time constant


30
50
R
L
(ii) i
0
(the steady value of the current) =
A 333 . 3 A
30
100
R
V
0

(iii) i
0.1
(current in the circuit at t = 0.1 sec) = ( )
/ t
0
e 1 i

( ) 3 / 5 0. 1
0
i 1 e

1

]
= 0.1496 A
(iv) Let t
1/2
denote the time for the current to be 1/2 i
0
.
R
t
L
0 0
1
i i 1 e
2
_


,
t
L
R
e - 1
2
1

2 e
t
L
R

Taking logarithim on both sides,


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693 . 0
e log
2 log
t
5
3
e
e

[ ]
e
log e 1
( ) sec 155 . 1 0.693
3
5
t
,
_

(v) U
L
= Electrical energy stored in the circuit at steady state
= energy stored in the inductor at steady state (as resistor does not store energy)
=
2
Li
2
1

=
2
1
(50)
2
3
10

,
_

= 277.8 J
(v) P = power dissipated in the circuit at t = 0.1 sec
= rate of heat generated in the resistor (as inductor does not dissipate power)
=
2
1 . 0
i R = (0.1946)
2
(30) = 1.136 watt
Example 18 :
A coil of inductance 20 H and of resistance 100

is connected across the terminals of a source of constant emf


100 volt. After the steady state is reached and at time t = 0, the source is cut off and the LR circuit is closed. At
time t = 0.1 sec, calculate
(i) the current in the circuit,
(ii) the power dissipated across the resistance
(iii) their rate at which energy is depleted from the inductor
Solution :
(i) R = 100

, L = 20 H, V
0
= 100 Volt
Then
i
0
(Steady current)
100
1
100

ampere
=
L
R 100
20

= 0.2 sec
i
0.1
(current at t = 0.1 sec) =
/ t
0
e i

= (1) (e
50.1)
)
649 . 1
1
e
1
5 . 0

= 0.607 A
(ii) P
0.1
(Power dissipated across resistance)
( ) ( ) ( ) 100 0.607 R i
2 2
1 . 0
= 36.85 Watt
(iii) The energy stored in the inductor is gradually reduced and the same amount of energy appears as heat
across the resistor. Therefore, the rate of depletion of energy in the inductor is equal to the rate of heat
generation across the resistor i.e., the power dissipated in R.
= (1)
( ) 0.607
20
100

,
_

= 3.035 A/s
Therefore, rate of energy dissipated from inductance = 36.845 Watt
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ALTERNATING CURRENT
AVERAGE VALUE OF AC OVER HALF CYCLE
Average or Mean value of alternating current over half cycle is that steady current which will send the same
amount of charge through the circuit in the time interval of one half cycle, as is sent actually by the alternating
current.
0 0
2 / T
0
0
2 / T
0
av
I 636 . 0 I
2
dt t sin I
T
2
2 / T
Idt
I

ROOT MEAN SQUARE VALUE OF AC


Root mean Square value (rms value) or Virtual value of AC is that steady current which would produce the same
heat in given resistance in one cycle as is done by the alternating current when passed through the same resistance
for one cycle.
T
2
T
2 2 0 0
rms 0
0
I Rdt
I 1
I RT (I sin t) dt
T T 2

AC THROUGH A RESISTOR
(i) Let E (= E
0
sin t ) be the alternating emf applied across a pure resistance R and I be the current resulting
from this emf
Then I =
R
t sin E
R
E
0


R
E
0

sin t
R
I = I
0
sin t where I
0
R
E
0

The variation of E and I with t is represented graphically and in the phasor diagram as follows
:
I = I sin t
0
"
"t
E = E sin t
0
"
(I,E)
O
#
#2

E
I
I
0
E
0
Fig. Phasor diagram
Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit
(i) P = E
v
I
v
where E
v
and I
v
are virtual or rms values of emf across the element (resistor) and current through
the element.
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0 0 0 0
.
2 2 2
E I E I
P
P
t
(ii) The variation of instantaneous power with time is
graphically represented as shown in figure.
AC THROUGH AN INDUCTOR
(i) Let E = E
0
sin t be the emf applied across the pure inductor of self inductance L.
Let I be the current resulting from this emf. Then
0
E
I sin( t / 2)
L

I = I
0
sin
t
2
_


,
where
L
0
0
E
I
L

(ii) The variation of E and I with time and the phasor diagram are shown below :
"t
(E, I)
0
E
I
2#
#
I
0
E
0
90
Y
I
wt
E
Inductive Reactance (X
L
)
(i) X
L
= L =
fL 2
where f is frequency of AC. Unit of reactance is ohm.
(ii) The variation of X
L
with f is shown in figure
Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit
P = E
v
I
v
cos where is phase difference between E and I. Here = 90 so P = E
v
I
v
cos 90 = 0. Therefore in
a pure inductive circuit, the average power consumed over any time interval as well as over one full cycle is zero.
AC ACROSS A CAPACITOR
(i) If E = E
0
sin
t
then
C
0
I E C sin( t / 2) +

0
I I sin t
2
_
+

,
where
0 0
0
C
E E
I
1/ C X

where X
C
=
C
is capacitative reactance.
Here current leads the applied voltage by 90.
E=E sin t
0
"
I = I sin( t + /2)
0
" #
"t
E, I
Y
X
(iii) The phasor diagram is shown in figure.
f
X
L
L = const t
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I
E E
0
90
o
t
x
I
0
O
Power in a Purely Capacitative Circuit
P = E
v
I
v
cos
= E
v
I
v
cos 90 = 0 because phase difference between E and I is 90
So in a pure capacitor circuit power consumed over one cycle or any part of the cycle is zero.
AC THROUGH LR CIRCUIT
Let I = I
0
sin t be the AC current resulting in a L-R circuit.
then, applied emf. E = E
0
sin (
t
+ ) where E
0
= I
0
Z and E = IZ and Z is Impedance of the circuit. Impedance
is the term used for effective opposition to current, whose dimensions are similar to resistance and reactance and
whose unit is

. In a series L-R circuit applied emf leads the circuit current by .


