Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

PROJECT NO.

1
AIM: - To make Hardness chart of various parts of tractor so that ease in checking the
incoming quality of various components.

REQUIREMENT OF HARDNESS CHART

 If any component which is come under line rejection in quality control for mainly
hardness then there is no need to open the control plan of that components, simply see
the hardness of that component from hardness chart and check it again with suitable
instrument.
 It is easy to locate the component control plan from the file by note the component part
no. from the hardness chart.
 It is beneficial for trainee students and for trainee engineers that they not know hardness
of various components of tractors.

CONTROL PLANS USED FOR MAKING HARDNESS CHART

 Rear Cover
 Front Axle
 Differential
 Gear and Shafts
 Gear Box
 Hardware
HARDNESS CHART FOR DIFFERENTCOMPONENTS

REAR COVER
S.NO. PART NO. DESCRIPTION HARDNESS
1 401004 POSITION ACTUATOR ASSY. 58-63HRC
2 401007 POSITION LINK ASSY. 30-35HRC
3 401010 DRAFT LINK ASSY. 35-40HRC
4 401011 SENSOR LEVER HINGE PIN 25-30HRC
5 401013 SENSOR (L-42) 40-45HRC
6 401017 SENSOR ROD 30-36HRC
7 401020 PIN ROCKER LINK 25-30HRC
8 402008 CONNECTING ROD 40-45HRC
9 402010 LIFT ARM ASSY. 58-62HRC
10 405009 POSITION CRANK ASSY. 20-24HRC
11 405016 RETAINING PIN (BIG) 20-25HRC
12 403007 RESPONE VALVE 25-30HRC
13 402018 LINEAR 50-60HRC
14 104005 LINK PIN 25-30HRC
15 403006 BALL SHEET 50-60HRC
16 104006 LINCH PIN 25-30HRC
17 403002 PLUG 20-25HRC
18 104004 PIN 25-30HRC
19 401023 PIN 25-30HRC
20 4010106 SWIVEL PIN 25-30HRC
21 402021 INSERT 40-45HRC
22 402016 ROCK SHAFT 50-55HRC
23 405023 DRAFT LEVER ASSY. 35-40HRC
24 405013 POSITION LEVER ASSY. 35-40HRC
25 405007 DRFT CRANK ASSY. 20-40HRC

DIFFERENTIAL
S.NO. PART NO. DESCRIPTION HARDNESS
1 P0103005 P.T.O. COVER PLATE ( L ) 180-230BHN
2 P0406001 P.T.O. COVER PLATE ( R ) 180-230BHN
3 401019 ROCKER LINK ASSY. 40-45HRC
4 407023 DRAW BAR 25-30HRC
5 M0805007 WITHDRAWL NUT (PINION42X1.5) 25-30HRC
6 301005 PLATE ASSY. ( L ) 25-28HRC
7 301006 PLATE ASSY. ( R ) 25-28HRC
8 407025 LOWER LINK BRACKET ( L ) 25-30HRC
9 407026 LOWER LINK BRACKET ( R ) 25-30HRC
FRONT AXLE
S.NO. PART NO. DECRIPTION HARDNESS
1 502013 STEERING ARM ( L ) 210-240BHN
2 502009 STEERING ARM ( R ) 210-240BHN
3 502007 HUB CAP 130-180BHN
4 501021 DOWEL LEEVE 20-25BHN
5 502008 O-RING HOLDER 20-25BHN
6 501003 PIN ( TOE HOOK ) 35-42BHN
7 502002 WEAR RING ( STUB AXLE ) 45-50BHN
8 502015 KING PIN 45-50HRC
9 501010 PIVOT PIN 25-35HRC

HARDWARE
S.NO. PART NO. DESCRIPTION HARDNESS
1 P0609002 RUBBER PAD ( FLY WHEEL ) SH 65 ±5
2 301002 WHEEL BOLT ( REAR AXLE ) 20 - 25HRC
3 301003 WHEEL NUT ( REAR AXLE ) 20 - 25HRC
4 M0806001 STUD ( M16X1.5 ) 20 - 25HRC
5 P0301007 RUBBER PAD ( FENDER ) SH 80 ±5
6 104007 DRAIN PLUG ( M24X1.5 ) 20 - 25HRC
7 1003009 HOSE PIPE SH 60 - 65
8 402025 O RING SH 65 ±5
9 M0811000 COPPER WASHER 40 -45HRC
10 406034 SPECIAL STUD 20 - 25HRC
11 406031 SEALING WASHER SH 65 ±5
12 106020 O RING (B.P.S.) SH 65 ±5
13 401022 O RING (SENSOR) SH 65 ±5
15 406025 SEALING RING SH 65 ±5
16 402012 SEAL RING (ROCK SHAFT) SH 65 ±5

