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Predictions of roll force under heavy-reduction hot

rolling using a large-deformation constitutive model


S M Byon
1
*
, S I Kim
2
and Y Lee
1
1
Rolling Technology and Process Control Research Group, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gyeongbuk,
Korea
2
Automotive Steel Products Research Group, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Kwangyang, Korea
Abstract: A large-deformation constitutive model applicable to the calculation of roll force and torque
in heavy-reduction rolling has been presented. The concept of the volume fraction of dynamically
recrystallized grains, which depicts the ow stress softening correctly with the level of strain, strain
rate and temperature has been newly introduced in the proposed model. The material constants
required in the proposed model have been obtained by a series of hot-torsion tests.
A laboratory-scale hot-plate rolling experiment, together with three-dimensional nite element
analysis coupled with the proposed model, has been performed to investigate the accuracy of the
proposed constitutive model. The soundness of the proposed model has been demonstrated through
a series of nite element simulations with temperature and reduction changed.
The nite element predictions of roll force based on the proposed model and the experimental results
was shown to be in fair agreement whereas those based on the MisakaYoshimoto model, in which
dynamic recrystallization was not considered, failed to predict the roll force precisely at heavy
reduction. The results also revealed that, for a typical reduction, the ow stress softening eect was
not observed during deformation, whereas the eect was considerable when the material underwent
heavy reduction.
Keywords: constitutive model, dynamic recrystallization, nite element analysis, heavy reduction, hot
rolling, roll force
NOTATION
f
i
body force
h
i
surface traction vector
n outward unit normal vector at rollworkpiece
interface
p hydrostatic pressure
T temperature
u
i
, u velocity vector
uu
i
prescribed velocity vector
u
D
i
tool velocity vector
u
n
normal component of u
i
u
D
n
normal component of u
D
i
c
i j
Kronecker delta
eective strain (one-dimensional strain)
_
_ eective strain rate (one-dimensional strain rate)
_
i j
strain rate tensor
_
0
i j
deviatoric strain rate tensor
j coecient of Coulomb friction