L R
V
V
L
V
R
I
$
V
L
V
R
V
Inductive Impedance
2 2 2 2 2
L
Z R (X ) R L + +
The reciprocal of Impedence is called Admittance.
R
L
R
X
V
V
tan
L
R
L


Z
R
V
V
cos
R

Power in LR Circuit
Average power = E
v
I
v
cos =
2 2 2
L R
R
I E
+

AC THROUGH CR CIRCUIT
If E = E
0
sin t ,
R
C
I
$
V
C
V
R
V
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then I = I
0
sin ( t + ) where
Z
E
I
0
0

and ,
Z
E
I Z being the impedance
Here
R
X ~ X
R
X
tan
C L

Here current leads emf by
2 2
C L
2 2
R ) X ~ X ( R X Z + +
Capacitive Impedance
2
2 2
1
Z R
C
+

CR
1
R
C / 1
V
V
tan
R
C


AC THROUGH LCR CIRCUIT
If I = I
0
sin
t
,
then E = E
0
(
t
+ )
2 2
0 0 L C
E I R (X X ) +
Z =
2 2 0
L C
0
E
R (X X )
I
+
tan =
L C
X X
R

Power in LCR Circuit


Average power over complete cycle,
0 0 0
a
E I I E
P E I cos cos
2 2 2


a
2
2
R
Also, P E I
1
R L
C

_
+

,
2
2
C
1
L R
,
_

R
L "
1
C "
2
av 2
2
E R
Also, P
1
R L
C

_
+

,
Average power is also known as true power. The quantity E
v
I
v
is called the apparent power or virtual
power. It is customary to express true power in kW and apparent power in kVA.
cos is called the power factor of LCR circuit. Its value varies from zero to 1. For purely resistive circuit
cos = 1 and for pure inductive or pure capacitative or inductive cum capacitative circuit, cos = 0.
Power factor is defined as the ratio of true power to apparent power.
L
R
C
$
V
L
V
C
I
0
X
V
R
E
0
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Power factor
2
2
R R
cos =
Z
1
R + L"-
C"

_

,
SUMMARISED RESULTS FOR VARIOUS AC CIRCUITS
S. AC circuit Current for E=E
0
sin t equivalent opposition Power Power factor ) (cos
No. containing to current
1. R Only I = I
0
sin t R
R I
2

1
2. L Only I = I
0
sin (
t
-90
o
) X
L
=
L
Zero 0
3. C Only I = I
0
sin (
t
+90
o
)
C
1
X
C

Zero 0
4. R & L I = I
0
sin ( t - )
2
L
2
C
X R Z +

cos I E
2 2
L
R
R X +
5. R & C I = I
0
sin (
t
+)
2
C
2
C
X R Z +

cos I E
2 2
C
R
R X +
6. LCR I = I
0
sin (
t t
)
( )
2
C L
2
X X R Z +

cos I E
( )
2
C L
2
X X R
R
+
Wattless Current or Idle Current
If the voltage and current differ in phase by /2, the power factor is cos 90
o
= 0. Although current flow through
the circuit, but it carries no power. Such a current is called wattless current. The energy metre cannot register
energy charges in such cases although an ammeter will show such current.
CHOKE COIL
A choke coil is an inductance coil having a large number of turns of thick insulated copper wire. It has practically
zero resistance. It plays the same role in AC circuit as does a resistance in DC circuit.
When alternating current is passed in a choke coil, a self induced emf is set up in the coil by virtue of self-
induction.
R
By Lenzs law, this induced emf opposes the flow of current and thus works as a resistance in AC circuit [Lenzs
law].
Instead of choke coil, we may use resistance to control alternating current. But then there will be a lot of wastage
of electrical power on account of Joule heating. On other hand, the power consumed by choke coil is nearly zero.
Thus choke coil is preferred over resistance to control alternating current.
The chokes are also extensively used in power supplies, battery eliminators, radios, TV sets etc. Radio frequency
chokes i.e. high frequency chokes have air core while audio frequency chokes i.e. low-frequency chokes have an
iron core.
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TRANSFORMER
A transforer is a device, for stepping up or down an alternating voltage. Its works on the principle of mutual
induction. It consists of a primary coil wound over a soft iron cylindrical core, with the secondary coil wound over
other part of the same soft iron core and insulated from each other as well as from the soft iron core. The soft iron
core has a permeability

,nearly 10
3
times the permeability of free space. The soft iron core helps in increasing
effiiciency of the transformer.
In an ideal transformer, the magnetic field B due to the curernt in the primary circuit is completley linked with the
secondary. Then
B = the common magnetic induction in the two coils.
A = area of either coils ( as They are wound on the same core)
N
1
= number of turns in the primary
N
2
= number of terms in the secondary
i
1
= current in the primary
i
2
= current in the secondary.
then
1
(Linked magnetic flux in the primary) = N
1
AB
2
(Linked magnetic flux in the secondary) = N
2
AB
When the curent i
1
varies, there is self induced emf in secondary which is e
2
then
1 1
2 2
e N
e N
ratio of emf
i.e. Ratio of emf = Ratio of number of turns
Again in an ideal transformer, power is transfered from primary to the secondary without any loss. Then
e
1
i
1
= e
2
i
2

1 2 1
2 1 2
e i N
e i N

If e
2
> e
1
, it is a set up transformer i.e., voltage is increased. then N
s
> N
p
and i
s
< i
p
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Example 1 :
An alternating current varies as per equation I = 6 sin 30 t Amp. What is the rms value of this current shown by
(i) an ac ammeter (ii) an ordinary moving coil galvanometer.
Solution :
(i) The equation is similar to I = I
0
sin
t
where I
0
represents peak value of current. Then rms value = 2 / I
0
.
Here I
0
= 6 Amp.
Hence rms current = . Amp 24 . 4 2 / 6 2 / I
0