GEAR BOX
S.NO. PART NO. DESCRIPTION HARDNESS
1 P0204009 INNER BUSH 180-230BHN
2 P0210004 SHIFTER LEVER 50-60HRC
3 P0210005 SHIFTER LEVER (HI - LOW) 55-60HRC
4 P0203017 BOTTOM COVER PLATE 180-230BHN
5 207024 IDLER CLUSTER PIN 58-63HRC
6 203010 LOCKING PIN 38-43 HRC
7 207015 WITHDRAWL NUT (C.S.) 25-30HRC

GEAR AND SHAFTS


S. NO. PART NO. DESCRIPTION HARDNESS
1 P0105001 BULL GEAR
58-63HRC
2 P0105005 BULL PINION SHAFT ( L )
58-63HRC
3 P0105016 BULL PINION SHAFT ( R )
58-63HRC
4 P0207020 C. M. GEAR Z-43 DUAL
58-63HRC
5 P0102002 CONNECTING SHAFT SMALL
58-63HRC
6 P0207023 CONNECTING SHAFT BIG
58-63HRC
7 P0207005 CONSTNT MESH GEAR Z-45
58-62HRC
8 P0105009 CROWN WHEEL Z-42
58-62HRC
9 P0207019 DRIVE SHAFT Z-21
58-62HRC
10 P0207002 FIXED GEAR Z-25
58-62HRC
11 P0207003 FIXED GEAR Z-30
58-62HRC
12 P0207004 FIXED GEAR Z-36
58-62HRC
13 P0207015 IDLER CLUSTER GEAR Z-15, Z-21
58-63HRC
14 P0205001 INPUT SHAFT Z-19
58-60HRC
15 P0206001 INTERMEDIATE SHAFT
58-63HRC
16 P0206008 INTERNAL GEAR (4+1)
58-63HRC
17 P0206009 OUTPUT SHAFT
58-63HRC
18 208009 PLANET GEAR
60-62HRC
19 P0102006 PTO SHAFT (21 SPLINES)
52-60HRC
20 206020 SLEEVE HI/LOW 50-55HRC

21 P0206002 SLIDING GEAR 34/12


58-63HRC
22 P0206003 SLIDING GEAR Z-31
58-63HRC
23 P0206004 SLIDING GEAR Z-24
58-63HRC
24 101001 TAIL PINION
58-63HRC
25 105006 CROSS
58-63HRC
26 105007 BEVEL GEAR ( L )
58-63HRC
27 105008 BEVEL GEAR ( R )
58-63HRC
28 105011 BEVEL PINION
58-63HRC
Project No. 2

AIM: - To implement power steering on the tractor to make the steering simpler and easier.

REQUIREMENT OF THIS PROJECT

1. Larger amount of torque is required to be applied by the driver for steering of medium and
heavy vehicles
2. Heavy vehicles such as Off-road trucks, fork lifts, earth moving machines, and tractors
demands high steering forces.
3. Mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the steered wheels would be more
difficult and expensive in compact design vehicles.

APPLICATIONS

• Agriculture
• Construction
• Forklift trucks
• Lawn and garden
• Mini tractors
• Municipal vehicles
COMPONENTS OF POWER STEERING

1. STEERING WHEEL: - its diameter is 350mm [14 inch.], 3 spoke steering wheel with
knob standard and optional horn button.

2. STEERING COLUMN
 Steering columns connect the steering wheel to the steering unit.
 The steering column must be supported when its length exceeds 150 mm.
 The mounting of the steering column must be properly aligned so that the steering unit can
return to neutral position automatically after a steering action has been completed.
 The construction of the steering column must ensure that no axial or radial forces are
transferred to the steering unit input shaft.
3) STEERING UNIT

 It has four ports, one is connected to tank or reservoir, one is connected to pump, and
remaining two is connected to steering cylinder.
 It controls the flow of oil in different ports.
 It is rigidly fixed with steering column.

4) PUMP
 It provides the oil to the pump.
 It has two ports one is connected to steering column and other is connected to pump.
 The oil used must be filtered for better working of the system.
 A magnetic insert is recommended when using filters larger than 25 micron.
5. STEERING CYLINDERS:-

 The steering cylinder used in this power steering is double acting balanced cylinder.
 Balanced cylinders are compact and eliminate differences between steering wheel turns
and steering forces because of equal volumes.

6. PUMP:-
 The hydraulic power for the steering is provided by a Gear Pump (see diagram below).

 This pump is driven by the tractor's engine via a belt and pulley.
 Correct pump sizing is important in avoiding unnecessary energy consumption, or slow
response to steering demand.
 It supplies the required pressure to oil.

