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Performance Evaluation of IDMA Scheme in Wireless Communication

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in Electronics & Communication Engineering

by

Manoj Kumar Shukla

& Communication Engineering by Manoj Kumar Shukla Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India) November- 2010

Undertaking

I declare that the work presented in this thesis titled “Performance Evaluation of IDMA

Scheme

in

Wireless

Communication”,

submitted

to

the

Department

of

Electronics

&

Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, for

award of the Doctor of Philosophy in Electronics & Communication Engineering, is my original

work. I have not plagiarized or submitted the same work for the award of any other degree. In

case this undertaking is found incorrect, I accept that my degree may be unconditionally

withdrawn.

November, 2010 Allahabad

(Manoj Kumar Shukla)

Certificate

Certified that the work contained in this thesis titled “Performance Evaluation of IDMA Scheme in

Wireless Communication” submitted by Manoj Kumar Shukla, has been carried out under our

supervision and that this work has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree.

Dr. Sudarshan Tiwari

Professor and Head

Department of Electronics & Comm. Engg.

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology

Allahabad, INDIA

Dr. V.K. Srivastava

Professor

Department of Electronics & Comm. Engg.

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology

Allahabad, INDIA

Acknowledgements

I am highly indebted to my thesis supervisors, Professor Sudarshan Tiwari and Professor V.K.

Srivastava for their kind support and guidance without which this thesis would not been possible.

Their sound knowledge, enthusiasm to research, and guidance was invaluable to me since the day I started

as a research scholar. Their untiring encouragement has always been endless source of motivation for me.

I can never thank them enough. I feel to be lucky to work under their invaluable guidance during the

research work in MNNIT, Allahabad.

I am extremely grateful to Professor Rajiv Tripathi for his valuable encouragement during the entire

research work. He was really helpful especially during the stressed moments during all these years. I have

always found him a true reliever. Thank you sir!

I am also thankful to Professor T.N. Sharma, Professor H.N. Kar, and all the faculty members of the

department for maintaining a congenial research environment. I am also thankful to many colleagues

who have enhanced my understanding of the subject, in particular to Dr. P.C. Upadhyaya, Dr.

V.S. Tripathi and Dr. D.K. Kothari. These colleagues and valued friends, too numerous to be

mentioned, have influenced my views concerning various aspects of wireless communication. I

am also grateful to Rajesh Verma, V.K. Dwivedi, A. Raghuvanshi, Arun Prakash, Malaya Hota,

Prashant Shah, Subodh Waria, and many others with whom I enjoyed an association.

I also acknowledge my valuable associations with the faculty members of Department of

Electronics Engineering, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur, INDIA, in particular

with Prof. G.P. Bagaria, Dr. Rachna Asthana, Mrs. Rajani Bisht, Dr. Krishna Raj, Mr. Ashok

Shankhwar, Mr. Ashutosh Singh, Mr. Ram Chandra Singh Chauhan and many other valued

colleagues. My sincere thanks are also due to administration of Harcourt Butler Technological

Institute, Kanpur, INDIA, for supporting my research.

i

I feel particularly indebted to my guides for her skilful assistance in correcting the final

manuscript in MS WORD. Finally, my sincere gratitude is due to the numerous authors listed in

the Author Index as well as to those whose work was not cited owing to space limitations for

their contributions to the state of the art, without whom this thesis would not have materialized.

Manoj Kumar Shukla Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, INDIA

ii

Synopsis

The development of wireless cellular communication systems has evolved from the first-

generation (1G) of analogue stage to second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) of digital

stage. Now, due to market oriented demands, it is has stepped into fourth-generation (4G) of

broadband stage. As per recommendations of International Mobile Telecommunications-2000

(IMT-2000), the future wireless communication is bound to occupy the features including

high-speed data and broadband transmission, high capacity to support a huge number of

simultaneous users, global mobility, high security, and scalable quality of service (QoS) along

with low cost for both operators and subscribers. The above features are imposing technical

challenges on system design and stimulating various research topics on capacity, complexity and

performance. In order to increase the capacity of wireless networks, various multiple access

schemes have been reported in the literature. The credit of most competent multiple access

scheme in 2G systems goes to CDMA scheme which offers an even better bandwidth-efficiency

than TDMA and FDMA schemes, however, its implementation is quite difficult due to

involvement of rather complex technologies including complex power-control, and multiuser

detection techniques etc. The performance of CDMA scheme is mainly limited by multiple

access

interference

(MAI)

and

inter-symbol

interference

(ISI).

In

conventional

CDMA

systems, the spreading sequences were employed for the purpose of user separation, however

due to poor aperiodic correlations amongst spreading codes including Gold, Walsh, Kasami

sequences,

the

direct-sequence

(DS)

spreading

efficiency (SE) in case of high user count.

iii

mechanism

demonstrates

low

spreading

The requirement of alternate mechanism for user separation has been solved by Interleave-

Division Multiple-Access (IDMA) scheme, in which, most of above stated problems do not exist

due to application of user-specific interleavers having low cross-correlation amongst them. The

interleaved data resulted from user-specific interleavers, demonstrates better orthogonality

amongst each other in the channel. The condition of orthogonality is maintained for reducing the

risk of collision amongst the interleavers during communication process.

In IDMA scheme, orthogonal interleavers are employed as the only means for user separation

and, hence, are referred as the heart of the scheme. The selection of interleaver along with

optimum design methodology for IDMA system leads to satisfactory spectral efficiency.

During initial run of IDMA scheme, random interleavers (RI) were employed for user

separation. Later, random interleavers were replaced by master random interleavers (MRI) in

order to reduce the memory requirement raised due to storage of random interleavers at

transmitter and receiver ends. Many more interleavers are reported in literature but most of

them are based on methodology of selection of user-specific interleavers amongst available

random

interleavers.

Still,

the

problem

of

computational

complexity

involved

in

interleaving and de-interleaving mechanism is unresolved for user specific interleavers.

These problems in user-specific interleavers have provided the motivation for development of

an optimum interleaving mechanism for IDMA scheme.

In this thesis, an optimum interleaving mechanism has been proposed named as tree based

interleaving (TBI) mechanism, for the solutions related to computational complexity,

bandwidth requirement and optimization of memory size, at transmitter and receiver ends.

The orientation of the work has been maintained towards the analysis and design of

iv

proposed

tree

based

interleaving

(TBI)

mechanism

for

IDMA

scheme

fulfilling

the

requirement of orthogonality and easy implementation.

