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2008 Catalog
DRILLINGSOLUTIONS
Table of Contents
We Are M-I SWACO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
S I M U L A T I O N
S O F T W A R E
PRESSPRO RT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
VIRTUAL CF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D
S Y S T E M S A N D
A D D I T I V E S
DRILPLEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
GLYDRIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
NOVA Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
PARALAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
RHELIANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
SAGDRIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
SILDRIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
ULTRADRIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
WARP Advanced Fluids Technology. . . . . . 28
DURATHERM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
ECOGREEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
ENVIROTHERM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
ENVIROVERT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
K-MAG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
PARADRIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
PARATHERM/VERSATHERM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
POLY-PLUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
TRUDRIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
VERSACLEAN/VERSADRIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Drilling-Fluid Systems
and Additives Listing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y
C H E M I C A L S
ALPINE DRILL BEADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
ALPINE DRILL BEADS RECOVERY UNIT . . . . . . 44
BLACK FURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
CELL-U-SEAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
CLEAN SPOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
FORM-A-SQUEEZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
PA-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
QUICK SLIDE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
SACK BLACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
ALPINE TRACER BEADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
H D D M I N I N G A N D
W A T E R W E L L
N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y
D R I L L I N G
DRILPLEX HDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
MAX BORE HDD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
MAX GEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
POLYPAC R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
POLYPAC UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
ROD EASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
PLATINUMPAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
PLATINUMPAC UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
KLA-GUARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
FLO-PLEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
H D D P R O D U C T S
DRILPLEX HDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
DUO-TEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
POLY-PLUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
POLY-PLUS LV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
POLY-PLUS RD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
PLATINUMPAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
PLATINUMPAC UL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
PLATINUMD-D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
MAX BORE HDD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
MAX GEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
ROD EASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Lost-Circulation Materials (LCM) . . . . . . . . 86
M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
MAX GEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
PLATINUMPAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
POLY-PLUS 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
POLY-PLUS EHV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
POLY-PLUS RD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
POLYPAC R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
POLYSWELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
RINGFREE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
ROD EASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
THREAD BOND Z. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
TUBE LUBE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
W A T E R W E L L
P R O D U C T S
Lost-Circulation Materials (LCM). . . . . . . 100
POLY-PLUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
SUPERFOAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
SUPERFOAMAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
SUPER PLUG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
MAX GEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
PLATINUMPAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
PLATINUMPAC UL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
SMOOTHGROUT 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
SMOOTHGROUT 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
GOPHER GROUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
KWIK-PLUG Fine & Micro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
KWIK-PLUG Medium & Coarse. . . . . . . . . . 112
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N S F C E R T I F I E D
P R O D U C T S
GEL SUPREME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
GOPHER GROUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
KWIK-PLUG Fine & Micro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
KWIK-PLUG Medium & Coarse. . . . . . . . . . 116
PLATINUMPAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
PLATINUMPAC UL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
POLY-PLUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
POLY-PLUS 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
POLY-PLUS EHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
SMOOTHGROUT 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
SMOOTHGROUT 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
SMOOTHGROUT THERMAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
TACKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
MAX GEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
RINGFREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
M-I GEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
R I G - E Q U I P M E N T
E N G I N E E R I N G
Integrated Package Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . 130
S O L I D S C O N T R O L
S O L I D S - C O N T R O L
S Y S T E M S
Solids-Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
M U D M I X I N G
Mud-Mixing System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
S H A K E R S
MEERKAT PT Shale Shaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
MONGOOSE PT
Linear- and Dual-Motion Shaker. . . . . . . 134
BEM-650 Shale Shaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
M U D C L E A N E R S
High-Volume Mud Cleaners . . . . . . . . . . . 136
C E N T R I F U G E S
414 CENTRIFUGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
518 CENTRIFUGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
CD-500 CENTRIFUGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
CD-600 CENTRIFUGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
F L U I D S P R O C E S S I N G
S Y S T E M ( F P S )
FLUIDS PROCESSING SYSTEM(FPS) . . . . . . . . 141
C U T T I N G S T R A N S P O R T
A N D H A N D L I N G
CLEANCUT Cuttings Collection. . . . . . . . . . 142
VACUUMCOLLECTION SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . 143
VERTI-GCuttings Dryer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
VERTI-GLow-Profile Cuttings Dryer . . . . 145
O I L F I E L D S C R E E N S
XR MESHfor Shale Shaker Screens . . . . . 146
DURAFLO Composite Screens. . . . . . . . . . . 147
HIFLO Replacement Screens. . . . . . . . . . . . 148
W A S T E I N J E C T I O N
Waste Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
WI Training Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
C U T T I N G S T R E A T M E N T
Thermal Desorption Technologies . . . . . 152
Thermal Desorption: Hammermill . . . . 153
Thermal Desorption:
Rotary Kiln. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Thermal Desorption:
FOx System Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L
D - G A S S E R S
Horizontal D-GASSER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Vertical D-GASSER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Compact Vacuum D-GASSER . . . . . . . . . . . 158
CD-1400 Centrifugal D-GASSER. . . . . . . . . 159
M U D / G A S
S E P A R A T O R S
MUD/GAS SEPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
SUPER MUD/GAS SEPARATOR (SMGS) . . . . 161
TOGA System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
D I S C - T Y P E C H O K E S
Standard Chokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
ESUPERCHOKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
S H U T T L E C H O K E S
AUTOCHOKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
C H O K E C O N S O L E S
Standard Choke Consoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
P R E S S U R E &
F L U I D M A N A G E M E N T
S Y S T E M ( P F M S )
PRESSURE & FLUID MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM(PFMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
R I G I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N
SG-SMART Data-Acquisition System . . . 168
Solutions that make
history every day
M-I SWACO* has achieved a posi-
tion of leadership in several key
areas within the oilfield. We have
helped operators drill a majority
of the worlds deepwater and
ultra-deepwater wells. Weve
pioneered the development and
application of both synthetic-base
and high-performance water-base
drilling-fluid systems for deep -
water, and we have created spe-
cialized systems for putting a
fluid thermal barrier in marine
risers to protect produced oil
fromextreme cold.
M-I SWACO has refined the
concept and development of
Reservoir Drill-In Fluids (RDFs)
that help operators achieve
the highest returns from their
valuable reservoirs with special-
ized fluid systems that protect
production zones. Our WARP
*
Advanced Fluids Technology
and our FLOTHRU
*
SMART RDF*
Technology systems have not only
helped operators but have won
industry awards for innovation
and performance. Were continu-
ing to develop high-density RDF
systems, breaker technology
and active filter cakes to enhance
production and facilitate total
reservoir management.
Solutions for
fluids-related problems
Within M-I SWACO, we have the
ability to solve problems that
range from simple to complex.
Dedicated teams can design
entire fluids- management sys -
tems, complete with equipment,
instrumentation, control systems
and automation software.
We have made considerable
investments in research and
engineering facilities as well as
laboratories and field-support
operations. These facilities,
and the capable and talented
people who operate them,
give M-I SWACO a distinct
competitive edge.

The M-I SWACO solutions mindset permeates our company and


positively influences the problem-solving orientation we have toward
our clients, the solutions we deliver, our new-technology advancement,
people development within our company and our future strategies.

WE ARE
4
People are a valuable
asset worth developing
Before people work for
M-I SWACO, we screen them
not only for cur rent skills and
experience, but also for their will-
ingness to learn new things, solve
problems and help others. Once
they join the M-I SWACO organ -
ization, employees have the
advantages of a global learning-
management system which
provides worldwide access to
learn ing, in-house and custom
e-learning solutions, talent and
competency management, and
performance management.
Starting with the basic building
blocks of training for the job at
hand, M-I SWACO instructors
quickly bring new specialists
up to speed in the disciplines
required for them to deliver maxi-
mum value from our products
and services. M-I SWACO ensures
customers around the world get
the highest level of service by
standardizing training courses to
meet the universal expectations
of all operators. Where locale dic-
tates certain specialized practices,
M-I SWACO trainers prepare field
personnel for those details as well.
Once these capable people are
working in the field, their learning
and training are not over. In fact,
basic training is just the begin-
ning of a successful career with
M-I SWACO. As an organization,
we are developing career paths,
checkpoint criteria and progress-
measurement methods to keep
M-I SWACO and its people at the
forefront of the industry.
Research and development
M-I SWACO has made consider-
able investments in research and
engineering facilities as well as
laboratories and field-support
operations. Our Research and
Engineering Center in Houston
and our three International
Technical Centers in Houston;
Aberdeen, Scotland and Stavanger,
Norway provide 24-hr assis-
tance, and innovative solutions,
anywhere in the world. Our
Ecotoxicological Laboratory
in Bergen, Norway, performs a
wide range of analytical services.
Drilling and production frontiers
such as offshore Canada, Russia
and the Caspian Sea, China, Latin
America, and land and offshore
operations throughout North
America are nowjust a phone
call or mouse click away from
powerful technical support.
M-I SWACO
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Customer-focused, solutions-driven
Because we have our own R&D,
manufacturing, environmental
and technical resources, and can
deploy them to active areas, we
are often the first company to cre-
ate the solutions that eventually
become products and services
adopted throughout the industry.
QHSE
Each of our business units has
a Quality, Health, Safety and
Environmental (QHSE) director
who reports to our headquarters
in Houston. Our loss-prevention
teams ensure that M-I SWACO
oper ations are in compliance with
the latest safety standards. Full-
time occupational health and
safety specialists make sure that
our locations and the customer
locations and rigs where our
people work are safe.
The Occupational Health
group provides a management
framework that monitors and
investigates a broad range of
health hazards and initiates
controls to manage those haz -
ards through programs such as
Hearing Conservation, Respiratory
Protection, Ergonomics and
Malaria Control. Our customers
also frequently utilize our expertise
to assess potential occupational
health issues involving our
products at their sites.
M-I SWACO people operate
with an awareness of the environ-
ment and a sense of responsibility
for protecting it. We operate spe-
cialized laboratories, including
a greenhouse, where our envi -
ronmental specialists conduct
exhaustive tests for toxicity,
biodegradation, recyclability,
reuse and more. On a larger
scale, our environmental empha -
sis and expertise are guiding
forces behind the companys
focus on ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS
*
. Prime examples
of this philosophy can be seen
in our line of production chemi-
cals and our Ecotoxicological
Laboratory in Bergen, Norway.
M-I SWACO will continue to
establish itself as a leader by lis-
tening to customers and trusting
our people to develop customized
solutions to solve their problems.
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DRI L L I NG SOL UT I ONS


Wellsite and project engineering
Simulation software
Drilling-fluid systems and additives
ALPINE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS*
FEDERAL* Wholesale
HDD Mining & Waterwell
Technical support
Rig-equipment engineering
Solids control
Solids-control systems
Mud mixing
Shakers
Mud cleaners
Centrifuges
FLUIDS PROCESSING SYSTEM* (FPS)
Cuttings transport and handling
Oilfield screens
Waste injection
Cuttings treatment
Pressure control
D-Gassers
Mud/Gas Separators
Disc-type chokes
Shuttle chokes
Choke consoles
PRESSURE & FLUID
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM* (PFMS)
Rig instrumentation
WE L L BORE P RODUCT I VI T Y
Engineering/simulation
software
Reservoir drill-in fluids
Fluid-loss-control systems
Intervention fluids
Packer fluids
Breakers
Spacers and
displacement chemicals
Specialized tools
Completion fluids
Filtration
Enhanced fluids treatment
Vessel cleaning
P RODUCT I ON T E CHNOL OGI E S
Oilfield/production
chemicals
Chemical management
H
2
S removal
Drag reduction
Water treatment
Production waste
management
E NVI RONME NTAL SOL UT I ONS
Rig-equipment engineering
Solids control
Solids-control systems
Mud mixing
Shakers
Mud cleaners
Centrifuges
FLUIDS PROCESSING SYSTEM(FPS)
Cuttings transport
and handling
Oilfield screens
Waste injection
Cuttings treatment
Pressure control
D-Gassers
Mud/Gas Separators
Disc-type chokes
Shuttle chokes
Choke consoles
PRESSURE & FLUID
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(PFMS)
Rig instrumentation
Enhanced fluids treatment
Vessel cleaning
Water treatment
Production waste management
As we have added to our capabilities and solved problems for our clients, groups of solutions naturally evolved
over time. Now we have formalized this natural alignment, placing the products and services we offer within
categories of solutions. This presents our offerings in a manner that is logical to our clients and our own people.
Every solution we currently provide can be found in one of the four categories below.
The solutions that drive us
PRESSPRO RT
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Real-time engineering answers for
technically demanding, high-cost wells
S I M U L A T I O N S O F T W A R E
The PRESSPRO RT service from
M-I SWACO provides unprecedented
remote and wellsite engineering
support with a unique, specifi cally
designed suite of software. Proprietary
programs use surface measurements
to cal culate downhole pressure pro-
files and fluid properties in real time
during drilling, tripping and other
critical operations. This unique tech-
nology not only provides up-to-the-
second Equivalent Static Densities
(ESDs) and Equivalent Circulating
Densities (ECDs) at any point in the
wellbore during drilling, but also
delivers surge and swab pressure
measurements, Equivalent Dynamic
Density (EDD) while tripping drill
pipe or setting casing.
And the PRESSPRO RT system is a
real wellsite service. The PRESSPRORT
system and dedi cated computer
aboard the rig are maintained by
an M-I SWACO critical-well analyst,
an experienced fluids spe cialist
trained inall aspects of drilling
the most demanding deepwater,
HTHP, extended-reach, and
multilateral wells.
The virtual sensor package pro-
vides ESD, ECD, and other key val-
ues for display at the drillers station
as if they were measured values.
Using the PRESSPRO RT package is
like running the VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS
*
package in real time.
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS provides
a snapshot. PRESSPRORT
gives you the movie.
Now, the industry has access to an
immediate processing technology
that expands on the field-proven
M-I SWACO VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS
and VIRTUAL RHEOLOGY
*
platforms
to consistently and accurately cal -
culate ECDs and pump pressure
as they occur. You get the informa-
tion you need to mitigate, and
even eliminate, critical drilling
problems and events that can jeop-
ardize the efficiency and economics
of high-cost drilling programs.
Because the system works in
real time, you can make changes
on the fly and impact operations
that are ongoing.

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Deepwater, high-temperature,
extended-reach wells and wells
with very narrow pressure windows.

P R O B L E M S
Drilling-fluid properties must
be monitored and adjusted con-
stantly to handle rapidly changing
well bore conditions and to avoid
losing expensive, premium fluids
that could violate environmental
regulations and damage
producing formations.

S O L U T I O N S
Real-time problems require the
in-time solutions uniquely avail -
able from the PRESSPRO
*
RT system.
This pro prietary, fit-for-purpose ,
real-time software application
complements PWD data and
helps maxi mize the benefits of
ECD-management processes,
bothat the wellsite and in remote,
onshore drilling centers. Instan -
taneous access to downhole pres-
sure profiles and fluid properties
during drilling and tripping helps
manage drilling problems before
they occur or as they start.