So the a.c. ammeter reads 4.24 Ampere.
(ii) A moving coil galvanometer can measure only dc current, because the direction of coils rotation depends
upon the direction of current. As net current or average current is zero, so the galvanometer shows zero
value for an a.c. current flow.
Example 2 :
An alternating emf is represented by
E = 100 sin ( ) 4 / t 120 + volt. Calculate
(i) average or mean value of emf
(ii) RMS value of emf
(iii) frequency of alternating emf
(iv) the shortest time interval after start at which emf is zero.
Solution :
(i)

0
av
E 2
E
= 0.636 E
0
= 0.636 100 volt = 63.65 volt
(ii)
0
rms
E 100
E
2 2

= 70.7 volt
(iii) On comparing with E = E
0
sin ) t ( + , we get 120 ,
2 120 60Hz f f
(iv) Substituting zero for instantaneous value of emf
0 = ) 4 / t 120 ( sin 00 1 +

sin 120 t 0
4
_
+

,
For value of t to be positive,

+
4
t 120

120
1
4
3
t
sec = 6.25 10
3
sec.
SOLVED EXAMPLES
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Example 3 :
A coil of inductance 1.0 H and resistance 100

is connected to an ac supply designated as 230 V, 50 Hz.


Calculate
(a) maximum current in the coil
(b) TIme lag between the peak voltage and the peak current.
Solution :
(a) Inductive reactance
100 0 . 1 50 2 fL 2 X
L
0 rms
E 2E 2 230 volt 325 volt
Impedance
2 2 2 2
L
Z X R (100 ) (100) 330 + +
A 39 . 1
330
V 460
Z
E
I
0
0


(b) As the circuit is inductive, the voltage leads the current by angle
tan


100
100
R
X
L
= 72.34.
Then time lag
3
o
1 72.34
t T. 4 10 sec
2 50 360

_ _

, ,
Example 4 :
The electric current in a circuit is given by

,
_

t
i i
0 for a period t = 0 to t = . Calculate the rms value of the
current for this period.
Solution :
2 2
rms
0
(I ) I dt

2
2 2 3 2
2 2 0 0 0
rms 0
2 2
0 0
i i i t
(I ) i dt t dt
3 3

1 _


1
, ]

2 2
2 0 0
rms
i i
(I )
3 3

0
rms
i
I
3

Example 5 :
When 100 volt dc is applied across an inductor, a current of 2.0 A flows through it. If 100 V 50 Hz ac is applied
across the same inductor, the current reduces to 1.25 A. Calculate
(i) resistance of the inductor
(ii) inductance of the inductor.
Solution:
(i) It is clear that the inductor has both resistance & inductance because it offers unequal resistance to dc and
ac emfs.
In case of dc voltage
E E 100
I = = 0 R = = 50
R I 2.0

(ii) In case of ac,
Z
E
I
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E 100
Z 80
I 1.25

2 2
X R 80 + , where R = 50.
2 2
X 80 50 62.45
45 . 62 fL 2
H 2 . 0
50 2
45 . 62
L


Example 6:
A pure inductor and a pure resistor are connected in series and an ac supply is connected across this combination.
Ideal ac volt meters V
1
and V
2
show 120 volt and 160 volt respectively. Calculate
L R
~
V
1
V
2
(i) phase difference between V
1
and V
2
.
(ii) applied voltage V and its phase differences w.r.t. current
Solution:
(i) As current is common through both the elements, so in the inductor, voltage (V
1
) is ahead of current I while,
in the resistor, voltage (V
2
) is in same phase as current. Hence phase difference between V
1
and V
2
is 90.
(ii) Here applied emf
2 2
1 2
V V V +
=
2 2
) 160 ( ) 120 ( +
$
V
I
V
1
V
2
= 200 volt
1
2
V 120 3
tan
V 160 4

36.9. Therefore applied voltage leads the circuit
current by 36.9.
Example 7:
An inductance of 2.0 H, a capacitance of 18 F and a resistance of 10 k are connected to an ac source of 20 V
with adjustable frequency.
(i) At what frequency, will the current be maximum in the circuit ?
(ii) What is this maximum current?
Solution:
(i) Current will be maximum at resonant frequency f
r
.
r
r
6
1 1
f 26.5Hz
2 2 LC
2 2 18 10




(ii) At resonance R = Z.
At resonant frequency,
max max
max
E E 20 2
I 2.83mA
Z R 10000

Example 8:
A 50 electric iron is connected to an ac supply of 200 V, 50 Hz. Calculate (i) average power delivered to iron
(ii) peak power and (iii) energy spent in one minute.
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Solution:
(i) Average power is based on rms value of emf.
Average power =
2 2
V
(E ) 200
= =800watt
R 50
(ii) Peak power = watt 1600
50
) 2 200 (
R
E
2 2
0

(iii) Energy spent is based on rms power.
So energy spent = P t = 800 watt 60 sec = 48000 Joule.
Example 9 :
The coefficient of mutal inductance betwen the primary and secondary of a transformer is 5 H. Calculate the
induced emf in the secondary when 3 A current in the primary is cut off to zero in 25 10
6
sec.
Solution :
e
2
= (induced emf in the secondary) =
1
di
M
dt

( )
5
6
3
5 6 10 V
25 10

_


,

Example 10 :
A power transformer is used to step up an alternating emf of 200 V to 4 KV and to transmit 5 KW power.
If the primary is of 1000 turns, calculate, assuming
(i) the number of turns in the secondary and the transformer being ideal
(ii) the current rating of the secondary
Solution :
(i) For an ideal transformer
2 2
1 1
e N
e N

