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SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF MARITAL STABILITY AMONG

MARKET WOMEN WITH CHILDREN IN LAGOS



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Marriage is a commitment with love and responsibility for peace, happiness and development
of strong family relationships. Marriage as "socially legitimate sexual union, begun with a
public announcement and undertaken with some ideas of permanence; it is assumed with
more a less explicit marriage contract, which spells out the reciprocal rights and obligations
between the spouses and future children.
Marital stability is defined as the state in which there is an overall feeling in husband and
wife of happiness and satisfaction with their marriage and with each other. All the marriages
are aimed at happiness in one or another way. Most couples marry filled up with
expectations. Some of the expectations will be realistic while others unrealistic. his is due to
the complex nature of marriage and each individual is as complex as a universe. herefore, in
marriage two universes close together. Marital stability calls for maturity that accepts and
understands growth and development in the spouse. !f this growth is not experienced and
reali"ed fully, death in marital relationship is inevitable. A relationship between couples is
not instantaneous rather a slow progress.
here was a time when marriage meant everything to a woman. Marriage was a
surefire way for us to know we#d have enough to eat, shelter over our heads and financial
support to raise children. $ut deeper than that, marriage played a significant psychological
role for women% !t defined women#s sense of self in a way nothing else could. his is because
marriage meant a "complete" life; the very act of being married provided a genuinely
fulfilling, validating and psychologically rewarding experience for most women &even in
marriages that were less than ideal'.
!n traditional African leaving, women#s role is that of child rearing and caring for the entire
household including the husband. his gender specific role transcends the biblical era and
part of the in(unctions handed over by )od the creator. he increasing burdens of living
complicated by harsh economic conditions have eroded this gender specific role. *omen are
unable to perform this role due to their engagement in outside vocation to support their
husband. Many women are turning to household heads and constituting ma(or bread winners.
he debilitating social effects in most instances are erosion in marital bliss and satisfaction.
+owever, new opportunities for women#s psychological fulfillment and societal acceptance
of alternative life choices to marriage have created new paths for women to find fulfillment
without marriage , and new ways to think about marriage itself. As our economy shifted
from a labor-dominated workforce &where men were needed more' to a service-dominated
workforce, where mental rather than physical skills were prioriti"ed, women made real
headway in establishing self-supporting and rewarding career. As such, one key way women
couldn#t get psychological fulfillment before , through paid, white-collar work that
provided a sense of self-worth and gratification , opened up. oday, there#s even more
opportunity for women , more than when women began working as nurses or teachers.
*omen might still be paid less than men, but we#re catching up and are less likely to be
affected by the recession than men in the same age group.
Another dynamic is the lasting effects of the feminist movement. Many women feel
that feminism actually had some negative effects for their mom#s generation. !t made women
feel like they had to have it all to be happy. hat meant a high-profile (ob and perfect kids
and a great marriage. !t#s a balancing act most can#t do perfectly all the time. *omen today
reali"e they don#t actually need to do it all to feel like they have it all.
Alternative life choices, such as delaying marriage and kids, have become standard.
*omen &and men' spend more time en(oying singledom rather than rushing to check
something off the life to-do list. As a result, women and men of this generation enter into
marriage as more .complete/ and self-assured individuals than before &so much so that it#s
resulting in a new life stage called emerging adulthood, a time of self-discovery that our
parents0 generation didn#t have'. rading marriage and1or kids to pursue your ambitions is an
acceptable choice today. reating friends as family, which was not previously an option, also
fills a role for emotional support. And obvious but worth saying% 2aising children without a
dad is acceptable too.
