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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 393 (2013) pp 550-555 Online available since 2013/Sep/03 at www.scientific.net © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.393.550

at www.scientific.net © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.393.550
at www.scientific.net © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.393.550

Performance Comparison between RGB and HSV Color Segmentations for Road Signs Detection

Nursabillilah Mohd Ali 1,a , Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid 2,b and Yasir Mohd Mustafah 2,c

1 Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia

2 Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University, Gombak, Malaysia

a nursabillilah@utem.edu.my, b nahrul@iium.edu.my, c yasir@iium.edu.my

Keywords: Color Segmentation, Detection, HSV and RGB color space, Partial Occlusion

Abstract. This paper compares the performance of RGB and HSV color segmentations method in road signs detection. The road signs images are taken under various illumination changes, partial occlusion and rotational changes. The proposed algorithms using both RGB and HSV color space are able to detect the 3 standard types of colored images namely Red, Yellow and Blue. The experiment shows that the HSV color algorithm achieved better detection accuracy compared to RGB color space.

Introduction

The detection of road sign has attracted considerable attention from researchers in computer vision field in recent years. Road signs give vital information about the situation and conditions of the road. There are varieties of road signs utilized on the road and they are different in color and shape to represent road signs such as restrictions, prohibitions and warning. In this work, we targeted Malaysia’s road sign system and the information gathered from the road signs are the color and shape. Apart from alerting drivers about the road sign, autonomous road sign detection could also be useful for autonomous vehicle navigation such as in the Autonomous Driver Assistant System (ADAS).

Literature Review

Road sign is normally detected based on their color [1-3] or shape [2, 4] . Color model is the most popular approach in color segmentation technique. Red, Green and Blue (RGB) color model is mainly used in computer graphics applications. The RGB color model is generally built based on Cartesian coordinate space that represented x, y and z axes. On the other hand, Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV) color model are equivalent to human thinking. Based on the standard representation of the HSV color model, hue represents the original color itself. Saturation denoted the purity of the color which is related to the standard deviation around the dominant wavelength. It indicates the range of gray value of the color, whereas value represents the lightness of color. It described how light or dark the color is and ranges from 0 (dark) to 1 (bright). It is related to the amount of white in color.

Previously, RGB color space was used because of it is used in many applications. However, the algorithms that utilize RGB normally become inaccurate when detecting road sign with strong illumination changes. Hence, the HSV color threshold that is invariant to illumination changes and robust to any conditions are chosen [5] . However, there are several problems that may be faced when using color based approach such as varying orientations (e.g. tilted and torn signs) as well as occlusion with other objects. As a result, many researchers have produced different approach to separate these problems from color detection [6].

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Beside color based technique, shape-based techniques also have been used in detection stage. In fact, shape-based technique is more difficult to implement as the signs have various looks and forms. Moreover, it is hard to detect sign’s shape if the images are too small and blurry since sometimes the cameras capture images in long distance at different lighting conditions and angles. In Malaysia, we can discover at least 100 classes of road signs. The manual application of road signs and its information can be obtained at Ministry of Public Works Department in Malaysia. These signs are designs with various color and shape. Table 1 shows Malaysia road sign specification based on color and shape.

Table 1: Malaysia road sign specification based on color and shape

DiamondSquare/Rectangular Inverted Triangle Circular Octagonal

Diamond Square/Rectangular Inverted Triangle Circular Octagonal

Square/Rectangular

Inverted Triangle

Circular

Octagonal

Blue

- Information

- Obligation

-

Octagonal Blue - Information - Obligation - Give way Stop sign Red - - Prohibition
Octagonal Blue - Information - Obligation - Give way Stop sign Red - - Prohibition
Octagonal Blue - Information - Obligation - Give way Stop sign Red - - Prohibition
Octagonal Blue - Information - Obligation - Give way Stop sign Red - - Prohibition
Octagonal Blue - Information - Obligation - Give way Stop sign Red - - Prohibition

Give way

Stop sign

Red

-

-

Prohibition

Yellow

Warning

Warning

-

-

-

System and Experiment Overview

This paper described about our implementation of road signs detection system that is robust to partial occlusion using color segmentation. RGB and HSV algorithms are used for color segmentation. Based on the different algorithms used, the results are compared to see the performance. A total of 403 images that are captured during sunny day and at night are used in our experiments. Experiment on detection performance was carried out on the 403 images consisting of 131 partially occluded signs and 272 non-occluded signs. The images are also varies in their rotational and illumination conditions. In most of the images, more than one road signs can be found. Besides that, illumination of some image is greatly degraded by shadows. The images size used in the study are with a resolution of 500 x 667 pixels.