1
,
2
penalty constant
o
i j
stress tensor
o
0
i j
deviatoric stress tensor
o
n
normal component of surface traction
o
t
tangential component of surface traction
oo ow stress of the material
1 INTRODUCTION
In hot rolling, there are many cases in which heavy
reduction is required to improve productivity and to
produce grain renement. As a result, local strains in
the deformed body reach much higher than, say, 1.0
and the material experiences dynamic recrystallization
(DRX) during rolling. Hence, a constitutive model
taking into account such large strain and DRX has
been in great demand by process designers to compute
roll force and torque at each stand, which is one of the
crucial factors in designing the roll pass schedule.
1
B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture
The MS was received on 17 November 2003 and was accepted after
revision for publication on 18 February 2004.
*
Corresponding author: Rolling Technologies and Process Control
Research Group, POSCO, Technical Research Laboratories, 1 Goedong-
Dong, Nam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785, Korea.
Paper B22503
Several research groups have attempted to develop
constitutive models of materials and suggested their own
formulations. Misaka and Yoshimoto [1] proposed a
constitutive model as a function of temperature, natural
strain (reduction), strain rate and carbon content to
calculate the mean resistance of deformation, which is
an average value of the ow stress. The ranges of applica-
tion of this formula are as follows: carbon content, up to
1.2 per cent; temperature, 75012008C; strain, up to 0.5;
strain rate, 30200s
1
. The equation might be useful for
practical purposes but the range of strains is quite limited
and DRX was not considered. Johnson and Cook [2]
developed a constitutive model which assumes that the
dependence of the stress on the strain, strain rate and
temperature can be multiplicatively decomposed into
three separate functions that include ve constants to be
determined by experimental data obtained for a specic
material. Hence, the ranges of temperature, strain and
strain rate are not limited but the eect of DRX on ow
stress was not included. Meyers et al. [3] modied the
JohnsonCook equation to incorporate DRX at higher
temperatures by measuring the temperature-initiated
DRX. However, description of the critical strain which
triggers DRX was missing.
Laasraoui and Jonas [4] suggested a constitutive
model to describe DRX expressed by the Avrami equa-
tion [5] and used dislocation theory to describe the
strain-hardening behaviour. However, the rate constant
of DRX was not expressed systematically in terms of
strain rate and temperature. Furthermore, the eect of
DRX on metal ow was rarely taken into account,
which could aect the accuracy of solution substantially,
especially at high strain levels.
In this study, a constitutive model for AISI 316 is
presented which experiences large strain at elevated
temperatures and subsequently DRX during deforma-
tion, on the basis of the Voce work-hardening (WH)
model [6]. Three-dimensional nite element analysis
coupled with the proposed constitutive models has
been carried out to calculate workpiece deformation
and the rolling force. The accuracy of the proposed
constitutive model of the steel has been demonstrated
by comparing experimentally measured roll forces
with predicted values when the steel undergoes a large
strain at elevated temperatures. A series of numerical
simulations has then been performed to understand
better the ow stress behaviour and to investigate the
eect of the distribution of softening on the roll-gap
prole when temperature and reduction in a given pass
are changed.
2 CONSTITUTIVE MODEL
2.1 Flow stress behaviour
Hot-torsion tests were conducted to investigate the
eects of temperature and strain rate on the ow stress
of AISI 316 steel in the temperature range 1000
1200 8C and strain rate range 5 10
2
5 10
0
s
1
. The
chemical composition of the steel is presented in
Table 1. Torsion test specimens were machined with a
gauge section of 20 mm length and 5 mm radius. The
specimen was heated to the desired temperature using
radiation from halogen lamps inside the furnace and
held for 3 min to produce a uniform distribution of
temperature across the specimen. The grain size of speci-
mens annealed at 1200 8C for 5 min before deformation
was approximately 90 mm.
Among the various results of torsion tests in the
experimental range above, Fig. 1 typically shows the
measured stressstrain curves at dierent strain rates at
constant temperatures of 1000 and 1100 8C. The
FieldsBackofen equation [7] was used to calculate the
surface shear stress from the torque. The general charac-
teristics of the ow stress curve are similar to those of
typical characteristics observed in many steels, which
undergo DRX [8, 9]. The ow stress curve exhibits a
broad peak that is dierent from the plateau and reaches
a steady state. The change in ow stress is attributed to
the evolution of microstructure through DRX. Thus,
the evolution of DRX can be analysed from the slope
of ow curve which manifests the rate of WH. The
onset and nish of DRX and the strain for maximum
rate of softening can be determined from the inection
points of WH ratestrain curves or WH ratestress
curves [10].
2.2 Formulation
2.2.1 The MisakaYoshimoto model
The MisakaYoshimoto model [1] has generally been
used in the analysis of the hot-rolling process in the
steel-making industry because of conciseness in formula-
tion and ease of determining the material-dependent
constants. It is expressed as
oo c
1

n
_
m
exp

c
2
T

1
where c
1
, c
2
, n and m are material constants tted from
Table 1 The chemical composition of AISI 316 stainless steel
Element C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo P S Fe
Amount (%) 0.08 2.00 1.00 17.2 11.8 2.3 0.045 0.030 Balance
2 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004
experimental data. The values of these constants were
found to be 51.7382, 1530.87, 0.2508 and 0.0525 respec-
tively through extensive tests. The MisakaYoshimoto
model, however, does not take into account DRX and
therefore cannot depict the ow stress softening when
the material undergoes a large strain at high tempera-
tures.
2.2.2 Proposed model
In this study, a constitutive model for predicting soften-
ing of AISI 316 is proposed by introducing a function
describing the volume fraction of dynamically recrystal-
lized grains into the Voce WH model [6].
The important metallurgical phenomena occuring
during hot deformation of steel are WH, dynamic
recovery (DRV) and DRX. Thus, the ow stress curve
can be divided into the regions of WHDRV and
DRX, as shown schematically in Figs 2a and b. During
deformation, the ow stress decreases from the peak
stress o
p
to the steady state stress o
ss
with increasing
strain.
c
represents the critical strain for initiating
DRX. The peak strain
p
plays the role of judging
whether DRX is active or not. In this study, it is pro-
posed that the ow stress behaviour oo can be described
by the following two functions depending on strain:
oo
o
WHDRV
o
WHDRV
o
DRX
at <
p
at
p
(
2
In what follows, the procedure for setting up the two
functions is described in detail.
For the WHDRV region, the generalized Voce
equation has been proposed as
o o
0
o
p
o
0
1 expC
m
3
Fig. 1 Representative ow stress curves obtained from hot-
torsion test of AISI 316 stainless steel under various
strain rates at (a) 1000 8C and (b) 1100 8C
Fig. 2 (a) Illustration of the stressstrain curve for steel which
displays DRX and (b) the measured data and stress
strain curve predicted on the basis of the proposed
model
PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 3
B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture
Figure 1 shows that the initial stress o
0
is very small
relative to peak stress o
p
. Thus, equation (3) was
expressed as
o
WHDRV
o
p
1 expC
m
4
The coecient C and WH exponent m are dependent on
strain rate and temperature. Thus, C and m are consid-
ered to be a function of the dimensionless parameter
Z,A represented by the equation [8, 9]
Z
A