1000
N
200
4000
s

turns 10 2 N
4
s


(ii) P = (power to be transferred) = e
1
i
1

3
1
1
P 5 10
i
e 200


= 25 A
then
3
2 1
4
1 2
i N 10 1
i N 2 10 20


( )
2 1
1 25
i i 1.25A
20 30
_


,
or
Alternatively,
3
2 2
e i 5 10 W

3
2 3
5 10
i 1.25A
4 10

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EXERCISES
Section A : (i) True and False Statements
(ii) Fill in the Blanks
(iii) Assertion-Reason Type Questions
Section B : (i) Multiple Choice Questions
(ii) MCQs asked in Competitive Examinations
Section C : Subjective Questions
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1. If the direction of current passing through a d.c. motor be reversed, the direction of motors rotation is also
reversed.
2. Electromagnetic induction is analogous to mechanical inertia.
3. An observer is facing magnetic north. An electron in front of him flies horizontally towards the north and deflects
towards his left. From there observations, we can in infer that the observer is in southern hemisphere
4. A coil of metal will is stationary in a non-uniform magnetic field. And emf is induced in the coil
5. Induced emf tries to keep the energy conserved.
6. The greater the value of L, the faster is the decay.
7. Alternating current does cause electrolysis.
8. A transformer cant work on d.c. supply
9. 1/WCR is dimensionless quantity.
10. The potential difference and current an alternating circuit are represented by E=100 sin (100t), I=100 sin(100t+).
The electrical power dissipated in the circuit is 2.5 watt.
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. A.C generator is based on the principle of _________
2. The quantity which is increased in a step down transformer is ________.
3. The average emf induced in a coil in which the current changes from 2A to 4A in 0.05 sec. is 8V. The self
inductance of the coil is ________ .
4. A coil of copper wire is being pulled with a constant velocity in a magnetic field. If its ohmic resistance is
increased, it will be ______ to pull it.
5. If a coil is removed from a magnet field (a) rapidly (b) slowly. work done will be more when the coil removed
from the magnetic field.
6. The time required by the current in an inductor of 0.1 and whose resistance is 20 which is connected to a
12 V battery to reach 63% of its steady maximum value is about _______ sec.
7. The device that controls the alternating a.c without much loss of energy is called as ________
8. When a fluorescent tube is used in a.c. circuit, a choke is connected in_____
9. If an a.c. of 50Hz is flowing through a conducting wire the current becomes zero____ times in one second.
10. A uniformly wound solenoid coil of self inductance
4
1.8 10

henry and resistance


6
is broken up into two
identical coils. These identical coils are then connected in parallel across a 12 volt battery of negligible resistance.
The time constant for the current in the circuit is ________ sec and the steady state current through the battery
is ________ amp.
EXERCISES
SECTION- A
TRUE AND FALSE STATEMENTS
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(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but the Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false.
1. Assertion : Self-inductance is called the inertia of electricity.
Reason : Self inductance is the phenomenon, according to which an opposing induced emf is produced
in a coil as a result of change in current or magnetic flux linked in the coil.
2. Assertion : An aircraft flies along the meridian, the potential at the ends of its wings will be the same.
Reason : whenever there is change in the magnetic flux emf induces.
3. Assertion : An inductor cannot have zero resistance.
Reason : This because inductor has to be made up of some material, which must have some resistance.
4. Assertion : When a magnetic is made to fall freely through a closed coil, its acceleration is always less
than acceleration due to gravity.
Reason : Current induced in the coil opposes the motion of the magnet, as per Lenzs law.
5. Assertion : A step up transformer can also be used as a step down transformer
Reason : This is because
s s
p p
E n
E n

.
6. Assertion : A glowing bulb becomes dim when an iron bar is put in the inductor in the a.c circuit.
Reason : Resistance of the circuit increases.
7. Assertion : A spark occurs sometime when an electric iron is switched off.
Reason : Sparking is due to large self induced emf in the circuit, during make
8. Assertion : Use is made of eddy current in induction brakes.
Reason : As eddy currents always oppose the relative motion.
9. Assertion : The presence of large magnetic flux through a coil maintains a current in the coil if the
circuit is continuous.
Reason : Only a change in magnetic flux will maintain an induced current in the coil.
10. Assertion : In an anti-resonance circuit or rejector circuit, alternating voltage and current have a phase
difference of 180.
Reason : In a resonance circuit, alternating voltage and current are in the same phase
ASSERTION AND REASON TYPE QUESTIONS
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1. When a magnet is moved with its north polarity
towards a coil placed in a closed circuit, then the
nearer face of the coil
(1) shows south polarity
(2) shows north polarity
(3) shows sometimes south polarity
(4) shows sometimes north and some times south
polarity
2. A horizontal straight conductor when placed along
south-north direction falls under gravity, there is
(1) an induced current from south to north direction
(2) an induced current from north to south direction
(3) no induced e.m.f. along the length of the
conductor
(4) an induced e.m.f. along the length of the
conductor
3. When two inductors L
1
and L
2
are connected in
parallel, the equivalent inductance is
(1) L
1
+ L
2
(2) between L
1
and L
2
(3) less than both L
1
and L
2
(4) None of the above
4. An inductor may store energy in its
(1) electric field
(2) coils
(3) magnetic field
(4) electric and magnetic fields
5. A coil has 500 turns and flux of 10
-4
weber is
passing through it. Calculate e.m.f produced
when the flux falls to
5
2 10

webers in 0.1
second is
(1) 0.04 volt (2) 0.4 volt
(3) 4 volt (4) 40 volt
6. Lenz law is a consequence of the law of
conservation of
(1) Charge (2) Mass
(3) Energy (4) Momentum
7. The current passing through a choke coil of 5
henry is decreasing at the rate of 2 amp/sec. The
EMF developed across the coil is
(1) 10 volt (2) - 10 volt
(3) 2.5 volt (4) - 2.5 volt
8. If L and R represent inductance and resistance
respectively, then the dimensions of
L
R
will be
(1)
0 0 1
M L T