Methodology

The process of road sign detection starts with image acquisition using a digital camera. Then, the images segmentation process are implemented using HSV and RGB color algorithm separately. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the detection process.

separately. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the detection process. Fig. 1: Block diagram of
separately. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the detection process. Fig. 1: Block diagram of

Fig. 1: Block diagram of detection process

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Road Sign Detection using HSV and RGB

The algorithm using HSV and RGB color detection are described in this section. A pixel is marked based on the hue, saturation and value (HSV) ranges. The boundaries for the HSV color space algorithm are as depicted as in equation 1 below:

(P Hue_Low >=0.06) or (P Hue_High <=1) and (P Sat >=0.75) and (P Value >=0.65)

(1)

where P Hue_Low and P Hue_High represent hue value, P Sat is saturation value and P Value represents as the the pixel value.

Color segmentation using RGB algorithm utilizes different color boundaries. The color channel that

is used to detect red, yellow and blue sign is detailed in Table 2.

Table 2: RGB color channel for Red, Blue and Yellow sign detection

No

1

2

Road Signs

Color Channel

Red

Red / Green

1 2 Road Signs Color Channel Red Red / Green Blue Blue / Green Yellow Green
1 2 Road Signs Color Channel Red Red / Green Blue Blue / Green Yellow Green
1 2 Road Signs Color Channel Red Red / Green Blue Blue / Green Yellow Green
1 2 Road Signs Color Channel Red Red / Green Blue Blue / Green Yellow Green
1 2 Road Signs Color Channel Red Red / Green Blue Blue / Green Yellow Green
1 2 Road Signs Color Channel Red Red / Green Blue Blue / Green Yellow Green

Blue

Blue / Green

Yellow

Green / Blue

3

In addition, we employed the achromatic decomposition to search the ROI of road signs candidates.

The equation for the achromatic decomposition is as the following:

f

(

R

,

G

,

B

)

=

(|

R

G

|

+

|

G

B

|

+

|

B

R

|)

3 D

(2)

Based on equation 2, R, G, and B represent the lightness of the image and D is total value of extracted achromatic colors. Achromatic means brightness or darkness color of the image. For instance, black and white are achromatic color. In our implementation, we set the value of D to be equal to 20. We choose value of D equal to 20 as the value gives the best result in RGB color segmentation. Based on the proposed algorithm, the images are then converted to binary image to separate the region of interest area (ROI). If the algorithm found pixels that belong to road signs, the pixels will be converted to white, whereas the black pixels represent the background. Then the white pixels will be segmented using a bounding box. Figure 2 shows the result of conversion process from original image to binary image.

of conversion process from original image to binary image. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Fig.

(a)

(b)

process from original image to binary image. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Fig. 2: Pre-processing

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Fig. 2: Pre-processing stage result. (a) Original image, (b) morphological process, (c) remove noise, (d) fill holes, (e) gray level images, (f) RGB mask.

A binary morphological process will remove unwanted noise and also combined some gaps that may

be appeared due to incomplete thresholding process. This happen when several images pixels are not

properly detected and come out as noise or false positive.

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Aspect Ratio Determination

To improve the color segmentation result, only bounding boxes with an aspect ratio of less than 1.1 and is bigger than a certain minimum size will be considered as road signs candidates. Others boxes are classified as noise or false positive. The ratio can be calculated and minimum size is indicated as the following:

AspectRatio =

Height

Width

1.1

Minimum size = 280 pixels

(3)

(4)

Once the bounding boxes are filtered, the labeling of the road sign candidates will be performed. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the several color segmentation results using HSV and RGB algorithms.

color segmentation results using HSV and RGB algorithms. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. 3: Color segmentation

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 3: Color segmentation result using the HSV algorithm. (a) Original Image, (b) and (c) results after removing noise using morphological process, (d) road signs labeling.

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554 Advances in Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. 4: Color segmentation using

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 4: Color segmentation using RGB algorithm. (a) Original Image, (b) and (c) results after

removing noise using morphological process, (d) road signs labeling.