E C O N O M I C S
The PRESSPRO RT service targets
reduced non-productive time/costs
by helping to eliminate drilling
problems that jeopardize the effi-
ciency and economics of high-cost
drilling programs. Remote program
operation helps enhance the value
of onshore drilling centers by pro-
viding information rather than just
data, helps maximize efficiency
and optimize workflow, and moves
toward the ultimate objective of
reducing wellsite personnel.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
By carefully monitoring ECD
while drilling, and surge/swab
pressures while tripping and run-
ning casing, the PRESSPRO RT serv-
ice helps reduce the risk of lost
circu lation and associated mud
losses to the formation. The PRESSPRO RT package includes a computer that connects to the data-source companys
computer to receive and send data. The real-time data, in turn, is either sent back to the
data-acquisition company or to another third party responsible for the rig-floor display.
Rig
MWD/LWD
Data
source
PRESSPRO RT
Onshore drilling center
Rig-floor display
The PRESSPRO package
9
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The PRESSPRO RT system lever -
ages the proven technologies in
the VISUAL HYDRAULICS
*
module
and displays key downhole profiles
and fluid properties in a real-time
SNAPSHOT
*
graph that is contin -
uously updated with live dril ling
and tripping data. Whereas the
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS module pro-
vides accurate planning and sensi-
tivity analyses, the PRESSPRO RT
system closes the feedback loop
by monitoring current conditions,
helping per sonnel modify drilling
practices and plan for con tingencies
in advance. Now, the VHRHECON
*
module closes the infor mation loop
by generating projections that look
ahead of the bit, based on current
operating conditions.
Offsite centers cut cost,
not service
The PRESSPRO RT system can also be
monitored from a remote, onshore
drilling center, also known as an
offsite center. Real-time OCs can
perform certain critical and routine
functions traditionally performed
at the wellsite and all input from
experts who have a virtual pres-
ence at multiple wellsites. OCs can
provide reliable, inexpensive trans-
mission of drilling data to and from
remote sites with minimal delay.
The PRESSPRO RT system has been
installed in clients OCs to facilitate
efficient deployment and provide
instant, remote access to real-time
drilling and other operational data.
Results are compared immediately
to PWD and can be merged seam-
lessly with the real-time data
stream simultaneously accessible
at the OC and at the rigsite.
If it impacts drilling or
tripping, the PRESSPRO RT
service has you covered
Specially designed PRESSPRO RT
modules provide valuable infor -
mation about all the properties
of the fluids in the wellbore.
DRILLPRO
*
RT software targets
critical parameters that must be
considered when drilling a well.
For the very first time, ECD values
are calculated and displayed every
second while both drilling and
making connections.
TRIPPRO
*
RT software calculates
and displays real-time fluid
parameters while tripping drill
pipe and running casing situa-
tions where wellbore conditions
can change very quickly
SNAPSHOT RT software provides a
continuous graphical display of
downhole profiles
VISUAL HYDRAULICS software pro-
vides a visual representation of
down hole metrics using an
easy-to-understand color scale
PRESSPRO RT and PWD:
a perfect match
The PRESSPRO RT package is an
integral part of ECD management.
It does not replace the popular
Pressure While Drilling (PWD) tool.
Instead, it complements PWD data,
comparing the what are measure-
ments of PWD with a what should
be scenario for early detection of
impending problems. While PWD
provides a single-point measure-
ment at the bit, the PRESSPRO RT
package calculates complete pro -
files of downhole hydraulics and
mud behavior. Additionally, it can
sub stitute for the PWD when the
tool is unavailable, such as while
running casing, when the tool
is non-operational, or when tem -
peratures or pressures exceed
tool limitations.
PRESSPRO RT and VIRTUAL
HYDRAULICS packages are
a winning combination
Now a vital element in many opera-
tors onshore real-time drilling cen-
ters, the PRESSPRO RT package is the
only technology that provides in-
time equivalent static and equiva-
lent cir culating densities at any
point in the wellbore during dril -
ling. VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS software,
long an integral component of the
M-I SWACO PRESSPRO RT wellsite
engineering service is the gold stan-
dard in the industry against which
all other hydraulic programs are
compared. Together, this incompa-
rable suite of programs is ideal for
the planning, monitoring, evaluat-
ing, optimization and collaboration
required to successfully tackle
todays critical wells.
The PRESSPRO RT system is one
more example of why M-I SWACO
is the industry leader when it comes
to developing solutions to the most
demanding applications.
Features
Managed by a spe cially
trained, onsite, critical-
well analyst
Can be operated from
remote Operation Centers
Monitors drilling and
tripping parameters
A dedicated computer can
be interfaced to an existing
data-acquisition system with
the data-acquisition source
on the rig
Predefined screens for
targeted drilling/tripping
components
Downhole profiles calculated
and updated every second and
displayed as virtual sensors
Benefits
Prevents/minimizes down-
hole fluid losses due to
lost circulation
Early detection of impending
problems by providing what
should be data to compare
with what is
Minimizes mud-related
non-productive time
Helps reduce drilling costs
Provides real-time monitoring
for immediate response
Enhances ECD management
by providing downhole pres-
sure profiles during drilling,
tripping, and other critical
operations
Complements PWD when
available and substitutes
for PWD when the data is
not available.
VIRTUAL CF
10
S I M U L A T I O N S O F T W A R E
When displacing drilling fluid with a
completion or reservoir drill-in fluid,
neglecting critical variables can lead
to a world of headaches down the
road. Excessive rig time. Damaged
reservoirs. Added cleanup and
filtration costs. Lower production.
Our proprietary VIRTUAL CF*
software package considers all the
parameters, taking the uncertainty
out of wellbore displacements. This
sophisticated, integrated suite of
computer programs targets the
hydraulics modeling and displace-
ment profiles of high-density brines
and other completion fluids to
enhance wellbore cleanup and
ultimately the productivity of
your well.
Armed with this powerful soft-
ware package, the M-I SWACO
specialist can, with an unequaled
degree of accuracy:
Minimize rig time for displace-
ments by cal culating all critical
variables in the wellbore, including
spacer volume, rheologies, fluid
regime, velocity, contact time,
pump strokes, pump pressure
and differential pressures
Design a displacement that
meets equipment limitations
by inputting exact wellbore
geometry, including angle, and
calculating such parameters as
hydraulic horsepower, pill volume,
flow rate, choke pressures and
back pressures all based on
actual wellbore geometry
Ensure safety and well control by
providing back-pressure schedules
for those cases where differential
or bottomhole pressures must
be maintained
Provide flexible operating parame-
ters for critical wells by simulating
displacement in either direction,
tracking all fluids in the displace-
ment as a function of volume or
pump strokes, and displaying posi-
tion, pressure, rate and other data
at any point in the wellbore
Optimize completion fluid eco-
nomics by predicting equivalent
static and local brine density
at any point in the wellbore,
accounting for varying temper -
atures from surface to bottom,
which is especially beneficial in
the cold, deepwater environments
Powerful software for designing and
optimizing wellbore displacements
Engineered Displacement*
Features and Benefits
Minimizes rig time
for displacements
Designs a displacement
that meets equipment
limitations
Ensures safety and
well control
Provides flexible operating
parameters for critical wells
Optimizes completion
fluid economics
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS
11
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S I M U L A T I O N S O F T W A R E
The true value of the VIRTUAL
HYDRAULICS software suite is truly
appreciated in deepwater wells
where uncontrolled ECDs can
quickly exceed the boundaries
of narrow operating windows, in
extended-reach and horizontal
wells, in High-Temperature, High-
Pressure (HTHP) applications and
other technically demanding wells.
Proven on thousands of projects,
both critical and more routine
applications, this powerful com -
putational tool literally gives
M-I SWACO engineers a virtual
snapshot of downhole fluid behav -
ior before drilling begins and
while the well is in progress. This
accurate prediction of downhole
hydraulics has a proven, positive
effect on overall well performance.
Now, M-I SWACO has raised the
bar to an entirely new level with
the release of VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS
Version 3.0. Now you have every-
thing you have come to rely on from
this unparalleled hydraulics moni-
toring package, and much more:
The innovative VIRTUAL
HYDRAULICS NAVIGATOR* 3-D
visualization system was devel-
oped by M-I SWACO to create a
virtual window into downhole
hydraulics and related issues. The
concept is the ideal combination
of advanced drilling technology
and 3-D computer graphics. The
VH NAVIGATOR module makes
it possible to navigate interac -
tively through a virtual well and
critically examine and analyze
downhole hydraulics calculated
by VRDH (snapshot case) and
VH RHECON (transient case) on
a standard-issue laptop or PC
using a gamepad or keyboard.
Invaluable as an analysis tool, the
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS NAVIGATOR
module is also a great training tool
for office-based and field person-
nel, as well as non-drillers.
The VH RHECONpro-
vides dynamic recon-
naissance simulations
to optimize hydraulics
ahead of the bit, using
predefined drilling
parameters
The OPTIPRO
*
bit
hydraulics optimiza-
tion package in which
rheological properties
are results of the opti-
mization process
Improved models and parametric
analyses for hole cleaning, ECD
management, 3-D velocity pro-
files, downhole temperatures,
and pressures and more
New graphics to address key
hydraulics-related issues
A totally redesigned, state-of-the-
art software system
The wide range of modules
in VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS
covers all the issues in
hydraulics modeling
With VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS 3.0, we
kept some of the classics that you
had come to depend on, but have
added a host of newly engineered
modules that considers every
aspect of hydraulics analysis.
Complementing our new VIRTUAL
HYDRAULICS NAVIGATOR, that allows
our engineers to get up close and
personal with your wellbore, we
have added or enhanced a wide
range of modules designed to con-
sider every downhole condition.
VIRTUAL ROTARY DRILLING
HYDRAULICS
*
, or VRDH, uses down-
hole ECD and pressure-loss calcu -
lations to generate a veritable
SnapShot of downhole profiles
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS RHECON pro-
vides reconnaissance simulations
(pseudo real-time analysis) of
transient drilling, tripping and
circulation, and effect on ECDs
and hole-cleaning
The widely used TRIPPRO, or
TRIPPING PROFILES
*
module pro-
vides optimum running speed
based on transient surge and swab
models combined with variable
downhole fluid properties, and
includes a host of liner surge-
reduction tools
The VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS PLAN
*
, or
VH PLAN
*
, performs hydraulic opti-
mizations based on surface equip-
ment limits and downhole ECD
and hole-cleaning requirements
OPTIPRO, or OPTIMUMPROFILES,
optimizes fluid rheology and
hydraulics based on surface equip-
ment limits and downhole ECD
and hole-cleaning requirements
The TPRO
*
TEMPERATURE PROFILES
generates downhole transient-
temperature profiles during
circulation or shut-in
As its predecessor did in the
past, the new-generation VIRTUAL
HYDRAULICS 3.0 promises to deliver
more information rather than mere
data information you can use
to make educated decisions about
how to safely, efficiently and cost-
effectively drill your well.
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS gives you an even
clearer view of your fluids behavior downhole
DRILPLEX
12
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Drilling lost-circulation zones, casing-
milling operations, stabilizing
unconsolidated formations, coiled-
tubing operations, environmentally
sensitive areas, and high-angle and
horizontal wells.

P R O B L E M S
Many drilling operations require a
fluid system that is cost-effective
and environmentally acceptable
in addition to having exceptional
hole-cleaning ability, good screen-
ability at high flow rates and the
ability to control losses in hard
rock as well as unconsolidated
sedimentary formations.

S O L U T I O N S
The DRILPLEX
*
system is the latest
generation of Mixed-Metal Oxide
(MMO) products, a water-base
drilling-fluid system with unequaled
solids suspension, but one that still
screens easily, even at high flow
rates the ideal system for an array
of applications.

E C O N O M I C S
The systems water-base chemistry
reduces costs and environmental
problems, minimizes torque and
drag, and limits the chance of hole
erosion because the DRILPLEX system
provides flow that is low to zero
across the wellbore.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The basic DRILPLEX system contains
essentially no components that can
harm the environment. The system
and all its components are virtually
non-toxic, with a low concentration
of organic material. The primary
fluid-loss-control additive is a
starch derivative for minimal
environmental impact.
Ordinary bentonite, extraordinary results
Simply combining the DRILPLEX
viscosifier with prescreened,
high-quality bentonite produces
a highly shear-thinning fluid with
a high yield point, low plastic vis-
cosity and high, flat gel strengths.
The result is a fluid system with
unequaled solids suspension,
but one that still screens easily,
even at high flow rates.
The versatile water-base system with exceptional rheological properties designed to
lower costs in a wide range of wells
The bentonite/MMO associates
into long ribbon-like structures
that can bridge openings with
diameters measured in 10s
of microns.
Rheogram Showing Unique
Rheological Properties
The data was obtained on a Fann 35A viscometer.
Both fluids were unweighted.
80 Dial reading
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
Rheometer speed
100 200 300 400 500 600
XC polymer
PV 12 YP 48
Gels 28/40
n 0.263 K 11.6
DRILPLEX system
PV 4 YP 40
Gels 17/19
n 0.126 K 20.1
13
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A straightforward system for
the most complex applications
You might think that a system
with the versatility and application
range DRILPLEX has demonstrated
would involve intricate and difficult-
to-engineer chemical compositions.
On the contrary, the proprietary
FLO-PLEX
*
primary fluid-loss-control
additive and the DRILPLEX viscosifier
are the only components developed
specifically for the DRILPLEX system.
The remaining chemicals are rela-
tively common and well understood.
A diverse, worldwide
track record
Challenging horizontal wells in the
Gulf of Mexico. The establishment
of milling records in the North Sea
and elsewhere. Drilling in nearly
9,000 ft (2,743 m) of water in the
Campos Basin with zero losses. In
West Africa, the successful drilling
of a depleted reservoir and uncon-
solidated formation with a maxi-
mum angle of 102 F (38.8 C).
The success stories go on and on.
Features
Latest-generation Mixed-
Metal Oxide (MMO) system
Highly shear-thinning
Excellent QHSE profile
Temperature-stable to
250 F (121 C)
Exceptional hole cleaning
and suspension
Excellent ability to seal the
high-permeability formations
found in deepwater drilling
Benefits
Ideal for lost-circulation
zones, unconsolidated
formations, milling
situations, and high-angle
and horizontal wells
Minimizes losses
Reduces environmental
impact
High rates of penetration
Well-suited for coiled-
tubing drilling
Cost-effective
The ability to stabilize goes with the flow
Excellent
cuttings
transport
Stationary,
gelled layer
of fluid
Zero shear stress at wall
Minimal dynamic fluid loss
Protects poorly consolidated or fractured formations
Helps prevent seepage losses
No erosion of wellbore
The flow profile of the fluid in the annulus
affords DRILPLEX the ability to stabilize
mechanically weak and poorly consolidated
formations. The highviscosity of the fluid
at low shear rates results in a stationary
layer of fluid on the sides of the wellbore.
This protective layer shields weak rock for -
mations from erosion caused by the flow.
The capacity of the fluid to stabilize these
weak and uncon solidated formations
is further enhanced by the lower pump
rates used with the DRILPLEX system. This
tendency may also explain the lower
seepage losses that occurred in several wells
in which the formations were fractured.
The unique mechanism driving DRILPLEX
Bentonite platelet Bentonite/MMO complex
1 micron
MMO
crystals
The mixed-metal oxide comprising
the core of the system has an
electron-deficient lattice, and
whenadded to water, the DRILPLEX
particles bond to the cation
exchange sites on bentonite,
forming a strong complex, which
inturnstructures the fluid and
provides viscosity and gels.
When the MMO crystals are
added to a suspension of bentonite
platelets, the cationic crystals
displace the naturally resident
sodium or other cations and form
strong associations with the
anionic sites on the faces of the
clay platelets. What results is a
newcomplex or adduct with
charac teristics that are funda -
mentally different from those
of a virgin bentonite platelet.
The entire mechanism appears
to be electrostatic in nature, which
makes it somewhat unusual and
accounts for the unique character -
istics of the fluid system. For
example, an electrostatic-field-
based mechanism could explain
the elastic or deformable-solid
behavior observed in the absence
of shear and could also explain
both the dramatic and instan -
taneous onset of the solid-to-liquid
transition and the reversibility of
the process.
GLYDRIL
14
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Offshore and onshore wells
where a high-performance system
is required along with the envi -
ronmental benefits and drilling
char acteristics of a water-base sys-
tem. This includes large-diameter
wellbores, ERD, deepwater and
subsalt applications.

P R O B L E M S
Many high-performance systems,
especially those designed for high
performance and inhibition, are oil-
base products with characteristics
that are not sanctioned by environ-
mental regulations or that pose
cleanup and disposal problems.

S O L U T I O N S
The GLYDRIL
*
system uses an
enhanced-polymer, water-base
chemistry that employs polyglycol
technology to deliver a high degree
of shale inhibition; wellbore sta bility;
HTHP fluid-loss control; and lubricity.

