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Issues & Arguments

1. Employees should keep their private lives and personal activities as separate as possible
from the workplace.

With the advent of Information technology, there has been a radical change in the working culture
of organizations. Nowadays companies themselves encourage connubial relationships between their
employees in order to retain them for long. In such a scenario is it really needed to keep private lives
separate from work? To an extent yes, based on widely apparent rise in conflict of interests and its
implication on ethical system laid down by organizations, separation of personal activities from
workplace becomes necessary.

To some extent Modern working culture, demanding more time and effort is leaving people with no
choice but to involve their personal lives with work. For ex it is observed that there has been a rise in
office romances. But it is also observed that the rise in affairs has lead to the rise in unethical
behavior among employees in the form of favors done to their partners. For ex- the recent conflict
of interest charges on Paul Wolfwoitz, president of World Bank. He has been charged of doing favor
to his girlfriend by increasing her pay unofficially. As a result not only he lost his presidency but also
put a blemish on the functioning and corporate governance of World Bank, a renowned organization
in world. Also this rise in conflict of interests leads to insecurity among other employees as well as
lower their morale.

Many will argue that with rise in hours spent at work, organizations themselves support their
employees in involving their personal lives with work. For ex- concept of work at home, crutches
within organization for employees children. I agree that companies provide these facilities but the
motive here is to avoid the distraction during work due to personal obligations for ex- working
mothers can concentrate more on their work, when they are assured that their children are well
taken care off. Thus the facilities are provided to ease off the personal conflicts with work

In my conclusion I would like to restate my point that involvement of personal life with work may
engage employees into unethical behaviors which will hamper their career growth as well as will
shudder the belief of other employees in the ethical functioning of organisations. Also organizations
provide facilities in order to resolve personal conflicts faced by employees during work so that work
remains the highest priority for employees at workplace.


2 Responsibility for preserving the natural environment belongs
to each individual person, not to government.

Government is a representative of the citizens and obviously enjoys the power to exercise the rules
and regulations. Should the issues such as preserving the natural environment be enforced through
laws or invoked through voluntary participation of the citizens.In my opinion the latter is a more
foolproof means of achieving the end as either way it is the action of individual or the citizen that
decides the effectiveness of the same.

Government being a representative posseses the powers to framr the rules and regulations but its
capability to implement them is still a question of debate in a majority of countries across the world
(particularly the ones developing or underdeveloped). The success of any step, in such a scenario lies
primarily in the hands of every individual of that country. For e.g.- reduction in carbon dioxide VOCs
has been a target of many governments and various steps have been taken in order to achieve it
such as stringent norms on automobile emmisions. But still due to lack of public consciousness the
efforts are going in vain. People are not bothered to get their vehicles checked for proper emission.
Similarly even after governments continuous efforts to stop usage of plastic bags, the impact have
been minimal.

On the other hand,if individuals take the social responsibility themselves irrespective of the
regulations in place,better results can be acheioved to an aim.For e.g. if in the case
above,shopkeepers start using paper bags or consumers starts purchasing goods only from those
shopkeepers who use paper bags, the problem of plastic waste will get resolved form the root level.
Thus every individual needs to understand his role in the control of environmental pollution.

Some might argue that only government has power and resources to implement regulations
nationwide. I agree that government has to be the medium to initiate any step in controlling the
environment. But mere implementation of any step from government will not make it successful,
general public should be made aware of the necessity of implementation and should be encouraged
to participate in its implementation to save their environment.

Thus in conclusion I would like to restate my point that government alone cannot be made
responsible for preserving the environment as its efforts will be fruitless in the absence of general
public consciousness towards the need of hour and their participation in the massive task of
preserving environment.


In our country, the real earnings of men who have only a high-school
degree have decreased significantly over the past fifteen years, but those of
male college graduates have remained about the same. Therefore, the key to
improving the earnings of the next generation of workers is to send all students
to college. Our countrys most important educational goal, then, should be to
establish enough colleges and universities to accommodate all high school
Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc.

This editorial advocates universal college education as a means of improving the earnings of
all the next generation of workers. In support of this recommendation the author points out
that the real earnings of male high-school graduates have decreased over the past fifteen years
whereas the earnings of male college graduates have remained stable over the same period.
Furthermore, the author argues that a sufficient number of colleges and universities should be
built to accomplish this goal. The authors position is implausible for a number of reasons.
In the first place, the evidence cited by the author pertains only to male high-school and
college graduates. No comparable comparison of the earnings of female workers is made, yet the
author recommends sending all students to college. If it turns out that no discrepancy between
the real earnings of female high-school graduates and female college graduates exists during
this same period, the authors conclusion would be significantly weakened.
In the second place, the author assumes that the primary factor that influences the earnings of
workers is their level of education. While this is a reasonable assumption, it is by no means a
certainty. For example, in countries undergoing political turmoil and reform, the educated
class of citizens is often discriminated against and cannot find work. In such cases, lack of
education might turn out to be a distinct economic advantage.
Finally, a comparison of workers earnings during a 15-year period is insufficient evidence to
warrant the authors recommendation. Other factors besides workers level of education could
account for the discrepancy in earnings during the period cited by the author. For example, the
demand for college-educated workers may have outpaced the demand for high-school educated
workers during the period in question and as a result increased their earnings
In conclusion, the authors argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the conclusion the author
would have to provide information about the earnings of female workers that showed a trend
comparable to the one cited for male workers. Additionally, evidence would be required for the
assumption that level of education is the primary factor that influences workers earnings.