(2)
0
M LT
(3)
0 0
M L T
(4) Cant be represented in terms of M, L and T
9. When the current changes from 2A to 4A in 0.05
second, an e.m.f. of 8 volt is induced in a coil. The
coefficient of self induction of the coil is
(1) 0.1 H (2) 0.2 H
(3) 0.4 H (4) 0.8 H
10. The time constant of a C-R circuit is
(1)
1
CR
(2)
C
R
(3)
CR
(4)
R
C
11. A coil is wound on a frame of rectangular cross
section. If all the linear dimensions of the frame
are increased by a factor of 2 and the number of
turns per unit length of the coil remains the same,
the self inductance increases by a factor of
(1) 4 (2) 8
(3) 16 (4) 32
12. A current carrying coil is subjected to a uniform
magnetic field. The coil will orient so that its plane
becomes
SECTION- B
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
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(1) inclined at 45
o
to magnetic field
(2) inclined at any arbitrary angle to the magnetic
field
(3) parallel to the magnetic field
(4) perpendicular to the magnetic field
13. L,C,R represent the physical quantities, inductance,
capacitance and resistance respectively. The
combination which have the dimensions of
frequency are
(1)
1
RC
(2)
RL
C
(3)
R
LC
(4)
C
L
14. Faradays law of electromagnetic induction is
(1) related to law of conservation of charge
(2) related to law of conservation of energy
(3) related to third law of Newton
(4) related to law of conservation of angular
momentum
15. As shown in the figure, a magnet is moved with a
fast speed towards a coil at rest. Due to this induced
electromotive force, induced current and induced
charge in the coil are E, I and Q respectively. If the
speed of magnet is doubled, the incorrect statement
is
S N
G
Galvanometer
(1) E increases
(2) I increases
(3) Q remains the same
(4) Q increases
16. In general in an alternating current circuit
(1) the average value of current is zero
(2) the average value of square of the current is
zero
(3) average power dissipation is zero
(4) the phase difference between voltage and
current is zero
17. A transformer is employed to
(1) convert A.C. to D.C.
(2) convert D.C. to A.C.
(3) obtain a suitable A.C. voltage
(4) obtain a suitable D.C. voltage
18. If the instantaneous current in a circuit is given by
( ) 2cos i t amperes, the r.m.s value of the
current is
(1) 2 ampere (2)
2
ampere
(3)
2 2
ampere (4) Zero ampere
19. The potential difference V across and the current
flowing through an instrument in an A.C. circuit
are given by
V 5cos t volt
I 2sin t
The power dissipated in the instrument is
(1) Zero watt (2) 5 watt
(3) 10 watt (4) 2.5 watt
20. If a current
I
given by 0
sin
2
I t


,
flows in
an A.C. circuit across which an A.C. potential of
0
sin E E t has been applied, then the power
consumption P in the circuit will be
(1)
0 0
2
E I
P
(2)
0 0
2
E I
P
(3)
2
EI
P
(4) P = Zero
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21. Using an A.C. voltmeter the potential difference
in the electrical line in a house is 234 volt. If the
line frequency is known to be 50 cycles per
second, the equation for the line voltage is
(1) ( ) 165sin 100 V t
(2) ( ) 331sin 100 V t
(3) ( ) 220sin 100 V t
(4) ( ) 440sin 100 V t
22. In an A.C. circuit, the instantaneous values of
e.m.f. and current are 200sin314 e t volt and
sin 314
3
i t
_
+

,
ampere. The average power
consumed in watt is
(1) 200 (2) 100
(3) 50 (4) 25
23. In an LCR circuit having L = 8.0 henry,
0.5 C F and R = 100 ohm in series, the
resonant frequency (in per second) is
(1) 600 radian (2) 600 hertz
(3) 500 radian (4) 500 hertz
24. In a circuit containing an inductance of zero
resistance, the current lags behind the applied
A.C. voltage by a phase angle of
(1) 90
o
(2) 45
o
(3) 30
o
(4) 0
o
25. The power factor in a circuit connected to an
A.C. power supply has a value which is
(1) unity when the circuit contains an ideal
inductance only
(2) unity when the circuit contains ideal resistance
only
(3) zero when the circuit contains an ideal resistance
only
(4) unity when the circuit contains an ideal
capacitance only
26. A power transformer with an 8 : 1 turns ratio has
60 Hz, 120 V across primary, the load in secondary
is 10
4
ohm. The current in the secondary is
(1) 96 A (2) 0.96 A
(3) 9.6 A (4) 96 mA
27. In a region of uniform magnetic induction
2
10

B tesla, a circular coil of radius 30 cm and


resistance
2
ohm is rotated about an axis which
is perpendicular to the direction of B and which
forms a diameter of the coil. If the coil rotates at
200 r.p.m. the amplitude of the alternating current
induced in the coil is
(1)
2
4 mA (2) 30mA
(3) 6mA (4) 200mA
28. In an L-R circuit, the A.C. source has voltage 220
volt. The potential difference across the
inductance is 176 volt. The potential difference
across the resistance will be
(1) (
220 176
) volt (2) ( ) 220 176 + volt
(3)
220 176
volt (4)
2 2
220 176
volt
29. In an L-C-R series A.C. circuit, the current is
(1) always in phase with voltage
(2) always lags the generator voltage
(3) always leads the generator voltage
(4) none of the above
30. The angular frequency of a resonant LC
combination ( ) 10mHand 1.0F L C is
(1)
4
1.0 10
radian per sec
(2)
4
1.0 10
Hertz
(3)
4
1.0 10

radian per sec


(4)
4
1.0 10

Hertz
31. A step-up transformer
(1) converts low voltage, low amperage current into
high voltage and high amperage current
(2) converts high amperage to low amperage
current
(3) converts high voltage to low voltage current
(4) generates electricity
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32. A resistor, an inductor and a capacitor are connected
in series to an a.c. power supply. When measured
with the help of an a.c. voltmeter, the voltage across
them are found to be 80 V, 30 V and 90 V
respectively. What is the supply voltage?
(1) 200 V (2) 100 V
(3) 140 V (4)
200 2
V
33. A choke coil is used to control
(1) alternating current
(2) direct current
(3) both a.c. and d.c.
(4) neither a.c. nor d.c.
34. A 2000 ohm resistor and a 1 F capacitor are
connected in series across a 120 volt rms, 60
Hertz line. The impedance of the circuit is
(1) 3322 ohm (2) 2001 ohm
(3) 2233 ohm (4) 2322 ohm
35. The instantaneous values of current and voltage in
an A.C. circuit are 4sin I t and
100cos
3
E t