E C O N O M I C S
The GLYDRIL system delivers lower
dilution rates, higher Rate of
Penetration (ROP) and lubricity,
and lower disposal and environ -
mental costs.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
Offshore: relatively low marine toxi-
city and fast biodegradation rates,
minimal cuttings piles, and benthic
impact. Onshore: shale inhibition
without the use of salts, no aromatic
or cyclic hydrocarbon compounds.
Proven by the M-I SWACO team in
hundreds of wells worldwide, the
GLYDRIL system uses an enhanced-
polymer, water-base chemistry that
employs polyglycol technology.
Thanks to that technology, opera-
tors can count on the GLYDRIL sys-
tem to deliver a high degree of shale
inhibition; wellbore stability; HTHP
fluid-loss control and lubricity.
Because no two wells are alike,
M-I SWACO offers a range of glycols
to meet all drilling needs.
Customization makes
GLYDRIL the right choice
for a variety of applications
In fact, the systems broad range of
glycols makes it a preferred system
where environmental guidelines
dictate a water-base fluid. The
GLYDRIL system can be customized
to meet a variety of drilling chal-
lenges large-diameter wellbores,
extended-reach drilling, deepwater
and subsalt applications, and par -
ticularly reactive shales. The system
also is ideal for drilling high-angle
wells in reactive shale formations
where wellbore stability, torque
and drag are major concerns. In
addition, the glycols in the GLYDRIL
system enhance the thermal stabil-
ity of both FLO-VIS
*
/DUO-VIS
*
and
Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC)/starch
systems, and also enhance the
low-shear rheological behavior of
FLO-VIS polymers at temperatures
above 248 F (120 C).
GLYDRIL and ROP
enhancement
Like most water-base systems, the
GLYDRIL systems performance can
benefit from the addition of an ROP
enhancer in certain applications.
Please contact your M-I SWACO
representative to derive maximum
benefit from the GLYDRIL system and
any performance-boosting additives.
The proven glycol system for high-performance,
environmentally advanced drilling
Shale-Recovery Comparisons
100% Cuttings recovery
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Gel PHPA KCl PHPA GLYDRIL OBM
Wet cuttings Dry cuttings
Fluid-Loss Comparisons
14 cc Fluid loss
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
KCl/PHPA GLYDRIL
API HTHP (200 F [93 C])
15
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Compare performance,
then save with GLYDRIL
Lower dilution rates. Higher ROP
and lubricity. Lower total costs.
The GLYDRIL system is one more
example of the M-I SWACO pledge
to provide customers the most
appropriate, cost-effective drilling
fluids and systems.
Engineering experience comes
with every ounce of GLYDRIL
Having the right drilling fluid is only
one part of the story. M-I SWACO
also has the experience to help oper-
ators apply products to control rhe-
ology, fluid loss and density. In the
case of the GLYDRIL system, that
experience helps determine the
proper concentration and choice of
glycol additive. We can even help
you monitor glycol concentrations
through the use of optical refraction
techniques. Wherever you operate,
M-I SWACO has the experience that
can make your operations run more
smoothly and cost effectively.
GLYDRIL is the right choice
for the environment, too
The products that make up the
GLYDRIL system are formulated to
address environmental concerns
worldwide, both offshore and on
land. For offshore operations, the
system displays relatively low
marine toxicity, provides relatively
fast biodegradation rates, and mini-
mizes cuttings piles and benthic
impacts. Onshore, the GLYDRIL sys-
tem can be engineered to provide
shale inhibition without the use
of salts and contains no aromatic
or cyclic hydrocarbon compounds,
making cuttings ideally suited
for landfarming.
Soluble
polyglycol
enters
shale pores.
As temperature increases
and chemical environment
changes, polyglycol clouds out.
By plugging shale pores, the GLYDRIL system provides a barrier against water migration,
thereby reducing wellbore instability caused by fluid influx.
Features
Low-toxicity, water-base system
Relatively fast biodegradation
Shale inhibition
Pore-plugging, Thermally
Activated Mud Emulsion (TAME)
properties
Improved filter-cake quality
Pipe-wetting capabilities
Benefits
In-gauge wellbores
Lower fluid losses and
leak-off values
Lower potential for differential
sticking
Less torque, drag and bit balling
Lower dilution rates
Slicker, firmer filter cake
Greater wellbore stability
NOVA Systems
16
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
The NOVA line has what youre
looking for to replace your
conventional system
Compared to water-base sys -
tems, NOVA
*
systems deliver
signifi cantly improved drilling
rates and improved lubricity
The choice of low synthetic-to-
water ratios to reduce formulation
costs and environmental impact
The ability to discharge cuttings
Excellent wellbore, temperature
and contamination stability
Superior return permeability
results, ensuring minimal
formation damage
Increased hole cleaning, even
in high-angle wellbores
Improved health and safety
compared to oil-base systems
The choice of rheological profile
to suit drilling requirements
Available in a wide range of
drilling-fluid properties
and densities
NOVA systems deliver superior
drilling performance
Although the cost per barrel of a
NOVA system is higher than tradi-
tional, water-base systems, its
improved performance significantly
outweighs the initial investment.
M-I SWACO customers report that
NOVA systems have reduced their
overall drilling costs by up to 55%.
And rigs running NOVA systems
programs have set world-record
penetration rates, representing
improvements of up to 70% com-
pared to other mud systems.
NOVAsystems have also reduced
costs by minimizing wellbore
stability problems associated
with hydratable clays. The sub -
stantial improvement in hole
gauge obtained by using NOVA
fluids delivers in-gauge wellbores.
This means better logging and
casing runs, reduced bit-balling,
fewer stuck-pipe and downtime
incidents, and a substantial
reduction of waste volumes and
cement consumption.
Along with record-breaking
drilling rates, NOVAsystems provide
superior hole cleaning and lubricity
for drilling designer, high-angle,
extended-reach wells. The filter cake
characteristics of a NOVA system
provide excellent lubricity equal
to or better than that provided by
oil-base systems.
Lubricity, combined with effec-
tive cuttings removal, results in
significant reductions in torque
and drag.
The environmentally sound alternative
to traditional drilling fluids
The NOVAline has
proven itself in some of
the stickiest applications
Where increased rates of
penetration are required
to reduce total time spent
drilling the well, reducing
overall well costs
Drilling through highly reactive
shales where aqueous fluids
produce wellbore instability
and viscosity problems asso -
ciated with hydration and
dispersion of the formation
High-angle wells, including
extended-reach and horizon-
tal wells where maximum
lubricity is a high priority
Controlling the stability
and gauge of the wellbore
while drilling through
massive salt sections
Depleted reservoirs where
high differential pressures
require lowfluid loss, as
well as the best available
filter cake and lubricity to
reduce the potential for
differential-pressure sticking
Production zones that may
be sensitive to formation
damage when drilled with
water-base fluids
High-pressure, high-
temperature (>350 F
or >177 C) wells where
continuous phase temper -
ature stability is critical
While drilling wells with
potential formation-related
problems: bit balling, gumbo
heaving and blinding of shale
shaker screens
17
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The NOVA line satisfies
virtually every countrys
environmental regulations
One of the main reasons for devel-
oping a synthetic-base system was
environmental considerations. NOVA
systems not only have proven less
damaging (environmentally) than
diesel-base and mineral-oil-base
systems, but they also generate less
waste than water-base systems.
Among the many stringent
environmental tests conducted
onNOVA systems are those for the
Gulf of Mexico.
In 2001, the EPA established new
regulations for the use of Synthetic-
Base Drilling Fluid (SBF) for use in the
Gulf of Mexico. These regulations
included stock limitations and dis-
charge limitations in a two-part
approach to control SBF-cuttings
discharges. The first part was based
on product substitution through
use of stock limitations (i.e., sedi-
ment toxicity, biodegradation, PAH
content, metals content) and dis-
charge limitations (i.e., sediment
toxicity, limit on the retention of
SBF on SBF-cuttings).
The NOVA system is designed to
meet both the stock limitations and
the discharge limit of sediment toxi-
city. It is also design to biodegrade in
the most difficult of environments:
those without oxygen. Detailed doc-
umentation is developed to insure
the compliance of the NOVAsystem.
The EPA has viewed the use of a prod-
uct like the NOVAsystem, in combi-
nation with the VERTI-G* technology,
as a pollution-prevention technology.
M-I SWACO formulated NOVA sys-
tems with the health and safety of
rig crews in mind. In addition to pro-
tecting the environment, NOVA sys-
tem fluids go a long way in making
life easier for the people who handle
and work with them. Extensive
testing has been carried out on the
basic ingredient in the NOVA system,
the base fluid.
Details of, and results from, the
testing procedures for eye and skin
irritation are available upon request.
A significant safety benefit pro-
vided by the NOVA products are high
flash points. This is confirmed by
the results of a study to detect and
analyze the vapors emitted by the
base fluids at different tempera-
tures. The reduction in vapors has
improved the work environment,
especially in enclosed areas around
shale shakers and mud pits.
M-I SWACO supports the
NOVA line with complete
environmental testing and
analytical services
M-I SWACO confirms the environ-
mental acceptability and regulatory
compliance of its products. We
maintain an environmental divi-
sion within our R&D departments
in Houston and Aberdeen and have
the ability to run all tests for U.S.
protocols within our own facilities.
An in-house analytical department
can supply further tests, including
gas chromatograph/mass spectrom-
eter for evaluating fluid samples for
early signs of contamination.
Extensive screening and analysis
of synthetic-base fluids has made
M-I SWACO a leader in understand-
ing environmental issues, a func-
tion of developing technologies that
optimizes drilling performance and
minimizes environmental impact.
Among the environmental services
with which we support our NOVA
line are: coordinating research
samples, conducting seabed impact
studies, developing appropriate
protocols, interfacing with gov -
ernment officials and providing
onsite monitoring.
Skilled engineers and full com-
puter support ensure high produc-
tivity on your well. It takes highly
trained drilling-fluid engineers to
support the exceptional NOVA line.
In addition to the extensive training
in drilling fluids and our advanced
programs, our engineers receive
in-depth training in running NOVA
systems, including the environmen-
tal and QHSE aspects of the systems.
We support our rigsite engineers
with local, area technical services
supervisors and a technical services
group working at our R&D facilities.
This critical well support group of
field and staff engineers has at its
disposal some of the most advanced
software available.
MUDVOL
*
is a program used on a
daily basis to track any losses of
NOVA system fluids while drilling
and to provide information about
the volume of fluid discharged into
the sea. By analyzing the results
from MUDVOL, M-I SWACO engi-
neers can detect areas where fluid
loses can be reduced, saving money.
VIRTUAL HYDRAULICS is propri-
etary software that provides cal -
culations for dynamic downhole
conditions involving temperature
and pressure specifically for NOVA
systems. Our engineers use it to
determine pressure drops, equiva-
lent circulating densities, stand -
pipe pressures and more. This
information is extremely valuable
when planning well hydraulics to
minimize losses in areas of low
fracture gradients.
Supporting our field engineers
is the most extensive drilling-fluids
plant and warehouse network in
the industry. This distribution net-
work ensures that M-I SWACO cus-
tomers have access to the NOVA line
of fluids 24/7.
PARALAND
18
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
An entire system
engineered to reduce
environmental liability
The PARALAND system design incor-
porates ready biodegradability and
low terrestrial toxicity into all of
its organic components. In addition,
the inorganic components are
designed to minimize conductivity
and enhance plant growth. All of
this is accomplished while maintain-
ing the high-performance character-
istics of an invert-emulsion fluid.
The non-aqueous system designed to deliver outstanding performance
coupled with unsurpassed environmental excellence

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Extended-reach and complex wells
both on land and offshore where
maximum environmental protec-
tion is desired.

P R O B L E M S
Conventional invert-emulsion fluids
exhibit both slow and incomplete
biodegradation, as well as compo-
nent toxicity, requiring expensive
and lengthy treatments to permit
the disposal of contaminated drill
cuttings onshore.

S O L U T I O N S
The PARALAND
*
system has been
designed with environmental pro-
tection in mind. The system com -
ponents are biodegradable and of
low toxicity, with an internal phase
which provides nutrients for plant
growth. Coupled with a designed
treatment method, the system
minimizes environmental risk.

E C O N O M I C S
With its unique environmentally
acceptable design, the PARALAND
system not only improves drilling
efficiency as a high-performance,
invert-emulsion fluid, but also
reduces the cost and footprint for
disposal of contaminated cuttings.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The PARALAND system, designed
specifically for environmental excel-
lence, minimizes risk and cost by
providing various options for rapid
and complete treatment to meet
safe-disposal standards. The system
treatment can be designed to con-
vert drill cuttings into an agricultur-
ally acceptable byproduct, resulting
in a unique zero-waste treatment.
Product Concentration
PARALAND* B 45 85%
SUREMUL* 6 8 lb/bbl
SUREWET* 1 3 lb/bbl
Lime 3 6 lb/bbl
VG-PLUS* 5 8 lb/bbl
Water 5 30%
K-52* 5 45 lb/bbl
Hematite As needed
Typical Formulations
The issues with conventional invert-emulsion fluids
External phase. Typically
diesel or mineral oils, these
materials only partially and
slowly degrade, leaving behind
toxic, degradation-resistant
waste that can pose a long-term
liability for disposal.
Emulsifiers. Typically these
materials only partially and
slowly degrade leaving behind
toxic, degradation-resistant
waste.
Internal phase. Typically
calcium chloride, which
provides high levels of conduc-
tivity to any waste and inhibits
plant growth.
Weight material. Typically
barite, non-toxic in itself, which
can be substituted with an
improved weight material that
can promote site recovery.
Other components. Typically
lime, organoclays and filtration-
control additives, the latter
materials can be slow to
degrade leaving behind toxic,
degradation-resistant waste.
Weight
material
Internal phase
Others
Emulsifiers External
phase
19
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Multiple treatment options
ensure minimal
environmental risk
A wide range of efficient techniques
can be used to treat the PARALAND
system to either meet local disposal
regulations or to convert drill cut-
tings into a useful byproduct which
can be utilized as a topsoil or a fer-
tilizer, in a true beneficial-reuse,
zero-waste environmental scenario.
Landfarming, biopiling, compost-
ing, bioreacting and vermiculture
are all suitable treatment tech-
niques for PARALAND drill cuttings.
With efficient composting and
vermiculture, these cuttings can
be beneficially reused as a soil-
enhancing additive.
The use of PARALAND allows faster
treatments with less dilution addi-
tives than conventional invert flu-
ids, resulting in lower treatment
costs and less environmental risk.
Field results deliver
performance promises
from laboratory
In the field, PARALAND has con -
sistently exceeded performance
expectations with high rates of
penetration, low dilution rates
and high levels of contamination
tolerance. Mud weights from 7.5
to 16 lb/gal (0.9 to 1.92 kg/L) have
been easily achieved with ideal
rhe ological and filtration prop -
erties. The system is easily and
economically maintained with
actual total fluid-cost reductions
of as much as 30% below estimate.
The PARALAND system has been
used in various zero-waste opera-
tions. In New Zealand, PARALANDcut-
tings were used as a food source for
worms in a local vermiculture farm,
converting the cuttings into vermi-
cast fertilizer. In Colorado, PARALAND
cuttings were co-composted with
straw, bark and sand to provide a
topsoil for reseeding the drillsite.
Features
High-performance,
invert-emulsion system
Readily engineered
and maintained
Biodegradable organic
components
All components low
terrestrial toxicity
Variety of compatible
treatment options
Benefits
Optimized drilling
performance
Low dilution rates
Minimum environmental
exposure
Lower well costs
Beneficial reuse of cuttings
Zero-waste option
Bioremediation: The PARALAND options
Increasing
containment
Increasing
containment
Vermiculture
Co-composting
(bag composter)
Total
containment
Co-composting
(rotary composter)
Slurry bioreactor
C L I MAT E D E P E N D E N T
C L I MAT E I N D E P E N D E N T
Landfarming Biopile/biocell
RHELIANT

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Deepwater, extended-reach and
other technically demanding wells.

P R O B L E M S
Adjusting the rheological properties
of conventional synthetic-base drill -
ing fluids to deal with changing
temperatures and other well condi-
tions can lead to poor hole cleaning,
excessive ECDs, barite sag and
lost circulation.

S O L U T I O N S
The constant rheology of the
uniquely engineered RHELIANT
*
system opens the door for more
efficient, trouble-free and cost-
effective drilling by improving hole
cleaning and minimizing barite sag,
pressure spikes, progressive gel
strengths and other problems that
result when balancing ECD values.

E C O N O M I C S
With its flat rheological profile, the
RHELIANT system is unsurpassed in
reducing fluid losses in challenging
downhole environments. The result-
ant higher drilling efficiency and
minimized formation damage fur-
ther help to reduce total well costs.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The RHELIANT system requires less
dilution, further optimizing its envi-
ronmental advantages. The system is
a flat-rheology invert that can be for-
mulated as a synthetic-base system
for offshore-discharge compliance.
The non-aqueous system with the flat rheology you can trust
to reduce expensive mud losses and protect your AFE
ECD Problem A: In deepwater, the
surface rheology must be reduced
when encountering cold tempera-
tures to offset negative ECD effects.
ECD Problem B: Adjusting the rhe -
ology upwards to compensate for
higher downhole temperatures and
pressure can lead to excessive ECD
values and gel strengths.
The RHELIANT Solution: With its flat
rheology, this new-generation sys-
tem maintains consistent fluid
properties that are independent of
temperature and pressure. It main-
tains constant 150 F (65.5 C) prop -
erties even when confronting
temperatures as low as 40 F (4.4 C).
You can drill with ECDs lower than,
or equal to, conventional invert sys-
tems while encountering fewer
drilling problems and successfully
avoiding the loss of whole mud.
RHELIANT System vs Conventional SBM
35 YP (lb/100 ft
2
)
30
25
20
15
50 70 90 110 130 150 170
10
Temperature ( F)
Conventional SBM RHELIANT system
The practical side of a flat rheological profile
An entire system engineered
to reduce dilution and costs
The RHELIANT systems lower clay
content, fit-for-purpose viscosifiers,
newly developed emulsifiers, rheol-
ogy modifiers and adaptability to
different base fluids yield a high-
performance system that is cost-
effective yet easy to maintain.
20
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
21
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Field results that deliver on
the promise of the laboratory
In the field, the RHELIANT system
has shown performance character-
istics far superior to those of any
conventional synthetic-base and
other invert drilling fluids in deep-
water applications.
ROP as much as 20 ft/hr (6.1 m/hr)
faster than typical synthetic-
base systems
On-bottom drilling time reduced
by as much as 24 hrs per interval
Reduced mud losses, less dilution
and improved displacement
characteristics
Balanced yield point delivers
higher penetration rates, vastly
improved cuttings-transport
and considerable savings in
hole-conditioning time
RHELIANT technology
builds on the NOVAPLUS
systems success
No name is more synonymous
with synthetic-base drilling fluids
than the widely accepted NOVAPLUS
*
system. Long the system of choice
for the deepwater and similarly
challenging environments, this
award-winning system set the
standard for balancing cost-
effective performance with
environmental efficiency.
While just as robust as its fore-
runner, the RHELIANT systems
easier-on-the-AFE formulation
allows it to deliver value-added
performance that no conventional
synthetic-base or other invert
drilling fluids can match.
Minimized Pressure Surges
1400 Pump output (gpm) ECD (lb/gal) 11.5
11.4
11.3
11.25
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
4:07:41 4:10:34 4:13:26 4:16:19 4:19:12 4:24:58 4:22:05
0
Time
Flow rate ECD
11.45
11.35
12,800
13,800
14,800
15,800
16,800
17,800
18,800
19,800
20,800
21,800
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
18,000
19,000
20,000
21,000
12.3 12.7 13.1 13.5 13.9 14.3 12.5 13 13.5 14
0.5
lb/gal
728
gpm
0.4
lb/gal
770
gpm
SBM 12-in.
PWD (lb/gal)
RHELIANT 11-in.
PWD (lb/gal)
PWD MW (in.)
RHELIANT Field Data Well B:
PWD Comparison with Direct Offset
RHELIANT System vs Conventional SBM
Barite Sag Performance
12.9 Sag flow loop test, NOVAPLUS and RHELIANT systems
12.8
12.7
12.6
0 50 100 150 200 250
12.5
Time, min
Conventional system RHELIANT system
Now, manage ECD without sacrificing hole cleaning
or promoting barite sag
The RHELIANT system also has demon-
strated its capacity to eliminate pressure
spikes on connections. During the static
period, the high gel strengths that can
develop in conventional systems, espe-
cially at low temperatures, can cause
excessive pressures to develop when the
pumps are restarted, creating the potential
for a formation breakdown.
The RHELIANT systems low clay content
and flat rheology profile ensure minimum
buildup of gels, effectively eliminating
these pressure surges seen with other
invert drilling fluids.
The RHELIANT systems superior cuttings transportation properties translate into smoother
ECD profiles, reduced incidents of barite sag and dramatically improved hole cleaning. And,
since the rate of removal keeps pace with the cuttings generated, the drill solids will not accu-
mulate in the annulus and increase the ECD values. The systems constant yield point ensures
efficient hole cleaning and fewer packoffs.
Not only is the RHELIANT system ideal for the challenging deepwater environment, it has
also yielded tremendous benefits in any application where superior ECD management is
needed to reduce the risk of lost circulation.
SAGDRIL
22
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Wells drilling in the Athabasca tar
sands and in any area where Steam
Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is
used to drill for, and produce, crude
oil from bitumen deposits.

P R O B L E M S
The sticky bitumen clings to bits,
Bottomhole Assemblies (BHAs),
drill pipe and shaker screens, and
the wellbore can erode easily if the
drilling fluid is too hot or contains
critical amounts of solvents.

S O L U T I O N S
The water-base SAGDRIL
*
drilling-
fluid system resists bitumen accre-
tion and screen blinding while
keeping the wellbore clean and
intact for tight build radii and
extended-reach horizontal sections.