_
A
exp

Q
RT

5
where R, A and Q denote the gas constant, material-
dependent constant and activation energy for defor-
mation respectively. The peak stress o
p
is dependent
on the non-dimensional parameter Z/A with the
form
o
p
c u ln

Z
A

6
where c and u are material constants.
2.2.3 Flow stress softening due to dynamic
recrystallization
For the region of DRX, the drop in ow stress can be
expressed by the equation
o
DRX
o
p
o
ss

X
DRX
X

p
1 X

7
where X

p
represents the volume fraction of DRX at
peak strain,
p
(the corresponding stress is o
p
), while
X
DRX
, which is the volume fraction of dynamically
recrystallized grains, can be expressed as
X
DRX
1 exp

m
0
8
Equation (8), which is a modied form based on the
Avramis equation [5], means that X
DRX
depends on
the strain for maximum softening rate,

, as well as
the coecient m
0
, the critical strain
c
and applied
strain . These parameters

,
c
and m
0
are also depen-
dent on the deformation conditions expressed by the
dimensionless parameter Z/A [see equation (5)]. Since
the DRX is a continuous process of deformation,
nucleation of grains and subsequent migration of grain
boundaries, X
DRX
increases with increasing strain. As
the strain increases, X
DRX
reaches a constant value, 100
per cent. At X
DRX
100 per cent, the ow stress
reaches a steady state, denoted by o
ss
. The steady state
stress o
ss
is dependent on the non-dimensional parameter
Z/A:
o
ss
c ln

Z
A

9
where and c are material constants.
Based on the stressstrain curve in Fig. 1, the various
material constants in equations (4)(9) were obtained.
The results are summarized in Table 2.
3 FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION
A three-dimensional Eulerian nite element model was
adopted for the analysis of the steady state rigid visco-
plastic deformation occurring in the roll gap. A short
outline of the numerical analysis is summarized in
Table 2 The material parameters of AISI 316 stainless steel obtained from torsion tests
Items Equations
ZenerHollomon parameter Z,A _ expQ,RT,8.14 10
14

Q 414 000 J,mol


y
, R 8.314
Volume fraction of DRX X
DRX
1 expf
c
,

g
m
0

c
0.24Z,A
0.057

p
0.52Z,A
0.092

0.73Z,A
0.124
m
0
1.258Z,A
0.04
Flow stress o
WHDRV
o
p
1 expC
m
o
DRX

o
p
o
ss
X
DRX
X

p
,1 X

p
,
0,

p
<
p
oo o
WHDRV
o
DRX
C 4.86Z,A
0.028
m 0.177Z,A
0.0736
o
p
105 17.95 lnZ,A
o
ss
82.5 12.53 lnZ,A
y
According to McQueen and Ryan [11], it was 460 kJ/mol.
4 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004
Table 3 and more details may be found in reference [13].
Among these equations, the constitutive equation is
changed with the material to be used in the analysis
and generally represented by a function dependent on
strain, strain rate and temperature. In this investigation,
the specic form was suggested by equations (2)(9).
A steady state approach inherently requires a scheme
for the prediction of the boundary of the analysis
domain, or free surface. In this paper, an iterative
scheme in which the free surface is corrected on the
basis of the newly traced streamlines is adopted.
3.1 Streamline tracing
A neighbouring position
i 1
on a streamline which is
suciently close to
i
on the upstream part of the
same streamline can be given approximately by

