0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

11 Aufrufe12 SeitenJun 30, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

11 Aufrufe

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- What is Mechanical Properties
- Hot Rolled vs Cold Rolled
- Rolling Technology
- Pickled and Oiled Steel Coils
- Lec10 Strength
- P001en
- 2.2 Metal Forming
- MS 2002 Cold Rolling Mill Speed Optimization
- 1st lectuer mechanical properties of material.pdf
- 11 energy methods
- Finite deformation special cases 2013 04 11.pdf
- Appendix 1 Part 3 Liquid Penetrant Inspector 5th Edition February2016
- Slides.ppt
- Steel Research Int. 79 (2008) 440 Strip Casting
- A1018A1018M.31646
- ME 227 Lecture 1
- Strain Rate Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Metallic Honeycombs Under Out-Of-Plane Dynamic Compression
- 5do_11_1
- Characterization for Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics Based on Stress-Strain Curves
- Mechanics of Solids I

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

S M Byon

1

*

, S I Kim

2

and Y Lee

1

1

Rolling Technology and Process Control Research Group, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gyeongbuk,

Korea

2

Automotive Steel Products Research Group, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Kwangyang, Korea

Abstract: A large-deformation constitutive model applicable to the calculation of roll force and torque

in heavy-reduction rolling has been presented. The concept of the volume fraction of dynamically

recrystallized grains, which depicts the ow stress softening correctly with the level of strain, strain

rate and temperature has been newly introduced in the proposed model. The material constants

required in the proposed model have been obtained by a series of hot-torsion tests.

A laboratory-scale hot-plate rolling experiment, together with three-dimensional nite element

analysis coupled with the proposed model, has been performed to investigate the accuracy of the

proposed constitutive model. The soundness of the proposed model has been demonstrated through

a series of nite element simulations with temperature and reduction changed.

The nite element predictions of roll force based on the proposed model and the experimental results

was shown to be in fair agreement whereas those based on the MisakaYoshimoto model, in which

dynamic recrystallization was not considered, failed to predict the roll force precisely at heavy

reduction. The results also revealed that, for a typical reduction, the ow stress softening eect was

not observed during deformation, whereas the eect was considerable when the material underwent

heavy reduction.

Keywords: constitutive model, dynamic recrystallization, nite element analysis, heavy reduction, hot

rolling, roll force

NOTATION

f

i

body force

h

i

surface traction vector

n outward unit normal vector at rollworkpiece

interface

p hydrostatic pressure

T temperature

u

i

, u velocity vector

uu

i

prescribed velocity vector

u

D

i

tool velocity vector

u

n

normal component of u

i

u

D

n

normal component of u

D

i

c

i j

Kronecker delta

eective strain (one-dimensional strain)

_

_ eective strain rate (one-dimensional strain rate)

_

i j

strain rate tensor

_

0

i j

deviatoric strain rate tensor

j coecient of Coulomb friction

1

,

2

penalty constant

o

i j

stress tensor

o

0

i j

deviatoric stress tensor

o

n

normal component of surface traction

o

t

tangential component of surface traction

oo ow stress of the material

1 INTRODUCTION

In hot rolling, there are many cases in which heavy

reduction is required to improve productivity and to

produce grain renement. As a result, local strains in

the deformed body reach much higher than, say, 1.0

and the material experiences dynamic recrystallization

(DRX) during rolling. Hence, a constitutive model

taking into account such large strain and DRX has

been in great demand by process designers to compute

roll force and torque at each stand, which is one of the

crucial factors in designing the roll pass schedule.

1

B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture

The MS was received on 17 November 2003 and was accepted after

revision for publication on 18 February 2004.

*

Corresponding author: Rolling Technologies and Process Control

Research Group, POSCO, Technical Research Laboratories, 1 Goedong-

Dong, Nam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785, Korea.

Paper B22503

Several research groups have attempted to develop

constitutive models of materials and suggested their own

formulations. Misaka and Yoshimoto [1] proposed a

constitutive model as a function of temperature, natural

strain (reduction), strain rate and carbon content to

calculate the mean resistance of deformation, which is

an average value of the ow stress. The ranges of applica-

tion of this formula are as follows: carbon content, up to

1.2 per cent; temperature, 75012008C; strain, up to 0.5;

strain rate, 30200s

1

. The equation might be useful for

practical purposes but the range of strains is quite limited

and DRX was not considered. Johnson and Cook [2]

developed a constitutive model which assumes that the

dependence of the stress on the strain, strain rate and

temperature can be multiplicatively decomposed into

three separate functions that include ve constants to be

determined by experimental data obtained for a specic

material. Hence, the ranges of temperature, strain and

strain rate are not limited but the eect of DRX on ow

stress was not included. Meyers et al. [3] modied the

JohnsonCook equation to incorporate DRX at higher

temperatures by measuring the temperature-initiated

DRX. However, description of the critical strain which

triggers DRX was missing.