_
+

,
respectively, the phase
difference between voltage and current is
(1)
3

(2)
2
3

(3)
5
6

(4)
7
6

36. A wire coil carries the current i. The potential


energy of the coil does not depend upon
(1) the value of i
(2) the number of turns in the coil
(3) whether the coil has an iron core or not
(4) the resistance of the coil
37. The inductive reactance X
L
due to a pure inductor
in a D.C. circuit is
(1) L (2)
1
L
(3) 0 (4)
38. Choke used to limit high frequency A.C. has
(1) air core
(2) iron core
(3) a paramagnetic core
(4) a diamagnetic core
39. In a step up transformer, the turn ratio is 1 : 20. A
Leclanche cell (emf 1.5 V) has been connected
across the primary. The voltage across the
secondary is
(1) 30 V (2) 0.75 V
(3) 75 V (4) Zero
40. A power transformer is used to step up an alternating
emf of 220 V to 11 kV to transmit 4.4 kW of power.
If the primary coil has 1000 turns, what is the current
rating of the secondary? Assume 100% efficiency
for the transformer
(1) 4 A (2) 0.4 A
(3) 0.04 A (4) 0.2 A
41. An alternating current circuit consists of an
inductance and a resistance in series. In this circuit
(1) the potential difference across and current in
resistance leads the potential difference across
inductance
(2) the potential difference across and current in
resistance lags behind the potential difference
across inductance by an angle
2

(3) the potential difference across and current in


resistance lags behind the potential difference
across inductance by an angle
(4) the potential difference across resistance lags
behind the potential difference across
inductance by an angle
2

, while the current


in resistance leads the potential difference
across inductance by an angle
2

42. In the circuit shown here, the voltages across L and


C are
~
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(1) in phase
(2) out of phase by 90
o
(3) out of phase by 180
o
(4) bear a phase difference which depends on the
values of L and C
43. If is phase difference between current and
voltage, the wattles component of current is
(1) cos
v
I (2) sin
v
I
(3) tan
v
I (4)
2
cos
v
I
44. The core used in transformers and other
electromagnetic devices is laminated
(1) to increase the magnetic field
(2) to increase the level of magnetic saturation of
the core
(3) to reduce the magnetism in the core
(4) to reduce eddy current losses in the core
45. An inductive circuit has zero resistance. When AC
voltage is applied across this circuit, then the current
lags behind the applied ac voltage by an angle
(1) 30
o
(2) 45
o
(3) 90
o
(4) 0
o
46. Which one of the following curves represents
variation of capacitive reactance with frequency
(1)
t
x
C
(2)
t
x
C
(3)
t
x
C
(4)
t
x
C
47. In an LCR circuit, the capacitance is made one-
fourth, when in resonance. Then what should be
the change in inductance, so that circuit remains in
resonance?
(1) 4 times (2)
1
4
times
(3) 8 times (4) 2 times
48. In an AC circuit, the potential difference across
inductance and resistance joined in series are 16
V and 20 V respectively. The net potential
difference across the circuit is
(1) 20 V (2) 25.6 V
(3) 31.9 V (4) 36 V
49. What quantity is increased in step-down
transformer
(1) current (2) voltage
(3) power (4) frequency
50. A normal domestic electric supply is an alternating
current whose average value is
(1) zero
(2) half the peak value
(3) peak value multiplied by
2

(4) peak value divided by


2

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1. The coefficient of mutual induction of two coils is 6
mH. If the current flowing in one coil is 2 ampere,
then the induced emf in the second coil will be
(1) 12 mV (2) 3 mV
(3) 3 V (4) Zero
[Pb.CET 1996]
2. Whenever magnetic lines of force move across a
conductor, there is produced an electric field. This is
referred to as [DPMT 1997]
(1) Lenzs law (2) Faradays law
(3) Ohms law (4) Gausss law
3. A coil of area 5 cm
2
and having 20 turns is placed in
a uniform magnetic field of 10
3
gauss. The normal
to the plane of the coil makes an angle of 60
o
with
the magnetic field. The flux in maxwell through the
coil is [CPMT 1998]
(1) 10
5
(2) 5 10
4
(3) 2 10
4
(4) 5 10
3
4. A coil having an area A
0
is placed in the magnetic
field which changes from B
0
to 4 B
0
in time interval t.
The emf induced in the coil will be [MNR 2002]
(1) 3 A
0
B
0
/t (2) 4 A
0
B
0
/t
(3) 3 B
0/
A
0
t (4) 4 B
0
/A
0
t
5. An emf of 100 millivolt is induced in a coil when the
current in another nearby coil becomes 10 ampere
from zero in 0.1 second. The coefficient of mutual
induction between the two coils will be
(1) 1 millihenry (2) 10 millihenry
(3) 100 millihenry (4) 1000 millihenry
[MP PET 1996]
6. Which of the following statements is correct ?
(1) A circular ring is rotated about its own axis in a
uniform magnetic field. No emf is induced in it.
(2) A circular ring is rotated about its own axis in a
non-uniform magnetic field. An emf is induced
in it
(3) A circular ring is rotated about one of its diameter
in a uniform magnetic field and induction of the
magnetic field is increasing at a constant rate.
Emf, induced in the ring may be equal to zero
for an elemental time interval
(4) None of these [CMC LDH 2002]
7. Which of the following statements, about a solenoid,
is correct ? [Manipal 2002]
(1) Self inductance per unit length of solenoid is
greater near its ends than at centre
(2) Energy density in a solenoid is greater near its
ends than that at the centre
(3) Self inductance per unit length and energy
density, both are uniform over entire length of
the solenoid
(4) None of these
8. A coil of wire of a certain radius has 600 turns and
a self inductance of 108 mH. The self inductance
of another similar coil of 500 turns will be
(1) 74 mH (2) 75 mH
(3) 76 mH (4) 77 mH
[MP PMT 1990]
9. A coil of diameter 0.40 m is in a variable magnetic
field. As the magnetic induction of the field changes
by 127.4 T during 2s, an emf of 200 V is induced in
the coil. Then the number of turns in the coil is
approximately
(1) 20 (2) 25
(3) 30 (4) 50 [AIIMS 1999]
10. A 50 turns circular coil has a radius of 3 cm. It is
kept in a magnetic field acting normal to the area of
the coil. The magnetic field B is increased from
0.10 T to 0.35 T in 2 m s. The average induced emf
in the coil is [MP PET 1994]
(1) 1.77 V (2) 17.7 V
(3) 177 V (4) 0.177 V
11. A horizontal telegraph wire 2.5 km long running
between east and west is a part of a closed circuit
whose resistance is 35