E C O N O M I C S
The SAGDRIL system significantly
reduces drilling time and expense
by promoting faster, cleaner drilling;
by maintaining wellbore integrity
and by significantly reducing
cleanup costs.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The water-base SAGDRIL system
reduces both solid and liquid drilling
waste streams, and we can employ
the SAGDRIL tar-sand cuttings
cleaner to strip tar from drilled
solids for mix-bury-cover onsite.
The drilling-fluid system that keeps you
moving ahead, even in sticky tar sand
Features
INTEGRATED FLUIDS ENGINEERING
(IFE) combined with latest-
generation SAGD drilling fluid
Minimizes fluid impact on
bitumen and cleans cuttings
at surface
Dual tar control through TARLIFT
*
and TARSURF
*
Excellent hole cleaning and
suspension
Separates and cleans different
waste streams
Benefits
New approach for drilling and
drilling waste management
Mud cooler not needed (flowline
temperature >95 F (>35 C) may
require cooling)
Minimizes hole washout %
Minimizes waste generation
Liner run without incidents
Easy to engineer
No cuttings beds formed
Maximizes ROP, saves
drilling time
Product Function Description
TARVIS
*
Rheological properties, especially LSRV Biopolymer
TARSURF
*
Anti-accretion drilling-fluid additive Blend of solvents
and surfactants
TARLIFT
*
Anti-accretion drilling-fluid additive Blend of solvents
and surfactants
TARCLEAN
*
Anti-accretion for rig equipment Solvent
Product Functions and Descriptions
23
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A great deal of a SAGD programs
success depends upon finding a
highly specialized drilling fluid that
will keep the hole clean, without
wellbore erosion, for tight-build
radii and extended-reach, horizon-
tal sections; that will keep the bit
and drillstring clean to minimize
bitumen-accretion problems; and
that will prevent screen blinding
at the shale shakers. Add to that
the need for an environmentally
compatible formulation that also
reduces the amount of drilling
waste, and the challenge to find
the right drilling-fluid system is
even greater.
The SAGDRIL system gives
you exactly what you need
for this demanding work
M-I SWACO developed the SAGDRIL
system to address the specific prob-
lems unique to drilling high build-
angles and long-reach horizontal
sections through the tar sands. The
system incorporates a combination
of surfactants and solvents, each
with a specific function. Extensive
laboratory testing of several solvent
and surfactant products resulted
in the selection of two products,
TARLIFT and TARSURF, for accretion
control. These products, working
in conjunction with water-wetting
surfactants effectively control well-
bore erosion by forming a stable
emulsion of the solvents so their
interaction with the wellbore can
be reduced.
The result of M-I SWACO research,
development and field testing is a
proven system that delivers the fea-
tures which help you get more pro-
duction from the tar sands at a
lower cost:
A water-base drilling fluid that
relies on a strong water-wetting
agent to minimize accretion of
the sticky tar sands on the bit and
drillstring while it minimizes
shaker-screen blinding
Oil-wetting surfactants to encap-
sulate tarry cuttings and promote
their effective removal by the
shakers and other solids-control
equipment such as centrifuges
A rheological profile optimized
for minimal wellbore erosion
Rheology that ensures optimum
hole conditions while drilling
and running casing and pro -
duction liners
Onsite fluids engineers who
monitor the systems Low-Shear-
Rate Viscosity (LSRV) with
a Brookfield viscometer
The SAGDRIL systems
stable wellbore helps you
beyond just drilling
Another area where the SAGDRIL
system helps your operation run
more smoothly is in running casing
and liners. High operating temper -
atures, thermal expansion and
high stress levels in the casing
and cement sheath are facts of life
in SAGD drilling. Add to that the
absolute requirement that an excel-
lent pipe/cement and cement/
formation bond be accomplished
throughout the intermediate cas-
ing, and you have quite a challenge
for any drilling fluid. And thats pre-
cisely why the SAGDRIL system isnt
just any drilling fluid. It helps you
achieve your running and cement-
ing goals by ensuring maximum
lubricity while running the inter -
mediate casing, and it aids in
creating a better cement bond by
delivering an in-gauge wellbore.
An aid to responsible drilling
waste management practices
M-I SWACO has formulated the
SAGD system to address the specific
problem areas of accretion, shaker-
screen blinding and wellbore ero-
sion. A reduction in accretion
and shaker-screen blinding have
resulted in a significant increase
in shaker-screen life and a sharp
decrease in both fluid dilution and
drilling waste disposal costs. By
controlling wellbore erosion, the
system further reduces the amount
of drilling waste generated.
SAGDRIL wells have realized sig-
nificant savings in disposal costs of
both solid and liquid drilling waste.
They have also seen a significant
reduction in solids-control costs and
overall project costs.
In a laboratory test to simulate hole ero-
sion in various drilling fluids, technicians
rotated calibrated tar-sand cores at con-
trolled temperatures and rotating speeds
in solvent/xanthan gum formulations or
SAGDRIL fluid. Periodically, the technicians
measured the cores to check for erosion.
The solvent/xanthan gum formulations
were more aggressive, causing higher ero-
sion, while the SAGDRIL fluid proved to be
the least aggressive.
0.5 Reduction in diameter (mm)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Time, min
Differential Rotor Decay
SAGDRIL fluid
Solvent-base System A
Solvent-base System B
Solvent-base System C
Compared to wells drilled with traditional
solvent-base systems, SAGDRIL wells have
realized significant savings in disposal costs
of both solid and liquid drilling waste. They
have also seen a significant reduction in
solids-control costs and overall project costs.
400 tonnes
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Drilling Waste
Solvent/xanthan gum system
SAGDRIL system
SILDRIL
24
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Onshore and offshore wells, includ-
ing vertical and high-angle, drilling
through highly reactive formations
where an invert system would be
required but where environmental
restrictions preclude the use of oil-
base systems.

P R O B L E M S
Many onshore, offshore and deep-
water wells require highly inhibitive
drilling-fluid systems but are located
in areas subject to strict environ-
mental regulations.

S O L U T I O N S
The SILDRIL
*
system uses silicate
technology to inhibit reactive clays
while offering the environmental
benefits of a water-base formulation.

E C O N O M I C S
This one, versatile system delivers
optimum inhibition characteris-
tics, high penetration rates,
decreased trouble time, superior
wellbore integrity and superb
solids-removal performance.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
In the field, the SILDRIL system has
proven itself with low dilution rates,
a full complement of non-toxic prod-
ucts and safe-handling char acteristics.
SILDRIL: The one system for
optimum shale inhibition and
environmental compliance
This uniquely formulated system
capitalizes on the very latest in
silicate technology to give you
performance approaching that
of oil-base mud but with the envi-
ronmental acceptability of a water-
base fluid. This one system delivers
optimum inhibition characteristics,
high penetration rates, decreased
trouble time, superior wellbore
integrity and superb solids-removal
performance all with minimal
environmental impact.
Its hard to match the
shale inhibition of the
SILDRIL system
The SILDRIL system achieves its
superior inhibition through a
threefold approach:
Direct chemical bonding of the
silicate polymers to drill cuttings
and formation surfaces
Precipitation of the silicate with
divalent ions
Silicate polymerization that
results in complex, inorganic
polymer structures that react
with the shale surfaces
The system generates highly
competent, inhibited cuttings that
contribute to optimum perform-
ance of the solids-control equip-
ment and greatly enhanced
for mation evaluation. By dramati-
cally reducing solids contamination,
the SILDRIL system reduces dilution
rates and the costs associated with
drilling waste management. Field
experience has shown the solids-
control efficiency of the system
can compare very favorably to
that achieved with typical invert-
emulsion fluids.
The adaptable silicate fluid system with the
proven inhibition of an invert-emulsion fluid
After treatment: In the same formation,
SILDRIL produces a high degree of cuttings
integrity.
Before SILDRIL treatment: Cuttings from
a reactive formation drilled with a
conventional KCl polymer fluid.
25
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Fewer components
give you more flexibility
The relatively small number of
components that comprise the
non-dispersed SILDRIL system
provide a great deal of flexibility
in matching the system to the
particular application. Fewer
products also mean ease of main-
tenance, simpler logistics and
lower total fluid costs. The versa-
tile SILDRIL system is compatible
with a variety of inorganic salts
that canbe added to enhance
inhib ition and help meet specific
environ mental regulations.
Features
Outstanding inhibition
Low toxicity
Applicable for deepwater
Minimum number of
components
Highly flexible fluid
parameters
Benefits
High penetration rates
Optimum solids removal
Low dilution rates and superb
drilling waste control
Excellent cuttings integrity
and stable wellbores
In-gauge holes
200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 100
Swellmeter Test
35Swelling (%)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
Time (min)
Low pH dispersed
SILDRIL
DI water/XC
KCl/glycol
Shale Recovery
100Shale recovery (%)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
FW/
polymer
NaCl/
PHPA
KCl/
glycol/
PHPA
SILDRIL Oil-base
mud
Si
Si
O
O
H
H
Clay platelets
Non-clay particles
Filter-cake deposition
Physical and
chemical
barrier to
invasion
For systems formulated with SILDRIL, primary inhibition is achieved with the addition of a
unique 2:6-ratio silicate. Polymerization of the higher-ratio silicate monomer effectively
provides a physical and chemical barrier to filtrate and particle invasion.
ULTRADRIL
26
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Deepwater and other offshore and
onshore projects in environmentally
sensitive areas characterized by
highly reactive shales.

P R O B L E M S
Drilling in highly reactive shales
calls for a high-performance fluid
with excellent inhibition charac-
teristics. Reducing drilling waste
management costs, as well as
complying with environmental
regulations, virtually dictate the
use of a water-base fluid.

S O L U T I O N S
The water-base ULTRADRIL
*
system
inhibits highly reactive shales and
stabilizes wellbores while promot-
ing hole cleaning and reducing clay/
gumbo accretion and bit balling.

E C O N O M I C S
The systems ability to promote
well-bore stability, high Rates of
Penetration (ROP) and excellent
hole cleaning saves valuable rig
time. Its lower dilution require-
ments, lower waste volumes and
recyclability, even after drilling long
intervals of highly reactive forma-
tions, significantly reduce drilling
waste management and fluid costs.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The excellent drilling waste
management characteristics of
the system less dilution, lower
waste volumes and excellent recy -
clability as well as its water-base
formulation, make the system envi-
ronmentally acceptable in virtually
any drilling area.
The water-base system that helps you achieve your drilling and
environmental goals through an exclusive, triple-inhibition approach
Features
High chemical stabilization
Low dilution, low toxicity
Near-OBM/SBMperformance
Easy to build and maintain
Anti-accretion agent
Benefits
Optimizes inhibition
Environmentally acceptable
Deepwater alternative
Reduced costs
Increases drilling rates
Comparative Inhibition: GOM Shales
100 Moisture and recovery (%)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Moisture
Recovery
20% NaCl/PHPA ULTRADRIL
(20% NaCl)
Synthetic OBM
Reactive-Clay Hydration
120 Hydration (%)
100
80
60
40
20
0
Gel/Lignosulphonate
KCl/PHPA
CaCl
2
/Polymer
Seawater/glycol/PHPA
KCl/glycol/PHPA
ULTRADRIL (Seawater only)
ULTRADRIL (20% NaCl)
ULTRADRIL (KCl)
Invert OBM
20
In the field, the ULTRADRIL system delivers results
comparable to oil-base systems
The results of a 16-hr test of various drilling
fluids on samples of reactive clay. Three for -
mu lations of ULTRADRIL all had lower clay
hydration than that of conventional water-
base drilling fluids. Through highly reac-
tive intervals, ROPs have averaged up to
150 ft/hr (45.7 m/hr), delivering cuttings
that exhibited the excellent integrity
expected if drilling with an oil-base system.
The inhibitive capability of the ULTRADRIL
system surpasses that of a conventional
water-base system and nearly matches
that of a synthetic-base drilling fluid.
The systems low moisture content results
in drier, firmer drilled cuttings. With
densities up to 11.3 lb/gal (5.1 kg/L),
ULTRADRIL systems have successfully
drilled long sections of highly reactive
gumbo shales and graded out very high
in terms of stability, inhibition, screen -
ability and maintenance. In sections typi-
cally drilled with CaCl
2
or 20%NaCl/PHPA
water-base fluids, the high-performance
ULTRADRIL system eliminated the shaker-
screen binding, rapid encapsulator deple-
tion and high-dilution rates that had
severely impacted wells drilled with
its more traditional counterparts.
27
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Triple inhibition is your key to faster drilling and better drilling waste management
Inhibition Action #1: Superior Clay Inhibition
Conventional water-base
systems do not have the highly
inhibitive quality of the ULTRADRIL
system, so shales are prone to
sloughing and swelling that can
cause stuck pipe, and washouts.
The first feature of the ULTRADRIL
systems triple-inhibition
approach is its ability to inhibit
the most reactive shales and pro-
vide superb wellbore stability,
even in the most reactive clays.
Inhibition Action #2: Cuttings Encapsulation
Inhibition Action #3: Protected Metal Surfaces
Conventional fluids allow
gumbo buildup and bit balling
to occur, slowing down the
entire drilling process.
The third feature of the systems
triple-inhibition approach is its
ability to coat the bit, BHA and
drill pipe with an accretion-
inhibitive coating. The cutting
structure stays clean and effec-
tive, resulting in less bit balling
and higher ROP.
With conventional systems,
drilling is slower, the cuttings
are smaller, and there is not the
same, high level of inhibition
as we have with the ULTRADRIL
system. Many of the cuttings
break apart and disperse, creat-
ing fines that not only require
dilution of the system but that
settle in the hole and can pack-
off the bit. Other particulates
swell and agglomerate into
large masses that adhere
to the bit, drill pipe and
Bottomhole Assembly (BHA).
The second feature of the
ULTRADRIL systems triple-
inhibition approach is the
way it encapsulates cuttings
with a thin polymer coating
that virtually eliminates shale
dispersion. This, in turn, reduces
the need for dilution and the
disposal of large fluid volumes.
Because it is a high-performance
system, the well can be drilled
at higher ROP, producing larger
cuttings which reach the shaker
firm and intact.
The high-performance,
water-base system thats
easy to build and maintain
For all of the capabilities it provides,
the ULTRADRIL system is easy to
build and maintain on location.
The base fluid can be anything
fromfreshwater to potassium chlo-
ride, to sodium chloride and, in
some instances, seawater. The fluid
is extremely clean, it does not use
any bentonite in its makeup, and
its inhibitive character means a very
low colloidal content. Its properties
can be easily maintained, even in
the presence of contaminants such
as cement and common drilling-
fluid additives. And the ULTRADRIL
system provides its high degree
of inhibition without the use of
performance-limiting salts such
as calcium chloride.
To ensure top performance in the
field, the ULTRADRIL system can be
tested for proper concentrations,
using simple, common tests such as
pHtitration, ammonia extraction
and retort analysis to confirm
product-volume percentage.
The basic system consists of
three main components: ULTRAHIB
*
,
ULTRACAP
*
and ULTRAFREE
*
.
WARP Advanced Fluids Technology
28
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Onshore and offshore wells where
tight control must be maintained
over fluid weights, rheologies, ECDs
and barite sag.

P R O B L E M S
Extended-reach, HTHP and
small-bore drilling with narrow
mud-weight windows, require
sufficiently high viscosity to sus-
pend barite, but not so high that
ECD management is compromised.
For high-density completion and
workover fluids, the choices have
been either conventionally weighted
fluids with potential settling prob-
lems or high-density, very costly,
solids-free brines.

S O L U T I O N S
The micron-size particles used in
WARP
*
Advanced Fluids Technology
from M-I SWACO can be used in
many water-base and invert drill -
ing and completion-fluid systems
to increase density without com-
promising rheology or promoting
particle settlement.