Laasraoui and Jonas [4] suggested a constitutive

model to describe DRX expressed by the Avrami equa-

tion [5] and used dislocation theory to describe the

strain-hardening behaviour. However, the rate constant

of DRX was not expressed systematically in terms of

strain rate and temperature. Furthermore, the eect of

DRX on metal ow was rarely taken into account,

which could aect the accuracy of solution substantially,

especially at high strain levels.

In this study, a constitutive model for AISI 316 is

presented which experiences large strain at elevated

temperatures and subsequently DRX during deforma-

tion, on the basis of the Voce work-hardening (WH)

model [6]. Three-dimensional nite element analysis

coupled with the proposed constitutive models has

been carried out to calculate workpiece deformation

and the rolling force. The accuracy of the proposed

constitutive model of the steel has been demonstrated

by comparing experimentally measured roll forces

with predicted values when the steel undergoes a large

strain at elevated temperatures. A series of numerical

simulations has then been performed to understand

better the ow stress behaviour and to investigate the

eect of the distribution of softening on the roll-gap

prole when temperature and reduction in a given pass

are changed.

2 CONSTITUTIVE MODEL

2.1 Flow stress behaviour

Hot-torsion tests were conducted to investigate the

eects of temperature and strain rate on the ow stress

of AISI 316 steel in the temperature range 1000

1200 8C and strain rate range 5 10

2

5 10

0

s

1

. The

chemical composition of the steel is presented in

Table 1. Torsion test specimens were machined with a

gauge section of 20 mm length and 5 mm radius. The

specimen was heated to the desired temperature using

radiation from halogen lamps inside the furnace and

held for 3 min to produce a uniform distribution of

temperature across the specimen. The grain size of speci-

mens annealed at 1200 8C for 5 min before deformation

was approximately 90 mm.

Among the various results of torsion tests in the

experimental range above, Fig. 1 typically shows the

measured stressstrain curves at dierent strain rates at

constant temperatures of 1000 and 1100 8C. The

FieldsBackofen equation [7] was used to calculate the

surface shear stress from the torque. The general charac-

teristics of the ow stress curve are similar to those of

typical characteristics observed in many steels, which

undergo DRX [8, 9]. The ow stress curve exhibits a

broad peak that is dierent from the plateau and reaches

a steady state. The change in ow stress is attributed to

the evolution of microstructure through DRX. Thus,

the evolution of DRX can be analysed from the slope

of ow curve which manifests the rate of WH. The

onset and nish of DRX and the strain for maximum

rate of softening can be determined from the inection

points of WH ratestrain curves or WH ratestress

curves [10].

2.2 Formulation

2.2.1 The MisakaYoshimoto model

The MisakaYoshimoto model [1] has generally been

used in the analysis of the hot-rolling process in the

steel-making industry because of conciseness in formula-

tion and ease of determining the material-dependent

constants. It is expressed as

oo c

1

n

_

m

exp

c

2

T

1

where c

1

, c

2

, n and m are material constants tted from

Table 1 The chemical composition of AISI 316 stainless steel

Element C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo P S Fe

Amount (%) 0.08 2.00 1.00 17.2 11.8 2.3 0.045 0.030 Balance

2 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004

experimental data. The values of these constants were

found to be 51.7382, 1530.87, 0.2508 and 0.0525 respec-

tively through extensive tests. The MisakaYoshimoto

model, however, does not take into account DRX and

therefore cannot depict the ow stress softening when

the material undergoes a large strain at high tempera-

tures.

2.2.2 Proposed model

In this study, a constitutive model for predicting soften-

ing of AISI 316 is proposed by introducing a function

describing the volume fraction of dynamically recrystal-

lized grains into the Voce WH model [6].

