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The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬

Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

‫بسـم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬


Chapter One: The Speech: ‫الكلم‬
I. Definition:
The grammarians defined speech as the compounded utterance which
is completely meaningful in its syntactical sequence, as per the Arabic
usage according to some, or so long it is intentionally uttered according to
others.
The utterance is the sound that is comprised of some of the alphabet,
such as (ٌ ‫زي ْد‬
َ ), which is a sound comprised of the letters (‫ )زاى‬and (‫)ياء‬
and (‫)دال‬. Hence, the sound of a drum or a bird is excluded. Likewise is
excluded, even where meaningful, the signals, gestures, writing, sign
language and marks.
Compounded means composed of two or more words, such as ( (‫د‬ ٌ ‫زي‬
َ ‫)َقا‬
‫م‬ ٌ ‫)َزيد ٌ َقائ‬. Hence, the single words such as ( ٌ ‫ )زيد‬are
) and ( ‫م‬
excluded.
Completely meaningful in its syntactical sequence means the meaning
is complete for both the one who utters and the listener such as (‫م‬ َ ‫قا‬
ٌ ‫ )زيد‬which informs about the standing up of (‫)َزْيد‬.
As per the Arabic usage means the non-Arabic speech is excluded such
as the speech of the Turks and the Barbar. However, according to some, it
means it must be intentionally uttered, hence, the speech of the sleeping
person and the absent minded is excluded. An example of what satisfies
the four conditions is (ٌ ‫م زيد‬
َ ‫ )قا‬and (‫م‬
ٌ ‫)زيد ٌ قائ‬, for both are
compounded utterances and are completely meaningful in their syntactical
sequence as per the Arabic usage for both the one who utters and the
listener. (Table 1)

Table 1

Excluded the sound of (‫)زيد‬ The sound (‫) اللفظ‬ (‫) الكلم هو‬
drums, birds, marks, comprised of some utterance SPEECH IS
signs alphabet COMPRISED OF
Excluded (‫ ) زيد‬and (‫قام‬ Composed of two (‫) المركب‬
or more words
what is similar ‫) زيد‬ compounded

(‫زيد‬
‫م‬
ٌ ‫) قائ‬

1
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

Excluded (‫قام‬ ‫ان‬ (‫الخبار‬ Meaningful to one (‫) المفيد‬


who utters and
‫زيد‬ ) ‫بقيام‬ listener
completely
meaningful
‫) زيد‬
Excluded the non-Arabic Per Arabic usage (‫) بالوضع‬
speech such as the speech or intentionally
of Turks and Barbar and uttered
others
Excluded is the speech of
the sleeping person and
the absent minded

II. Parts of the Speech:


The speech consists of three parts: the noun (‫م‬ ٌ ‫ ) فع‬and
ٌ ‫) اس‬, the verb (‫ل‬
the particle which has signification (‫لمعنى‬ ‫حرف جاء‬ ). (Table 2)
The noun (‫ )اسم‬is a self-meaningful word detached of a time
element such as (‫ )زيد‬it indicates a self called Zayd irrespective of the past,
present or future.
The verb (‫ )فعل‬is a self-meaningful word attached to a time element;
if the word attaches to a past time item it is a perfect tense (‫)فعل ماض‬, and
if it attaches to a time that accepts the present or the future then it is an
imperfect tense (‫)فعل مضارع‬, and if it attaches to demanding a matter in
the future then it is an imperative tense (‫امر‬‫)فعل‬. An example of the
perfect tense is (‫ب‬
َ ‫ضَر‬
َ ) , the imperfect tense (‫ب‬
ُ ‫) يضر‬, the imperative
tense (‫ب‬ْ ‫) اضر‬.
III. The Parts and Signs of the Noun, Verb and Particle

The particle which has signification (‫لمعنى‬ ‫ ) حرف جاء‬is the particle
that has a meaning such as (‫ ) هل‬it means inquiring and (‫ ) لم‬it means
negating. Hence the letters of construction of the words are excluded such as
the (‫ ) زاي‬and (‫ ) ياء‬and (‫ ) دال‬that comprise the word (‫) زيد‬.