4"Location has traditionally been one of the most important determinants of a
business's success. The importance of location is not likely to change, no matter how
advanced the development of computer communications and other kinds on technology
The issue of wether the location of a businees is an important determinant of a business
success is a controversial one. On one hand more and more we live in an intercomunicated
world, where locations are getting closer and changes faster. On the other hand, companies'
selection of location will have a big impact on costs and companies' culture. However, in the
final analysis of the issue I belive that the location is not a relevant factor in a business

First, during the last decades we can observe a clear trend on companies selection of location.
All big multinationals such as Nike, IBM, Apple, just to name some, have opened offices in
China, India, Vietnam, etc. opening their market and widening their presence world wide.
There are hardly any national business anymore. Therefore, companies looking for business
are more seeking for temporal benefits and are flexible to move where these benefits or better
conditions are.
Second, the only constant is the change, nothing remains the same for too long. For example,
in Montevideo, the city where I was born, people used to live down town because it was more
convenient, safe and clean. Then down town became too crowded and dangerous and people
started moving more to the suburbs, where nobody had interest before. Now subrubs are
considered more convenient for living than down town. The same example applies for a
business location, what made a location important or good for a business may change very
Third, comunications nowdays are so developed that one can not talk anymore about
distances. In all aspects as transports, communicatios, etc. locations are getting closer . There
are so many airlines flying everywhere , so many on-line communities and ways to
communicate (skype, netmeetings, etc) that it does not matter if the company is located in
Asia or in South America.
Finally, it may be argued that the origin or location of a business may determine the market
opportunities, as well as product positioning. For example, everbody associates BMW with
Germany, and Germany with good quality. However, everybody knows that BMW is not
completly produced in Germany.
In sum, however long time ago location could have been an important determinant of a
business success, in the 21st century due to expanded communications and companies' need
to constantly change and look for benefits, location is not relevant anymore.


In retail or storefront business, location is still a key ingredient of business
success. The extent, to which this will continue to be true, given the inexorable
growth of Internet commerce, will vary among industries.

In more traditional retail sectors, such as clothing, cosmetics and home improvement, an
in-person visit to retail store is often necessary to try on clothes for fit, compare fragrances
or browse among a full selection of textures, colours and styles. Also, activities such as
shopping and dining out are for many consumers who want to have enjoyable experiences in
themselves, as well as excuses to get out of the house and mingle with others in their
community. Finally, shipping costs for large items such as appliances and home-
improvement items render home shopping impracticable. Thus, burgeoning technologies
pose no serious threat to Main Street and location will continue to play a pivotal role in the
fate of many retail businesses.

Nevertheless, technology-related industries are sure to move away from physical storefronts
to virtual ones. Products that can be reduced to digital bits and bites such as books and
magazines, recordings and software applications are more efficiently distributed
electronically. Computer hardware will not disappear from Main Street quite so quickly,
though, since its physical look and feel enters into the buying decision. Computer superstores
should continue to thrive alongside companies such as Dell which does not distribute through
retail stores.

In conclusion, consumer demand for convenient location will continue with respect to certain
tangible products, while for other products alternative distribution systems will gradually
replace the storefront rendering location an obsolete issue.


5On average, middle-aged consumers devote 39 percent of their retail expenditure to
department store products and services, while for younger consumers the average is only 25
percent. Since the number of middle-aged people will increase dramatically within the next
decade, department stores can expect retail sales to increase significantly during that period.
Furthermore, to take advantage of the trend, these stores should begin to replace some of those
products intended to attract the younger consumer with products intended to attract the middle-
aged consumer.

The statement claims that middle-aged consumers devote 39% of their retail expenditure to
department store products and services while younger consumers devote only 25% of their retail
expenditure on an average. Hence the statement is trying to conclude that it would be more
beneficial to the department store to shift its focus to middle aged people.
Let us review the conclusion of the statement from various perspectives.