E C O N O M I C S
For faster drilling, WARP Fluids
Technology reduces torque, drag
and particle settlement. For com -
pletions and workovers, WARP
Advanced Fluids Technology is
more cost-effective than some
high-density brine systems.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
Finer shaker screens can be used,
improving solids-removal efficiency
and reducing overall dilution and
discharge volumes. Completion
fluids formulated with WARP Fluids
Technology are cost-effective and
environmentally more acceptable
than many high-density, clear-
brine systems.
Every manual on drilling-fluid
engineering tells us that micron-
size particles are detrimental to
drilling fluids. With too many fines
in the fluid, the rheology increases,
often with detrimental effects. The
technology behind WARP Fluids
Technology lies in grinding the
weighting material to extremely
fine particle sizes from 0.1 to 10
microns, with the majority measur-
ing 1 micron. By pretreating these
extremely fine particles, there is no
rheology increase.
Now imagine what WARP Fluids
Technology micro-particles can
do for your water- and oil-base
drilling, reservoir drill-in and
completion fluids:
Low-rheology, high-density fluids
Weight materials that do not set-
tle, even with very low rheologies
Better management of ECDs
Ability to use ultra-fine shaker
screens that improve solids-
removal efficiency without
sacrificing valuable products
Fluids that reduce environmental
impact
The ability to formulate oil-base
completion fluids
The specially treated microparticles are your assurance of
higher mud weights with lower rheologies for critical applications
Features
Micron-size weighting agent
Lower fluid viscosities
Reduces sag
Improves filtration properties
Excellent solids-separation
efficiency
Greater hole cleaning
Reduces torque and drag
Environmentally acceptable
Reduces oil on cuttings
Benefits
Ideal for extended-reach and
horizontal drilling, through-
tubing drilling, coiled-tubing
drilling and HTHP wells
Excellent for high-density com-
pletion and workover fluids, kill
fluids, logging and testing fluids,
packer fluids, and high-density
reservoir drill-in fluids
Safer, more secure well control
Less dilution and reduced
discharge to the environment
Non-damaging to formation
Finer-mesh shaker screens
can be used
The micron-size weighting materials
developed for WARP Fluids Technology
are much smaller than standard API
barite, allowing them to flow easily
through 300-mesh shaker screens, so
that virtually 100% of drilled cuttings
can be removed on the first pass. Their
ultra-small size, combined with their
pro prietary treatment, ensures that
fluids formulated with WARP Fluids
Technology do not settle or sag.
API barite 75 m max size
WARP particle < 1m
API barite
d
50
~25 m
29
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When the stakes are high,
WARP Fluids Technology
keeps rheologies
and problems down
The low rheological profile of a
fluid enhanced with WARP Fluids
Technology actually improves hole
cleaning by effectively removing
any cuttings buildup on the lower
side of the hole.
In addition, the low rheologies
of WARP Fluids Technology clear
the way for better control and man-
agement of equivalent circulating
density, which is especially critical
when a very narrow margin exists
between the pore and fracture pres-
sure. In fact, ECDs are actually
reduced and pump pressures are
lower with WARP Fluids Technology,
which also reduce swab and surge
pressures while tripping and
running casing.
These and other advantages
make WARP Fluids Technology
the ultimate choice for a wide
array of critical drilling applica -
tions, including:
Horizontal and
extended-reach wells
Coiled-tubing drilling
Reservoir drill-in fluids
Wells with narrow
operating windows
HTHP wells
Inhibitive fluids
Wells with risk of barite sag
Drilling waste management
For completion fluids,
WARP Fluids Technology
wins out over conventional
weighting agents
Above 13 lb/gal (1.6 kg/L), solids-
free completion and workover fluids
are limited to mixed calcium chlo-
ride, calcium bromide and zinc
bromide, or mixed potassium and
cesium formate brines. The only
other alternatives are specially
formulated barite- or calcium-
carbonate -weighted fluids that
are prone to sag and settlement.
Now there is WARP Advanced
Fluids Technology from M-I SWACO
in which the ultra-fine particles
behave similar to solids-free fluids
with no settlement, minimal reser-
voir damage and complete flow-
back through gravel pack and
sand-screen completions all with
no environmental or disposal haz-
ards. In addition, you now have the
option of high-density, oil-base
completion fluids for a complete oil-
base drilling and completion-fluids
train, minimizing spacers and the
potential for emulsion blocks.
Conventional Weighting Materials
API Barite
Higher rheologies to control barite
settlement and sag
Problematic ECD management in sec-
tions with narrow pressure windows
Horsepower limitations in extreme,
horizontal wells
WARP Advanced Fluids Technology
Near-zero sag and settlement in
inclined and horizontal sections
Fluid rheology may be low and
independent of sag
Better management of ECD and control
of losses. No mud weight variation.
Lower drillstring torque delivering
superior bit horsepower
All-in-one drilling and completion fluid
Lower dilution factors and lower
well costs
Reduced discharge volumes and
environmental impact
The Clear Advantages of WARP Advanced Fluids Technology
Over Conventional Weighting Materials
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s
Graded Calcium Carbonate
Mud weights limited at higher
densities
Limited ECD management and
rheology control at higher densities
Lower rheologies for the same density
Better management of ECD and
control of losses
Complete flowback through
sand screens
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s
Solids-Free Calcium and Zinc Bromide
or Cesium Formate brines
High costs
Personnel safety and handling concerns
Disposal issues
Environmental concerns
No heavy metals
No environmental concerns
No particle settlement or sag
No personnel safety or handling issues
Easy cleanup and disposal
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DURATHERM
30
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
The DURATHERM
*
system is a low-
colloid, contaminant-resistant
water-base fluid designed for high-
temperature drilling. It provides
good inhibition, minimizes clay
migration and swelling, and is
stable to >500 F (>260 C) ambient,
with densities from 9 to 20 lb/gal
(1.1to 2.4 kg/L), and at depths from
5,000 to 25,000 ft (1,524 to 7,620 m).
High ROPs, improved solids-removal
capability and minimal formation
damage help reduce drilling costs,
while its aqueous-base chemistry
gives it environmental advantages
over oil-base systems. The system
is especially useful when there are
concerns about formation evalua-
tion, kick detection or lost circula-
tion. It may be formulated with
freshwater or seawater, and non-
flocculating salts may be incorpo-
rated for inhibition.
Because the DURATHERMsystem
evolved from formulations used as
packer fluids, where long-term rhe-
ological stability is necessary, this
low-colloid system remains stable
in the presence of acid gases, salts,
and drill solids. The systems sta -
bility can be maintained by mini-
mizing the concentration of active
solids, and using polymeric materi-
als for viscosity requirements. This
reduces gelation caused by the floc-
culation of active clays at high tem-
perature, as well as the viscosity
increase resulting from saltwater
flows, acid gases, or salt.
Generally, treatments with lig -
nosulfonate (SPERSENE
*
) should be
discontinued at bottomhole tem-
peratures above 325 F (163 C).
Solids-control equipment shakers,
hydroclones and centrifuges must
be operated as efficiently as possible
to minimize maintenance costs.
System products
XP-20* potassium chrome lignite
material is used as a viscosity-
stabilizing agent and to control
fluid loss in the DURATHERMsystem.
This product continues to function
as designed in fluids that encounter
formation temperatures greater than
500 F (260 C). It is the primary
treating agent in the DURATHERM
system, and it provides potassium
ions for shale inhibition.
RESINEX
*
resin polymer is used
for HTHP fluid-loss reduction by
decreasing filter-cake permeability,
and it contributes to fluid stabiliza-
tion. Field results have demon-
strated the utility of RESINEX in
minimizing formation damage.
RESINEX is used in conjunction with
XP-20 to control these properties in
the DURATHERMsystem.
TANNATHIN
*
is a lignitic material
that works with RESINEX to reduce
HTHP fluid-loss values and stabilize
rheological properties in the
DURATHERMsystem.
Polymers contribute viscosity
and API fluid-loss control to the
DURATHERMsystem. Minimizing
bentonite concentrations requires
the use of polymeric materials as
viscosifiers. Cellulosic polymers
and xanthan gum provide the
viscosity required to suspend
weigh material and drill solids,
and lower API fluid-loss values in
the DURATHERMsystem.
M-I GEL
*
may be used for fluid-loss
control and viscosity in wells with
bottomhole temperatures below
250 F (121 C). For bottomhole
temperatures above 250 F (121 C),
M-I GEL must be maintained at
lowlevels. The primary function of
M-I GEL at these reduced concentra-
tions is to help form a thin, dense,
low-permeability filter cake.
M-I BAR
*
and/or FER-OX
*
are high-
density materials with specific
gravities of 4.2 and 5.0, respectively.
They provide fluid density in the
DURATHERMsystem.
Caustic, lime and gypsum are used
to balance alkalinities and control
the effects of carbonates/bicarbon -
ates on rheological properties. The
basic environment provided by
hydroxyl ions aids in tubular corro-
sion control and in hydrolyzing mud
products added at the surface.
Corrosion control and lubrication.
The DURATHERMsystem is com -
patible with selected corrosion
control-chemicals and lubricants.
The low-solids feature of the
DURATHERMsystem, in conjunction
with lubricants such as LUBE-167*
and EP LUBE
*
, will reduce bit balling,
torque and drag.
The DURATHERMsystem
as a packer fluid
The DURATHERMsystem has been
recognized as a drilling fluid appli-
cable in areas of high temperature
and pressure. Due to its physical
characteristics it also may be used
as a packer fluid.
The characteristics that make the
DURATHERMsystem an ideal packer
fluid are:
Thermal stability to temperatures
in excess of 500 F (260 C)
Minimal liquid separation
or breakout
Ability to suspend barite and
solids without settling
Non-corrosive (when freshwater is
used as a base)
Low static shear strengths
Quick reversion to fluid state
upon agitation
For corrosion protection,
M-I SWACO recommends that a
filming amine corrosion inhibitor
such as CONQOR
*
101 be added to
the packer fluid. One barrel of
CONQOR 101 per 100 bbl of mud
usually results in an adequate con-
centration of inhibitor. Additions
of 0.2 to 0.5 lb/bbl (0.1 to 0.2 kg/bbl)
BACBAN III preservative (bacteri-
cide) will prevent the growth of
sulfate-reducing bacteria and
fermentation of the mud.
ENVIROTHERM
ECOGREEN
31
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D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
The ENVIROTHERM
*
system is a
chrome-free, environmentally
advanced fluid designed for high-
temperature drilling. Its low-toxicity,
high-temperature stability and min-
imal reactive-solids content make
it ideal for high-temperature opera-
tions. This environmentally accept-
able drilling-fluid system provides
good filtration control and reduces
trouble time.
The ENVIROTHERMsystem is
used primarily in the Western
Hemisphere and is similar to a
chrome-free DURATHERMusing
TANNATHIN and SPERSENE CF for
rheology control, and RESINEX for
fluid-loss control. Freshly prepared
muds have low viscosity, yield
points and gels.
These fresh muds should be
treated with additional POLYPAC
*
R
(or DUO-VIS) to increase the
viscosity in the pits to prevent
barite settling.
Once drilling begins, the drill
solids accumulate and give the
fluid enough rheology to support
weight material.
Other options include polymers for
synthetic viscosity fluid-loss control.
Ester-base chemistry
for optimum drilling
performance in the most
fragile environments
When you prefer an ester-base sys-
tem in order to meet local discharge
requirements without sacrificing
the economic benefits of a high-
performance fluid, the ECOGREEN
*
system is the logical choice.
The true value of the ECOGREEN
system lies in its versatility. It is
easily formulated to address a wide
range of drilling requirements,
including Extended-Reach Drilling
(ERD) and horizontal drilling, and
drill-in fluid applications. The sys-
tem produces the penetration rates
consistent with oil-base muds,
while eliminating or dramatically
reducing the instances of stuck pipe,
out-of-gauge holes and unstable
wellbores normally associated with
water-base systems. Its low-lubricity
coefficients dramatically reduce
torque and drag, making it particu-
larly bene ficial in deviated and high-
angle wellbores.
From an environmental stand-
point, the ECOGREEN system is a
synthesized material, and the fatty-
acid ester comprising its base fluid
contains no priority pollutants
and is biodegradable. The system
has passed some of the most rigor-
ous toxicity, biodegradation and
vapor tests in the industry and
has been approved for discharge
in some of the worlds most
restricted environments.
The ECOGREEN system is also
completely reusable after only min-
imal treatment, significantly reduc-
ing your mud consumption costs.
Features
Biodegradable
Synthetic system
Non-aqueous-fluid system
Ester chemistry
Benefits
Wellbore stability
Increases ROP
Cuttings integrity
Lubricity
Hole cleaning
Permission to discharge
ENVIROVERT
32
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
The invert drilling-fluid
system that reduces drilling,
completion and disposal costs
With the ENVIROVERT
*
system, oper -
ators now have all the performance
advantages of a conventional
invert-emulsion drilling fluid, with
the added benefit of reduced dis-
posal costs. The system contains no
chlorides, but rather a proprietary
calcium nitrate salt that not only
inhibits reactive shales, but also
provides nitrogen that accelerates
biodegradation.
The ENVIROVERT system has
been shown to significantly reduce
torque and drag, making it an ideal
option for drilling high-angle or
horizontal wellbores. Its high-
temperature stability gives you
a dependable system for drilling
deep, hot holes. Whats more, this
highly versatile system has demon-
strated its effectiveness as a perfo-
rating, completion, spotting and
casing-pack fluid.
ENVIROVERT reduces
your environmental costs
and concerns
For a landfarming operation to suc-
ceed in its biodegradation activity,
one or more supplemental applica-
tions of a fertilizer high in nitrogen
is necessary. The ENVIROVERT sys-
tem gives you a head start by pro-
viding the nitrogen required for
hydrocarbon-degrading micro -
organisms to perform effectively
in landfarming operations. The
ENVIROVERT calcium nitrate salt not
only eliminates the trouble and
costs associated with chlorides, it
also facilitates faster biodegrada-
tion. In addition, ENVIROVERT meets
NMX-L-162-1996-SCFI specifications.
Features
Invert drilling-fluid system for
water-sensitive formations
Uses calcium nitrate in place
of calcium chloride
Excellent torque and
drag reduction
Prevents lost circulation in
low-pressure zones
Benefits
Eliminates typical chloride
disposal problem
Promotes faster biodegradation
Reduces unexpected events
Also works as a spotting, packer
and casing-pack fluid
Reduces drilling, completion
and disposal costs
Water Activity of the ENVIROVERT System
1.00 Water activity
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
Water-phase salinity (% by weight) ENVIROFLOC*
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 10
K-MAG
PARADRIL
33
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D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
Used primarily in the Gulf of
Mexico, the K-MAG
*
system is an
inhibitive water-base system that
provides shale inhibition and well-
bore stability while it minimizes
bit balling. System benefits include
reduced dispersion of drill cuttings
for easier removal, near-gauge well-
bores for better cement jobs, even in
water-sensitive shales, and reduced
swelling for wellbore stability.
The K-MAG system is designed
to perform most efficiently in fresh-
water to seawater-salinity envi -
ronments, but the salinity can be
increased to improve shale stability
and gas-hydrate inhibition when
necessary. The use of a powerful
dispersant, such as lignosulfonate,
is usually kept as low as possible
in order to minimize excessive
dispersion of drill solids and
wellbore washout.
The systems popularity has
increased as the use of synthetic-
base fluids in offshore drilling has
become more challenging due to
more stringent environmental reg-
ulations, biodegradation restric-
tions and other environmental
issues. In addition, low fracture gra-
dients and narrow ECD windows
often encountered in deepwater
operations greatly increase the risk
of lost circulation, which can drasti-
cally increase the cost of the opera-
tion. More economical water-base
fluids, such as the K-MAG system,
with good shale inhibition and
effective ROP enhancement are
nowcompeting with synthetics
in deepwater applications.
Features and Benefits
Flexible system can be
formulated to suit drilling
environment
Excellent shale inhibition
and wellbore stability
Minimizes bit balling,
improves ROP
Preserves drill cuttings
for easier removal
Tolerates salinity from
freshwater to seawater levels
Substitutes for some
synthetics where environ-
mental issues are a concern
The PARADRIL
*
invert-emulsion sys-
tem was designed specifically as
an alternative to conventional or
mineral-oil-base drilling-fluid sys-
tems, balancing high performance
with environmental compliance.
The heart of the system is
the paraffinic component which,
depending on the application, dis-
charge requirements and availabil-
ity, can range from synthetic Linear
Paraffins (LP) to mixed blends of
refined paraffins. All of the prod -
ucts comprising the PARADRIL sys-
tem have been formulated to meet
local discharge requirements.
The true value of the PARADRIL sys-
tem lies in its flexibility. Weights can
range from unweighted to 18 lb/gal
(2.2 kg/L). The paraffin/water ratios
can range from as low as 50:50 to
as high as 95:5, depending on mud
weight and solids loading. The sys-
tem is formulated as an emulsion
in which the paraffinic liquid
forms the continuous phase,
while a brine solution serves as
the dispersed phase. It is easily for-
mulated to address a wide range of
requirements, including extended-
reach, horizontal and reservoir
drill-in applications.
Hydrocarbon monitoring. All too
often, the inability to accurately
monitor the presence of crude oil
in mud returning from the produc-
tion zone restricts the use of oil-
base drilling fluids. With the
PARADRIL systems linear-paraffin
base fluid, that concern has been
eliminated. The unique chemistry
of the PARADRIL SB base fluid gener-
ates a very identifiable fingerprint,
and GC/MS work has shown that
even in concentrations as low as
0.5%, crude oil is still detectable
in the system.
PARATHERM/VERSATHERM
The PARATHERM
*
and VERSATHERM
*
systems are invert-emulsion systems
with one significant difference in
their formulations. PARATHERM
uses a linear-paraffin base oil,
while VERSATHERMemploys a low-
toxicity mineral oil. Both were
originally designed for use in HTHP
applications, but can be engineered
for use in low-temperature wells.
It was developed to meet the tech-
nical challenges associated with
drilling wells with narrow hydraulic
windows and extended-reach pro-
files. The system was designed with
the specific goal of delivering the
following qualities:
Stability at high temperatures
Reduced high-shear-rate viscosity
Stable low-shear-rate viscosity
Reduction in Equivalent
Circulating Density (ECD)
Reduced sag potential
Applications
The PARATHERMsystem is suit -
able for applications with narrow
hydrau lic windows, regardless of
the expected Bottomhole Static
Temperature (BHST). The first field
application of the PARATHERM
system was in a low-temperature
(1,670 F [910 C]), narrow-hydraulic-
window well. The well was success-
ful due in large part to the lower
rheological properties and associ-
ated reduction in ECD obtainable
with the PARATHERMsystem. This
application confirmed the ability of
the PARATHERMsystem to provide a
fluid with reduced high-shear-rate
viscosity compared to conventional
systems, providing a direct benefit in
reduced total system pressure loss.
The PARATHERMsystem has
also been used successfully to
drill Extended-Reach Drilling
(ERD) wells.
The VERSATHERMsystem has been
successfully used in HTHP applica-
tions. The maximum bottomhole
static temperature the system has
been used to drill is slightly above
3,560 F (1,960 C). The system has
exhibited very stable properties and
low, non-progressive gel strengths.
Additive Material Function
Linear Paraffin Base fluid Continuous phase
Low-Toxicity
Mineral Oil (LTMO) Base fluid Continuous phase
EMI-783 Organophilic clay Viscosifier
Bentone 38 Organophilic clay Viscosifier
VG-SUPREME
*
Organophilic clay Viscosifier
Lime Calcium hydroxide Alkalinity
SUREMUL
*
Polyamide Primary emulsifier
SUREWET
*
Fatty acid Secondary emulsifier
Freshwater Freshwater Internal phase
CaCl
2
Calcium chloride Salinity
VERSATROL
*
Gilsonite Fluid loss
VERSATROL HT Gilsonite Fluid loss
Barite Barium sulfate Density
Typical System Components
34
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
TRUDRIL
POLY-PLUS
35
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D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
The POLY-PLUS
*
system employs
high- molecular -weight polymers
and anionic liquid to provide cut-
tings encapsulation and shale stabi-
lization. It also acts as a viscosifier,
friction reducer and flocculant
while providing some fluid-loss
control. POLY-PLUS additive can
be used in mud systems ranging
fromlow-solids to weighted,
utilizing makeup waters from
fresh to saltwater .
POLY-PLUS additive mud systems.
POLY-PLUS provides excellent cut-
tings encapsulation and improved
wellbore stability.
Clear-water fluids. POLY-PLUS
agent may be used in clear-water,
solids-free drilling fluids. POLY-PLUS
polymer increases viscosity and
enhances solids removal by floccu-
lating the undesired solids. It also
provides cuttings encapsulation
and improved wellbore stability.
Low-Solids, Non-Dispersed
(LSND) muds. POLY-PLUS
agent is well suited to LSND
systems. In reduced-bentonite
muds, POLY-PLUS serves as a
bentonite extender to increase
viscosity, flocculates drill solids
for more efficient removal,
encapsu lates cuttings and
improves wellbore stability.
Weighted muds. POLY-PLUS can
be used in weighted muds for
cuttings encapsulation, improved
wellbore stability, secondary
viscosity and to improve filter
cake integrity.
POLY-PLUS sweeps. Viscous
POLY-PLUS sweeps are effective
for periodic hole cleaning.
The TRUDRIL
*
system differs from other
oil muds in that it is formulated with-
out an internal brine phase. A high-
performance organoclay is used to
generate superior rheology and sus-
pending properties. Efficient filtration
control is achieved through use of par-
ticulates and/or synthetic polymers.
The inevitability of incorporation
of small quantities of water from the
drilling operation and surface han-
dling operations is addressed through
use of limited treatments with emulsi-
fiers and oil-wetting agents, but unlike
conventional invert-emulsion fluids,
water content is minimized and is
treated as a contaminant rather than
a systemcomponent.
Experience has shown that over
5%by volume of water can be incorpo-
rated without any evidence of negative
interaction with drilled formation or
cuttings. At higher water fractions, it is
expedient to address balanced-activity
issues and to salt up as appropriate,
treating the fluid as a conventional
invert. There is no real break-over
procedure to be dealt with, and
conversion to an invert is straight -
forward. All system components
are efficient elements of invert-
emulsion formulations.
TRUDRIL fluids have been used
ina wide variety of conditions
andenvironments:
Base fluids have ranged from crude
and diesel to ultra-low-aromatic
mineral oils
Densities have varied from
unweighted (basically the
density of the base fluid) to
over 18 lb/gal (2.2 kg/L)
Application is documented at tem-
peratures up to ~400 F (~204 C)
Drilling environments have varied
from critical-angle deepwater wells
to shallow horizontals
The composition of the fluid deliv-
ers certain desirable characteristics
and properties, (as compared to
inverts) including:
High YP/PV ratio and superior
suspending performance
Lower ECDs
Efficient hole cleaning
Reduced gas-hydrate sensitivity
Lower densities than achievable with
inverts. Low-density inverts tend to
have a high aqueous fraction which
further limits the ability to achieve
low densities
Reduced concern over water-phase
composition
More environmentally competent
discharges i.e., no salt added
Lower maintenance costs
Low surfactant content with possible
reservoir implications
Minimum number of products
making engineering simple
Features and Benefits
Provides excellent cuttings
encapsulation and limits
cuttings dispersion
Provides improved
shale stabilization
Enhances the removal
of drill solids
Liquid product for easy mixing
and rapid yield
Aids in preventing balling on
the bit, stabilizers and BHA by
coating and lubricating solids
Improves the lubricity of
most mud systems, partic ularly
non dispersed muds, when used
in combination with a lubricant
Can be used to viscosify clear-
water and low-solids drilling fluids
VERSACLEAN/VERSADRIL
36
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
The VERSACLEAN
*
and VERSADRIL
*
systems are oil-base fluids formu-
lated and engineered to meet any
drilling-fluid requirement. The only
difference between the two sys-
tems is that the VERSACLEAN system
uses a highly refined mineral oil
while the VERSADRIL system is for-
mulated with No. 2 diesel oil as the
continuous external phase.
Both systems deliver excellent
thermal stability for drilling deep,
hot holes. Their formulation pro-
vides inherent protection against
acid gases, such as CO
2
and H
2
S,
as well as corrosion due to the
presence of lime (used as an alka -
linity control reagent) in the con -
tinuous oil phase. VERSACLEAN and
VERSADRIL systems can drill water-
soluble formations (anhydrite, gyp-
sum, salts and complex salts) with
minimum or no hole-washout prob-
lems. They provide improved lubric-
ity for drilling deviated holes and
for significantly reducing occur-
rences of stuck pipe. VERSACLEAN
and VERSADRIL systems minimize
damage to producing formations
through the prevention of water
intrusion, thereby eliminating clay
swelling which can cause reduced
permeability of the pay zone. They
also provide increased rates of pen-
etration and ability to drill thick,
water-sensitive shale sections with
relative ease, thus providing for
gauge hole drilling.
In many cases, oil muds are
not considered, although the drill -
ing conditions warrant their use,
because of their initial makeup
costs. However, if the overall drilling
costs are considered, the costs
accompanying the use of an oil
mud are usually comparable with,
or less than, those of a water-base
fluid, particularly when most
drilling problems are eliminated,
resulting in substantial time sav-
ings. Inaddition, both VERSACLEAN
and VERSADRIL oil muds can be
salvaged and reused following the
drilling operation.
Features
Low coefficient of friction
High-temperature stability
Chemically stable
Excellent filtration control
Benefits
Maximizes production
Reduces torque and drag
In-gauge wellbores
Optimized ROP
Stable wellbores
System Base Oil
VERSACLEAN
*
Mineral oil
VERSADRIL
*
Diesel
Drilling-Fluid Systems and Additives
37
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D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
Product Primary Secondary
Trade Name Description Type Function Function
ASPHASOL
*
Sulfonated organic-resin blend Water Shale inhibitor Filtration
ASPHASOL
*
D Sulfonated organic blend Water Shale inhibitor Filtration
ASPHASOL
*
Sulfonated asphalt Water Shale inhibitor Filtration
SUPREME
BUBBLE BUSTER
*
Low-toxicity defoamer Water Defoamer
CAUSTILIG
*
Caustilized lignite Water Thinner Thermal stability
Filtration Emulsifier
CLEAN UP
*
Detergent for general rig cleaning when using Water Surfactant Emulsifier
oil- and synthetic-base fluids Oil
Synthetic
CONQOR
*
101 Filming amine Water Corrosion inhibitor
CONQOR
*