Table 2

Signifies a (‫) زيد‬ A self- (‫) اسم‬ ( ‫أقسام‬


person called meaningful
zayd at all word
noun ‫الكلم‬
times irrespective of ‫)ثلثة‬
the time
element

2
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

Perfect (‫ب‬
َ ‫ضَر‬
َ ) A self- (‫) فعل‬ The speech
imperfect meaningful consists of
imperative (‫ب‬
ُ ِ‫ضر‬
ْ َ‫) ي‬ word attached
verb
three parts
ْ ‫) َاضر‬
(‫ب‬ to the time
element
Inquisitive (‫) هل‬ A word (‫جاء‬‫حرف‬
negating signifying a
(‫) لم‬ meaning ‫) لمعنى‬
outside itself Article which
has
signification

Hence, the speech does not go beyond there three parts, however it does not
have to be composed of al three, for it may be composed of two nouns such as
(‫م‬
ٌ ‫) زيد ٌ قائ‬.
The parts of the noun (‫ ) السم‬are three: explicit (‫ ) مظهر‬such as (‫) زيد‬,
inexplicit (‫ ) مضمر‬such as (‫) هو‬, and ambiguous ( ) such as ( ).

Table 3

Zayd (‫) زيد‬ The (‫مظهر‬ ُ ) ( ‫أقسام‬


significance of
its meaning is
explicit ‫السم‬
evident ‫)ثلثة‬
He (‫) هو‬ The (‫ر‬
ٌ ‫م‬
َ ‫ض‬
ْ ‫م‬ُ ) The parts of
significance of inexplicit the noun are
its meaning is three
hidden
This ( ‫)هذا‬ Requires a ( ‫مبهم‬
ُ )
demonstrative ambiguous
pronoun that
points to its
meaning

The noun (‫م‬


ُ ‫ )الس‬is known by (khafd: ‫)خفض‬, by (tanwin: ‫)تنوين‬, by the
addition of (the article of definition: ‫ )أل‬and by (the particles of khafd: ‫حروف‬
‫)الخفض‬
Table 4

3
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

(ٍ‫)مررت بزيد‬ A specific change (‫) الخفض‬ (‫) علمات السم‬


of the end of the The khafd The signs of the
word denoted by noun
kasrah or its agents
( ً ‫) صربت زيدا‬ The attribution of a (‫) تنوين‬
quiescent unwritten Tanwin
(n:‫ ) ن‬that attaches
to the end of the
word
(‫) الرجل‬ The addition of (‫أل‬ (‫) دخول أل‬
) the article of Addition of article
definition of definition
( ‫سافرت من‬ The addition of the (‫دخول حروف‬
‫البصرة الى‬ particles of khafd ‫) الخفض‬
‫ة‬
ِ ‫)الكوف‬ addition of the
particles of khafd

The particles of khafd are:


(‫ن‬
ْ ‫م‬
ِ ): among its meanings is stating: (‫)سافرت من البصرة الى الكوفِة‬
َ ‫)ا‬: among its meanings is ending: (‫)سافرت من البصرة الى الكوفِة‬
(‫لى‬
(‫) عن‬: among its meanings is to go beyond: (‫س‬
ِ ‫القو‬ ‫م عن‬ َ ‫ت السه‬ ُ ‫) رمي‬
(‫)على‬: among its meanings is above ness: (‫س‬ ِ ‫ت على الفر‬ ُ ‫)ركب‬
(‫) فى‬: among its meanings is time or space qualifier: (‫) الماء فى الكوز‬
(‫) رب‬: among its meanings is decreasing: (‫ته‬ َ ‫ل كريم ٍ لقي‬ ٍ ‫ج‬
ُ ‫بر‬ ّ ‫)ر‬
(‫) الباء‬: among its meanings is passing by: (ٍ ‫ت بزيد‬ ُ ‫) مرر‬
(‫) الكاف‬: among its meanings is resemblance: (‫ر‬ ِ ‫) زيد ٌ كالبد‬
(‫)اللم‬: among its meanings is ownership: (ٍ ‫ل ازيد‬ ُ ‫)الما‬
Add to those the particles of adjuration: (‫) حروف القسم‬
(‫ه‬
ِ ‫ )والل‬:( ‫) الواو‬
(‫) الباء‬: requires the verb of adjuration: (‫م بالله‬ ُ ‫س‬ ِ ‫) اق‬
(‫ه‬ِ ‫ )تالل‬:( ‫) التاء‬
The tanwin (‫) التنوين‬
Linguistically, ( the tanwin ‫ ) التنوين‬is the sounding; the sounding of the bird is
called Tanwin. Technically it is the act of articulating a quiescent (nun: ‫ )ن‬at the end
of a noun without writing it, but it is expressed by doubling the fathah, kasrah or
dammah, such as (ٍ ‫ت بزيد‬ ُ ‫ مرر‬, ً ‫ رأيت زيدا‬, ٌ ‫)جاء زيد‬. Hence, excluded are
the inflected (nun: ‫ )ن‬such as (‫ن‬ َ ْ ‫)َرع‬, the (nun: ‫ )ن‬at the beginning such as (
َ ‫ش‬

4
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

‫)انكسَر‬, the (nun: ‫ )ن‬in the middle such as (‫)منكسر‬, and the light (nun: ‫ )ن‬of
confirmation such as (‫)لنسفعن‬.
The tanwin (‫ )التنوين‬has four cases:
1. The tanwin of foundation: ( ‫)تنوين التمكين‬: it attaches to the inflected
nouns. Those nouns that are acted upon by tanwin are said to be strong rooted
in the nominative case and more founded in it than others such as ( ٌ ‫ )زيد‬and (
ٌ ‫)رج‬. The nouns that are not acted upon by tanwin are strong rooted in the
‫ل‬
nominative case but not more founded such as ( ‫ )ابراهيم‬and ( ‫)احمد‬.
2. The tanwin of equivalence (‫)تنوين المقابلة‬: it attaches to the sound
feminine plural (‫ )جمع المؤنث السالم‬such as (‫ت‬ ٌ ‫)جاءت مسلما‬,
and the tanwin in it is equivalent to the (nun: ‫ )ن‬in the sound masculine plural
(‫ن‬
َ ‫)جاء المسلمو‬.
3. The tanwin of replacement (‫)تنوين العوض‬: it attaches to (‫ )إذ‬in (ٍ ‫)يومئذ‬
and (ٍ ‫)حيتئذ‬. It is a replacement for a statement; Allah said (ٍ ‫وأنتم حينئذ‬
‫)تنظرون‬, and the origin of the statement is (‫ت‬ ِ ‫وأنتم حين إذ بلغ‬
‫م تنظرون‬ َ ‫ح الحلقو‬ ُ ‫)الرو‬, so the statement (‫م‬َ ‫ح الحلقو‬ ُ ‫ت الرو‬
ِ ‫)بلغ‬
was eliminated and a tanwin was attached in its place and it became (ٍ ‫)حينئذ‬.
4. The tanwin of indefiniteness (‫)تنوين التنكير‬: it attaches to the non-
inflected nouns to distinguish between what is definite (‫ )معرفة‬and what is
indefinite (‫)نكرة‬. The nouns that are acted upon by tanwin are indefinite (
‫ )نكرة‬such as (‫ه‬ ٍ ‫جاءَ سيبوي‬ َ ), and those that are not acted upon by tanwin
are definite (‫ )معرفة‬such as (‫ه‬ ِ ‫)جاَء سيبوي‬.
The causes that prohibit the tanwin ( ‫)موانع التنوين‬:
There are nine cases that finder the tanwin from attaching. Each case consists
of two cases except for one where one cause acts for two.
1. Nominal and non-Arabic ( ‫عجمى‬ ُ ‫)العلمية وال‬: such as ( ‫ت‬ُ ‫مرر‬
‫ )ابراهيم‬.(‫م‬
َ ‫ )بابراهي‬is a noun and non-Arabic, therefore tanwin does
not attach.
2. Nominal and compounded acronym (‫المزجى‬ ‫)العلمية وال ُتركيب‬:
such as (‫ بعل بك‬,‫)محمد يكرب‬, it is a noun and compounded from
other words, hence tanwin does not attach.
3. Nominal and conversion (‫)العلمية والعدول‬: such as (‫مر‬
َ ُ ‫)ع‬, it is a
noun and it is said to be converted from (‫مر‬
ِ ‫عا‬
َ ), hence tanwin does not
attach.