The important metallurgical phenomena occuring

during hot deformation of steel are WH, dynamic

recovery (DRV) and DRX. Thus, the ow stress curve

can be divided into the regions of WHDRV and

DRX, as shown schematically in Figs 2a and b. During

deformation, the ow stress decreases from the peak

stress o

p

to the steady state stress o

ss

with increasing

strain.

c

represents the critical strain for initiating

DRX. The peak strain

p

plays the role of judging

whether DRX is active or not. In this study, it is pro-

posed that the ow stress behaviour oo can be described

by the following two functions depending on strain:

oo

o

WHDRV

o

WHDRV

o

DRX

at <

p

at

p

(

2

In what follows, the procedure for setting up the two

functions is described in detail.

For the WHDRV region, the generalized Voce

equation has been proposed as

o o

0

o

p

o

0

1 expC

m

3

Fig. 1 Representative ow stress curves obtained from hot-

torsion test of AISI 316 stainless steel under various

strain rates at (a) 1000 8C and (b) 1100 8C

Fig. 2 (a) Illustration of the stressstrain curve for steel which

displays DRX and (b) the measured data and stress

strain curve predicted on the basis of the proposed

model

PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 3

B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture

Figure 1 shows that the initial stress o

0

is very small

relative to peak stress o

p

. Thus, equation (3) was

expressed as

o

WHDRV

o

p

1 expC

m

4

The coecient C and WH exponent m are dependent on

strain rate and temperature. Thus, C and m are consid-

ered to be a function of the dimensionless parameter

Z,A represented by the equation [8, 9]

Z

A

_

A

exp

Q

RT

5

where R, A and Q denote the gas constant, material-

dependent constant and activation energy for defor-

mation respectively. The peak stress o

p

is dependent

on the non-dimensional parameter Z/A with the

form

o

p

c u ln

Z

A

6

where c and u are material constants.

2.2.3 Flow stress softening due to dynamic

recrystallization

For the region of DRX, the drop in ow stress can be

expressed by the equation

o

DRX

o

p

o

ss

X

DRX

X

p

1 X

7

where X

p

represents the volume fraction of DRX at

peak strain,

p

(the corresponding stress is o

p

), while

X

DRX

, which is the volume fraction of dynamically

recrystallized grains, can be expressed as

X

DRX

1 exp

m

0

8

Equation (8), which is a modied form based on the

Avramis equation [5], means that X

DRX

depends on

the strain for maximum softening rate,

, as well as

the coecient m

0

, the critical strain

c

and applied

strain . These parameters

,

c

and m

0

are also depen-

dent on the deformation conditions expressed by the

dimensionless parameter Z/A [see equation (5)]. Since

the DRX is a continuous process of deformation,

nucleation of grains and subsequent migration of grain

boundaries, X

DRX

increases with increasing strain. As

the strain increases, X

DRX

reaches a constant value, 100

per cent. At X

DRX

100 per cent, the ow stress

reaches a steady state, denoted by o

ss

. The steady state

stress o

ss

is dependent on the non-dimensional parameter

Z/A:

o

ss

c ln

Z

A

9

where and c are material constants.

Based on the stressstrain curve in Fig. 1, the various

material constants in equations (4)(9) were obtained.

The results are summarized in Table 2.

3 FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION

A three-dimensional Eulerian nite element model was

adopted for the analysis of the steady state rigid visco-

plastic deformation occurring in the roll gap. A short

outline of the numerical analysis is summarized in

Table 2 The material parameters of AISI 316 stainless steel obtained from torsion tests

Items Equations

ZenerHollomon parameter Z,A _ expQ,RT,8.14 10

14

y

, R 8.314

Volume fraction of DRX X

DRX

1 expf

c

,

g

m

0

c

0.24Z,A

0.057

p

0.52Z,A

0.092

0.73Z,A

0.124

m

0

1.258Z,A

0.04

Flow stress o

WHDRV

o

p

1 expC

m

o

DRX

o

p

o

ss

X

DRX

X

p

,1 X

p

,

0,

p

<

p

oo o

WHDRV

o

DRX

C 4.86Z,A

0.028

m 0.177Z,A

0.0736

o

p

105 17.95 lnZ,A

o

ss

82.5 12.53 lnZ,A

y

According to McQueen and Ryan [11], it was 460 kJ/mol.

4 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004

Table 3 and more details may be found in reference [13].

Among these equations, the constitutive equation is

changed with the material to be used in the analysis

and generally represented by a function dependent on

strain, strain rate and temperature. In this investigation,

the specic form was suggested by equations (2)(9).

A steady state approach inherently requires a scheme

for the prediction of the boundary of the analysis

domain, or free surface. In this paper, an iterative

scheme in which the free surface is corrected on the

basis of the newly traced streamlines is adopted.