*hen women needed marriage to be happy, they were much less likely to scrutini"e
their partner or their marriage for the multitude of 3ualities women look for today when
considering marriage. Anecdotal evidence suggests women are beginning to adopt new
coping strategies in dealing with their rather stressful marital obligations. As no clear cut
coping strategies have been identified but anecdotal instances of these strategies often result
in marital instability. Marital instability could be stressful to a typical woman and could bring
about a debilitating health effect as well. Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that
is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person#s wellbeing. Stress can also be
defined as the physiological and psychological reaction of the body as a result of demands
made upon it. he demands may be emotional &role conflict, fear of unemployment, sexual
harassment e.t.c' it could also be environmental &noise, lack of privacy e.t.c'.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
!n all parts of the world today women are facing threats to their lives, health and well being
as a result of being over burdened. raditionally, it was generally believed that the ma(or
roles of the wives are to take care of the home and children while husbands cater for both the
wife and children. $ut in the present situation of the country, a single income is no longer
sufficient to run the family, wives wages have become essential. !n this newly ac3uired role,
the working mothers face challenges differing from those of housewives, because in most
cases the working mothers multiple role involvement disturbs other people#s expectations and
their great range of demands .+owever, working married women with children find
themselves torn and tired and suffer from guilt when working outside, guilt that they may be
neglecting their children and home. here is no doubt that wives often enter work, marriage
and parenthood with fixed role expectations of themselves and others but later fail to fulfil
those expectations. his brings about a conflict between what they expected and what they
experienced.
Most women have responsibility for a broad range of domestic tasks include preparing the
meal, +ousecleaning, laundry and ironing looking after the children ,husbands other relatives,
other relative household members, neighbours and friends e.t.c. Most significant is the fact
that much of the women work in the home can be satisfying, pleasurable and rewarding if
only the family member appreciate it especially the husband ,the family si"e is not too
large, the type of family structure. Also coupled with the type of (ob the women do how
demanding it is, the salary and the women age.
4onsidering the domestic responsibilities, research have shown that marriage is much
more beneficial to husbands than to the wives .it is a stress reducing mechanism for men
and stress producing one for women .*hat every working married women knows is that
marriage produced extra work. wo cannot live as cheaply as one but one usually ends up
doing the work for two or more when they have children. !t is very stressful for working
married women with children to cope with demands in the house and (ob.
$eing a mother is enough burden especially in this part of the world married women are
expected to fulfil a multitude of roles that in other part of the world are fulfilled by other
women such as servant, laundress, cook, baby sitter etch. $ut in our country more is expected
of women and less is realised, problems are bad enough being the working married women
with children is worse and stressful and really associated with psychological distress.
5ife could be so stressful for working married women if everything around them is
not rewarding, pleasurable and satisfying. he household work alone &domestic
responsibilities', could be so stressful if added with a (ob the woman could be so stressed up
that it could lead to a psychological distress especially as the woman advances in age. !n most
cases affected women treat their co-workers, husbands and children as if they were ob(ects
and find it difficult to care about them, they do poor work and feel helpless or angry. heir
self-esteem suffers and they yearn to change (obs or careers. Also, affected women are tense
and apathetic. hey always suffer from various physical complaints. hey feel less concerned
about their attitude towards life.
his research work examines the relationship of certain socio-demographic factors
&age; number of children; husband#s age; years of education; and type s of trade' and
measures of marital stability among market women with children in 5agos.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
he main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of certain socio-demographic
factors &age; number of children; husband#s age; years of education; and type s of trade' and
measures of marital stability among market women with children in 5agos. Specifically%
6. 7xamine the relationship between age of the market and marital stability.
8. 7xamine the relationship between number of children of the market and marital stability.
9. 7xamine the relationship between husband#s age of the market and marital stability.
:. 7xamine the relationship between years of education of the market and marital stability.
; 7xamine the relationship between type of trade of the market and marital stability.
RELEVANCE OF STUDY
he relevance of this work is to ascertain the socio demographic pattern of marital
stability among market women in 5agos, <igeria. he psychological well being of any
woman cannot be over emphasi"ed except those sworn to celibacy and perhaps those with
clinical evidence of loss of libido. Sex life, good (obs, children , social class you belong to ,
education about every other thing women does to feel belong are all important ingredient
for a fulfilled and hence increased productivity, yet put together are a whole lot of stressors to
women.