In the beginning of thesis, the mechanism of interleaving with necessary conditions is

presented. Later, the performance and analysis of proposed TBI mechanism with IDMA scheme

has

been

presented.

Apart

from

the

bit

error

rate

(BER)

performance

analysis,

the

interleavers

have

also

been

analyzed

on

the

basis

of

memory

requirement

and

computational complexity at transmitter and receiver ends. The performance evaluation of

IDMA scheme with proposed tree based interleaving (TBI) mechanism, in uncoded and coded

environments, has been duly investigated. After investigation, it is noticed that the computational

complexity of tree based interleaver is extremely less in comparison to that for master random

interleaver while it is marginally higher to that occurring in case of random interleaver.

However, the bandwidth and memory requirement of proposed tree based interleaver is found to

be considerably less than that of random interleaver and slightly higher to that of master random

interleaver. It has been observed that BER performance of this interleaver is similar to that of

random interleaver and master random interleaver.

The second goal of the thesis is to evaluate BER performance of IDMA scheme with

maximal ratio combining (MRC) diversity, for proposed TBI mechanism along with RI and

MRI mechanisms with various architectures. After simulations, the BER performance of

proposed TBI mechanism is observed to be very near to that of random interleaver.

Further, the correlation analysis of all the concerned interleavers have been carried out in this

thesis which reveals the behavior of interleavers with increment in user count. It is observed

that the cross-correlation of TBI mechanism is almost similar to that of MRI and RI mechanisms.

v

It again confirms that BER performance of TBI mechanism should be similar to that of other

mechanisms. The increment in multiple access interference (MAI) is also observed with

increment in user count for all the interleaving mechanisms.

Finally, the proposed tree based interleaving mechanism has been implemented on field-

programmable gate-array (FPGA) system for observing the performance related to hardware

requirements

and

timing

constraints

in

comparison

to

that

required

with

RI

and

MRI

mechanisms, for IDMA systems. During the implementations, it is observed that the hardware

requirement of tree based interleaving (TBI) mechanism is at the minimum level in comparison

to other considered mechanisms. The timing constraints of TBI mechanism are also found to be

at its minimum level. In addition to it, the tree based interleaving mechanism inherits comparably

lesser hardware complexity to that required for master random interleaving mechanism due to

requirement of lesser looping operations. After the analysis, it has been observed that proposed

tree based interleaver requires least hardware along with least timing constraints for its operation.

The proposed tree based interleaving (TBI) mechanism has demonstrated optimum overall BER

and other performances in comparison to RI, and MRI mechanisms. Thus, the proposed

interleaving mechanism along with IDMA scheme provides an alternative to conventional

CDMA scheme for future wireless communication systems.

vi

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

i

Synopsis

iii

Table of Contents

vii

List of Figures

x

List of Table

xiii

Glossary

xv

1. Introduction

1

1.1. Development of Wireless Communication Systems

1

1.2. Multiple Access Schemes

5

1.2.1. FDMA Scheme

5

1.2.2. TDMA Scheme

6

1.2.3. CDMA Scheme

7

1.3. Motivation

8

1.4. Problem Statement

10

1.5. Research Contributions

12

1.6. Thesis Organization

13

2. Overview of Interleave-Division Multiple-Access (IDMA) Scheme

15

2.1. Introduction

15

2.2. Interleavers in Digital Communication

15

2.3. Interleavers in IDMA Scheme

16

2.4. Mechanism of Interleaving Process

17

2.5. Interleave-Division Multiple-Access (IDMA) Scheme

19

vii

2.5.1.

Comparison of CDMA and IDMA Schemes

20

2.5.2.

IDMA Transmitter and Receiver

21

2.5.2.1. Basic Primary Signal Estimator (PSE) Function

23

2.5.2.2. Algorithm for Chip-By-Chip Detection

24

2.5.2.3. Decoder (DEC) Function

25

2.5.3.

IDMA over Multipath Channels

26

2.6. Literature Review

31

2.7. Simulation of IDMA Scheme

39

2.8. Conclusions

41

3. Performance Evaluation of Tree Based Interleaver (TBI) in IDMA Scheme

42

3.1. Introduction

42

3.2. Motivation

43

3.3. Mechanism of Tree Based Interleaver (TBI)

44

3.4. Performance Evaluation of Tree Based Interleaver

47

3.5. TBI with Unequal Power Allocation Algorithm

61

3.5.1. Unequal Power Allocation Mechanism

61

3.5.2. Numerical Results

63

3.6. Conclusions

66

4. Performance Evaluation of Tree Based Interleaver in IDMA Scheme with Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) Diversity

68

4.1. Introduction

68

4.2. Diversity Mechanisms

68

4.2.1. Frequency Diversity

69

4.2.2. Time Diversity

70

viii

4.2.3.

Space Diversity

71

 

4.2.3.1. Transmit Diversity

72

4.2.3.2. Receive Diversity

73

4.3. Combining Mechanisms

74

4.3.1. Selection Combining

74

4.3.2. Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)

76

4.3.3. Equal Gain Combining (EGC)

78

4.4. Performance Evaluation of IDMA Scheme with MRC Diversity

78

4.4.1. IDMA Scheme with Maximal Ratio Receiver Combining (MRRC) Diversity

78

4.4.2. IDMA Scheme with Maximal Ratio Transmitter Combining (MRTC) Diversity

80

4.5. Simulation Results

82

4.5.1. Simulation Results of IDMA Scheme using MRRC Diversity

82

4.5.2. Simulation Results of IDMA Scheme using MRTC Diversity

90

4.6. Conclusions

94

5.

Correlation Analysis and FPGA Implementation of Interleavers

96

5.1. Introduction

96

5.2. Motivation

96

5.3. Design Criteria for Interleavers in IDMA Scheme

98

5.4. Correlation in Interleavers

98

5.5. Correlation Analysis of Interleavers

99

5.6. Interleaving Mechanism in IDMA Scheme

105

5.6.1. Random Interleaving (RI) Mechanism

107

5.6.2. Master Random Interleaving (MRI) Mechanism

109

ix

5.6.3.

Tree Based Interleaving (TBI) Mechanism

110

 

5.7. Performance Comparison of Interleavers on FPGA Implementation

112

 

5.7.1. Summary of Hardware

112

5.7.2. Final Register Report

113

5.7.3. Device Utilization Report

113

5.7.4. Timing Summary Report

114

 

5.8. Conclusions

115

6.

