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Chapter 6

Respiration and Excretion in Organisms

It is the process in which food is broken down in the cell to release
It occurs in the cells of all living organisms.
Respiration occurs in two stages external respiration (breathing) and
internal respiration (oxidation of food to release energy)
The energy released is stored in the form of ATP molecule.
Two Types of Respiration
1. Aerobic Respiration It is the process of breakdown of food
in the presence of oxygen. It occurs in all organisms. It leads to
production of carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Glucose CO Water Energy
2. Anaerobic Respiration It is the process of breakdown of
food in the absence of oxygen. It is observed in some organisms
such as yeast. It leads to production of alcohol and carbon
2 oxygen
Glucose Alcohol/Lactic acid Energy CO
During heavy exercise, our muscles respire anaerobically to
provide energy to muscle cells. This leads to accumulation of
lactic acid that causes muscle cramps and thus, pain in body.
It is a continuous process that involves inhalation and exhalation.
1. Inhalation Process of taking in oxygen-rich air in the body
2. Exhalation Process of giving out carbon dioxide-rich air into
the atmosphere

Nostril is the opening through which we inhale air. From nostrils, the air
passes into nasal cavity.
Nasal cavity filters and purifies the air that we breathe in.
Rib cage and diaphragm are involved in actual mechanism of breathing.
Rib cage is present around the chest cavity while diaphragm is present at
the base of the chest cavity.
During inhalation
1. Diaphragm moves down.
2. Ribs move upwards and downwards increasing the space in the
chest cavity.
During exhalation
1. Diaphragm moves to its original position.
2. Ribs move down and inward reducing the size of chest cavity.
Respiration in Land Animals

A cockroach has small openings on the sides of its body, which are
known as spiracles. The oxygen rich-air enters through spiracles.
The spiracles are connected to a network of tubes, called trachea, for
gaseous exchange.
Earthworms breathe through the surface of the skin.
Respiration in Aquatic Animals
Frogs respire through both lungs and their skin.
Fishes have special structure called gills for breathing. They do not have
Respiration in Plants
Plants respire through tiny pores on their leaves called stomata. Stomata
help in gaseous exchange.
Roots of plants respire through air spaces present in the soil.
Respiration in Human Beings
We inhale through nose, then the air enters pharynx which leads to
trachea. Trachea divides into two branches called bronchi.
Each bronchus leads to lungs and further divides into bronchioles. At the
end of each bronchiole alveoli are present which are richly supplied with
blood vessels.
Diffusion of gases takes place through these blood vessels.
Excretory System
Excretion It is the process of removing harmful waste products
produced in the cells of living organisms.
The excretory system in humans includes a pair of kidneys
a pair of ureters
a urinary bladder
a urethra
Kidney is the main excretory organ of the human body.
It plays an important role in the formation of urine. Human kidney
produces 1.5 L of urine.
Ureter carries urine to the bladder.
Urinary bladder collects urine.
Urethra carries urine out of the body.
The main excretory product in human body is urea while in aquatic
animals, it is ammonia.
In birds, lizards, and snakes, the main excretory product is uric acid.
The process of removing wastes using an artificial kidney is called

Transport of Water and Food in Plants
Water and mineral are absorbed by the cells of root hair.
Root hair increases the surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
Xylem and phloem are transport systems in plants.

Xylem transports water and minerals from the soil via root hair to the rest of the
plant body.
Phloem transports food materials from leaves to different parts of the plant

Excretion in Plants
Plants get rid of the excess of water by transpiration.
Transpiration is the evaporation of water from plants.
The water evaporates through stomata. Stomata help in gaseous exchange and
evaporation of water.

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