2ecent changes in the roles of <igerian family network and the impacts on the women
deserve attention. he present situation in this country i.e. economic hardship combine with
greater educational and employment opportunities for women and particularly the growth of
individualism have brought the discussion of the women to the forefront.
he findings of this study would help immensely to devise a mechanism for working married
women with children to enable them cope with their roles in the society as well as mothers
and how to cope with stress, depression and anxiety.
2ecent research work has proposed a differential exposure hypothesis which claims that
ine3uality in the distribution of psychological distress amongst people in different social
status is accounted for by an e3ual distribution of potentially stressful events in their lives
&=ohren wends, 6>?>'further work however added the concept of @#differential vulnerability,
which asserts that some people are more vulnerable than others to the psychological effects of
stressful life occurrence&$rown et al 6>A;'.
Many studies have also reported consistent associations between a variety of distress
measures and social status and the most researched of these statuses being social class
&=ohrenwend, 6>A9,Myerrs et al, 6>A:'.2esearch was also carried out on effect of distress on
marital status &pearl in and Bohnson, 6>AA'.
Stress for women is when they perceive their role and environ as overwhelming to the point
that these stressors cause an alarming ant of distress. he stress they experience could be a
possible factor in how they view family life and relationship with other family members.
St. Bohn-parsons looked at various areas of domestic responsibility like who cleans the house
and who takes care of the children. he results from the study showed that ma(ority of the
women do shopping for food, prepared dinner with no help from the husband, wash dishes
,house cleaning with no help from the husband.
CHAPTER TWO
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEWED OF RELEVANT
LITERATURE
Resource Theory
!nterest in the substantive area of family or spousal power was initially sparked by
$lood and *olfe0s elaboration of resource theory. Subse3uently, a large proportion of the
research on marital power in the past several decades has been based on or informed by this
theoretical orientation. As a special application of exchange theory to the domain of marital
power, the basic tenet of resource theory is that the decision-making power of each spouse is
directly dependent upon the context to which that spouse attributes valued resources to the
marriage. A valued resource is typically defined as anything one partner may make available
to the other, helping the latter satisfy his or her needs. $ecause the partner with more
resources would lose less if the marriage dissolves, she or he &usually he' has greater
bargaining power within the relationship &$lood C *olfe, 6>?D'. Although studies have
advanced our knowledge regarding the applicability of resource theory, there are several
reasons why the focus of much of this research is narrow. Eor instance, the great ma(ority of
past research assumes that significant differences exist in partners0 resources, and that the
various resources &e.g., income, occupational prestige, and education' are relatively
e3uivalent to one another in their power to explain decision-making power. Eurther, it is
uncertain what effect similarity in partners0 resources &such as income' has on decision-
making power. *e extend the previous research in several ways. Eirst, we will determine the
effect of an individual0s resources on power in decision making after the resources have been
3uality-ad(usted. *e then investigate the explanatory power of a resource when partners are
e3ual with respect to that resource. Eurther, unlike previous research, we will not assume all
resources are e3uivalent in their power to explain purchase decision making. hus, we will
determine the relative importance of various resources in their power to explain decision
making.