Result and Discussion

The comparison of performance between HSV and RGB algorithms is illustrated in Table 3. Images set are split into two parts; 131 images with occluded signs and 272 images with non-occluded signs. The detection accuracy is computed using the following equation:

a

d

=

b sd

b td

x 100%

where b is number of correct detection and b is the total number of detected images

sd

td

(5)

Based on Table 3, RGB and HSV produced minimum of 51% and 77% successful detection for occluded images. Meanwhile, HSV shows very high detection accuracy with minimum rates of 88% as compared to RGB color spaces with only 80% on non-occluded images. This is due to the fact that HSV color ratio is invariant to illumination changes compared to RGB color ratio. It can be concluded that, HSV based color space is more accurate compared to RGB color space in autonomous road sign detection system.

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Table 3: Comparison of performance between RGB and HSV algorithms

Non-partial Detected Road Signs Partial occlusions occlusion sign Non- Signs Partial Space sign with partial
Non-partial
Detected Road Signs
Partial
occlusions
occlusion
sign
Non-
Signs
Partial
Space
sign
with
partial
occlusion
(131)
rotational
occlusions
changes(272)
occlusion (131) rotational occlusions changes(272) Percentage (%) Partial occlusion Non- partial
occlusion (131) rotational occlusions changes(272) Percentage (%) Partial occlusion Non- partial
occlusion (131) rotational occlusions changes(272) Percentage (%) Partial occlusion Non- partial
occlusion (131) rotational occlusions changes(272) Percentage (%) Partial occlusion Non- partial

Percentage (%)

Partial

occlusion

Non-

partial

occlusions

(%) Partial occlusion Non- partial occlusions RGB Red 55 95 28 78 50.9 82.1 Blue
(%) Partial occlusion Non- partial occlusions RGB Red 55 95 28 78 50.9 82.1 Blue

RGB

RGB

Red

55

95

28

78

50.9

82.1

Blue

35

40

22

33

62.9

82.5

Yellow

41

137

28

110

68.3

80.3

HSV

HSV

Red

55

95

43

88

78.2

92.6

Blue

35

40

27

35

77.1

87.5

Yellow

41

137

33

135

80.5

98.5

Color

Color

Color
Color
Color
Color

Conclusion

In summary, we have described an algorithm and comparison between two color spaces in the detection of road signs. It was shown that the algorithm is able to detect red, yellow and blue road signs respectively using HSV and RGB color space. Based on the result, the algorithm not only can detect partially occluded sign, but also all colors representing road signs even with illumination and rotational changes. We concluded that, HSV algorithm gives good result as compared to RGB and therefore more suitable for road sign detection. This mainly because HSV color space is more robust to lighting changes. In future research, we are planning to optimize the detection algorithm to be applied in real time road sign classification and recognition application.

References

[1] A. De la Escalera, Moreno, L. E., Salichs, M. A., & Armingol, J. M., "Road traffic sign

detection and classification," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 44, pp. 848-859,

1997.

[2] C. Bahlmann, Zhu, Y., Ramesh, V., Pellkofer, M., & Koehler, T., "A system for traffic sign detection, tracking, and recognition using color, shape, and motion information," in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings 2005, pp. 255-260.

[3] S. Maldonado-Bascon, Lafuente-Arroyo, S., Gil-Jimenez, P., Gomez-Moreno, H., & Lopez- Ferreras, F., "Road-Sign Detection and Recognition Based on Support Vector Machines," Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, pp. 264-278, 2007.

[4] J. F. Khan, Bhuiyan, S. M. A., & Adhami, R. R., "Image segmentation and shape analysis for road-sign detection," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 12, pp. 83-96,

2011.

[5] G. K. Siogkas, & Dermatas, E. S., "Detection, tracking and classification of road signs in adverse conditions," in Proceedings of the Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference - MELECON Benalmadena, Malaga, 2006, pp. 537-540.

[6] X. Gao, Shevtsova, N., Hong, K., Batty, S., Podladchikova, L., Golovan, A., Shaposhnikov, D., & Gusakova, V., "Vision Models Based Identification of Traffic Signs," in European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV) 2002, pp. 47-51.

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Performance Comparison between RGB and HSV Color Segmentations for Road Signs Detection