3.1 Streamline tracing

A neighbouring position

i 1

on a streamline which is

suciently close to

i

on the upstream part of the

same streamline can be given approximately by

i 1

i

v

i

t

i

10

t

i

s

v

i

s

11

where v

i

denotes the local velocity vector at

i

dened in

normalized elemental coordinates . j , v

i

s

denotes

its magnitude and

s

denotes a marching step size.

Using equations (10) and (11), starting from a given

point at the inlet cross-section, an entire streamline

may be traced by sequentially predicting the nal posi-

tions in all the elements through which the streamlines

pass.

3.2 Free-surface correction

The free surface generated by the newly traced stream-

lines often violates the fundamental requirements that

a portion of the free surface should be in contact with

the roll and that the free surface should not intersect

the roll. In order to meet these requirements, a projection

scheme is employed in which the primitive new stream-

lines are iteratively moved to the direction minimizing

the distance between the roll surface position on the

old streamline and the corresponding new contact

position to be corrected. As a result, the new corrected

surface streamline, or free surface, is produced with a

Table 3 Boundary value problem and variational equation for rigid viscoplastic deformation

Boundary value problem Find the velocity eld u

i

satisfying the following:

Equilibrium equation o

i j, j

f

i

0

Flow rule o

i j

pc

i j

o

0

i j

o

0

i j

2 oo

3

_

_

0

i j

Constitutive equation oo f ,

_

, T

y

Incompressibility u

i.i

0

Boundary conditions o

i j

n

j

h

i

on 1

h

i

u

i

uu

i

on 1

u

i

o

n

2

u

n

u

D

n

on 1

c

o

t

jo

n

gu on 1

c

where g is the special function to be selected so as to deal with both

sticking and sliding frictions [12].

Variational equation Among all the velocity elds u

i

satisfying prescribed boundary conditions,

nd u

i

satisfying the following variational equation for arbitrary functions

.

i

(that vanishes on 1

u

i

):

1

o

0

i j

.

0

i j

d1

1

_

kk

.

ii

d1

1

f

i

.

i

d1

X

i

1

h

i

h

i

.

i

d1

1

c

2

u

n

u

D

n

.

n

d1

1

c

j

2

u

n

u

D

n

gu.

t

d1 0

where .

i j

.

i, j

.

j, i

,2 and .

0

i j

.

i j

.

kk

,3c

i j

Finite element approximation u

i

and .

i

are approximated by

u

i

N

iL

V

L

.

i

N

iL

W

L

where N

iL

are the nite element basis functions, and V

L

and W

L

denote u

i

and .

i

respectively evaluated at nodal point L. Substituting these

equations into the variation equation above results in a set of non-linear

algebraic equations that may be solved for V

L

either by the direct iteration

method or by the NewtonRhaphson method.

y

T denotes the deforming temperature reecting deformation heating.

PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 5

B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture

portion in contact with the roll. Details regarding these

schemes may be found in reference [14].

4 EXPERIMENT

4.1 Rolling equipment

As shown in Fig. 3, a single-stand two-high laboratory

mill was employed, driven by a 1200 kW constant-

torque d.c. motor with a maximum rolling speed of

150 m/min. Ductile casting iron rolls were used, with a

720 mm maximum diameter and a 500 mm face width.

A box-type furnace with a maximum working tempera-

ture of 1450 8C was employed to heat the specimens to

the desired rolling temperature.

4.2 Specimen preparation

The materials were obtained in the form of as-cast billet

160 mm square. The specimens to be rolled were cut and

machined into rectangular bars 30 mm thick, 150 mm

wide and 300 mm long. To study the eect of the ratio

of the specimen size to the work roll diameter, specimens

20 mm thick, 150 mm wide and 300 mm long were also

machined.

4.3 Experimental procedure

In order to measure the rolling temperature of the

workpiece, a thermocouple (type K) of 1.6 mm diameter

was embedded in a hole 75 mm deep drilled in the

middle side of the specimen (see Fig. 3). The specimens

were soaked at 1160 8C for 40 min to ensure a homo-

geneous temperature distribution. When they were

taken out of the furnace and the centre temperature of

specimens reached 1100 8C (target temperature), the

tests started.