A!ch"e# Theory
$owlby &6>?>' proposed the attachment theory to explain the human drive to form
relationships with others and to maintain a desired level of accessibility to significant others
&i.e., attachment figures'. $owlby hypothesi"ed that the attachment behavioral system
regulates the child#s attachment behaviors under emotional distress and that attachment
figures who offer contact, reassurance, and comfort facilitate the child#s development of
emotional regulation, well-being, and expectations that close relationships provide a safe
haven and a secure base, stimulating the development of positive models of his or her self
and others# in relationships &$owlby, 6>A9, 6>F:; 4icchetti C 5ynch, 6>>9'. 2esearchers
extended the attachment theory to adult romantic relationships in the late 6>FDs. hey
observed that infants# parents and adult romantic partners shared similar attachment features
&e.g., feeling safe when the other is nearby and responsive, engaging in bodily contact;
$artholomew, 6>>9; +a"an C Shaver, 6>FA'. $artholomew developed a 3uadripartite model
of adult attachment based on two main dimensions &$artholomew, 6>>D; $artholomew C
+orowit", 6>>6'. he anxiety toward separation and abandonment dimension &model of self'
represents the level of fear of relational re(ection and abandonment, combined with lack of a
sense of self-worth. !t involves a strategic hyperactivation of the attachment system that
keeps the focus on signals of the relationship#s threats, and on the search for love and
security. he avoidance of close relationships dimension &model of other' represents the
degree of emotional suppression, self-reliance, and discomfort with closeness and
interdependence a person experiences, based on expectations that the partner will be
unavailable and non supportive. !t involves a strategic deactivation of the attachment system
to reduce negative emotional states as well as vulnerability to re(ection and neediness &see
Mikulincer C Shaver, 8DD9'. !n the 3uadripartite model, secure individuals who are low in
anxiety and avoidance &positive models of self and others', typically have high self-esteem
combined with good ability to form and maintain intimate relationships. Avoidant individuals
who are low in anxiety and high in avoidance &positive model of self, negative model of
others', prototypically maintain a positive self-image by defensively downplaying the
importance of their attachment needs and keeping emotional distance from the partner.
Greoccupied individuals who are high in anxiety and low in avoidance &negative model of
self, positive model of others' typically engage in active efforts to gain the partner#s support
and reassurance to validate a tenuous sense of self-worth. Eearful individuals who are high in
anxiety and avoidance &negative models of self and others', typically both desire and fear
intimacy, based on their perception of being unworthy of love and trying to protect
themselves from abandonment by withdrawing from the relationship.
Ro$e Theory
Erom the structural perspective, roles are the culturally defined norms,rights, duties,
expectations, and standards for behavior,associated with a given social position &5inton
6>:;'. !n other words, one0s social position is seen as influencing one0s behaviors. !n addition,
statuses such as gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and social class also shape roles &5opata
6>>6'. Eor example, as a mother, a woman is expected to place the care of her child above all
other concerns. Although this normative expectation varies across cultures, with some
cultures expecting mothers to be paid workers as well, opinion surveys show that the ma(ority
of people in countries as diverse as Australia, Bapan, and Goland believe that women with
preschool-age children should not work outside of the home and that their children will suffer
if they do. he actual enactment of role behavior, however, may not correspond to the role
expectations. Role competence, or success in carrying out a role, can vary depending on
social contexts and resources.
!n countries with strong normative expectations for women to be full-time mothers,
single mothers and low-income mothers often have to violate these role expectations and
have been critici"ed as less competent mothers as a result. !ndeed, there is pressure to
conform successfully to roles. Sanctions are used as tools of enforcement. Gunishments for
not following the role of mother can range from informal sanctions, such as rebukes from
neighbors, to formal sanctions, such as the intervention of child welfare services. An example
is found among women who choose not to take the role of mother and remain voluntarily
childless. !n a study of Swedish couples without children, researchers found that women, in
particular, felt alienated from the ma(ority of women in their community, friendship
networks, and at work who were mothers &*irtberg 6>>>'.
he social pressure to confirm to roles can be negative for individuals.
Role captivity refers to the unwanted participation in a particular role &Gearlin 6>F9'.
$etty Eriedan0s The Feminine Mystique &6>?9' is probably one of the most well-known and
influential works on role captivity. She found that many women, prohibited by the threat of
sanctions from taking a role other than mother and wife, felt trapped and experienced
depression and frustration as a result.
=espite sanctions, roles do not remain static, but change and evolve over time &urner 6>>D'.