Conclusions

118

6.1.

Suggestions for Further Investigations

121

References

123

Appendix

142

x

List of Figures

1.1

Progress in wireless communication from 1G to 4G

3

1.2

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

5

1.3

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

6

2.1

Mechanism of data interleaving

18

2.2

CDMA scheme vs. IDMA scheme

20

2.3

IDMA transmitter and receiver structure

22

2.4

IDMA transmission in single path

23

2.5

Flowchart of decoding mechanism in the receiver of IDMA scheme

26

2.6

IDMA in multipath transmission

27

2.7

Simulation of IDMA and CDMA schemes

40

2.8

Simulation of IDMA scheme with Random Interleaver

40

3.1

Interleaving strategy for Tree Based Interleaving scheme

45

3.2

Performance of Tree based Interleaver with Random Interleaver

50

3.3

Comparison of RI, MRI, and TBI for memory requirement

52

3.4

Comparison of RI, MRI, and TBI for computational complexity at transmitter end

54

3.5

Comparison of RI, MRI, and TBI for computational complexity at receiver end

55

3.6

Data formats of RI, MRI, and TBI mechanisms in IDMA scheme

56

3.7

Simulation of TBI in multi-user environment

57

3.8

Uncoded IDMA scheme in AWGN and Flat Rayleigh fading environment

 

57

3.9

Simulation of RI in coded and uncoded IDMA scheme

58

3.10

IDMA scheme in uncoded environment for variation in user count

59

3.11

Simulation of RI in coded and uncoded IDMA scheme

59

3.12

IDMA scheme in coded environment for variation in user count

60

3.13

Simulation results for 32 users without coding with RI with various data

xi

lengths

64

3.14

Simulation result for 32 users without coding with TBI with various data lengths

65

3.15

IDMA scheme in uncoded environment for variation in user count with RI and TBI with unequal power allocation algorithm

65

3.16

IDMA scheme in rate ½ convolutionally coded environment for variation in user count with RI and TBI with unequal power allocation algorithm

66

4.1

Frequency diversity Mechanism

70

4.2

Time Diversity Mechanism

70

4.3

Transmit diversity with multiple antennas at transmitter side

72

4.4

Receive Diversity having multiple antennas at receiver side

73

4.5

Mechanism of Selection combining

75

4.6

Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)

76

4.7

IDMA with MRRC Receiver diversity

79

4.8

Transmit diversity having two transmitter and one receiver antenna

81

4.9

Performance of IDMA system with and without MRRC diversity

83

4.10

Performance of IDMA having Random Interlever with MRRC diversity technque at various iterations count with datalength=1024,

spreadlength=16

84

4.11

Performance comparison at different data length with Random Interleaver with MRRC Diversity

85

4.12

Performance of IDMA using tree based interleaver with MRRC Diversity 86

4.13

Simulation of Uncoded IDMA with variation in interleaver

86

4.14

Performance of Random Interlever with 1Transmitter and 2 Receive Antenna, MRRC diversity Technique

87

4.15

Performane of master random interleaver with 1Transmitter and 2 Receive Antenna, MRRC diversity Technique

88

4.16

Performance of Tree based Interleaver With 1Transmitter and 2 Receive Antenna, MRRC diversity Technique

88

xii

4.17

Perfromance of IDMA scheme with FEC coding with tree based interleaver and datalength=1024 bits

89

4.18

IDMA scheme with variation in receiver count using MRRC diversity

89

4.19

Performance of IDMA system using MRTC diversity with random interleaver

91

4.20

Performance of IDMA at different data lengths using random interleaver with MRTC diversity Scheme

92

4.21

Uncoded IDMA scheme with variation in datalength for RI & TBI

93

4.22

Rate ½ Conlutionaly coded IDMA scheme with variation in datalength for RI & TBI

93

4.23

Rate ½ Conlutionaly coded IDMA scheme with uncoded IDMA scheme

94

5.1

Mechanism for calculation of resultant user-specific cross-correlation amongst users

101

5.2

Resultant user-specific cross-correlation for 25 users with RI, MRI, and TBI

102

5.3

Resultant user-specific cross-correlation for 100 users with RI, MRI, and TBI

103

5.4

Graphical view of resultant user-specific cross-correlation with RI, MRI, and TBI

105

5.5

Block Diagram of Random Interleaving Mechanism

108

5.6

Block Diagram of Master Random Interleaver (MRI)

110

5.7

Block Diagram of Tree based Interleaving mechanism

111

xiii

List of Tables

3.1

Comparison of Memory requirement of user-specific interleavers in IDMA scheme

51

3.2

Comparison of Computational complexity of user-specific interleavers/ deinterleavers at transmitter end

52

3.3

Comparison of Computational complexity of user-specific interleavers/ deinterleavers at receiver end