202 B Persistent filming amine Water Corrosion inhibitor
CONQOR
*
303 A Amine corrosion inhibitor for clear brines Water Corrosion inhibitor
CONQOR
*
404 General-use, phosphorus-base inhibitor Water Corrosion inhibitor
C-SEAL
*
Coke FLCA Water, Lost circulation
Oil,
Synthetic
C-SEAL
*
F Coke FLCA (fine grind) Water Lost circulation
Oil
Synthetic
D-D* Drilling detergent Water Surfactant Emulsifier
Shale control
DEFOAM-A* Alcohol-base defoamer Water Defoamer
DEFOAM-X* All-purpose liquid defoamer Water Defoamer
DRIL-FREE
*
High-performance lubricant, anti-sticking agent Water Lubricant Surfactant
DRIL-KLEEN
*
Concentrated, mild drilling detergent Water Surfactant Emulsifier
with low toxicity Shale control
DRIL-KLEEN
*
II Anti-bit balling agent Water Surfactant Emulsifier, Lubricant
DRILPLEX
*
Viscosifier for the DRILPLEX MMO system Water Viscosifier Shale inhibitor
DRILZONE
*
ROP enhancer Water Surfactant
DRILZONE
*
L Low-cost anticrete Water Surfactant
DUO-TEC
*
Xanthan gum Water Viscosifier
DUO-VIS
*
Xanthan gum Water Viscosifier
DUO-VIS
*
L Liquified xanthan gum, non-clarified Viscosifier
DUO-VIS
*
PLUS Xanthan gum Water Viscosifier
DURALON
*
High-temperature filtration-control polymer Water Filtration Thermal stability
DUROGEL
*
Sepiolite clay Water Viscosifier
ECOGREEN
*
B Ester base fluid Synthetic Thinner Lubricant
ECOGREEN
*
M Low-end rheology modifier Synthetic Viscosifier
ECOGREEN
*
P Primary emulsifier for the ECOGREEN system Synthetic Emulsifier Surfactant
ECOGREEN
*
S Secondary emulsifier for the ECOGREEN system Synthetic Emulsifier Surfactant
ECOKLEEN
*
Anticrete for tar applications Water Surfactant
ECOTROL
*
RD Readily dispersible filtration control additive Oil Filtration
Synthetic
EMUL HT* HTHP emulsifier Oil Emulsifier
Synthetic
ENVIROBLEND
*
Salt for ENVIROVERT system Water Shale inhibitor
FER-OX
*
Hematite Water Density
Oil
Synthetic
FORM-A-PLUG
*
II Acid-soluble plug Water Lost circulation Filtration
Oil
Synthetic
FORM-A-PLUG
*
Accelerator for the FORM-A-PLUG II system Water Lost circulation
ACC Oil
Synthetic
FORM-A-PLUG
*
Retarder for the FORM-A-PLUG II system Water Lost circulation
RET Oil
Synthetic
Drilling-Fluid Systems and Additives
38
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
Product Primary Secondary
Trade Name Description Type Function Function
FORM-A-SET
*
Cross-linked polymer plug Water Lost circulation
FORM-A-SET
*
Accelerator for the FORM-A-SET pill Water Lost circulation
ACC Oil
Synthetic
FORM-A-SET
*
AK Polymeric lost-circulation material Water Lost circulation
Oil
Synthetic
FORM-A-SET
*
Variant of FORM-A-SET AK for water shut off Water Lost circulation
AKX Oil
Synthetic
FORM-A-SET
*
RET Retarder for the FORM-A-SET pill Water Lost circulation
Oil
Synthetic
FORM-A-SET
*
XL Cross-linker for the FORM-A-SET pill Water Lost circulation
Oil
Synthetic
G-SEAL
*
Sized graphite bridging agent Water Lubricant Filtration
Oil
Synthetic
GELEX
*
Bentonite extender Water Flocculant
Viscosifier
GELPLEX
*
Viscosifier for the DRILPLEX system Water Viscosifier
GLYDRIL
*
DG Water-miscible glycol-hydrate inhibitor Water Thermal stability Surfactant
GLYDRIL
*
GP Broad-cloud-point, general-purpose polyglycol Water Shale control Lubricity
for low-salinity fluids and low temperatures Filtration
GLYDRIL
*
HC Polyglycol for high-salinity fluids and Water Shale control Lubricity
high temperatures Filtration
GLYDRIL
*
LC Low-cloud-point polyglycol for low-salinity Water Shale control Lubricity
fluids and low temperatures Filtration
GLYDRIL
*
MC Medium-cloud-point polyglycol for Water Shale control Lubricity
moderate-salinity fluids and high temperatures Filtration
HIBTROL
*
Modified metal-cellulose polymer Water Filtration Shale inhibition
HIBTROL
*
HV Modified metal-cellulose polymer that also Water Filtration Shale inhibition
provides viscosity Viscosifier
HIBTROL
*
ULV Fluid-loss additive and secondary shale inhibitor with Water Filtration Shale control
ultra-low viscosity
HRP
*
Liquid viscosifier for oil fluids Oil Viscosifier Thermal stability
HYDRABLOK
*
Deepwater hydrate inhibitor Water Surfactant
IDCAP
*
D Polymeric shale inhibitor Water Shale inhibition
IDLUBE
*
XL Extreme-pressure lubricant Water Lubricant
IDSPERSE
*
XT High-temperature polymeric dispersant Water Thinner
K-17
*
Potassium lignite Water Filtration Emulsifier
Thinner Shale control
K-52
*
Potassium supplement Water Shale control
KLA-CURE
*
Hydration suppressant Water Shale control
KLA-CURE
*
II Hydration suppressant plus detergent Water Shale control
KLAFLOC
*
I Low-cost shale inhibitor for floc water drilling Water Filtration
KLAFLOC
*
II Cationic flocculant for floc water drilling Water Filtration
KLA-GARD
*
Shale stabilizer and inhibitor Water Shale control Filtration
KLA-GARD
*
B Salt-free KLA-GARD Water Shale inhibitor
KLA-STOP
*
Shale inhibitor Water Shale control
LO-WATE
*
Ground calcium carbonate weight material Water Density Filtration
Oil Lost circulation
Synthetic
LUBE-945
*
Water-dispersible lubricant Water Lubricant Shale inhibition
M-I BAR
*
Barite, meets API specifications Water Density
Oil
Synthetic
M-I CEDAR FIBER
*
Shredded cedar fiber Water Lost circulation
M-I CIDE
*
Biocide Not available in the U.S.A. Water Biocide
M-I GEL
*
Bentonite, meets API specifications Water Filtration
Viscosifier
M-I GEL
*
SUPREME Non-treated bentonite, meets API specifications Water Viscosifier Filtration
M-I GEL
*
WYOMING API-spec bentonite sourced only from Wyoming Water Viscosifier Filtration
39
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Product Primary Secondary
Trade Name Description Type Function Function
M-I LUBE
*
General-purpose lubricant Water Lubricant
M-I PAC
*
R PAC polymer, tech grade Water Filtration Viscosifier
Shale inhibitor
M-I PAC
*
UL PAC polymer, low-viscosity, tech grade Water Filtration Shale inhibitor
M-I SEAL
*
LCM for fractured or vugular formations Water Lost circulation Filtration
Oil
Synthetic
M-I-X* II Ground cellulose Water Lost circulation Filtration
Oil
Synthetic
MUD WASH
*
Rig wash Rig wash Rig wash
MUL HTP* Primary emulsifier for negative-alkalinity system Oil Emulsifier Filtration
Synthetic
MY-LO-JEL
*
Pregelatinized starch Water Filtration
NOVAMOD
*
Rheology modifier, LSRV Synthetic Viscosifier
NOVAMUL
*
Basic emulsifier package Synthetic Emulsifier Surfactant
Filtration
Thermal stability
Viscosifier
NOVATEC
*
B LAO base fluid Synthetic Thinner Lubricant
NOVATEC
*
M Low-end rheology modifier for the Synthetic Viscosifier
NOVATEC system
NOVATEC
*
P Primary emulsifier for the NOVATEC system Synthetic Emulsifier Filtration
NOVATEC
*
S Secondary emulsifier for the NOVATEC system Synthetic Emulsifier Filtration
NOVATHIN
*
Deflocculant Synthetic Thinner Surfactant
NOVAWET
*
Wetting agent Synthetic Surfactant Emulsifier
Thinner
Thermal stability
NUT PLUG
*
Ground nut shells Water Lost circulation
Oil
Synthetic
OILFAZE
*
Sacked oil-base concentrate Oil Emulsifier Filtration
Viscosifier
OS-1L* Sulfite-base oxygen scavenger Water Corrosion inhibitor Thermal stability
PARADRIL
*
B Base fluid for the PARADRIL system Synthetic Thinner
PARALAND
*
B Base fluid C11-17 linear paraffin for the PARALAND system Synthetic Thinner
PARAMIX
*
A Salt for the PARALAND system Synthetic Shale inhibitor
PARAMIX
*
N Salt for the PARALAND system Synthetic Shale inhibitor
PARATROL
*
HT High-temperature Gilsonite Synthetic Filtration
PIPE-LAX
*
Oil-base, stuck-pipe-freeing surfactant Water Free pipe
Oil
PIPE-LAX
*
ENV Low-toxicity, stuck-pipe spotting fluid Water Free pipe Lubricant
PIPE-LAX
*
W Liquid, one-drum, stuck-pipe spotting fluid Water Free pipe
EXPORT Oil
POLYPAC
*
ELV Extra-low-viscosity PAC Water Filtration Shale inhibitor
POLYPAC
*
R Polyanionic cellulose Water Filtration Shale control
Viscosifier
POLYPAC
*
Premium-grade polyanionic cellulose Water Filtration Shale control
SUPREME R Viscosifier
POLYPAC
*
PAC, premium-grade, ultra-low viscosity Water Filtration Shale inhibitor
SUPREME UL Viscosifier
POLYPAC
*
UL Polyanionic cellulose Water Filtration Shale control
POLY-PLUS
*
Liquid PHPA Water Shale control Viscosifier
Flocculant
POLY-PLUS
*
Dry Dry PHPA polymer Water Shale inhibitor Filtration
Flocculant
POLY-PLUS
*
LV Low-viscosity PHPA Water Shale control Filtration, Flocculant
POLY-PLUS
*
RD Readily dispersible PHPA powder Water Shale control Viscosifier
Flocculant
POLY-SAL
*
Preserved modified starch Water Filtration Viscosifier
POLY-SAL
*
T Non-fermenting tapioca starch derivative Water Filtration Viscosifier
PTS-200
*
Polymeric temperature stabilizer Water Thermal stability
RESINEX
*
Resinated lignite complex Water Filtration Thermal stability
Thinner
RESINEX
*
II Resinated lignite, tech grade Water Filtration Thermal stability
Thinner
Drilling-Fluid Systems and Additives
40
D R I L L I N G - F L U I D S Y S T E M S A N D A D D I T I V E S
Product Primary Secondary
Trade Name Description Type Function Function
RHEBUILD
*
Viscosifier for RHELIANT system Synthetic Viscosifier
Oil
RHEDUCE
*
Thinner for RHELIANT system Synthetic Thinner
Oil
RHEFLAT
*
Rheological modifier for RHELIANT system Synthetic Viscosifier
Oil
RHETHIK
*
Rheological modifier for RHELIANT system Synthetic Viscosifier
Oil
RHEOSPERSE
*
Polymeric high-temperature deflocculant Water Thinner
SAFE-CARB
*
Ground marble (calcium carbonate) Water Filtration Density
Oil
Synthetic
SALT GEL
*
Attapulgite clay Water Viscosifier
SCREENKLEEN
*
Organic blend to control screen blinding Water Surfactant
while drilling heavy oil/tar formations
SHALE CHEK
*
Shale-control and gumbo additive Water Shale control Filtration
Surfactant
Thermal stability
SILDRIL
*
D Dry sodium silicate Water Shale inhibitor
SILDRIL
*
EPL Extreme-pressure lubricant for the SILDRIL system Water Lubricant
SILDRIL
*
K Potassium silicate Water Shale inhibitor
SILDRIL
*
L Liquid sodium silicate Water Shale inhibitor
SIL-LUBE
*
Lubricant for the SILDRIL system Water Lubricant
SP-101* Sodium polyacrylate Water Filtration Shale control
Thermal stability
SPERSENE
*
Chrome lignosulfonate Water Thinner Emulsifier
Filtration
Thermal stability
SPERSENE
*
CFI Iron lignosulfonate Water Thinner
SPERSENE
*
I Ferrochrome lignosulfonate Water Thinner Thermal stability
Filtration
STARGLIDE
*
Lubricant and ROP enhancer Water Lubricant Surfactant
STEEL LUBE
*
EP Extreme-pressure lubricant Water Lubricant
SULFATREAT
*
DFS H
2
S scavenger Water Corrosion inhibitor
SULFATREAT
*
XLP Extended-life H
2
S scavenger Water Corrosion inhibitor
SUPRA-VIS
*
High-performance biopolymer viscosifier Water Viscosifier
SUREMOD
*
Viscosifier, gelling agent for invert-emulsion systems Synthetic Viscosifier
Oil
SUREMUL
*
Primary emulsifier for invert-emulsion systems Synthetic Emulsifier Surfactant
Oil
SURETHIK
*
Rheological modifier Synthetic Viscosifier
SURETHIN
*
Thinner for invert-emulsion systems Synthetic Thinner Surfactant
Oil
SUREWET
*
Wetting agent for for invert-emulsion systems Synthetic Surfactant Emulsifier
Oil
SV-120* Organic H
2
S scavenger Water Corrosion inhibitor
SWA* EH Oil-base wetting agent for Oil Surfactant Emulsifier
high-brine-content systems
TACKLE
*
Liquid, low-molecular-weight polyacrylate Water Thinner Filtration
(dry available) Thermal stability
TACKLE
*
DRY Powdered low-molecular-weight polyacrylate Water Thinner
TANNATHIN
*
Ground lignite Water Filtration Emulsifier
Thinner Thermal stability
TARCLEAN
*
Anticrete agent for heavy oil to thin asphaltenes Water Shale control
TARLIFT
*
Solvent for the SAGDRIL
*
system Water Surfactant
TARSURF
*
Water-wetter for the SAGDRIL system Water Surfactant
TARVIS
*
Liquid viscosifier for the SAGDRIL system Water Viscosifier
THINSMART
*
Thinner for water-base drilling fluids Water Thinner
TRUVIS
*
Viscosifier for the TRUDRIL system Oil Viscosifier Filtration
ULTRACAP
*
Encapsulator for the ULTRADRIL system Water Shale inhibitor
ULTRAFREE
*
ROP enhancer for the ULTRADRIL system Water Surfactant
ULTRAFREE
*
L Low-cost anticrete Water Surfactant Lubricant
ULTRAFREE
*
NH Non-hydrocarbon version of ULTRAFREE ROP enhancer Water Surfactant Lubricant
41
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Product Primary Secondary
Trade Name Description Type Function Function
ULTRAHIB
*
Shale inhibitor for the ULTRADRIL system Water Shale inhibitor
UNITROL
*
Modified polysaccharide Water Filtration
VERSACLEAN
*
B Base fluid for the VERSACLEAN system Oil Thinner Lubricant
VERSACOAT
*
Emulsifier and wetting agent Oil Surfactant Emulsifier
Thermal stability
VERSACOAT
*
NA High flash-point emulsifier for oil-base fluids Oil Emulsifier Surfactant
Thermal stability
VERSADRIL
*
B Base fluid for the VERSADRIL system Oil Thinner Lubricant
VERSAGEL
*
HT Hectorite Oil Viscosifier Filtration
VERSALIG
*
Amine-treated lignite Oil Filtration Lost circulation
VERSALUBE
*
Oil-soluble lubricant Oil Lubricant
VERSAMOD
*
Rheology modifier, LSRV Oil Viscosifier
VERSAMUL
*
Basic emulsifier package Oil Emulsifier Surfactant
Filtration
Thermal stability
Viscosifier
VERSAPAC
*
Thermally activated, organic thixotrope Oil Viscosifier Lost circulation
Synthetic
VERSATHIN
*
Thinner and conditioner for oil-base fluids Oil Thinner
VERSATROL
*
Asphaltic resin Oil Filtration Lost circulation
Viscosifier
VERSATROL
*
HT High-temperature Gilsonite Oil Filtration
Synthetic
VERSAVERT
*
B Base fluid for VERSAVERT system Oil Thinner Lubricant
VERSAVERT
*
BT Thin version of worker-friendly base oil Oil Thinner Lubricant
VERSAWET
*
Wetting agent for oil-base fluids Oil Surfactant Emulsifier
Thinner
Thermal stability
VG-69* Organophilic clay Oil Viscosifier Filtration
VG-PLUS
*
Organophilic clay Oil Viscosifier Filtration
Synthetic
VG-SUPREME
*
Organophilic clay for the NOVA systems Synthetic Viscosifier Filtration
VINSEAL
*
Filtration control and electrical stability agent Water Filtration
Oil
Synthetic
XP-20K* Potassium chrome lignite Water Thermal stability Emulsifier
Filtration
Thinner
XP-20* N Chrome lignite, sodium hydroxide, neutralized Water Thermal stability Thinner
Filtration
ALPINEDRILLBEADS
42
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
ALPINE DRILL BEADS additive is
designed for use in situations
where torque, drag, casing wear,
and/or the potential for differential
sticking are likely. Typical appli -
cations for ALPINE DRILL BEADS
lubricant are highly deviated holes,
wells with high tortuosity and
wells with severe or unplanned
doglegs where high torque and
drag are encountered.
The initial concentration of
ALPINE DRILL BEADS additive is
in the range of 2 to 6 lb/bbl (5.7
to 17.1 kg/m
3
). This value can be
adjusted in accordance with the
torque and drag limitations of the
drilling operation. After the initial
treatment, additions need to be
made to replace product that is left
embedded in the formation or the
mud filter cake.
In wells where rotation inside
of casing is required for extended
periods of time, ALPINE DRILL BEADS
lubricant reduces casing wear,
which in turn reduces the risk of
compromised casing integrity.
ALPINE DRILL BEADS mechanical
lubricant can also be spotted in an
openhole for logging operations and
for running casing at 8 to 12 lb/bbl
(22.8 to 34.2 kg/m
3
).
ALPINE DRILL BEADS lubricant
is available in fine or coarse sizes,
varying from 100 microns to
1,000 microns.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semitransparent variegated spheres
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.10 to 1.13
Solubility in water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insoluble
Temperature range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stable to 450 F (232 C)
Size ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine: 100 to 300 m
Coarse: 300 to 1,000 m
Reactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inert
ALPINE DRILL BEADS
*
additive is a
completely spherical all-co-polymer
bead uncontaminated with glass
or all-styrene material, designed
to act as a mechanical lubricant.
ALPINE DRILL BEADS lubricant is
non-abrasive and temperature-
stable to 450 F (232 C). It is com -
patible with water-, oil- and
synthetic-base mud systems.
Because of its high compressive
strength, this lubricant is able
to minimize casing wear, reduce
torque and drag and lower the risk
of differential sticking in depleted,
underbalanced formations.
Fine and coarse sizes available.
Best Value: ALPINE co-polymer drill beads
cover 150% more surface area.
Glass
beads
ALPINE
co-polymer
drill beads
Ceramic
beads
10 grams
2.5 SG
1.1 SG
3.0 SG
Advantages
Reduces friction
Minimizes casing wear
Decreases torque and drag
Breaks capillary attraction
Lowers risk of differential sticking
Compatible with all drilling fluids
Non-abrasive
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
ALPINE DRILL BEADS additive is
packaged in 50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-
walled, paper sacks; 48 sacks to a
pallet. Store in a dry location away
from sources of heat or ignition,
and minimize dust.
43
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True weight-to-bit. The ball bearing effect of ALPINE DRILL BEADS reduces friction, torque and drag, helps prevent casing wear,
and paves the wellbore.
ALPINEDRILLBEADS RECOVERY UNIT
44
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
The ALPINE DRILL BEADS RECOVERY
UNIT
*
(DBRU) is designed to mini-
mize the amount of ALPINE DRILL
BEADS lost to surface solids-control
equipment, eliminating costly and
repetitive additions of drill beads to
the mud system. Without a recov-
ery unit, the majority of drill beads
would be removed from the circu-
lating system at the shale shakers.
ALPINE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS
*
has designed a system that meets
strict industry guidelines for safety,
minimizes the amount of personnel
required and provides an efficient
recovery method.
Utilizing the ALPINE DBRU, all cut-
tings and solids removed at the rig
shaker are transported to a second
set of shakers where drill solids and
waste material are sep arated from
the drill beads, and are discharged
to the waste stream, while the drill
beads are recovered and returned to
the suction pit.
Features
Streamlined to fit all rigs. The
bead-recovery system is equipped
with its own shale shakers and
an efficient processing tank that
requires minimum space. If required,
the system can be tailored and mod-
ified to utilize the space available
through a flexible arrangement of
pumps and piping.
Designed to meet OSHA standards.
The design of the equipment, both
mechanical and electrical, strictly
complies with OSHA regulations.
Safety rails and guards have been
placed on the unit to protect workers.
Customized linear-motion shak-
ers. The DBRUs custom-sized shak-
ers facilitate rapid screen changes
with a minimum of downtime.
Screen life is maximized and the
finest-mesh screens are used in
order to remove drill solids while
recovering the highest percentage
possible of ALPINE DRILL BEADS.
Self-contained and fully equipped.
The unit has the primary shaker
mounted on the catch tank and has
centrifugal pumps manifolded and
attached on the skid. An electrical
power box is built onto the skid
and allows easy rig-up. The equip-
ment arrives at the rig complete
with hoses and transfer pumps for
maximum efficiency. Experienced
technicians are on hand at all times
to monitor and service the DBRU.
Features
Streamlined to fit all rigs
Designed to meet
OSHAstandards
Customized linear-motion
shakers
Self-contained and
fully equipped
Benefits
Meets safety requirements
Efficient recovery of
drill beads
Minimal personnel
requirements
Compatible with all
WBM, OBM and SBM
Screen changes in 1 min
Heavy-duty construction, compact design.
45
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Component Length Width Height Weight
in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm) lb (kg)
Main recovery unit 123 (3,124) 84 (2,134) 148 (3,759) 11,600 (5,262)
Recovery shaker 96 (2,438) 60 (1,524) 56 (1,422) 2,200 (998)
Drip pan 96 (2,438) 60 (1,524) 12 (305) 850 (386)
Recovery pump 64 (1,626) 24 (610) 34 (864) 850 (386)
Typical Components and Footprint
Recovered beads returning to the
mud system.
How it works
ALPINE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS
positions the equipment as
close to the rig shale shakers as
possible. As cuttings and drill
beads return from downhole,
they are washed down to the
first shaker with base fluid where
fine solids and drill beads pass
through a 10-mesh screen into
the catch tank. The fluid is then
pumped through hydrocyclones
which separate the drill solids
from the drill beads. The drill
solids are discharged in the
underflow of the hydrocyclones
and are removed by a fine-mesh
screen then transported to the
solids-control waste stream. The
ALPINE DRILL BEADS have a lower
specific gravity (1.1 SG) than the
cuttings, so they will pass with
the overflow to a secondary
shaker where a fine-mesh
screen captures them.
The drill beads are then mixed
with drilling fluid and pumped
to the suction pit where they are
sent downhole again.
Specifications
Since each configuration is custom -
ized for a specific project, specifi -
cations vary. Here is a typical list
of components.
Hydrocylone separates
ALPINE DRILL BEADS (1.1 SG)
from unwanted solids (1.1 to 4.2 SG)
Cuttings
trough
Beads and water
to recovery shaker
Wash
down
return
Wash
down
pump
Wash
down to
rig shakers
Cuttings and
unwanted solids
Clean drill
beads
Fluid
return
line
Recovery
shaker
Primary
shaker
Rig
shakers
To
hydro-
cyclone
back to
mud system
to overboard
or reserve pit
Cone
pump
Recovery
system is a
self-contained,
closed-loop
system
ALPINE DRILL BEADS RECOVERY UNIT
BLACKFURY
46
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
BLACK FURY liquid Gilsonite can be
used in most water-base drilling
fluids. It has been extremely effec-
tive in lignosulfonate, potassium
and PHPA mud systems. An initial
treatment of 2 to 5% by volume
(7 to 17.5 lb/bbl [20 to 49.9 kg/m
3
])
is recommended to achieve opti-
mum results. The readily dispersi -
ble nature of the product allows
high concentrations to be added
easily to the mud system. The prod-
uct contains glycol which aids in
lubricity and inhibition.
BLACK FURY liquid Gilsonite
is temperature stable to 425 F
(218 C) and reduces API, HTHP,
dynamic filtration, spurt-loss values
and potential for differential sticking.
BLACK FURY liquid Gilsonite works
best when added to the mud system
before encountering known trouble
zones. It can be added directly to the
system through the mud hopper or
pumped directly into the suction pit.
A concentration of BLACK FURY
liquid Gilsonite is maintained by
volumetrics as the product is only
slightly soluble in water. BLACK FURY
shale-control additive does not
induce foaming and is not sensitive
to contamination. It is compatible
with other sealing agents and has
been used to combat seepage losses
in conjunction with fibrous materi-
als and calciumcarbonate.
Advantages
Improves wellbore stability
and shale inhibition
Improves lubricity
Improves high-temperature
filtration control
Reduces bit balling potential
Reduces filter-cake buildup
in depleted sands
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Field proven
BLACK FURY
*
liquid Gilsonite^ suspension is specifically formulated to stabi-
lize water-sensitive, micro-fractured shales when drilling with water-base
drilling fluids. BLACK FURY liquid gilsonite seals micro fracture, reduces
dynamic fluid loss and minimizes the potential for differential sticking.
Secondary benefits include improved lubricity and reduced accretion from
sticky clays. The product has application in most water-base drilling fluids
and is acceptable environmentally.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black viscous liquid
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05 to 1.09
pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0 to 9.2 (2% in distilled water)
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >200 F (93 C)
BEFORE AFTER
Note low spurt loss after BLACK FURY.
250 F
(121 C)
@ 600 rpm
@ 1,000 psi
(68.9 bar)
Ceramic
filter disk
^Mark of American Gilsonite Company.
Mix directly in mud system.
47
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Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
BLACK FURY is packaged in 55-gal
(208-L) drums and in 550-gal
(2,082-L) tote tanks. Store in a dry
location away from sources of heat
or ignition, and minimize dust.
Dynamic and HTHP filtration
test equipment .
9
32-in.
BEFORE
Contact area = 5-in. (140 mm)
Side force = 1,063,920 lb (482,586 kg)
P = 1 lb/gal @ 15,500 ft (4,724 m)
8-in. hole
9
32-in.
mud cake
6-in.
drill collar
3
32-in.
AFTER
Contact area = 3 in. (76 mm)
Side force = 580,320 lb (263,229 kg)
P = 1 lb/gal @ 15,500 ft (4,724 m)
8-in. hole
3
32-in.
mud cake
6-in.
drill collar
Dynamic filtration test
Note the superior pore-throat sealing qualities of this 14-lb/gal (1.7-kg/L) ligno mud after
using BLACK FURY 3% by volume.
CELL-U-SEAL
48
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
CELL-U-SEAL cellulose fiber is a supe-
rior bridging agent field proven to
be effective when drilling highly
permeable, extremely porous
zones with elevated differential
pressures. It is effective for treat-
ing seepage losses where only
minimal treatment is required to
major losses where large batch
treatments are necessary.
CELL-U-SEAL fiber is designed
to bridge and seal permeable
zones, where it reduces the possi -
bility of stuck pipe, controls lost
circulation and provides better
filtration control.
The recommended treatment
of CELL-U-SEAL material is 4 to
10 lb/bbl (11.4 to 28.5 kg/m
3
) by
volume in sweeps and/or in the
entire mud system to help prevent
differential sticking tendencies.
Additional treatments need to
be made to replace material that
remains downhole or is removed
by solids-control equipment. Sig -
nificant quantities of the medium
and coarse grades are removed by
fine meshed screens (100 mesh
and finer).
For medium to severe losses,
25 to 40 lb/bbl (71.3 to 114 kg/m
3
)
should be spotted across the
loss zone. Combina tions of fine,
medium and coarse CELL-U-SEAL
fiber should be con templated in
these situations. Batch treatments
are often preferred to treatments
for the whole system because batch
treatments minimize shaker losses
and avoid bypassing shaker screens,
which reduces mud contamination
from drill solids.
CELL-U-SEAL fiber (fine) is sized
so that approximately 40 to 43%
passes through a 120-mesh screen.
CELL-U-SEAL lost-circulation
material can be added to the mud
system through the mud hopper,
where good agitation occurs, and
is compatible with all water-, oil-
and synthetic-base mud systems.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tan to light brown powder and fibers
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 to 32 lb/ft
3
(352 to 513 kg/m
3
)
Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biodegradable/non-toxic
Solubility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46% by weight acid soluble
Particle-Size Distribution (PSD). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 to 2,000 m
CELL-U-SEAL
*
cellulose fiber is a
superior bridging agent and Lost-
Circulation Material (LCM) designed
to bridge and seal permeable for-
mations in water-, oil- or synthetic-
base mud systems. Bridging and
sealing permeable formations and
micro-fractured shales reduces the
potential for differential sticking
and lowers torque and drag tenden-
cies. CELL-U-SEAL fiber has proven
effective in reducing differential
sticking when drilling extremely
depleted zones where the differen-
tial pressures are very high.
For added flexibility, CELL-U-SEAL
fiber is available in fine, medium
and coarse grades so that the opti-
mum particle size can be selected to
bridge the pores and pore throats of
permeable formations. CELL-U-SEAL
cellulose fiber additions have mini-
mal effects on mud properties.
49
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Advantages
Effective bridging and sealing
agent for a wide range of
formations
Offers some elongated material
as well as granular particles,
ensuring a matting effect across
the formation
Inert material with minimum
effect on mud properties
Compatible with all mud
systems and other lost-
circulation materials
Easily mixed and dispersed
into the mud system
Biodegradable/non-toxic
Offers unique particle sizes,
smaller than conventional LCM,
yet larger than solids found in
most drilling fluids
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
CELL-U-SEAL is packaged in 40-lb
(18.1-kg), multi-walled, paper sacks.
Store in a dry location away from
sources of heat or ignition, and
minimize dust.
Frequency
Cumulative
Mean
Median
Gravel Sand
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Silt Clay
Extended-range laser sieve analysis
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v
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%
F
r
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q
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c
y
,