2oles crystallize when they are widely recogni"ed and deemed important by those who share
a culture &<ye 6>A:'. Het not all roles are e3ually crystalli"ed, and highly crystalli"ed roles
can decrystalli"e over time. Since Eriedan0s work in the early 6>?Ds, it has not only become
socially acceptable for women in the Inited States to have other roles beside those in the
family, but being "only a housewife" has become stigmati"ed &2othbell 6>>6'. As roles
change, there can be shifts in clarity, or the extent to which roles have clearly defined,
unambiguous expectations &4ottrell 6>:8'. he clarity of well-established roles is often high,
while newer roles can be met with uncertainty and confusion.
2oles as !nteraction
he interactionist perspective focuses on how individuals adopt and act out roles during
interaction. !ndividuals perform their roles to others in a social context &role-performing',
analogous to actors on a stage &)offman 6>;>'. !ndividuals also take on the role of others in
order to anticipate their actions and perspectives &role-taking' and continually produce and
reproduce roles &role-making' &urner 6>;?'. As an outcome of these interactions,
individuals identify themselves and are identified by others as holding particular social
statuses or positions &Stryker 6>?F'. Eor example, the action of caring for a child confirms a
woman0s identity as a mother.
2esearch has uncovered the complex relationship between roles in interaction and the
construction of identity. !n a study of women hospital workers, Anita )arey &6>>>' found that
women use the night shift as a way to publicly perform the dual, otherwise mutually
exclusive roles of stay-at-home mom and full-time worker. his performance is done at a
great cost to the women, most of whom get only a few hours of sleep each day. !n another
study, 4ameron Macdonald &6>>F' showed how employed mothers and paid caregivers both
acted in a way to ensure that the biological mother remains the "mother," although the two
share the responsibilities and duties associated with the role.
!ndividuals do not e3ually embrace all identities associated with roles. !ndividuals
vary in the extent to which they are committed to or identify with their different roles.
Sheldon Stryker &6>?F' spoke of a salience hierarchy, or the probability of role expectations
associated with an identity being displayed in a role performance. 2alph urner &6>AF' wrote
of the role-person merger, the process through which the person becomes what his or her role
is, rather than merely performing a particular role in a given situation. !ncongruity between a
person0s identity and roles results in person-role conflict. 7rving )offman &6>?6' spoke of
role distance, or the way in which individuals separated themselves from particular roles that
conflict with their identities.
Accumulating and 4hanging 2oles
!ndividuals accumulate different roles at any given stage within the life course.
hroughout life, individuals transfer into and out of different roles, keeping some, leaving
others behind, and beginning new roles &$urr 6>A8'. hese role transitions accompany
transitions through life stages and can be easy or difficult, depending on the timing and social
context &2odgers and *hite 6>>9'. !n addition, the transition into one role can affect the
transition into another. Eor instance, women in )ermany and other 7uropean countries are
delaying their transition to the roles of wife and mother as they extend their time in the role of
student. !t is concluded that remaining a student delays the transition to adulthood and
likewise to normatively associated adult roles &$lossfeld and +uinink 6>>6'.
*ithin each life stage, individuals also simultaneously hold many different roles. Jne reason
for this is that individuals hold multiple social positions at one time. *hen a woman becomes
a mother, she can also continue to have the roles of daughter, wife, and daughter-in-law. !n
addition, each position is associated with a role set, an individual0s range of role relationships
that accompany any social status &Merton 6>;A'. As a mother, a woman manages uni3ue
expectations from her child, her parents and in-laws who have become grandparents, the
father, and her child0s teachers and doctors. A role cluster refers to the interconnection
between roles that occur within the same social institution &5opata 6>>6'. A woman0s roles
within the family are related and often different in important ways from her roles in the
workplace, such as business owner, manager, and colleague.
2esearch finds multiple roles to be associated with both positive and negative conse3uences.