54

5.1

Peak Resultant User-Specific Cross-Correlation of RI, MRI, and TBI

104

5.2

Summary of hardware

112

5.3

Final Register report

113

5.4

Device utilization report

114

5.5

Timing summary of interleavers

115

xiv

Glossary

3GPP

Third Generation Partnership Project

AMPS

Advanced Mobile Phone Service

APP

A Posteriori Probability

AWGN

Additive White Gaussian Noise

BER

Bit Error Rate

BPSK

Binary Phase Shift Keying

BS

Base Station

CBC

Chip by Chip

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

DEC

Decoder

DL

Downlink

DS

Direct Sequence

EDGE

Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution

ENC

Encoder

ETACS

Extended Total Access Communication System

EV-DO

Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only

FDD

Frequency-Division Duplex

FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple Access

xv

FEC

Forward Error Correction

FPGA

Field-Programmable Gate-Array

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications

HSDPA

High-Speed Downlink Packet Access

HSPA

High Speed Packet Access

IDMA

Interleave Division Multiple Access

IS-136

Interim Standard-136

IS-95

Interim Standard-95

ISI

Inter Symbol Interference

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

LAN

Local Area Network

LDPC

Low Density Parity Check

LLR

Log Likelihood Ratio

LTE

Long Term Evolution

MAC

Multiple Access Channel

MAI

Multiple Access Interference

MC

Multi Carrier

MC-CDMA

Multi-Carrier CDMA

MIMO

Multiple Input Multiple Output

MRC

Maximal Ratio Combining

xvi

MRI

Master Random Interleaver

MRRC

Maximal Ratio Receiver Combining

MRTC

Maximal Ratio Transmitter Combining

MS

Mobile Station

MUD

Multi User Detection

NMT

Nordic Mobile Telephony

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

PDC

Personal Digital Cellular

PEG

Progressive Edge Growth

PI

Power Interleaver

PN Sequences

Pseudo Noise Sequences

PSE

Primary Signal Estimator

QoS

Quality of Service

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

RI

Random Interleaver

RTT

Radio Transmission Technology

SAS

Singe Antenna System

SE

Spreading Efficiency

SNR

Signal to Noise Ratio

TACS

Total Access Communication System

TBI

Tree Based Interleaver

xvii

TDD

Time Division Duplex

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

TD-SCDMA

Time-Division synchronous CDMA

UL

Uplink

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UWB

Ultra Wide Band

VHDL

Very High Speed IC Hardware Description Language

WCDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

xviii

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Since the beginning of the 20 th century, technologies have placed its marks with stone

line

for

providing

new

techniques

and

products

for

wireless

communication.

Especially in the past three decades, wireless communication services have penetrated

into our society with an explosive growth rate.

Cellular radio was originally developed for offering phone services to mobile

subscribers. Now-a-days, it is engaged in even providing a variety of services,

including video conferencing, music or movie appreciation, games, internet access.

The demands and applications from subscribers stimulate the market and drive the

technology for further growth. On the other hand, research and development of

communication engineering are undergoing a revolution due to rapid advances in

technology.

1.1. Development of Wireless Communication Systems

Wireless cellular communication systems have evolved with the first-generation

(1G) of analogue stage using frequency division multiple access (FDMA) scheme.

Later,

due to rapid advances in technologies based on market demand, it has led to

the second-generation (2G) of digital stage with time division multiple access

(TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) schemes, and now it has stepped

into the third-generation (3G) with eye on fourth-generation (4G) of broadband

stage [8, 9, 12].

1

The most popular technology related to 1G is the Advanced Mobile Phone

Service (AMPS) developed in the United States (U.S.) by AT&T in the late 1970s,

and later, it was implemented by Ameritech at the end of 1983. The further

developed version of AMPS was known as Extended Total Access Communication

System (ETACS) developed in Europe in 1985. The both of these systems were

employing frequency-division duplex (FDD) and frequency-division multiple-access

(FDMA) scheme. Due to problem of slower data rate and lower user base, these

analogue systems, soon, were replaced by 2G digital systems based on time-division

multiple-access (TDMA) scheme. The representatives of 2G systems i.e. Interim

Standard-95 (IS-95) system and the Global System for Mobile Communication

(GSM), have been widely deployed throughout the world. The IS-95 system,

developed in United States of America, is mainly based on code-division multiple-

access (CDMA) scheme while GSM system, developed in Europe, is mainly based

on time-division multiple-access (TDMA) scheme.

Due to lots of technological changes and market oriented demands, mobile

communication technology has entered in 3G stage. The distinctive features of 3G

systems in comparison to 2G systems are inherited with technology of packet-

switched

high-rate

data

transmission

CDMA2000,

a

representative

of

3G

along

with

voice

services.

Specifically,

systems,

builds

on

the

packet-switched

technology along with increased data transmission rate, and backward compatibility

with original CDMA standards. It is employed primarily in North America and some

parts of Asia. Another qualified 3G candidate, wideband CDMA (WCDMA) is

referred as an evolution of the GSM technology, including aspects of TDMA and

CDMA2000 for global accessibility. The time-division synchronous CDMA (TD-

SCDMA) is mainly developed by the Datang Group, China, building on the original

2

CDMA standard to deliver multimedia data, considering its largest user base in its

own country. Figure 1.1 demonstrates the development of progress of wireless

communication from 1G to 4G, in terms of data rates, with all the technological

development observed in meantime. The CDMA and its other extended versions

such as IDMA, lie between technological developments from 2G to 3G during the

span from 1993 to 2007.

from 2G to 3G during the span from 1993 to 2007. Figure 1.1: Progress in wireless

Figure 1.1: Progress in wireless communication from 1G to 4G [148]

Although the standards for further generation systems are still in formative

stages, leading companies in the industry have started some groundwork with their

researchers. Now-a-days, the techniques related to future wireless communication

have become hot topics for research all over the world.

The 3G and beyond systems have been developed to serve people's daily work

and life, and to satisfy their demands. The ultimate user needs reliable, cheaper,

secure, and low-delay voice & data services anytime and anywhere. The additional

features

of

the

future

wireless

communications

3

include

high-speed

data

and

broadband transmission for huge user base, along with global mobility, & scalable

quality of service (QoS) for both operators and subscribers.

The above features are imposing technical challenges on system design and

stimulate various researches to work on topics related to capacity, complexity and

performance of the communication systems [23, 56, 20]. There are also other research

topics highly related to the physical layer in wireless systems including optimum

channel coding, detection, and diversity mechanisms. For immediate solutions of

above problems, near-capacity-achieving forward error correction (FEC) codes are

developed to enhance power efficiency while improved detection algorithms are

designed to enhance the reliability or bit-error rate (BER) performance. Diversity

techniques have been proposed to increase spectral efficiency and diversity for

accommodating more users and mitigating fading [20]. The new horizons on above

discussed topics have emerged as “hot cake” for researchers all over the world.

In India, cellular industry came into existence nearly in mid 1990s and since

then the average growth rate per annum has been about 85 percent [1]. By the end of

2002, the total number of cellular subscribers, in India, had increased to about 10

million subscribers. In addition to it, telecom customers have also been doubled

during last two years from 300 million to 600 million. According to Reuters India

[3], total mobile users in India, now, stand at 584.32 million, data from the sector

regulator showed, behind only China that had 777 million at the end of March 2010.

There

is

tremendous

scope

for

researches

in

the

area

of

wireless

communication for improving the back-bone of communication systems as per the

recommendations of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) [5]. One of the

hot-cake areas for research is improvement in technology related to multiple access

4

techniques with communication channels. In the next, section, various multiple access

techniques including recently evolved IDMA scheme will be discussed, in brief.

1.2. Multiple Access Schemes

Generally, in wireless communication, large numbers of users are involved in the

conversation at a time with each other leading to share the same wireless channel.