i 1

i
v
i
t
i
10
t
i


s
v
i
s
11
where v
i
denotes the local velocity vector at
i
dened in
normalized elemental coordinates . j , v
i
s
denotes
its magnitude and
s
denotes a marching step size.
Using equations (10) and (11), starting from a given
point at the inlet cross-section, an entire streamline
may be traced by sequentially predicting the nal posi-
tions in all the elements through which the streamlines
pass.
3.2 Free-surface correction
The free surface generated by the newly traced stream-
lines often violates the fundamental requirements that
a portion of the free surface should be in contact with
the roll and that the free surface should not intersect
the roll. In order to meet these requirements, a projection
scheme is employed in which the primitive new stream-
lines are iteratively moved to the direction minimizing
the distance between the roll surface position on the
old streamline and the corresponding new contact
position to be corrected. As a result, the new corrected
surface streamline, or free surface, is produced with a
Table 3 Boundary value problem and variational equation for rigid viscoplastic deformation
Boundary value problem Find the velocity eld u
i
satisfying the following:
Equilibrium equation o
i j, j
f
i
0
Flow rule o
i j
pc
i j
o
0
i j
o
0
i j

2 oo
3
_

_
0
i j
Constitutive equation oo f ,
_
, T
y
Incompressibility u
i.i
0
Boundary conditions o
i j
n
j
h
i
on 1
h
i
u
i
uu
i
on 1
u
i
o
n

2
u
n
u
D
n
on 1
c
o
t
jo
n
gu on 1
c
where g is the special function to be selected so as to deal with both
sticking and sliding frictions [12].
Variational equation Among all the velocity elds u
i
satisfying prescribed boundary conditions,
nd u
i
satisfying the following variational equation for arbitrary functions
.
i
(that vanishes on 1
u
i
):