%
Actual size
CELL-U-SEAL dry product
(enlarged 150x)
Particle diameter
Sample: CELL-U-SEAL
Screen
Performance:
43% by volume
passes through a
120-mesh screen
Particle-size
distribution:
PDS = 0.5 microns
to 2,000 microns
4,000
5
m
US
Sieve
2,000
10
1,000
18
500
30
250
60
121
120
66
230
31
400
16 8 4 2 1 0.5
Result: ASTM E11:61 report. Report performed by Westport Technology Center International
(Houston, Texas), Deborah A. Ragland, Ph.D., and Michael C. Dix, September 30, 1999.
Report number RT-99-052. Project number D115448D0000.
CLEANSPOT
50
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
CLEAN SPOT pipe-freeing agent is
a low-toxicity spotting fluid that
has proven itself highly effective
in environmentally sensitive areas,
both onshore and offshore.
Success in freeing differentially
stuck pipe is greatest when the
spotting fluid is applied as soon
as possi ble after the pipe becomes
stuck. A fluid that can be mixed and
spotted quickly often frees the drill-
string before fishing operations are
required. CLEAN SPOT pills are easily
prepared and are well suited for
spotting situations.
CLEAN SPOT pipe-freeing agent
contains no hydrocarbons, is com-
patible with most mud systems
and can be used either weighted
or unweighted in wells with
differentially stuck pipe.
After being used as a spotting
fluid, CLEAN SPOT additive can
be incorporated into the active
mud system to reduce torque and
drag and reduce the possibility
of differential sticking.
Advantages
Effective soak solution that quickly
frees differentially stuck pipe
Can be easily weighted with
barite, FER-OX
*
or calcium
carbonate
Can be incorporated in most
mud systems
Contains no hydrocarbons and
is water dispersible
Excellent stability at downhole
temperatures and pressures
Aids in lubrication, improving
torque and drag reduction char -
acteristics of the fluid when
incorporated in the system
Mixing procedure
1. Calculate the volume of spotting
fluid required and add at least
10% to compensate for washout.
In addition, include 25 bbl to
remain in the drillstring after
initial displacement.
2. In a clean dry tank, mix the
required amount of CLEAN SPOT
pipe-freeing agent from the
formulation chart. Supply ade-
quate ventilation when opening
containers and in enclosed areas
when mixing CLEANSPOT additive.
3. Add required materials in the
order listed and allow for the pill
to agitate and homogenize the
entire pill. Add weighting agents
as the final step before pumping
the pill.
4. Displace the slurry to the zone
where the differential sticking is
suspected. Leave approximately
25 bbl (if volume is available)
inside the drill pipe to displace at
an hourly rate into the openhole.
5. Work the pipe while the spot
is soaking. Periodically pump
1 to 2 bbl to assure that fresh
CLEAN SPOT additive is being dis-
placed across the problem zone.
6. Allow at least 24 hrs for the
CLEAN SPOT pipe-freeing agent
to free the stuck pipe.
Note: When using CLEAN SPOT pipe-
freeing agent in deviated wells with
angle greater than 35, the spotting
fluid should be weighted 0.5 lb/gal
(0.06 SG) heavier than the fluid in
the well to encourage the spotting
fluid to migrate.
CLEAN SPOT
*
pipe-freeing agent is a water-dispersible, low-toxicity spotting
fluid designed to free differentially stuck pipe by penetrating between the
wall cake and metal. CLEAN SPOT additive also offers strong metal wetting
characteristics and can be used as a lubricant after being incorporated into
the active system.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amber liquid
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >200 F (93 C)
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.91 to 0.925
51
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Quick-Mix Recipe
For a 50-bbl pill
3 tanks of CLEAN SPOT
For 8 to 12 lb/gal (0.96 to
1.44 kg/L), add 1 tank or 550
gal (2,082 L) water (12 bbl)
For 13 to 18 lb/gal (1.56
to 2.16 kg/L), add tank
or 275 gal (1,041 L) water
(6 bbl)
Add 400 lb (181 kg) or
8 sacks of lime. Shear
and mix for 30 min.
Add barite to desired
density. Shear and mix
for 30 min to 1 hr.
Add 400 lb (181 kg) or
4 sacks of salt and 500 lb
(227 kg) of ALPINE DRILL
BEADS and mix for 15 min
6
5
4
3
2
1
Density, lb/gal 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
(kg/L) (0.96) (1.1) (1.2) (1.3) (1.4) (1.6) (1.7) (1.8) (1.9) (2.0) (2.2)
CLEAN SPOT
*
, gal 31 30 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 25 23
(L) (117) (114) (114) (110) (106) (102) (102) (98) (95) (95) (87)
Barite, lb 25 80 140 190 240 300 360 400 460 520 580
(kg) (11.3) (36.3) (63.5) (86.2) (109) (136) (163) (181) (209) (236) (263)
Lime, lb 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
(kg) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5)
Salt, lb 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 5
(kg) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (4.5) (2.3) (2.3) (2.3) (2.3)
Water, gal 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
(L) (38) (38) (38) (38) (19) (19) (19) (19) (19) (19) (19)
Number of bbl
of finished
product per tank 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 23
Mixing Table, general guidelines per barrel (42-gal)
AFTER BEFORE
Note: The dehydration and cracking of this 16-lb/gal (1.9 kg/L) wall cake after covering with
CLEAN SPOT concentrate.
AFTER BEFORE
High-Temperature, High-Pressure
filtration wall cakes
Dynamic filtration wall cakes
Note: The dehydration and cracking of this 12.5-lb/gal (1.5-kg/L) wall cake after covering with
CLEAN SPOT concentrate.
FORM-A-SQUEEZE
52
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
FORM-A-SQUEEZE Lost-Circulation
(LC) plug can be used to stop losses
occurring in any water-base and
non-aqueous base fluids and can
be easily mixed in freshwater, sea-
water or base oil/synthetic. It was
designed to be used as:
Openhole remedial and/or
preventive lost-circulation squeeze
Plug to run in front of
cement squeezes
Plug to improve casing
shoe integrity
Preventive LC material for seepage
losses, up to 20 lb/bbl (57 kg/m
3
)
in the whole active system
Cased-hole squeeze for sealing
perforations and casing leaks
The recommended concentra -
tion of FORM-A-SQUEEZE slurry is
80 lb/bbl (228 kg/m
3
) in either
water or base oil/synthetic. The
slurry can be weighted to the
desired density with barite or
calcium carbonate.
The slurry should be pumped to
the annulus, covering at least 50%
in excess of the loss zone. The drill
string is then pulled slowly 90 ft
(27 m) above the pill. The slurry
should be gently squeezed in
the range of 100 to 300 psi (6.9
to 20.7 bar) to the maximum of
anti cipated mud weight required
for the interval, holding the
pressure for 10 to 20 min.
Advantages
Quick-acting plug for frac -
tured, vugular formations and
underground blowout events
Single-sack product each
50-sack pallet of FORM-A-SQUEEZE
additive makes a 25-bbl pill
Extremely easy to mix through
a standard hopper in both water
and base oil/synthetic
No special equipment required
to spot the pill
No spacer is required contami-
nant friendly to both water-base
and non-aqueous base fluids
Not affected by temperature,
activator and retarder formula-
tions or pH
Temperature stable up to 450 F
(232 C)
Environmentally acceptable
(complies with LC
50
requirements)
Can be mixed in rig slugging pit
up to 17 lb/gal (2 kg/L)
Can be used in whole circulation
system up to 10 lb/bbl (28.5 kg/m
3
)
for seepage loss
FORM-A-SQUEEZE
*
high-fluid loss/high-solids slurry is a cost effective solu-
tion to lost circulation in all types of fractures, vugular formations, matrix
and underground blowout events. When placed in and/or across a loss
zone, the liquid phase squeezes from the slurry, rapidly forming a solid
plug behind. This process can cure losses instantly, without time or
temperature dependency.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gray powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.70 to 1.76
Solubility in water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . None
Weight Water FORM-A-SQUEEZE
*
Barite
lb/gal (kg/L) (bbl) 40-lb (18.1-kg) sacks 100-lb (45.4-kg) sacks
9 (1.1) 0.88 1.76 0
10 (1.2) 0.84 1.68 0.55
11 (1.3) 0.81 1.62 1.11
12 (1.4) 0.78 1.56 1.68
13 (1.6) 0.74 1.48 2.25
14 (1.7) 0.71 1.42 2.81
15 (1.8) 0.68 1.36 3.38
16 (1.9) 0.65 1.30 3.95
Mixing Table (approximately one barrel)
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Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
FORM-A-SQUEEZE additive is pack-
aged in standard 40-lb (18.1-kg)
sacks; one pallet contains 50
sacks or 2,000-lb (907.2 kg)
super-bags on request. Store in
a dry, well- ventilated area away
from sources of heat or ignition.
Avoid generating dust. Follow
safe warehousing practices
regarding palletizing, banding,
shrink-wrapping and/or stacking.
FORM-A-SQUEEZE weighted LC plug.
LC Plug compressibility comparison
FORM-A-SQUEEZE
Note: More compacted
Product A Product B
Each product, 80 lb/bbl (228 kg/m
3
) in water (each sample dewatered within 90 sec)
PA-10
54
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
PA-10 liquid additive is designed
to optimize the ROP performance
of water-base mud systems. It is
applicable in both onshore and
offshore environments. PA-10
additive coats metal surfaces,
retards gumbo hydration and
reduces cuttings accretion on
bottomhole assemblies.
PA-10 liquid additive can be
mixed directly into the suction pit,
preferably as near as possible to the
pump suction. The product is also
effective when injected directly into
the pump suction.
Initial treatment should be 1
to 2% by volume, with a target of
2 to 5% being optimum. Continuous
additions of PA-10 additive should
be made to the system to maintain
the proper concentration as new
mud is added and as mud depletes
as the additive coats the wellbore
and drill solids.
The injection rate for PA-10 anti-
accretion agent varies depending
on the drill rate, hole size, pump
rate and dilution level.
PA-10 liquid additive is effective
when pumped in pill form with a
concentration of 5 to 15%, espe cially
during sliding operations.
PA-10* liquid additive is designed to improve the rate of penetration in water-
base drilling fluids, especially where Polycrystalline Diamond Compact
(PDC) bits are being used. PA-10 liquid additive employs a non-petroleum
base fluid in conjunction with surface active agents to maximize the cutting
ability of the bit. The chemical makeup of the additive resists the tendency of
clays to adhere to the bit and Bottomhole Assembly (BHA) and assures that
weight is more effectively transferred to bottom. It also helps maintain a
clean bit face so that cutters have better contact with the formation being
drilled. A secondary benefit is reduced torque and drag resulting from the
increased lubricity of the drilling fluid.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light yellow-golden liquid
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.90 to 0.93
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >200 F (93 C)
Micro-emulsion droplets.
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Advantages
Increases ROP while drilling
clays and shales
Reduces torque and drag
Improves filter-cake quality
Works well with high-
performance PDC bits
Contains surface-active metal-
wetting agents that reduce
balling on bits and BHA
Improves metal-to-metal lubricity
Optimum performance may not
be realized if the material is not
added continuously in sufficient
concentration while drilling
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PA-10 liquid additive is packaged in
55-gal (208-L) drums and 550-gal
(2,082-L) tanks.
PA-10 is laboratory tested to enhance your muds performance.
Mix directly in mud system.
QUICKSLIDE
56
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
QUICK SLIDE multi-blend lubricant
is designed for situations where
torque and drag and/or the poten-
tial for differential sticking are
likely, such as when drilling devi-
ated holes or wells with high over-
balance. The lubricant is applied
in situations where directional
concerns require extended drilling
without rotation, which causes
bottomhole assemblies to hang
up because of a lack of weight
transfer to bottom. It is also
applied during casing and log -
ging operations where hole con -
ditions warrant the use of a
lubricant for tools and pipe to
successfully reach bottom .
Normal concentrations of
QUICK SLIDE lubricant are in the
range of 1 to 3% by volume (5
to 10 lb/bbl [14.3 to 28.5 kg/m
3
])
depending on the fluid density,
desired reduction in coefficient
of friction and the mud system.
QUICK SLIDE blended lubricant
can be used in higher concentration
when applied in pills where torque
and drag are clearly being produced
in build sections of highly deviated
wells. In those situations, concen-
trations should range 7 to 10% by
volume (24.5 to 35 lb/bbl [69.8 to
99.8 kg/m
3
]). When circulating
these pills, allow sufficient time
for the drill beads to work them-
selves into the formation around
the BHA.
QUICK SLIDE multi-blend lubricant
is water dispersible and blends eas-
ily in all water-base mud systems.
It can be added to the mud system
through the mud hopper or directly
to the surface system anywhere
good agitation is available.
Advantages
Effective lubricant for water-base
mud systems
Decreases the coefficient of
friction, which reduces torque
and drag
Reduces the potential for
differential sticking
Mechanically and chemically
lubricates
Temperature stable to 400 F
(204 C)
Reduces the tendency for bit
and BHA accretion when drilling
sticky shales
QUICK SLIDE
*
multi-blend lubricant is designed to decrease the coefficient of
friction in all water-base drilling fluids. Decreasing the coefficient of friction
reduces torque, drag and the potential for differential sticking in the well-
bore. QUICK SLIDE lubricant is a suspension of polymer drill beads in a base
fluid that contains no hydrocarbons. The co-polymer beads act as a mechanical
lubricant, embedding themselves in the filter cake in openholes and provid-
ing mechanical standoff in cased holes, reducing metal-to-metal friction.
The carrying fluid has a unique wettability characteristic that lowers the
potential of accretion on the BHA and drill pipe, allowing more consistent
weight to be applied to the bit. QUICK SLIDE lubricant is only slightly water
soluble under most conditions, but is dispersible in water-base muds.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milky white liquid
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >201 F (94 C)
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.00 to 1.02
Lubricating suspension mineral
Non-petroleum-base liquid
Co-polymer plastic beads
QUICK SLIDE lubricates with
micro-emulsion droplets.
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Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
QUICK SLIDE multi-blend lubricant
is packaged in 55-gal (208-L) drums
and in 550-gal (2,082-L) tote tanks.
Store in a dry location away
fromsources of heat or ignition,
and minimize dust.
Lubricity meter reading
(electrical current required to sustain 60 rpm at applied torque)
Applied Base
torque Base Base +2% BLACK FURY
*
in./lb Base +2% BLACK FURY +2% QUICK SLIDE +2% QUICK SLIDE
*
100 12 11 12 11
150 17 16 17 16
200 24 20 13 19
300 40 33 20 20
400 56 45 25 24
500 86 60 30 28
600 115 80 33 31
Lubricity Test at 60 rpm (metal-to-metal tester)
Coefficient of friction of water (0.33 to 0.36) = 0.35; i.e., reading at 150 in./lb is 35
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
S
l
i
d
e
,