Much attention had been given to the problems associated with multiple roles. 2ole overload
and role conflict are two of the most well-known role theory concepts. Role overload refers to
the experience of lacking the resources, including time and energy, needed to meet the
demands of all roles. Role conflict describes an incongruity between the expectations of one
role and those of another. 2ole overload and conflict often lead to difficulties with meeting
role expectations, known as role strain &)oode 6>?D'. Karious negative psychological and
physical problems can follow from role strain. !n many cultures, including Bapan, Singapore,
and 4hina, women experience stress, distress, and burnout as a result of combining work and
family roles &Aryee 6>>9; 5ai 6>>;; Matusi, Jshsawa, and Jnglatco 6>>;'. 5evels of
conflict, however, vary across cultures as a result of perceptions of gender roles and the
subse3uent amount of time given to work and domestic roles &Moore 6>>;'.
At the same time, some evidence suggests that multiple roles provide opportunities and
advantages. !n their theory of role balance, Stephen Marks and Shelley Mac=ermid &6>>?'
found that people who are able to fully participate in and perform a number of different roles
experience not only less role strain but also lower rates of depression and higher self-esteem
and innovation. 2ose 5aub 4oser &6>A;' argues that it is among multiple roles that
individuals are able to express individuality and act autonomously in accordance with or in
opposition to normative expectations. hus, multiple roles are important for the development
of personality and intellect. 5ois Kerbrugge &6>F9' found that women who hold the multiple
roles of mother, wife, and paid worker have better health than women holding none or only
some of these roles.
Ghyllis Moen &6>>8' has examined the potential positive and negative conse3uences
for women of combining paid work and family roles. She concludes that whether multiple
roles are positive or negative for women depends on many factors in women0s lives, such as
conditions of the work, conditions of their family roles, including the number and age of
children, and extent to which women view themselves as captives or committed to their work
and family roles.
Role sharing is likely a means through which the positive aspects of multiple roles
can outweigh potential negative conse3uences. !ndividuals with different social statuses and
social positions, or even across social institutions, can share the same role. Eor example, the
care of children is often considered to be the role of mothers. +owever, fathers, employers,
and government can all adopt the caregiving role &=rew, 7merek, and Mahon 6>>F'. *hen
they do, women are better able to competently fill and benefit from roles as both workers and
mothers and experience less role strain, overload, and conflict. !n 4hina, while the father role
is still viewed as primarily teacher and disciplinarian and mothers are viewed as the physical
caregivers, fathers are increasingly participating in the caregiver role. his change is
attributed to government-sponsored parental education and contact with *estern culture
&Abbott, Ming, and Meredith 6>>8'.
he !nternational 5abour Jrgani"ation calls for employers to take on the
responsibility of helping employees combine work and family &=erungs 8DD6'. As they learn
the benefits of fulfilling this role, employers are committing to this role. )overnments, on the
other hand, seem to be moving in an opposite direction. 7uropean welfare states previously
embraced the role of contributing to the care of children by providing policies that aided
women and later men in combining work and family. +owever, recent years have seen a
change in the role of the state, with less emphasis on ensuring public childcare for all citi"ens
&Benson and Sineau 8DD6'.
KI5<72A$!5H +7J2H
his theory identifies the two personalities of individual as type A individual and ype $
individual. he two types of individuals depend on the pattern of behaviour.
ype A individual is characteri"ed by high level of activity, hard-drive for achievement,
hurried speech, constant impatience with the rate at which most events take place, feelings of
competition rather than compassion when faced with another type A person, development of
nervousness or characteristics gesture among others.&Eriedman and 2osen man
6>A:'.+owever, type $ individuals are more calm , less hurried and allow opportunities to
slip by internationally. his above characteristics of type A individual make him to
experience high level of anxiety and depression while the characteristics of type $ individual
make to experience less anxiety and depression.

REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
The %"&!c o' "!r%!$ %#s!(%$%y o# ! )o"!#*s 'er%$%y
here are several reasons why marital instability may be a causal factor resulting in lower
fertility. Marital disruption that occurs during a woman#s fecund years removes her from
exposure to the risk of pregnancy, and may create one of the following scenarios% a' she does
not repartner, and her parity is thus restricted to that achieved at the time of the dissolution of
the marriage; b' she repartners, but enters this union later, at an age when she may be less
fecund. Moreover, marital dissolution may be associated with lower fertility already during
the first marriage, regardless of the duration of the marriage. Jn the one hand, marital discord
may lead the couples to have less marital intercourse, and1or to limit their fertility &women in
particular may be reluctant to have children in an unstable marriage because they are likely to
be the parent with primary responsibility for children if the marriage dissolves'. Jn the other
hand, unhappy couples with few or no children may feel less reluctant to dissolve their
marriage than similar couples with several children.
Jther considerations indicate, however, that marital instability might have a much
weaker depressing effect on fertility.
he body of literature that deals specifically with this topic is not very large, and the
results of these studies are far from clear. 7arly empirical studies that have attempted to
analyse the impact of marital instability on the lifetime fertility of individuals have shown
that marital dissolution results in an overall loss in fertility. 5esthaeghe and Moors &6>>:'
have indeed found that, in )ermany, $elgium, Erance, and the <etherlands, separated or
divorced people have a much greater chance of ending up childless than married people.
Analyses conducted using American data have shown that women in discontinuous marriages
have fewer children than those in continuous marriages &5auriat 6>?>; 4ohen and Sweet
6>A:; hornton 6>AF; *ineberg 6>FF'. +owever, most of them have also shown that
repartnered women recapture most of their lost fertility. !n line with this observation, a
descriptive study for Erance showed that, compared with people who remain in a first
marriage, individuals who are divorced experience only a slight reduction in fertility if they
enter new unions &5eridon 6>>D'. More recent studies have produced mixed results. Jn the
one hand, homson et al. &forthcoming' found using Erench data that stable unions produced
more children in total than unstable unions% i.e., their analysis showed that women who
repartner are more likely to have additional births than those who do not repartner, but that
these additional births are still not sufficient to compensate for .lost/ births in stable unions.
Jn the other hand, some studies have suggested that the negative association between marital
dissolution and fertility may be over-emphasised. Eor example, $illari &8DD;', after
examining some descriptive results by Ginnelli et al. &8DD8'
?
on ESS data, found that the share
of women who have their second birth in a second union is relatively high, and that, in some
countries &Erance, +ungary, and the Inited States', the share is significantly higher than that
of women at the birth of the first child. !n addition, $eau(ouan and Sola" &8DDF' found for
Erance that, while women who underwent a separation generally show a reduced fertility,
men who repartner achieve the same fertility as never-separated men. Similar results were
found by Bansen and colleagues &8DDF'.
!solating the effect of marriage dissolution on individuals# fertility is not easy, because
there are a great many processes and factors that may confound and obscure the
?
Ginelli and colleagues &8DD8, page F6' presented the percentage distribution of first and
second births according to the type of union in five countries. Demographic Research%
Kolume 89, Article 9: http%11www.demographic-research.org >A6
relationship. !ndeed, the fertility of separated women is the result of their reproductive
behaviour, both during the first marriage and after the first marriage. Moreover, marital
dissolution may be more common among certain segments of the population than among
others, and these groups are in turn known to have higher or lower fertility than those who are
less likely to divorce. 5auriat#s work &6>?>' showed, for example, that for younger cohorts,
the higher fertility seen among women who divorced relative to the fertility of women who
remained in intact marriages is largely explained by their earlier ages at marriage. Jther
sources of heterogeneity have been suggested by analyses using simultaneous models. A
study on fertility in $ra"il &5eone and +inde 8DDA' indicated that the higher fertility of
separated women relative to the fertility of married women may be the result of a greater
propensity among separated women for having children. A study based on data from !taly
and Spain &4oppola and =i 4esare 8DDF' found that, in !taly, individuals who are more
oriented towards family values are more willing to attain higher fertility and to stay in longer-
lasting unions; however, this hypothesis was not confirmed in Spain.