For sharing of wireless channel, there exist three widely deployed multiple access

schemes [8] popularly known as, frequency-division multiple-access (FDMA), time-

division multiple-access (TDMA), and code-division multiple-access (CDMA). It

will also be worth mentioning that recently, a new variant of CDMA scheme i.e.

interleave-division multiple-access (IDMA) scheme has been proposed [76].

In

the

next

subsection,

the

prime

multiple

access

schemes

are

being

presented in brief so as highlight their merits and demerits.

1.2.1. FDMA Scheme:

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) scheme is reffered as the most common

technique employed in analog communication systems utilizing division of entire

frequency spectrum into multiple frequencies slots to be assigned to indivdual users,

as shown in figure 1.2. With FDMA scheme, each subscriber at any given time is

assigned

with

independently.

particular

frequency

channels

for

transmission

and

reception

The channel, therefore, is closed to other conversations until the

initial call is completed, or handed-off to a different channel.

FDMA scheme has

been used for first generation analog communication systems.

5

Figure 1.2: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) The scheme is referred to be inefficient due

Figure 1.2:

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

The scheme is referred to be inefficient due to underutilization of bandwidth.

In addition to it, FDMA systems are bound to employ a guard-band between adjacent

channels, for avoiding random Doppler shift, occurring due to the user's random

mobility.

The

guard-bands

also

reduce

the

probability

of

adjacent

channels

interference, while decrease the spectral efficiency [9].

1.2.2. TDMA Scheme:

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheme improves spectrum capacity by

splitting each time period into multiple time slots. It allows each user to access the

entire radio frequency channel for the allotted time slot of during a call as presented in

figure 1.3.

Other users are also allowed to share the same frequency channel at

different time slots.

TDMA scheme is the dominant technology for the second

generation (2G) mobile cellular networks.

for the second generation (2G) mobile cellular networks. Figure 1.3: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) However,

Figure 1.3:

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

However, the TDMA systems have to be carefully synchronized during

communication for all the users to ensure that they are received in the correct time-

6

slots and do not cause the interference to other users [7]. Since it cannot be perfectly

controlled in a mobile environment, a guard-time is inserted between each time-slot,

which reduces the probability that users will interfere, but decreases the spectral

efficiency. Also in case of bursty traffic, user has to wait for his next allotted time-

slot which ultimately slows down the data rate during communication [9].

1.2.3. CDMA Scheme:

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) scheme is, basically, based on “spread

spectrum” technology. It increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy

all channels at the same time [10]. The data streames related to indivual users are

spreaded over the whole radio band, and each voice or data call is assigned a unique

code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum [14]. The

asynchronous CDMA system offers a key advantage in the flexible allocation of

communication resources. It is ideally suited to a mobile network where large

numbers of transmitters generating a relatively small amount of traffic at irregular

intervals individually.

The performance of CDMA scheme is mainly limited by multiple access

interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI). Its processing gain is

reduced considerably with increment in users per sector. The processing gain is

referred as a figure of merit in spread spectrum communication. Also, in CDMA

scheme, the complexity of decoder increases with increment in user count [6].

From the viewpoint of sharing communication resources, TDMA scheme is

termed to be more efficient to FDMA scheme due to better spectral effinciency

while considering the matter of message delay, FDMA scheme outperforms the

TDMA scheme. In addition to it, as quoted in [5] regarding future requirements in

7

wireless communication, it is recommended that a communication system must

possess the essential parameters for consumers including low receiver cost, de-

centralized

control,

diversity

against

fading,

power

efficiency,

multi-media

services, high user number, and high throughput along with high spectral efficiency

[6].

For further way of efficient communication, employing spread spectrum

technology, the question regarding alternate way for user separation arises. Recently, a

new variant of CDMA scheme known as interleave-division multiple-access (IDMA)

scheme has evolved on the horizon of wireless communication [76, 77]. The IDMA

scheme employs the interleavers as the only means of user separation in order to

ensure privacy related to data of users.

1.3.

Motivation

The most commonly employed multiple scheme in the world, i.e. CDMA scheme

offers an even better bandwidth-efficiency than TDMA and FDMA schemes, and has

been widely adopted in the 3G mobile cellular systems, including CDMA2000,

WCDMA, TD-SCDMA systems. It offers robust performance due to its unique

feature of processing gain. However, its successful operation is based on rather

complex technologies including complex power-control, and multiuser detection

techniques, and thus it is comparatively difficult to get implemented, when compared

with FDMA and TDMA schemes.

The CDMA mechanism is reported to be unsuitable to support QoS sensitive

multimedia traffic. It is extremely difficult to adjust data rate on-a-fly and even the

small change in data rate may result with change in processing gain [7], which further

compels to adjust transmitter power. Hence, ultimately rate change for ONE user

8

affects whole cell-wise code-assignment plan [10]. Looking into implementation

complexity of CDMA systems, the requirement of very precise power control,

powerful multi-user detection, requirement of RAKE receiver, and costly sectorized

antennas, becomes highly desirable.

In addition to it, CDMA system needs long frames for signal detection.

Therefore, it is well suited for slow-speed continuous-time transmission specially.

Apart from it, it inherits poor orthogonality of user-specific spreading codes and

merely periodic correlation functions are considered in code design process resulting

in poor aperiodic correlations amongst spreading codes for higher user count.

Therefore, a big room is left for the researchers, leading to improvement in spreading

efficiency of CDMA systems. Apart from it, only unitary codes, i.e., Gold, Walsh,

Kasami, etc. have been used in CDMA scheme.

All of the above stated problems come from the same root i.e. inefficient

“Unitary codes” i.e. one-code-per-user basis, used for user separation in CDMA

systems. Though, the spreading PN-sequences used for user separation in CDMA

systems, are orthogonal to each other, but the spreaded data related to all the users

may loose its orthogonality, in the channel, in case of high user count. Therefore, the

requirement for alternate mechanism for user separation is needed urgently.

In interleaver-division multiple-access (IDMA) scheme, most of above stated

problems do not exist due to application of user-specific interleavers as alternate way

of user separation in place of unitary spreading PN-sequences used in CDMA scheme.

With IDMA scheme, user separation is achieved with the help of user-specific

interleavers, having low cross-correlation amongst them [76]. As the spreaded user

data is fed to the user-specific interleavers, it results in better orthogonality between

9

resultant interleaved data in the channel. The condition of orthogonality is maintained

for removing the risk of collision between the interleavers [91] in the channel.