5
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

4. Nominal and addition of alif and nun (‫نون‬ ‫)العلمية و زيادة الف و‬:
such as (‫ن( )عثمان‬ َ ‫ت بعثما‬ ُ ‫ )مرر‬is a noun and it has an (alif: ‫)الف‬
and (nun: ‫ )ن‬added to it.
5. Nominal and the feminine case (‫) العلمية والتأنيث‬: such as (‫مررت‬
‫ )فاطمة ( )طلحة‬.( ‫جَر‬ َ ْ ‫ة وط َل‬
َ َ‫حة وه‬ َ ‫ )بفاطم‬and (‫ )هجر‬are
nouns in the feminine case, hence tanwin does not attach to them.
6. Nominal and verb form (‫)العلمية ووزن الفعل‬: such as (‫مررت‬
َ ‫)باحمد َ ويشكر ويزيد‬. All these (‫ يزيد‬,‫ يشكر‬,‫ )احمد‬are nouns
that bear the grammatical forms of verbs (‫ فعيل‬,‫ يفعل‬,‫)افعل‬, hence
tanwin does not attach to them.
7. Adjective and addition of alif and nun (‫و‬
‫الوصفية و زيادة الف‬
‫)نون‬: such as (‫ن‬
َ ‫)مررت بسكرا‬. The word (‫ )سكران‬is an adjective
and has alif and nun added to it, hence tanwin does not attach to it.
8. Adjective and conversion (‫)الوضعية و العدل‬: such as (‫مررت‬
َ ُ‫)بأ‬. The word (‫ُأخَر‬
‫خَر‬ ُ
) the plural of (‫ ) أخرى‬describes a meaning
contained in others and it is said to be converted from (‫رى‬
ُ
َ ‫خ‬
ْ ‫ ) أ‬the
feminine case of (‫خر‬
َ
َ ‫) أ‬, hence tanwin does not attach.
9. One cause acting for two ( ‫علتين‬ ‫)علة تقوم مقام‬: such as (‫حبَلى‬
) and (‫ء‬
َ ‫ ) حمرا‬that have the mamdud form of ending in a long alif
followed by a hamzah (‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ) or the maqsur for ending in a long vowel alif,
and such as (‫ ) مساجد‬and (‫ح‬
َ ‫ ) مصابي‬that have the form of (‫مفاعل‬
) or (‫) مفاعيل‬. These latter two forms are called the form reflecting
ultimate plurality (‫الجموع‬ ‫)صيغة منتهى‬.
The element of prohibition of tanwin is applicable if the word does not fall
as an annexation (‫ ) اضافة‬or after (‫) أل‬. If the word is annexed such as
(‫لكم‬
ِ ‫بأفض‬ ‫مررت‬ ) then it is inflected, or after (‫ ) أل‬such as (
‫ل‬
ِ ‫والفض‬ ).

The verb is of three tenses only: (the perfect: ‫ )الماضى‬such as (‫ب‬


َ ‫ضَر‬
َ )
(the imperfect: ‫ )المضارع‬such as (‫ب‬
ُ ِ‫ضر‬
ْ َ ‫ )ي‬and the (imperative:
‫ )المُر‬such as (‫ب‬
ْ ‫)اضر‬.