PUMP
LAYOUT OF HYDROSTATIC
POWER STEERING
HOW TO SIZE THE CORRECT STEERING
SYSTEM

STEP 1. TOTAL STEERING TORQUE:-


Total steering torque, T = C.f (√B2/8 + E2 ) kgmm
Where C = Load on the steered axle (in kgmm)
E = King pin offset (in m)
B = Tyre breadth (in m)
LOAD ON THE STEERED AXLE,
C = 1030 (LOAD ON FRONT STEERING)
+2000 (Load of the loader)

C = 3030 kg
E/B = 60/190 = .316
(WHERE B=190,E=60)

F = 0.4 (from above graph )


Where F= coefficient of friction(dimensionless).Based on 0.7
As maximum.
T = 3030X0.4 √(190)2/8+(60)2 kgmm
= 3030X0.4X90.07 kgmm
T = 109164.13 kgmm
STEP 2. FORCE REQUIRED FOR AXLE :-

F= Mr/Rmin.
Where F = Required piston rod force (in kg),
Rmin. = Minimum effective radius arm (mm)
F= 109164.13/100 kg
F = 1091.64 kg
A = F/P cm2
Where A = Pushing cylinder area (mm2),
P = Steering max. pressure in bar
For vehicle with a steered axle that can never be overloaded use 80% of the steering circuit
relief valve setting. For moderately loaded vehicles use 60%. For vehicles that can be severely
overloaded use 30%.
A = 1091.64/90 = 12.13 cm2
A = 1213 mm2

STEP 3. SELECTING STEERING UNIT DISPLACEMENT:-


Before proceeding further, a decision must be made as to the number of steering wheel
revolutions desired for the application to steer the axle from full one side to the. Depending on
vehicle usage, this will vary, normally 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 with 4 being a good typical value.
Area of cylinder, A = Π/4[(D)2-(d)2] = Π/4[(60)2-(36)2]
A= 1808 mm2
As 1808 > 1213
Therefore it is acceptable.
Stroke length, S = 175 mm
Volume, V = 1808X175mm3 = 316400mm3
V = 316.4 cm3 ,The volume of oil required to move cylinder rod(s) through the entire stroke.
Total wheel turns, N = 3
Therefore, steering unit displacement, Cu = V/N = 316/3 cm3/rev.
Cu = 105 cm3/rev.
As the calculations are complete, we select the closest standard steering unit displacement (i.e.
100 cc unit) from catalog information.

STEP 4. CALCULATING REQUIRED PUMP FLOW :-


We select Dowty pump IP 30 28,which has discharge of 12.7 liter at 1500 rpm.
At 1000 rpm its discharge will be = 12.7X1000/1500
= 8.5 liter/min.
Hence at 1000 engine rpm, we shall be able to get 8.5 liter./min. which means we can steer
wheel = 8.5X1000/100 = 85 rpm which is fairly ok and at 2000 rpm of engine we shall be
able to steer wheel by 170 rpm.

STEERING TROUBLE SHOOTING


 EXCESSIVE BACKLASH IN STEERING:- The most probable cause of this
trouble is the slackness in the steering linkage due to wear of bell joints and steering.
 WANDER:- When the vehicle is being driven straight, it turns slightly to one side and
when the driver turns the steering to bring it back to the straight ahead, it turns slightly
to the other side, thus the driver has to adjust steering constantly to keep the vehicle
direction straight, the effect is called wander.
 PULLING TO ONE SIDE:- Sometimes the vehicle constantly pulls towards one
side.
 WHEEL WOBBLE(LOW SPEED SHIMMY):- The oscillation of the front
wheels at low speeds is called wobble.
 HIGH SPEED SHIMMY:- The oscillation of the front wheels at high speed is called
high speed shimmy.
 WHEEL TRAMP:- Sometimes the front wheels of vehicle at high speeds vibrate so
violently that an almost uncontrollable motion of the vehicle is caused that is called
wheel tramp.
 EXCESSIVE TYRE WEAR:- This is normally due to incorrect tyre
pressure, excessive toe-in or toe-out.
 HARD STEERING:- When the effort required for steering is more than the normal
steering force.
 POOR RETURNABILITY:- Poor return of the steering wheel to centre may be due
incorrect tyre pressure, tight or frozen steering shaft bearing, and incorrect front wheel
alignment.

BENEFITS
 Minimizes steering linkage-reduces cost, provides flexibility in design.
 Provides complete isolation of load forces from control station-provides operator
comfort.
 Provides continuous, unlimited control action with very low input torque.