In IDMA scheme, orthogonal interleavers are referred as the heart of the

systems. If random interleavers are employed as the means of user separation

[76] in IDMA systems, it results in heavy memory requirement for storing the

user-specific

interleavers

at

transmitter

and

receiver

ends.

In

[104],

power

interleavers were introduced which solves the problem of memory requirement

but increases computational complexity during estimation and turbo processing

[51, 62] of interleavers and deinterleavers, at the receiver end. This interleaver is

named as master random interleaver (MRI). Many more interleavers are reported

in literature but most of them are based on methodology of selection of user-

specific interleavers amongst available random interleavers. Still, the problem of

computational complexity is unresolved for the interleaving and de-interleaving

mechanism in IDMA scheme.

In this thesis, an optimum interleaver is proposed for not only solution of

the problem related to computational complexity and bandwidth requirement but

also for optimization for memory requirement at transmitter and receiver ends.

1.4. Problem Statement

Keeping in mind the problems related to implementation of random and master

random

interleavers,

it

becomes

mandatory

to

look

for

alternate

interleaving

mechanism for the solution of the stated problems. In present work, an attempt has

been

made

to

study

various

aspects

of

optimum

interleaving

mechanism

for

interleave-division multiple-access scheme, a potential candidate for next-generation

wireless

communication.

The

analysis

has

been

carried out

in

terms

of

BER

 

10

performance,

memory

requirement,

bandwidth

requirement,

and

computational

complexity along with hardware requirement needed for its field-programmable gate-

array (FPGA) implementation. Specifically, the problem undertaken in this thesis can

be stated as follows:

(i)

To suggest a user-specific interleaver generation mechanism for IDMA

scheme and to evaluate its performance using analytical modeling and

simulation.

 

(ii)

To examine the performance of the proposed interleaving scheme

under various conditions including its performance comparison with

other interleaving schemes for various parameters.

 

(iii)

To

evaluate

the

performance

of

IDMA

scheme

with

proposed

interleaving

scheme

employing

maximal

ratio

combining

(MRC)

diversity technique. Also to compare its performance to that of other

interleaving schemes under similar conditions.

 

(iv)

To investigate into the correlation analysis of proposed and other

interleaving

schemes

to

justify

the

increment

in

multiple

access

interference (MAI) with relative increment in user count.

 

(v)

To study the performance analysis of proposed interleaving scheme

with its implementation on field-programmable gate-array (FPGA)

system for observing the comparative hardware requirements and

timing constraints with that of random and master random interleaving

schemes.

11

1.5.

Research Contributions

In this thesis, the emphasis has been given on analysis and design of optimum

interleaver

for

IDMA

scheme

which

may

fulfill

all

the

requirement

of

orthogonality as well must be easy to implement.

(a) The mechanism of interleaving with necessary conditions is presented.

Later,

block

diagram

of

IDMA

scheme

is

transmitter and receiver section.

explained

including

(b) Further, a tree based interleaver (TBI) mechanism [147], for generation of

user-specific interleavers is proposed for interleave-division multiple-

access (IDMA) scheme. The BER performance comparison of the TBI

with random interleaver (RI) and master random interleaver (MRI)

also known as power interleaver [104] is also presented. Apart from the

performance analysis, all the interleavers have also been analyzed

based on memory requirement and computational complexity. Later,

performance evaluation of IDMA scheme with TBI in uncoded and rate ½

convolutionally coded environment, is presented.

(c) The performance of IDMA is also demonstrated with maximal ratio

combining (MRC) diversity along with random and master random

interleavers

with

single

transmitter

two

receiver

and

other

architectures.

(d) The impact of increment in data length on correlation of user-specific

interleavers has also been investigated. It has been revealed that with

increment

in

user

count,

the

cross-correlation

interleavers goes for hike.

(e) Finally,

the

FPGA

implementation

of

all

12

between

user-specific

the

interleavers

is

demonstrated

for

observing

the

timing

constraints

and

hardware

requirement. From the analysis, it becomes apparent that tree based

interleaver is an optimum interleaver.

1.6. Thesis Organization

The remaining chapters of the thesis are organized as detailed ahead. Chapter 2

provides preliminaries on interleavers their mechanism and characteristics along with

conditions for orthogonality. In addition to it, the mechanism of interleave-division

multiple-access (IDMA) scheme is also explained for single path and multipath

environments along with literature review.

In chapter 3, proposed user-specific interleaver generation mechanism named

as

Tree

Based

Interleaver

(TBI)

is

presented

for

IDMA

systems

[147].

This

interleaver

generation

mechanism,

optimally,

removes

the

problems

of

extra

bandwidth consumption, excessive memory requirement, and high computational

complexity inherited with other interleaver generation mechanisms. In this chapter,

the performance comparison of IDMA scheme is presented with random interleavers

and master random interleavers in terms of BER performance, memory requirement,

and computational complexity. Also, the performance of IDMA scheme with unequal

power allocation algorithm has been demonstrated along with all the above stated

interleavers.

The chapter 4 demonstrates the analysis of IDMA scheme with maximal ratio

combining (MRC) diversity at transmitter and receiver end along with various

transmitter-receivers architectures. During the performance analysis of MRC diversity

technique, the enhancement in the BER performance of IDMA scheme has been

13

observed and the performance of IDMA systems with tree based interleaver is found

to be similar to that with random interleavers.

In chapter 5, the correlation analysis of all the three interleavers i.e. random

interleaver, master random interleaver, and proposed tree based interleaver has been

performed to analyze the decrement in BER performance with increment in user

count.

Further,

all

the

interleavers

have

been

duly

implemented

on

field

programmable

gate

array

(FPGA)

for

studying

their

hardware

and

timing

requirements.

 

In chapter 6, the conclusion the thesis is presented along with the possible

directions for further research related to interleavers in IDMA systems.

14

CHAPTER 2

Overview of Interleave-Division Multiple Access Scheme

2.1. Introduction

Historically, interleaving was employed in ordering block storage on disk-based

storage devices including floppy disk and the hard disk systems. The primary purpose

of interleaving was to adjust the timing differences between the adjacent bits during

transfer of data between computer and storage media. Interleaving was very common

prior to the 1990s, but, later, faded due to availability of high speed processors. Now-

a-days, all the modern disk storage systems are not at all being interleaved.

