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Technological University of the Philippines

Ayala Boulevard, Ermita, Manila





College of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering



CE 49L 4A
Construction Materials and Testing, Lab.






Experiment No. 2

UNIT WEIGHT OF AGGREGATES







Fesalbon, Mayson R.
10-205-041


Date of Submission: August 15, 2013






Engr. Reynaldo O. Baarde
Instructor


EXPERIMENT NO.2
UNIT WEIGHT OF AGGREGATES



I. OBJECTIVE

To determine the unit weight of aggregates

II. MAIN PRINCIPLE

The unit weight of a material can be defined as the weight of a given volume of graded
aggregate. It effectively measures the volume that the graded aggregate will occupy and includes
both solid particles and the voids between them.

The unit weight of fine and coarse aggregates within the ASTM grading limits are generally in the
range of 1450 1750 kg/cu.m. The unit weight values are used in designing concrete mixtures.
Voids in between aggregate particles that can be filled by the mortar can also be calculated.

III. CALIBRATION OF THE MEASURE

1. Weigh the measure (Wm)
2. Fill the measure with water to the brim.
3. Cover it with a piece of glass plate in such a way as to eliminate bubbles and excess water.
4. Weigh the water and measure (Ww)
5. Take the temperature of the water and determines its density (Dw), interpolating if necessary.
6. Calculate the volume of the measure (Vm)



IV. TEST PROCEDURE

A. Rodding Procedure (For aggregates having a maximum size of 40mm or less)
1. Fill the measure to one-third its capacity.
2. Tamp the layer of aggregate 25 times with a rod.
3. Fill the measure two-thirds full, and do as above.
4. Fill the measure to overflowing, and do as above.
5. Level the surface of the aggregate.
a. For fine aggregate, use a straight edge.
b. For coarse aggregates, use your fingers or a straight edge such that any slight
projection of the large particles will balance the voids in the surface below the top
of the measure.
6. Weigh the measure with the aggregate (Wi)
7. Calculate the unit weight.

B. J igging Procedure (For aggregates having a maximum size from 40mm to 100mm)
1. Fill the measure one-third full.
2. Place the measure on a firm base and raise the opposite sides alternately about 50mm
and allow the measure to drop freely. Repeat for 50 times, 25 times for each side.
3. Fill the measure two-thirds full and do as above.
4. Fill the measure to overflowing and do as above.
5. Level the surface of the aggregate.
6. Weigh the measure with the aggregate. (Wi)
7. Calculate the unit weight.


V. CALCULATIONS



Where: Qi = unit weight of aggregate (kg/cu.m)
Wi = weight of aggregate and measure (kg)
Wm = weight of measure (kg)
Vm = volume of measure (cu.m)



VI. DATA AND COMPUTATIONS


Test Procedure Rodding Jigging
Weight of aggregate
and measure
Trial 1 4.26 21.34
Trial 2 4.28 21.11
Trial 3 4.30 21.24
Average (Wi) 4.28 21.23
Weight of measure (Wm), kg 1.03 3.57
Weight of water and measure (Ww), kg 3.05 13.78
Temperature of water,
o
C 23.00 23.00
Density of water (Dw), kg/m
3
1 000.00 1000.00
Volume of measure (Vm), m
3
2.025 x 10
-3
10.225 x 10
-3

Unit Weight of Aggregate (Qi), kg/m
3
1 605.93 1 727.14






VII. SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS

Rodding Procedure

=
4.260+4.275+4.295
3
= .

=
3.0501.025
1000.00
= .

=
4.2771.025
2.02510
3
= . /



J igging Procedure

=
21.34+21.11+21.24
3
= .

=
13.7953.57
1000.00
= .

=
21.233.57
10.22510
3
= . /




VII. DISCUSSION AND OBSERVATION

A. Discussion

One property of a soil is its unit weight which is defined as the weight of a soil mass per unit
volume occupied. In this experiment, the determination of this property was made possible for
two soil grading: fine-grained and coarse-grained soils in which it undergoes two different
methods namely as rodding and jigging respectively.

Calibration. In calibration, determining the weights necessary for this experiment is not as
challenging as the determining the volume of the container. Since the shape of the container
is irregular, water-displacement method can be used. Given the density of water and the
mass of the container and the mass of water in the container, the volume can be determined.
The use of glass plate is important first to avoid the water to spill from the container when
transferring it to another location and second to ensure that only water was in the container. If
bubbles was seen, it only gives us a hint that a fraction of the total volume of the container
was occupied by air. Presence of air bubbles can be eliminated (reduced if not possible to
eliminate) by sliding the glass plate into the brim of the container. Presence of very small air
bubbles can be considered as negligible since in will only occupy a very small percentage of
the containers total volume and will not greatly affect the result of the experiment.

Rodding. Its main purpose is to compact the soil sample in such a way that it will attain its
more probable densest state to which it will occupy the container. Since a soil cannot be
compacted singly, three layers of the soil sample were made to compact in the same number
of blows and kind of rod. Rodding was made to free fall so that there would be a uniform
compaction effort for every layer. If were to apply a force in every layer, there would be
varying compaction effort which can be a source of error in the experiment. Rodding was also
made in a regular pattern in such a way that almost all the top layer of the soil sample was hit
by the rod. It is made to attain uniformity and consistency of the procedure.

Jigging. As compared to rodding, the soil sample used in jigging was coarse-grained soils.
Therefore, rodding is not an option. But using the same principle in rodding, jigging is a
method so that coarse-grained soils will attain its densest state to which it will almost occupy
the container. Since it is impossible for the coarse-grained soil to occupy spaces in the
container, the last procedure for jigging to is to arrange the topmost part of the soil sample
lessen the void spaces.

B. Observations

During the experiment, the following was observed:

1. The soil used in tampering is a fine-grained soil with an almost same consistency of
an iron filling.
2. When the soil is rodded, the soil mass compresses and arranges to a denser state.
3. The soil used in jigging are white gravel it an average length of 2cm.
4. When the soil (gravel) was jigged, the gravel changes its arrangement into a denser
state.
5. Void spaces are more evident in jigging. Not all of the volume of the container was
occupied by the coarse-grained soils

IX. CONCLUSION

The unit weight of an aggregate can be determined as a ratio of the weight of the aggregate per
unit volume occupied by the aggregate. In a laboratory test, it can be simply determined as
shown below.



Where: Qi = unit weight of aggregate (kg/cu.m)
Wi = weight of aggregate and measure (kg)
Wm = weight of measure (kg)
Vm = volume of measure (cu.m)