. The wire falls to the


ground from a height of 10 m. If g = 9.8 m s
2
and
B
H
= 2 10
5
T, the maximum current induced in
the circuit is [AFMC 1996]
(1) 0.7 A (2) 0.02 A
(3) 0.01 A (4) 0.04 A
12. An emf of 6 V is induced in a given coil when the
current in it changes at the rate of 30 A/min. The self
inductance of the coil is [All India PM/PD 1999]
(1) 0.2 H (2) 5 H
(3) 12 H (4) 180 H
MCQS ASKED IN COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS
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13. An alternating emf of angular frequency is applied
across an inductance. The instantaneous current
developed in the circuit has an angular frequency
(1)
4

(2)
2

(3)
2
(4)
4
[EAMCET 2002]
14. The magnetic field energy in an inductor changes
from maximum value to minimum value in 5.0 ms
when connected to an AC source. The frequency
of the source is [AIIMS 2001]
(1) 20 Hz (2) 50 Hz
(3) 200 Hz (4) 500 Hz
15. An inductive coil has a resistance of 100

. When
an AC signal of frequency 1000 Hz is fed to the coil,
the applied voltage leads the current by 45
o
. What is
the inductance of the coil ? [EMACET 1999]
(1) 10 mH (2) 12 mH
(3) 16 mH (4) 20 mH
16. In a LCR circuit, if the rms voltage of the AC supply
remains constant when the frequency is varied
between 50 Hz and 50 kHz, which of the graphs
below best illustrates the variation of current through
the ammeter with frequency ?
[London School of Examination]
(1) I
f
(2)
(3)
I
f
(4)
I
f
17. The reactance of a coil when used in the domestic
AC power supply (220 volt 50 cycles per second) is
50 ohm. The inductance of the coil is nearly
[MP PMT 2000]
(1) 2.2 H (2) 0.22 H
(3) 1.6 H (4) 0.16 H
18. The primary and secondary coils of a transformer
have 50 and 1500 turns respectively. If the magnetic
flux linked with the primary coil is given by
0
4t + , where is in webers, t is time in
seconds and
0
is a constant, the output voltage
across the secondary coil is
[CBSE-PMT 2007]
(1) 30 volts (2) 90 volts
(3) 120 volts (4) 220 volts
19. What is the value of inductance, L for which the
current is a maximum in a series LCR circuit with C
= 10F and = 1000 s
1
?
[CBSE-PMT 2007]
(1) 10 mH
(2) 100 mH
(3) l mH
(4) cannot be calculated unless R is known
20. A transformer is used to light a 100 W and 110 V
lamp from a 220 V mains. If the main current is 0.5
amp, the efficiency of the transformer is
approximately
[CBSE-PMT 2007]
(1) 10 % (2) 30 %
(3) 50 % (4) 90 %
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1. A magnetic flux of 8 10
4
weber is linked with each turn of a 200-turn coil and there is a current of 4 A in the
coil. Calculate the self-inductance (L) of the coil.
2. At what frequency would the reactance of 10.0 F capacitor equal that of a 1.0 mH inductor ?
3. Two inductors
1
L and
2
L sufficient distance apart are connected (i) in series (ii) in parallel. What is their
equivalent inductance?
4. A closed loop of wire is being moved so that it remains in a uniform magnetic field. What is the current induced?
5. What is power dissipation in an a.c. circuit in which voltage and current are given by
V 300sin t
2
_
+

,
and
I 5sin t ?
6. At very high frequency of a.c., a capacitor behaves as a pure conductor. Why?
7. A conducting loop of face-area A and resistance R is placed perpendicular to a magnetic field B. The loop is
withdrawn completely from the field. Find the charge which flows through any cross-section of the wire in the
process. Note that the flown charge is independent of the shape of the loop as well as the way it is withdrawn.
8. A coil has radius 10 cm, resistance 40

and 1000 turns. It is placed with its plane vertical and its axis parallel
to the magnetic meridian. The coil is connected to a galvanometer and is rotated about its vertical diameter
through an angle of 180. Find the charge which flows through the galvanometer if the horizontal component of
the earths magnetic field is B
H
= 3.0 10
5
T.
9. Figure shows a wire of resistance R sliding on two parallel, conducting rails placed at a separation l. The rails are
joined at one end. A magnetic field B exists in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the rails. What force is
necessary to keep the wire moving at a constant velocity v ?
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
v
l
10. A copper wire bent in the shape of a semicircle of radius r translates in its plane with a constant velocity v and
a uniform magnetic field of induction B exists in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the wire. Find the emf
induced between the ends of the wire in the following cases
(a) the velocity is perpendicular to the diameter joining free ends
(b) the velocity is parallel to this diameter.
11. A series LCR circuit with L = 10 mH, C = 2 F, and R = 5