In communication systems, interleaving is referred to be technique commonly

used to overcome correlated channel noise such as burst error or fading [8, 9, 15]. In

interleaving mechanism, the input data rearranges itself such that consecutive data bits

are split among different blocks and is swapped in a known pattern amongst them. At

the receiver end, the interleaved data is arranged back into the original sequence with

the help of de-interleaver. As a result of interleaving, correlated noise introduced in

the transmission channel appears to be statistically independent at the receiver and

thus allows better error correction.

2.2. Interleavers in Digital Communication

Interleaving has been frequently used in digital communication and storage systems to

improve the performance of forward error correcting codes. Many communication

channels which are not memoryless in nature, errors typically occur in bursts rather

15

than independently. If the number of errors within a code word exceeds the error-

correcting code's capability, it fails to recover the original code word. Interleaving

ameliorates this problem by shuffling source symbols across several code words,

thereby creating a more uniform distribution of errors.

Typically, in the analysis of modern iterated codes, including turbo and low-

density parity-check (LDPC) codes, independent distribution of errors is assumed

[140]. Systems using LDPC codes therefore typically employ additional interleaving

across the symbols within a code word. For turbo codes, an interleaver is an integral

component of the architecture, and its proper design is crucial for its good BER

performance. However, application of interleaving increases latency accordingly. This

happens due to requirement of entire interleaved block at the receiver side to recover

the critical data. In multi-carrier communication systems, additional interleaving

across carriers may be employed to mitigate the effects of prohibitive noise on a

single or few specific carriers.

In next section, the mechanism of interleaving process will be duly studied

along with condition of orthogonality.

2.3. Interleavers in IDMA Scheme

The user-specific interleavers play vital role in the efficiency of IDMA system. It not

only provides decorrelation between adjacent bit sequences as provided in the case of

orthodox turbo coding and decoding, but also facilitates a means for decorrelating

various users [91]. The correlation between interleavers should measure how strongly

signals from other users affect the decoding process of a specific user [102]. The

better the interleaver decorrelation, the lesser the iterations, required for detection in

multiuser detection (MUD) mechanism [105]. The decorrelation among the user-

16

specific interleavers provides a mean to reduce the multiple access interference (MAI)

from other users thus helping in the convergence of detection process.

A set of interleavers is considered to be practical if it is easy to generate, and

no two interleavers in the set “collide”. The transmitter and receiver need not store or

communicate many bits in order to agree upon an interleaving sequence. It may be

demonstrated that a properly defined correlation between interleavers can be used to

formulate a collision criterion, where zero cross-correlation (i.e., orthogonality)

implies no collision [91].

In case of IDMA systems, the transmitter is required to transmit the interleaver

matrix consisting of interleaving pattern along with spreaded data related to users, to

the receiver. So, greater the size of the interleaver, the more bandwidth and resources

are consumed during transmission. Also, it is worth to be mentioned that greater the

size of interleaver, more the orthogonality is achieved amongst interleaver [104].

For better understanding of interleaving mechanism, in the next section, interleaving

process will be discussed.

2.4. Mechanism of Interleaving Process

The interleaver is termed as a mechanism which rearranges the ordering of a data

sequence by means of a deterministic bijective mapping. Let

C

[

cc

01

,

,

c

N

1

]

be a

sequence

sequence X

of

length

[

xx

01

,

,

x

N

N

1

]

[109].

An

interleaver

maps

C

onto

a

such that X is a permutation of the elements of C.

Considering C and X as a pair of N-dimensional vectors, there is one-to-one

correspondence

in Figure 2.1.

c

i

x

j

between each element of C and each element of X, as shown

17

c c 0 c 1 x 0
c
c
0 c
1
x
0
c c 3 c 4 c 2 5 6 x 1 x x 5 2
c
c
3 c
4 c
2
5
6
x
1 x
x 5
2 x
3 x
x
4
6

Figure 2.1: Mechanism of Data Interleaving

An interleaver can then be defined by the one-to-one index mapping function.

( A Aj):

[i],

where A={0,1…N-1}

for ij,

A, ………….(2.3.1)

The term ‘i' and ‘j’ are indices of an element of the original sequence ‘c’ and the

interleaved sequence ‘x’, respectively. The mapping function can be expressed as an

ordered set called interleaving vector ‘’:

[[0],

[1],

,[N

1]]. ……………………………………………………. (2.3.2)

The

X

k

k th

element of the permuted sequence X is

C

[

k

]

………………

………………………………………………

(2.3.3)

The inverse interleaver, i.e. the deinterleaver, restores the permuted sequence

to its original order. Throughout the thesis, the terms ‘’ and ‘

1

are used to

denote the interleaving and deinterleaving vectors, respectively. With the proper

deinterleaver, the permuted elements can be shifted back to their original positions:

1

[[k]]

[

1

Replacing k by

X

1

[

n

]

C

[

 

1

[k]]

k …………………………………………………….….(2.3.4)

1

[n]

in (2.3.3), then from (2.3.4),

[

n

]]

C

n

.

……………………………………………….… (2.3.5)

18

Since the separation of users is achieved by user-specific interleavers, an

obvious interleaver design criterion is that every two interleavers related to specific

users out of a set of interleavers “collide” up to minimum extent. With increment in

cross-correlation

amongst

the

interleavers, number

of

collisions

also

increases,

resulting in increment in bit error rate (BER) of the system.

The property of minimum collision amongst user-specific interleavers depends

on property of orthogonality. It is referred as an important factor in generating the

interleavers.

If

the

orthogonality

is

not

maintained

amongst

the

user-specific

interleavers,

the

correlation

between

the

users

increases

proportionally,

with

increment in user count resulting in lower BER performance. Therefore, interleavers

generated

according

to

the

orthogonality

criteria

having

minimum

number

of

collisions are accepted as part of IDMA systems.

Two interleavers

i

and

j

(where

i

) are said to be orthogonal, if for

j

any two words, a and b, the correlation C(.) is such that [91],

(

C a

ij

,

,

,

b fa

(

)

that [91], ( C  a ij , , , b   fa  (

i

(

)).

j

(

fb

(

))

0

……………………….…………(2.3.6)

Above condition is for the orthogonality check of the user-specific interleavers.

2.5. Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) Scheme

In [76], the interleaver based multiple-access scheme has been studied for high

spectral efficiency, improved performance and low receiver complexity. This scheme

relies on interleaving as the only means to distinguish the signals from different users

and hence it has been called interleave-division multiple-access (IDMA). As reported

in [76, 77], IDMA systems inherits many advantages from CDMA systems, in

particular diversity against fading and mitigation of the worst-case other cell user

interference problem. Furthermore, it allows a very simple chip by chip iterative

19

multiuser

detection

(MUD)

strategy.