1
o
0
i j
.
0
i j
d1

1
_
kk
.
ii
d1

1
f
i
.
i
d1
X
i

1
h
i
h
i
.
i
d1

1
c

2
u
n
u
D
n
.
n
d1

1
c
j
2
u
n
u
D
n
gu.
t
d1 0
where .
i j
.
i, j
.
j, i
,2 and .
0
i j
.
i j
.
kk
,3c
i j
Finite element approximation u
i
and .
i
are approximated by
u
i
N
iL
V
L
.
i
N
iL
W
L
where N
iL
are the nite element basis functions, and V
L
and W
L
denote u
i
and .
i
respectively evaluated at nodal point L. Substituting these
equations into the variation equation above results in a set of non-linear
algebraic equations that may be solved for V
L
either by the direct iteration
method or by the NewtonRhaphson method.
y
T denotes the deforming temperature reecting deformation heating.
PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 5
B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture
portion in contact with the roll. Details regarding these
schemes may be found in reference [14].
4 EXPERIMENT
4.1 Rolling equipment
As shown in Fig. 3, a single-stand two-high laboratory
mill was employed, driven by a 1200 kW constant-
torque d.c. motor with a maximum rolling speed of
150 m/min. Ductile casting iron rolls were used, with a
720 mm maximum diameter and a 500 mm face width.
A box-type furnace with a maximum working tempera-
ture of 1450 8C was employed to heat the specimens to
the desired rolling temperature.
4.2 Specimen preparation
The materials were obtained in the form of as-cast billet
160 mm square. The specimens to be rolled were cut and
machined into rectangular bars 30 mm thick, 150 mm
wide and 300 mm long. To study the eect of the ratio
of the specimen size to the work roll diameter, specimens
20 mm thick, 150 mm wide and 300 mm long were also
machined.
4.3 Experimental procedure
In order to measure the rolling temperature of the
workpiece, a thermocouple (type K) of 1.6 mm diameter
was embedded in a hole 75 mm deep drilled in the
middle side of the specimen (see Fig. 3). The specimens
were soaked at 1160 8C for 40 min to ensure a homo-
geneous temperature distribution. When they were
taken out of the furnace and the centre temperature of
specimens reached 1100 8C (target temperature), the
tests started.
5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.1 Comparison between the proposed and the Misaka
Yoshimoto constitutive model
Figure 4 shows that the stressstrain curves predicted
using the proposed constitutive model are in agreement
with the experimentally measured curves. Thus, it can be
deduced that the approach to obtain a constitutive
model applicable to large strain ranges was successful
and this proposed equation might have the potential to
be used for the analysis of the hot-rolling process where
a more precise calculation of stress and subsequently
roll force decrement due to DRX is important. However,
it is noted that there are problems in application of the
model to the rolling process due to the dierence between
the deformation conditions for rolling and torsion. Never-
theless, many research groups have successfully adopted
the torsion-based DRX model to analyse the DRX of
materials subject to rolling [11, 15, 16].
Figure 5 shows the measured and predicted ow stress
curves when the two dierent constitutive models are
used for prediction. The ow stress curves calculated
using the proposed model agree with the measured
curves with some error, while the curves obtained from
the MisakaYoshimoto model are available in the
small-strain range only.
5.2 Roll forces
To investigate the eect of the constitutive model on the
prediction of the roll force, the proposed model and
the MisakaYoshimoto model were incorporated into
the nite element program. The nite element simula-
tions were conducted under the same condition as
those under which the rolling experiment was carried
out. The experimental conditions are described in the
Table 4.
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of a single-stand two-high laboratory mill
6 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004
Figure 6 illustrates the predicted and experimentally
measured roll forces when the entrance thicknesses are
30 and 20 mm. While the dierences between the pro-
posed model-based roll forces and the measured data
are insignicant in the total range of reduction, the
results from the MisakaYoshimoto model have been
shown to be up to 21 per cent higher. In heavy reduction,
the drop in the accuracy of the MisakaYoshimoto
model compared with the proposed model is attributed
to the absence of the model of ow stress softening due
to DRX.
5.3 Eect of rolling temperature on roll force, torque and
deformation
The eect of the rolling temperature on roll force, torque
and deformation is investigated for four reduction ratios
of 40, 50, 60 and 70 per cent. The process conditions are
summarized in Table 5.
Figure 7 shows that the roll force and torque increase
with an increase in reduction ratios and a decrease in
rolling temperature for both the MisakaYoshimoto
and proposed constitutive model. While the dierences
due to the two constitutive models are negligible for 40
per cent reduction, the results from the MisakaYoshi-
moto model have been shown to be up to 32.2 per cent
(1100 8C) higher in the roll force and up to 19.6 per
cent (1100 8C) higher in the torque compared with the
proposed model when the reduction is 70 per cent. It is
also noted that these deviations between two models
decrease as the rolling temperature decreases, up to
21.7 per cent (900 8C) for the roll force and up to 12.1
per cent (900 8C) for the roll torque. This indicates that
the eect of recrystallization on the ow stress is more
considerable at higher rolling temperatures.
Figures 8, 9 and 10 illustrate the distributions of eec-
tive strain , peak strain
p
and ow stress softening
o
DRX
for the two reduction ratios of 40 and 70 per cent
as well as the two rolling temperatures of 1100 and
900 8C. These gures indicate that ow stress softening
occurs in the region where the magnitude of eective
strain is larger than that of peak strain, as seen in
Fig. 4 The measured data and predicted stressstrain curves
on the basis of the proposed model under various
strain rates at (a) 1000 8C and (b) 1100 8C
Fig. 5 Comparison between two constitutive models together
with measured data at 1000 8C and 0.5 s
1
and at
1100 8C and 0.5 s
1
Table 4 The process conditions under which the experimental
rolling was carried out
Entrance
Entrance rolling Roll Roll
thickness Reduction temperature diameter speed
(mm) (%) (8C) (mm) (m/min)
30 30 1040 720 120
40 1040
50 1088
65 1049
20 30 1008 720 120
40 1034
50 1044
PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 7
B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture
equation (2). They also explain the reason why a substan-
tial improvement could be made regarding the prediction
of roll force as well as roll torque when the proposed con-
stitutive model is used instead of the MisakaYoshimoto
model.
The eective strain distributions are shown in Fig. 8 at
dierent rolling temperatures and reduction ratios. It
demonstrates that the eective strain increases with
increase in the reduction ratio and with decrease in
the rolling temperature. At a typical reduction ratio,
the calculated maximum strain is less than one over the
entire domain of the analysis, indicating that recrystalli-
zation is unlikely whereas, at a heavy-reduction ratio,
the maximum eective strain is about 410 at the outer
part of the delivery cross-section and about up to 2 at
the mid-plane, indicating that DRX would be complete
at the roll gap.
To judge quantitatively whether recrystallization may
occur, however, the peak strain
p
must be considered, as
shown in Fig. 9. Regardless of reduction and tempera-
ture, it is seen that peak strain always occurs in the roll
bite region and around the neutral cross-sectional
Fig. 6 Comparison of measured and predicted roll force for AISI 316 stainless steel when the entry thick-
nesses are (a) 30 mm and (b) 20 mm
8 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004
Table 5 Process conditions used in simulations (roll speed, 120 m/min; roll diameter, 720 mm)
Simulation
case number Constitutive model
Entrance
thickness (mm)
Rolling
temperature (8C)
Reduction
ratio (%)
Friction
coecient
1 (2) Proposed model (MisakaYoshimoto model) 30 1100 40 0.3104