Firstly, at any given moment of time, there is always a percentage of the population that falls in the
middle-aged segment. However, there is also a significant percentage of the population that falls
into the younger segment of the population. If department stores were to lay more stress on
products aimed toward middle-aged people, they would probably end up losing their younger
generation customers. If a majority of the department stores were to adopt this stand then the
younger generation would be left with very little choice with where to shop from. This may result in
a price difference between the same products being sold at the department store versus the product
being sold at any other venue. Over a period in time department stores may become solely
dependant on the middle-aged segment to keep their businesses viable.

Secondly, if department stores were to primarily service middle-aged people, where would the
younger and the elderly go in order to purchase their necessities? We would then begin to have
separate department stores catering to the needs of the various age segments. If this concept
becomes a viable business model then the consumer stands to gain, as now each segment could
walk into their respective department stores and expect to get everything they wanted under one
roof. Companies would begin orienting themselves towards servicing these segments. From their
perspective, it would lead to an increase in costs by means of acquiring real estate, hiring and
advertisement costs. However, if we were to compare the products that are commonly used across
all the age segments, we would find a huge intersection in the various products that are used for
example toothpaste, soaps, detergents etc. Hence we are lead to question the viability of such a
business model as one that caters to various age segments exclusively. The garment industry has
adopted this concept successfully. However, whether this concept would do the department stores
good in the long run, is as yet unknown. It is clear however, that the industry that would stand to
gain the most from such an arrangement would be the advertising industry. Advertisements would
now have to be tailor made for each segment.

In conclusion, the statement could have done better by modifying its line of reasoning. The
statement could have suggested that to cater across age segments that department stores set up
special areas that cater to the respective age segments under one roof. That way, the department
could still capitalize on the 39% expenditure of the middle-aged segment by providing them with
variety while safeguarding the interests of the other age groups as well. At the end of the day, the
department store still makes it profits and customers are satisfied. The statement currently does not
provide us with sufficient information to conclude in its favor decisively
Topic 419: The following appeared in the opinion column of a financial
magazine. "On average, middle-aged consumers devote 39 percent of their
retail expenditure to department store products and services, while for younger
consumers the average is only 25 percent. Since the number of middle-aged
people will increase dramatically within the next decade, department stores can
expect retail sales to increase significantly during that period. Furthermore, to
take advantage of the trend, these stores should begin to replace some of those
products intended to attract the younger consumer with products intended to
attract the middle-aged consumer." Discuss how well reasoned . . . Etc.

It has be studied that the choice and selection of the person changes from age to age.
Choice of the younger person can not be the same as older one. Here author is talking about
the consumption of the younger person and middle age person.
In young age the requirements and purchase of the person is different and strongly related
to the age. The cosmetics and extra purchase of younger will be different from the purchase
of the middle aged person. According to the author purchase in the departmental store
products and services younger age consumption is 14 less then the middle age consumer.
This decrease in the consumption can be due to the many different reasons.
In the middle aged person there is possibilities of different diseases, less sleeping problem
and more. So it directly effects on the diet, routine, and other requirements. While in
younger age this type of problem are found very rarely. The things available in the
departmental store may be similar to the need of middle ages person so the purchase is
more there and retail expenditure of the person increase. In the same way products and
services in the departmental stores do not matches with the younger buyer so they may not
buy so its retail expenditure decreases. It is also possible that the quality available in the
departmental store does not so much good that younger consumer prefer to buy from there.
This above discussion does not stat that retail expenditure of the middle ages will increases
in the next decades. It may happen that in the coming time the requirements and the view
of the younger consumers changes and matches with the departmental store contains and
new purchase. Or it may happen that the quality of the department store attracts the
younger consumer to purchase so the retail expenditure increase compare to the middle
Keeping in the current scenario in the mind and replacing the some of products intented to
attract the younger consumer with the products attracts the middle age consumer is not in
fact the correct decision. Because we dont have the exact idea about the younger
consumers requirements and their fashion trends in the next 10 years. It may happen that
the numbers of younger coming in the next 10 years increase compare to middle aged
person and the retail expenditure of the younger consumers increases.

So as it stands the authors opinion regarding the increase in the retail expenditure of the
middle ages people will increase is not correct. In addition there is not any other results will
make it sure about the younger consumers expenditure in the next 21 years. So the decision
of the replacing the younger age attracting products with the products attracting the middle
ages not at all satisfactory.
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The author concludes that retail sales in department stores will increase as the number of middle
aged people will increase in the next decade. Further, the author suggests that department stores
should replace some products intended for younger consumers with products for middle-aged
consumers to entice middle aged consumers and boost sales. The only data provided to corroborate
the author's assumption is a relatively higher percentage of expenditure of middle aged consumers
than that of the younger consumers in the department stores. The author's reasoning is
questionable for the following causes.