The

normalized

MUD

independent of the number of users [76].

cost

(per

user)

is

2.5.1. Comparison of CDMA & IDMA Schemes

Comparing CDMA and IDMA mechanisms [129, 67, 68], it is observed that IDMA

scheme may be considered as a special case of Code-Division Multiple Access

(CDMA) scheme. The differences and commonalities of conventional CDMA with

channel coding (top part) and IDMA (bottom part) is presented in figure 2.2. CDMA Scheme
channel coding (top part) and IDMA (bottom part) is presented in figure 2.2.
CDMA Scheme
x
m
Data Input
 Spreader
FEC
m
IDMA Scheme
x
m
Data Input
Spreader
FEC
m

ENCODER AND SPREADER SECTION

Figure 2.2: CDMA scheme vs. IDMA scheme

Visualizing the apparent difference between CDMA and IDMA schemes, it is

observed that ordering of interleaving and spreading is reversed in IDMA scheme. In

conventional CDMA scheme, the spreader is user specific, whereas in IDMA scheme,

the interleaver is user-specific. In addition to it, in IDMA scheme, forward error

correction (FEC) and spreading is combined in a single encoder (ENC), which is same

or different for all users [76]. As a consequence, very low rate encoding is used for

forward error correction coding. The spreader has no fundamental relevance any more

in IDMA systems. The spreading of data may be used to simplify the overall encoder

[71]. The interleaver is interpreted as a keyword and only authorized receivers are

20

able to decode the message [76]. However in [78], scheme exploiting the advantages

of CDMA and IDMA schemes has also been proposed. It is suggested in the approach

that for lower count of users, CDMA may be used while for higher user count, IDMA

scheme may be utilized.

In the next section, the block diagram of IDMA communication system

incorporating transmitter and receiver section is explained.

2.5.2. IDMA Transmitter & Receiver

The upper part of Figure 2.3 demonstrates the transmitter structure of the IDMA

scheme under consideration with K simultaneous users. The input data sequence

d

k

of user-k is encoded based on a low-rate code C, generating a coded sequence,

C

c

(1),

c

kkk

(2),

c

k

(

j

)

(

cJ

k

)T

………………………(2.4.1)

where J is the frame length.

The elements in

c

k

are referred to as coded bits. Then

c

k is permutated by an

interleaver , hence, producing

k

X

x

(1),

x

kkk

(2),

x

k

(

j

)

(

xJ

k

)T

. Following

the CDMA convention, the element in x

k will be denoted as “chips”. Users are solely

distinguished by their interleavers, hence the name interleave division multiple access

(IDMA) scheme [71].

The key principle of IDMA is that the interleavers

k

,

opted for user

separation, should be orthogonal for all the users. It is assumed that the interleavers

are generated independently and randomly. The randomly generated interleavers

disperse

the

coded

sequences

so

that

the

adjacent

chips

are

approximately

uncorrelated, facilitating the simple chip-by-chip detection scheme as discussed

below.

21

Figure 2.3: IDMA Transmitter and Receiver Structure Adopting an iterative sub-optimal receiver structure, as

Figure 2.3: IDMA Transmitter and Receiver Structure

Adopting an iterative sub-optimal receiver structure, as demonstrated in figure

2.3, consisting of the primary signal estimator (PSE) and K single user a posteriori

probability (APP) decoders (DECs), the data is iterated for pre-decided number

iterations before finally taking hard decision on it.

number iterations before finally taking hard decision on it. Figure 2.4: IDMA transmission in single path

Figure 2.4: IDMA transmission in single path

For single path propagation, as shown in figure 2.4, there is only one path for

the transmission. The multiple access and coding constraints are considered separately

22

in the PSE and DECs. The outputs of the PSE and DECs are extrinsic log-likelihood

ratios (LLRs) about

x

k

 

j

, assuming y as the output of PSE and DEC with x as

input for analysis purpose, is defined below as,;

ex

k

(

j

)

log

py

(

|

x

k

(

j

))

 1



py x

(

|

k

(

j

))

1

,

Kj

,

…………………

(2.4.2)

and

Those

e

DEC

(

xj

k

)

LLRs

are

further

distinguished

by

subscripts,

i.e.,

e

PSE

(

xj

k

)

, depending on whether they are generated by the PSE or DECs.

For the PSE section, y in (2.4.2) denotes the received channel output while for

the DECs, y in (2.4.2) is formed by the deinterleaved version of the outputs of the

primary signal estimator (PSE) block. A global turbo type iterative process is then

applied to process the LLRs generated by the PSE and DECs blocks [76].

2.5.2.1. Basic Primary Signal Estimator (PSE)

Assuming that the channel with no memory and after chip matched filtering, the

received signal from K users, for single path as shown in figure 2.4, can be written as;

r

(

j

)

K

k 1

hx

k

k

(

j

)

n

(

j

),

j = 1, 2… J

……

………………

(2.4.3)

where

h

k is the channel coefficient for user-k and {n (j)} are samples of an AWGN

process with zero mean and variance,

2

N / 2 . Assuming that the channel

0

coefficient {

h

k

}

are

known a priori at the receiver. Due to the use of random

interleaver { }, the PSE operation can be carried out in a chip-by-chip manner, with

k

only one sample r jused at a time.

r

()

j

where,

hx

kk

j

()

k

()

j

……………………………….…. ……

23

(2.4.4a)

j

k

(

k

()

j



r

()

j

hx

k

k

()

j

k

'

k

h

k

'

x

k

'

()

j

n

()

j

………

………….

(2.4.4b)

)

is the distortion (including interference-plus-noise) in r j with respect to

user-k. From the central limit theorem,

j

k

(

)

can be approximated as a Gaussian

variable, and r jcan be characterized by a conditional Gaussian probability density

function;

(

(

pr j

) /

x

k

(

j

)

 1)

 1 exp   2  Var (  ( j )) k 
1
exp  
2
Var
(
(
j
))
k

2

rj

(

)

 ( h

k

E

(

k

(

j

)))

  …… (2.4.5)

2

Var

(

k

(

j

))

where E (.) and Var (.) are the mean and variance functions, respectively.

The following is a list of the PSE detection algorithm based on (2.4.4a) ~

(2.4.5), assuming that the a priori statistics Ex

k

 