5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.1 Comparison between the proposed and the Misaka

Yoshimoto constitutive model

Figure 4 shows that the stressstrain curves predicted

using the proposed constitutive model are in agreement

with the experimentally measured curves. Thus, it can be

deduced that the approach to obtain a constitutive

model applicable to large strain ranges was successful

and this proposed equation might have the potential to

be used for the analysis of the hot-rolling process where

a more precise calculation of stress and subsequently

roll force decrement due to DRX is important. However,

it is noted that there are problems in application of the

model to the rolling process due to the dierence between

the deformation conditions for rolling and torsion. Never-

theless, many research groups have successfully adopted

the torsion-based DRX model to analyse the DRX of

materials subject to rolling [11, 15, 16].

Figure 5 shows the measured and predicted ow stress

curves when the two dierent constitutive models are

used for prediction. The ow stress curves calculated

using the proposed model agree with the measured

curves with some error, while the curves obtained from

the MisakaYoshimoto model are available in the

small-strain range only.

5.2 Roll forces

To investigate the eect of the constitutive model on the

prediction of the roll force, the proposed model and

the MisakaYoshimoto model were incorporated into

the nite element program. The nite element simula-

tions were conducted under the same condition as

those under which the rolling experiment was carried

out. The experimental conditions are described in the

Table 4.

Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of a single-stand two-high laboratory mill

6 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004

Figure 6 illustrates the predicted and experimentally

measured roll forces when the entrance thicknesses are

30 and 20 mm. While the dierences between the pro-

posed model-based roll forces and the measured data

are insignicant in the total range of reduction, the

results from the MisakaYoshimoto model have been

shown to be up to 21 per cent higher. In heavy reduction,

the drop in the accuracy of the MisakaYoshimoto

model compared with the proposed model is attributed

to the absence of the model of ow stress softening due

to DRX.

5.3 Eect of rolling temperature on roll force, torque and

deformation

The eect of the rolling temperature on roll force, torque

and deformation is investigated for four reduction ratios

of 40, 50, 60 and 70 per cent. The process conditions are

summarized in Table 5.

Figure 7 shows that the roll force and torque increase

with an increase in reduction ratios and a decrease in

rolling temperature for both the MisakaYoshimoto

and proposed constitutive model. While the dierences

due to the two constitutive models are negligible for 40

per cent reduction, the results from the MisakaYoshi-

moto model have been shown to be up to 32.2 per cent

(1100 8C) higher in the roll force and up to 19.6 per

cent (1100 8C) higher in the torque compared with the

proposed model when the reduction is 70 per cent. It is

also noted that these deviations between two models

decrease as the rolling temperature decreases, up to

21.7 per cent (900 8C) for the roll force and up to 12.1

per cent (900 8C) for the roll torque. This indicates that

the eect of recrystallization on the ow stress is more

considerable at higher rolling temperatures.

Figures 8, 9 and 10 illustrate the distributions of eec-

tive strain , peak strain

p

and ow stress softening

o

DRX

for the two reduction ratios of 40 and 70 per cent

as well as the two rolling temperatures of 1100 and

900 8C. These gures indicate that ow stress softening

occurs in the region where the magnitude of eective

strain is larger than that of peak strain, as seen in

Fig. 4 The measured data and predicted stressstrain curves

on the basis of the proposed model under various

strain rates at (a) 1000 8C and (b) 1100 8C

Fig. 5 Comparison between two constitutive models together

with measured data at 1000 8C and 0.5 s

1

and at

1100 8C and 0.5 s

1

Table 4 The process conditions under which the experimental

rolling was carried out

Entrance

Entrance rolling Roll Roll

thickness Reduction temperature diameter speed

(mm) (%) (8C) (mm) (m/min)

30 30 1040 720 120

40 1040

50 1088

65 1049

20 30 1008 720 120

40 1034

50 1044

PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 7

B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture

equation (2). They also explain the reason why a substan-

tial improvement could be made regarding the prediction

of roll force as well as roll torque when the proposed con-

stitutive model is used instead of the MisakaYoshimoto

model.

The eective strain distributions are shown in Fig. 8 at

dierent rolling temperatures and reduction ratios. It

demonstrates that the eective strain increases with

increase in the reduction ratio and with decrease in

the rolling temperature. At a typical reduction ratio,

the calculated maximum strain is less than one over the

entire domain of the analysis, indicating that recrystalli-

zation is unlikely whereas, at a heavy-reduction ratio,

the maximum eective strain is about 410 at the outer

part of the delivery cross-section and about up to 2 at

the mid-plane, indicating that DRX would be complete

at the roll gap.