is driven by a generator of peak emf


100 V and variable angular frequency . Calculate
(a) the resonance frequency
0
and
(b) I
rms
at resonance. When = 8000 rad/s, find
(c) X
C
and X
L
(d) Z and I
rms
,
(e) the phase angle .
12. A coil having inductance 2.0 H and resistance 20 is connected to a battery of emf 4.0 V. Find
(a) the current at an instant t = 0.20 s after the connection is made and
(b) the magnetic field energy at this instant.
SECTION- C
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
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13. The mutual inductance between two coils is 2.5 H. If the current in one coil is changed at the rate of
1 A/s, what will be the emf induced in the other coil ?
14. Figure shows a long U-shaped wire of width l placed in a perpendicular magnetic field B. A wire of length l is slid
on the U-shaped wire with a constant velocity v towards right. The resistance of all the wires is r per unit length.
At t = 0, the sliding wire is close to the left edge of the U-shaped wire. Draw an equivalent circuit diagram,
showing the induced emf as a battery. Calculate the current in the circuit.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X X
X X
X X
v
l
15. A LR circuit contains an inductor of inductance 0.5 mH, a resistor of 25.0

and a cell of emf 5.00 V in series.


Find the potential difference across the resistor at t =
(a) 20.0 ms (b) 1.00 s
16. A conducting loop of area 5.0 cm
2
is placed in a magnetic field which varies sinusoidally with time as B =B
0
sin
t where B
0
= 0.20 T and = 300 s
1
, such that the normal to the coil makes an angle of 60 with the field. Find
(a) the maximum emf induced in the coil
(b) the emf induced at t= (/900)s
(c) the emf induced at s ) 600 / ( t .
17. The magnetic field in a region is given by
y
L
B
k B
0
! !

where L is a fixed length. A conducting rod of length L lies


along the Y-axis between the origin and the point (0, L, 0). The rod is made to move with a velocity
0
v v i.
!
Find
the emf induced between the two ends of the rod.
18. A system containing a pair of rails and a wire is kept vertically in a uniform horizontal magnetic field B that is
perpendicular to the plane of the rails. It is found that the wire stays in equilibrium. If the wire ab is replaced by
another wire of double its mass, how long will it take in falling through a distance equal to its length ? Note that
a constant current I is being sent through the wire in each case.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
I
a b
19. A rectangular metallic loop of length l and width b is placed in the plane of a long wire carrying a current i. The
loop is moved perpendicular to the wire with a speed v in its own plane as shown. Calculate the emf induced in
the loop at the instant shown when the rear end of the loop is at a distance a from the wire.
v
a
i b
l
20. Consider the circuit shown in figure. The switch is in closed position for a long time.
(a) Find the current through the battery
(b) Suppose the switch is again opened at t = 0. What is the time constant of the discharging circuit ?
(c) Find the current through the inductor after one time constant.
R
1
R
2 L
E S
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ANSWERS
SECTION - A
(True and False Statements)
1. False 2. True
3. True 4. False
5. True 6. False
7. False 8. True
9. True 10. True
(Fill in the Blanks)
1. Electromagnetic induction 2. Current
3. 0.2 4. Easier
5. Rapidly 6. 0.005
7. Choke coil 8. Series with the tube
9. 100 10. 310
-5
s, 8A
(Assertion-Reason Type Questions)
1. (2) 2. (2)
3. (4) 4. (1)
5. (1) 6. (3)
7. (3) 8. (1)
9. (4) 10. (4)
SECTION - B
(Multiple Choice Questions)
1. (2) 2. (3) 3. (3) 4. (3) 5. (2)
6. (3) 7. (1) 8. (3) 9. (2) 10. (3)
11. (2) 12. (4) 13. (1) 14. (2) 15. (4)
16. (1) 17. (3) 18. (2) 19. (1) 20. (4)
21. (2) 22. (3) 23. (3) 24. (1) 25. (2)
26. (4) 27. (3) 28. (4) 29. (4) 30. (1)
31. (2) 32. (2) 33. (1) 34. (1) 35. (3)
36. (4) 37. (3) 38. (1) 39. (4) 40. (2)
41. (2) 42. (3) 43. (2) 44. (4) 45. (3)
46. (1) 47. (1) 48. (2) 49. (1) 50. (1)
(MCQs asked in Competitive Examinations)
1. (4) 2. (2) 3. (2) 4. (1) 5. (1)
6. (1) 7. (4) 8. (2) 9. (2) 10. (2)
11. (2) 12. (3) 13. (3) 14. (2) 15. (1)
16. (1) 17. (3) 18. (3) 19. (2) 20. (4)
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1. 0.04 H
2. 1591 Hz
3. (i)
1 2
L L + (ii)
1 2
1 2
L L
L L +
4. Zero
5. Zero
6. AT high frequency
e
1
X 0
Wc
$
, so
V
I
Xc

is very high.
7. BA/R
8. 57 C
9.
R
v l B
2 2
10. (a) 2 Brv (b) zero
11. (a) 7070 rad/s (b) 14.1 A (c) X
C
= 62.5

, X
L
= 80

(d) Z = 8.2

, I
rms
= 3.89 A (e) = 74
12. (a) 0.17 A (b) 0.03 J
13. 2.50 V
14. (Blv)/(2r(l + vt)
15. (a) 3.16 V (b) 4.97 V (c) 5.00 V
16. (a) 15 mV (b) 7.5 mV (c) zero
17.
2
0 0
l V B
18. ) / ( 2 g l
19.
) ( 2 a l a
ibvl
+

20. (a) 0.45 (b) 0.45 (c) 1.0 W (d) 0.64 W


SECTION - C
(Subjective Questions)