3 (4) 50
5 (6) 60
7 (8) 70
9 (10) Proposed model (MisakaYoshimoto model) 30 900 40 0.3904

11 (12) 50
13 (14) 60
15 (16) 70

The equivalent friction coecient dependent on the rolling temperature and velocity. The formula for the equivalent friction coecient
is expressed as [17]
j c1.05 0.0005T 0.056v
where c is the ratio of the coecient of slipping to gripping friction, which is taken to be equal to 0.8 to t the present case of rolling.
Fig. 7 Variations in (a) roll force and (b) roll torque with reduction and rolling temperature
PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 9
B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture
Fig. 8 Eective strain distributions at rolling temperatures of (a) 1100 8C and (b) 900 8C
Fig. 9 Peak strain distributions at rolling temperatures of (a) 1100 8C (b) 900 8C
10 S M BYON, S I KIM AND Y LEE
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004
plane. Comparison between the eective strain distribu-
tion and the peak strain distribution can be made to
investigate the region where the eective strain exceeds
the peak strain. At the commonly used reduction (40
per cent), no such regions are found while, at the
higher reduction ratios, regions satisfying this condition
occur over most of the roll gap and delivery side, indicat-
ing that ow stress softening occurs.
Figure 10 shows the ow stress softening o
DRX
distri-
butions resulting from the two cases of reduction and
rolling temperature. At the commonly used reduction,
as expected, there is no observable ow stress softening
region in roll gap, which aects the solution accuracy
of roll force and torque whereas, at heavy reductions,
it is shown that o
DRX
in the roll gap is considerable,
which demonstrates the importance of incorporating
the DRX eect in predictions of the roll force and
torque in heavy-reduction hot rolling.
From these distributions, it can be expected that the
cross-section of the plate might have a crown (or
convex shape) because the maximum stress exists in the
middle of width. If the ow stress softening eect is not
accounted for in the prediction of contact stress at roll
gap, it overestimates the crown shape of the plate
cross-section, leading to a poor rolling set-up. Therefore,
it is suggested that the constitutive model with the ow
stress softening eect is essential for an appropriate set-
up of the bender force and roll gap to gain the desired
crown as well as thickness of plate.
6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
In this paper, a large-strain constitutive model of AISI
316 steel for the prediction of roll force and torque in
heavy-reduction hot rolling is presented. In the model,
the strong correlations at heavy reduction between
DRX, strain, strain rate and temperature have been
dealt with in a more rigorous manner. To verify the
model, the nite element predictions incorporated in
the constitutive model have been compared with the
experimentally measured data. The results showed
good accuracy in roll force, regardless of reduction.
The model has then been applied to study the eect of
rolling temperature as well as reduction.
It has been demonstrated that the ow stress softening
of the workpiece at the roll gap is the most critical
parameter that inuences the solution accuracy for the
roll force at heavy reduction. The proposed model in
the present investigation might serve as a stepping
Fig. 10 Flow stress softening distributions due to recrystallization at rolling temperatures at (a) 1100 8C and
(b) 900 8C
PREDICTIONS OF ROLL FORCE UNDER HEAVY-REDUCTION HOT ROLLING 11
B22503 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture
stone towards developing an integrated analysis for roll
prole design and roll-gap set-up in heavy-reduction
plate rolling.
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Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture B22503 # IMechE 2004