To judge quantitatively whether recrystallization may

occur, however, the peak strain

p

must be considered, as

shown in Fig. 9. Regardless of reduction and tempera-

ture, it is seen that peak strain always occurs in the roll

bite region and around the neutral cross-sectional

Fig. 6 Comparison of measured and predicted roll force for AISI 316 stainless steel when the entry thick-

nesses are (a) 30 mm and (b) 20 mm

8 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004

Table 5 Process conditions used in simulations (roll speed, 120 m/min; roll diameter, 720 mm)

Simulation

case number Constitutive model

Entrance

thickness (mm)

Rolling

temperature (8C)

Reduction

ratio (%)

Friction

coecient

1 (2) Proposed model (MisakaYoshimoto model) 30 1100 40 0.3104

3 (4) 50

5 (6) 60

7 (8) 70

9 (10) Proposed model (MisakaYoshimoto model) 30 900 40 0.3904

11 (12) 50

13 (14) 60

15 (16) 70

The equivalent friction coecient dependent on the rolling temperature and velocity. The formula for the equivalent friction coecient

is expressed as [17]

j c1.05 0.0005T 0.056v

where c is the ratio of the coecient of slipping to gripping friction, which is taken to be equal to 0.8 to t the present case of rolling.

Fig. 7 Variations in (a) roll force and (b) roll torque with reduction and rolling temperature

PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 9

B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture

Fig. 8 Eective strain distributions at rolling temperatures of (a) 1100 8C and (b) 900 8C

Fig. 9 Peak strain distributions at rolling temperatures of (a) 1100 8C (b) 900 8C

10 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004

plane. Comparison between the eective strain distribu-

tion and the peak strain distribution can be made to

investigate the region where the eective strain exceeds

the peak strain. At the commonly used reduction (40

per cent), no such regions are found while, at the

higher reduction ratios, regions satisfying this condition

occur over most of the roll gap and delivery side, indicat-

ing that ow stress softening occurs.

Figure 10 shows the ow stress softening o

DRX

distri-

butions resulting from the two cases of reduction and

rolling temperature. At the commonly used reduction,

as expected, there is no observable ow stress softening

region in roll gap, which aects the solution accuracy

of roll force and torque whereas, at heavy reductions,

it is shown that o

DRX

in the roll gap is considerable,

which demonstrates the importance of incorporating

the DRX eect in predictions of the roll force and

torque in heavy-reduction hot rolling.

From these distributions, it can be expected that the

cross-section of the plate might have a crown (or

convex shape) because the maximum stress exists in the

middle of width. If the ow stress softening eect is not

accounted for in the prediction of contact stress at roll

gap, it overestimates the crown shape of the plate

cross-section, leading to a poor rolling set-up. Therefore,

it is suggested that the constitutive model with the ow

stress softening eect is essential for an appropriate set-

up of the bender force and roll gap to gain the desired

crown as well as thickness of plate.

6 CONCLUDING REMARKS

In this paper, a large-strain constitutive model of AISI

316 steel for the prediction of roll force and torque in

heavy-reduction hot rolling is presented. In the model,

the strong correlations at heavy reduction between

DRX, strain, strain rate and temperature have been

dealt with in a more rigorous manner. To verify the

model, the nite element predictions incorporated in

the constitutive model have been compared with the

experimentally measured data. The results showed

good accuracy in roll force, regardless of reduction.

The model has then been applied to study the eect of

rolling temperature as well as reduction.

It has been demonstrated that the ow stress softening

of the workpiece at the roll gap is the most critical

parameter that inuences the solution accuracy for the

roll force at heavy reduction. The proposed model in

the present investigation might serve as a stepping

Fig. 10 Flow stress softening distributions due to recrystallization at rolling temperatures at (a) 1100 8C and

(b) 900 8C

PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 11

B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture

stone towards developing an integrated analysis for roll

prole design and roll-gap set-up in heavy-reduction

plate rolling.

REFERENCES

1 Misaka, Y. and Yoshimoto, T. Formulation of mean

resistance of deformation of plain carbon steel at elevated

temperature. J. Jap. Soc. Tech. Plast., 19678, 8, 414422.

2 Johnson, G. R. and Cook, W. H. A constitutive model and

data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates

and high temperatures. In Proceedings of the 7th Inter-

national Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, The Nether-

lands, 1983, pp. 541547.

3 Meyers, M. A., Andrade, U. R. and Chokshi, A. H. The

eect of grain size on the high-strain, high-strain-rate

behavior of copper. Metall. Trans. A, 1995, 26, 28812893.