First of all, no data has been provided about the products purchased by the consumers belonging to
these age groups. Variations in expenditure might not indicate whether the products purchased by
the middle aged consumers are solely used by them. The middle aged consumers might also
purchase certain products meant for younger consumers for their family members. So the reasoning
provided to replace products for younger consumers is seriously flawed. In contrast, taking such
actions actually might impact the sales of department stores adversely.

Secondly, the stated argument doesn't specify the actual age distribution of the consumer base of
department stores. Also, there is no guarantee that people won't relocate in the next ten years. This
might lead to change in age distribution in a specific area resulting in concentration of younger aged
consumers in a certain area. In this scenario the author's argument is invalid.

Finally, the author hasn't provided sufficient evidence of whether the economic scenario in the next
decade will remain unchanged. The economy might be hit by inflation and thus resulting in lower
spending power of the people. Increase in number of middle aged consumers alone doesn't ensure
increase in retail sales of department stores in the next decade. Moreover, there might be change in
trend and people might prefer shopping over internet and thus resulting in dip of retail sales of
department stores.

To sum up, the author's argument is not convincing enough. The author should provide solid facts to
substantiate his arguments.


6.We believe that improved customer service is the best way for us to
differentiate ourselves from competitors and attract new customers. We can offer our
customers better service by reducing waiting time in teller lines from an average of six
minutes to an average of three. By opening for business at 8:30 instead of 9:00, and by
remaining open for an additional hour beyond our current closing time, we will be better
able to accommodate the busy schedules of our customers. These changes will enhance our
banks image as the most customer-friendly bank in town and give us the edge over our

The author gave the conclusion that the best way to compete with their rivalry is to improve
their customer service. He believe that reducing time in teller line and extend the opening
duration in a day will make them the most customer-friendly bank in town and attract more
customer over their competition. These arguments are problematic for some reasons.

First of all, the assumption stated in the passage that their changes in customer service will be
better able to accommodate the busy schedule of customer is unwarranted. Getting three
minute shorten from the waiting time in teller line in most case does not have much effort on
helping some one solve their problem of a tight schedule or lacking of time. Likewise, by
opening the business at 8:30 instead of 9:00 and remaining open haft of hour beyond the
current closing time, they can not guarantee that they will have more customers, since
customer normally will use the service in the regularly time, and there not many people use
the service in the other time.

Second of all, giving customer a better service may help them attract new customer, but it
definitely not the best way to get it. In some service industry where they doing business in
service providing only, this solution my meet their goal. But the fact that the quality of the
product they serve should be the dominating factor in distinguishing them from their
competitors and giving them more customer.

In conclusion, the author arguments may find their reasonableness in some specific case.
However, in general, it is unconvincingly because it lack of considering the important factor
such as products quality, products price and products marketability. To strengthen the
conclusion, the author should provide more specific reason that make those kind of
improvement in customer service will actually give them more customer and there is no
better way to do it.
The memo in this text talks about the ways to improve the customer service and beat the
competition of the company. However, some assumptions and premisses are questionable and
needed some improvement.


Firstly, author thinks that the best way to differentiate itself from competitors is to attract new
customers. Author unfortunately does not provide any evidence why it will differentiate the
company, so this argument is unsupported and there is an example needed to be provided in
this text, for instance, such as research that shows that new customers help to increase the
quantity of services offered to the customers, therefore, they help company to differentiate
itself from competitors . Indeed, the author didnt support it anyhow and this argument is
actually weak.

Secondly, in this memo the other way offered by a manager to improve customer service is to
reduce waiting time of the customers and increase the working hours of the bank. Therefore,
author concludes that if this approach was used, the bank would be able to accommodate
more busy customers and improve the image as a best customer-oriented bank. However,
there is a serious flow in the logic of the author. He/she doesnt include many factors that
influence customer satisfaction such as prices of the services, special promotions, the high
quality service that is provided by the employees, so its important to consider not only time
in this situation, but also other issues that are involved in customer satisfaction. If author
provided the example of previous survey that showed that customers are unhappy about the
waiting time or the working time of the bank and they would be much happier if it will be
changed, than this argument will be straightened.

Author in this memo has really good points in discussing ways to improve the image of the
company by improving customer service, however, there are serious flows that should be
fixed, not enough evidence and examples provided, thats why these arguments cannot be
accepted as valid. Moreover, sometimes in this text author uses incorrect logic by leading one
event to the other that is not necessary connected. For example, he/she says that attracting
new customers, prolonging work hours and decreasing waiting time for customers will help
to improve customer satisfaction and lead to better image of the company. However, these
factors not necessary will lead to better customer satisfaction since it is unknown what
customers really desire and what will make them happy in this bank.

To conclude, author could significantly improve and straighten premises and arguments in
this passage by adding surveys, data and other information that would help to understand all
the factors that indicate customer satisfaction, but for now the logic of the author cannot be
accepted and is not strong enough to lead to the conclusion he/she has provided.