6
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

Table 5

(‫ب‬
َ ‫ضَر‬
َ ) Denotes an (‫ض‬
ٍ ‫ ) ما‬perfect (‫اقسام‬
incident that is
and over with. ‫الفعل ثلثة‬ )
The parts of the
(‫ب‬
ُ ِ‫ضر‬
ْ َ‫) ي‬ Denotes an (‫) مضارع‬ verb are three.
incident taking imperfect
place now and in
the future.
(‫ب‬
ْ ‫) اضر‬ Denotes an (‫) امر‬
incident imperative
demanded in the
future.

The verb is known by (‫)سوف‬ ,( ‫ )السين‬,( ‫قد‬ ) and the


quiescent (‫ ) ت‬of the feminine gender.
(‫ )قد‬is used with the perfect tense to denote an incident assumingly
done and over with such as (ٌ ‫زيد‬ ‫م‬
َ ‫)قد قا‬, or to denote the incident has
just happened such as (ُ ‫ت الصلة‬ ِ ‫ ;)قد قام‬also it is used with the
imperfect tense to denote little in occurrence such as (ُ ‫قد يجود‬
ُ ‫)البحي‬, or to denote frequent in occurrence such as (ُ ‫قد يجود‬
‫ل‬
‫م‬ُ ‫)الكري‬.
(‫ )السين‬is used with the imperfect tense to denote the incident will
happen shortly after such as (ٌ ‫م زيد‬ ُ ‫)سيقو‬.
(‫ ) سوف‬is used with the imperative tense to denote the incident will
happen later in the future such as (ٌ ‫م زيد‬ُ ‫ف يقو‬َ ‫ ) سو‬. The quiescent (
‫ ) ت‬of the feminine gender is used with the perfect tense to denote the
feminine gender such as (ٌ ‫ت هند‬ ْ ‫م‬ َ ‫) قا‬.
Table 6

7
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

With perfect it Used with the (‫)قد‬ (‫علمات‬


denotes (1) perfect and
assuredly done imperfect tenses
qad ‫)الفعل‬
The signs of the
and over (‫قد‬ verb
2) (‫د‬
ٌ ‫)قام زي‬
has happened
shortly before. (
‫قد قامت‬
‫)الصلة‬
With imperfect it
denotes (1) less
frequent to
happen (‫قد‬
(‫يجود البخيل‬
2)) more
frequent
occurrence ( ‫قد‬
‫)يجود الكريم‬
-------------------- --------------------
shortly after. ( Used with the (‫)السين‬
ٌ ‫)سيقوم زيد‬ imperfects tense
sin

Occurrence later Used with the (‫)سوف‬


in the future ( imperfect tense sawfa
‫سوف يقوم‬
ٌ ‫)زيد‬
Occurrence done Used with the (‫تاء‬ ‫دخول‬
by feminine perfect tense
‫التأنيث‬
gender (‫ت‬
ْ ‫قام‬ ‫)الساكنة‬
ٌ ‫)هند‬
quiescent (‫)ت‬

The particle is also of three parts, one part is common to the nouns and
the verbs such as (ٌ ‫م زيد‬َ ‫ ) هل قا‬and (‫م‬ ٌ ‫) هل زيد ٌ قائ‬, and a part
specific to the nouns such as (ٍ ‫بزيد‬ ‫مررت‬ ), and a part specific to the
verbs such as (ٌ ‫ب زيد‬ ْ ‫) لم يضر‬. Moreover, neither the signs of the
noun nor the signs of the verb apply to the particle. Hence the sign of the
particle is a no sign: (‫ )عدمية‬as Al-Hariri indicated in (‫مُلحة‬

8
The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah ‫شرح الجرومية‬
Based on
Mufti of Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan ‫لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلن‬

Translated by Riad Nachef ‫ترجمة رياص ناشف‬


It could be said: ‫قد يقال‬

‫العراب( و الحرف ما ليست له علمة فقس على‬


‫قولى تكن عّلمة‬