4 Laasraoui, A. and Jonas, J. J. Prediction of steel ow

stresses at high temperature and strain rates. Metall.

Trans. A, 1991, 22, 15451558.

5 Avrami, M. Kinetics of phase change. I: general theory.

J. Chem. Physics, 1939, 7, 11031112.

6 Voce, E. The relationship between stress and strain for

homogeneous deformation. J. Inst. Metals, 1948, 74, 537

562.

7 Fields, D. S. and Backofen, W. A. Strain hardening in

aluminum alloy. Trans. Am. Soc. Metals, 1959, 51, 946.

8 Sellars, C. M. and Tegart, W. J. McG. Relationship

between strength and structure in deformation at elevated

temperatures. Mem. Scient. Revue Metall., 1966, 63, 731

745.

9 Hernandez, C. A., Medina, S. F. and Ruiz, J. Modelling

austenite ow curves in low alloy and microalloyed steels.

Acta Mater., 1996, 44, 155163.

10 Kim, S. I., Lee, Y., Lee, D. L. and Yoo, Y. C. Modeling of

AGS and recrystallized fraction of microalloyed medium

carbon steel during hot deformation. Mater. Sci. Engng,

2003, A355, 384393.

11 McQueen, H. J. and Ryan, N. D. Constitutive analysis in

hot working, Mater. Sci. Engng, 2002, A322, 4363.

12 Chen, C. C. and Kobayashi, S. Rigid plastic nite element

analysis of ring compression. In Applications of Numerical

Methods to Forming Processes, 1978, AMD-Vol. 28, p. 163

(American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York).

13 Byon, S. M. and Hwang, S. M. FEM-based process optimal

design in steady-state metal forming considering strain-

hardening. Computers Struct., 2001, 79, 13631375.

14 Kim, H. J., Kim, T. H. and Hwang, S. M. A new free surface

scheme for analysis of plastic deformation in shape rolling.

J. Mater. Processing Technol., 2000, 104, 8193.

15 Beynon, J. H. and Sellars, C. M. Modeling microstructure

and its eects during multi-pass hot rolling. Iron Steel

Inst. Japan Int., 1992, 32, 359367.

16 Wong, S. F., Hodgson, P. D. and Thomson, P. F. Compar-

ison of torsion and plane-strain compression for predicting

mean yield strength in single and multiple-pass at rolling

using lead to model hot steel. J. Mater. Processing Technol.,

1995, 53, 601616.

17 Tselikov, A. I., Nikitin, G. S. and Rokotyan, S. E. The

Theory of Lengthwise Rolling, 1981 (Mir, Moscow).

12 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004

- What is Mechanical PropertiesHochgeladen vonrazvan65
- Hot Rolled vs Cold RolledHochgeladen vonsansagith
- Rolling TechnologyHochgeladen vonFrancis Erwin Bernard
- Pickled and Oiled Steel CoilsHochgeladen vonX800XL
- Lec10 StrengthHochgeladen vonakmalnurnabilah
- P001enHochgeladen vonsiva_nagesh_2
- 2.2 Metal FormingHochgeladen vonMichael Kearney
- MS 2002 Cold Rolling Mill Speed OptimizationHochgeladen vonSurajit Gupta
- 1st lectuer mechanical properties of material.pdfHochgeladen vonMohamed Elmaadawy
- 11 energy methodsHochgeladen vontigin
- Finite deformation special cases 2013 04 11.pdfHochgeladen vondaskhago
- Appendix 1 Part 3 Liquid Penetrant Inspector 5th Edition February2016Hochgeladen vonWagnerTarossi
- Slides.pptHochgeladen vonSyahril Syafiq
- Steel Research Int. 79 (2008) 440 Strip CastingHochgeladen vonSanin Mudzelet
- A1018A1018M.31646Hochgeladen vonsyed hamed hussain
- ME 227 Lecture 1Hochgeladen vonRajib Debnath
- Strain Rate Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Metallic Honeycombs Under Out-Of-Plane Dynamic CompressionHochgeladen vonSri Pup
- 5do_11_1Hochgeladen vonDipanjan Nath
- Characterization for Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics Based on Stress-Strain CurvesHochgeladen vonFederico Luis Miguel
- Mechanics of Solids IHochgeladen vonїэasħaŗ ēŗ.ďuηĭyą
- Mechanics of SolidHochgeladen vonasghar
- Solid 65Hochgeladen vonFABIAN FIENGO
- SelectionHochgeladen vonSaira Binte Salek
- AAS 2015 PRESENTATIONHochgeladen vonAlec Hitchman
- Lecture i1 NewHochgeladen vonAlan Giron
- AbstractHochgeladen vonprk74
- Fine Grains Forming Process, Mechanism of Fine Grain Formation and Properties of Superalloy 718Hochgeladen vonJhon
- Moment–Curvature Relationship of Flexure-dominated Walls With PartiallyHochgeladen vonabraham_cea9076
- ujms.2013.010204Hochgeladen vonEduardo Degalez
- A Coupled Distinct Element—Finite Element Method for Large Deformation Analysis of Rock MassesHochgeladen vonali

- A125.pdfHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- NEW CHART 01.11.2014.docHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- Presentation 18.08.10.pptHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- Chemical Analysis by Volumetric MethodHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- QTR Operation 27.09.10.pptHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- WL_00200_5_T6-8_de_enHochgeladen vonrwva20
- Calculate Bearing Life (Timken)Hochgeladen vonjacksonholland8335
- Design and Development of a Composite Roll for Hot Rolling ApplicationHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- Improving the Reliability and Performance of Bar Mill Rolling Stand Spindles - AHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- Production Capacity of the Mill-2Hochgeladen vonSimul Das
- Lyrics of Aje Dhaker Tale Komor DoleHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- About Fume Extraction SystemHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- The Rolling Mill Industry; A Condensed, General Description of Iron and Steel Rolling Mills and Their ProductsHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- Thermal Energy EquipmentHochgeladen vonSimul Das
- 7. Capital Budgeting-New EditionHochgeladen vonSimul Das

- Ti-46-48)Al-2W high temperature - zener Hollomon parameter.pdfHochgeladen vonEidelsayed
- safdsdfHochgeladen vonAnon
- Heat Treatment Mechanical Properties Aluminium Alloy 6066Hochgeladen vonkkrgopi
- CHAPTER 4Hochgeladen vonAbd.ul.Rahman
- Effect of Freezing Point and Texture Regulating Parameters on the Initial Ice Crystal Growth in Ice CreamHochgeladen vonJohn Barry
- effect of heat treatment on filiform corrosion of aluminum alloy AA3005Hochgeladen vonJustin Dixon
- The Effect of Ageing on Microstructure and Mechanical PropertiesHochgeladen vonalfredberger
- ATI Allegheny Ludlum’s Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels AreHochgeladen vonlaith76
- Ch-27.1 Basic Concepts on Structure of SolidsHochgeladen vonVinit Khaiwal
- Material Process Technology.pdfHochgeladen vonFongJeremy
- Aluminium AlloysHochgeladen vonArg Sreekar
- Aluminum Alloys, Theory & Application_2011Hochgeladen vonAhmadreza Aminian
- 11-12 Perlakuan PanasHochgeladen vonRina Oktapiani
- Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HSLA-100 SteelHochgeladen vonwildfire142
- FinalHochgeladen vonEr Dinesh Tambe
- A Comparative Study of the Mechanical Properties of High-strength Β-titanium AlloysHochgeladen vonMárcia Silva
- meja2015Hochgeladen vonCésar Castañeda
- metalHochgeladen vonbobcrysto
- Constitutive Equation for AISI4140 Steel Applicable to a Wide Range of Strain Rates at Elevated TemperaturesHochgeladen vonWinston Sequeira
- Note Chp 3 material science 281 uitm em110Hochgeladen vonbino_rye
- Lecture 1Hochgeladen vonAmit Mondal
- MEE272 Practice QuestionsHochgeladen vonBakare
- Lab 7 Cold Work Annealing Sp2011Hochgeladen vonRob Carter
- 00. Form Ability Od A8011 Aluminium Alloy SheetHochgeladen vonwojciechsciezor
- 7 MEEG217 M4 Metal FormingHochgeladen vonRajan Karki
- Chapter 07 AviHochgeladen vonanton_deocampo
- Ch 01Hochgeladen vonchaitanyachegg
- Physical Metallurgy of the Thermo Mechanical ProcessingHochgeladen vonpritzelpdf
- The Effect of Microstructure on Mechanical Properties of Forged 6061 Aluminum AlloyHochgeladen vonThomas Lakas
- Lecture 7_forming and Shaping ProcessesHochgeladen vonAhmed Mujtaba

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.