f
t
/
h
r
Problem:
Sliding
unacceptable
Solution:
QUICK SLIDE
Shelby County, Texas
Horizontal well
Before
QUICK
SLIDE
After
QUICK
SLIDE
12
ft/hr
4
ft/hr
QUICK SLIDE lubricant instantly disperses in
water and is laboratory tested to enhance
your muds performance.
26 mL 14 g
4
32-in. 14 mL 8 g
2
32-in.
Dynamic filtration test
Note how the co-polymer beads embed and protrude on the face of the wall cake. The beads
reduce wall force friction, increasing your ability to slide drill.
The proven drilling solution: ALPINE
SPECIALTY CHEMICALS maintains a
data base verifying the high-performance
characteristics of QUICK SLIDE lubricant.
SACKBLACK
58
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
SACK BLACK additive is a coupled
Gilsonite that can be used in most
water- and oil-base muds. It is a
free-flowing powder and can be
added directly to the mud system
through the mixing hopper.
SACK BLACK shale inhibitor has
been pretreated with a coupler to
enhance its wettability in water-
base fluids and requires no addi-
tional coupler when added to a
mud system.
SACK BLACK shale inhibitor is
~80% non-soluble in water and
therefore remains in a particulate
phase in the mud system, becoming
a malleable solid that deforms as
needed to seal micro fractures
in shales and to reduce filtrate
invasion in sands.
Normal concentrations of
SACK BLACK additive are in the
range of 3 to 10 lb/bbl (8.6 to
28.5 kg/m
3
) for shale stabilizing
control, and 4 to 6 lb/bbl (11.4 to
17.1 kg/m
3
) for high-temperature,
fluid-loss control.
In water- and oil-base
drilling-fluid systems, SACK
BLACK shale stabilizer provides
the following benefits:
Reduces sloughing shales
Lowers torque and drag
Reduces HTHP and dynamic
filtration fluid loss
Enhances filter-cake quality
Improves borehole stability
Minimizes potential differential
sticking in depleted sands
Advantages
Easily disperses in water
Plugs micro fractures and
seals shales
Reduces HTHP fluid loss
Reduces dynamic fluid loss
Reduces torque and drag
Reduces filter-cake thickness
Stable at high temperature
applications (>400 F [>204 C])
SACK BLACK
*
shale inhibitor is a partially water soluble, water dispersible,
coupled Gilsonite. It is used to aid in stabilizing shale sections, controlling
wall-cake characteristics, minimizing spurt loss, plugging micro-fractured
shales and providing HTHP fluid-loss control at elevated temperatures in
water-, diesel- and synthetic-base drilling-fluid systems.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.04 to 1.06
Solubility in water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partially insoluble
Mix directly in mud system.
Asphalt is 80% soluble in water.
4 lb/bbl (11.4 kg/m
3
) on API filter paper.
Gilsonite is 80% non-soluble in water.
4 lb/bbl (11.4 kg/m
3
) on API filter paper.
59
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Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SACK BLACK is packaged in 50-lb
(22.7-kg), multi-walled, paper sacks.
Store in a dry location away from
sources of heat or ignition, and
minimize dust.
Gilsonite is mined only in eastern Utah. The
all-natural mineral is environmentally safe.
Untreated Gilsonite SACK BLACK
treated Gilsonite
Hydrophobic
Incapable of
dispersing with water.
Dispersion elapsed time:
24 hrs and counting.
Hydrophilic
Capable of
dispersing with water.
Dispersion elapsed time:
5 sec.
ALPINE TRACERBEADS
60
A L P I N E S P E C I A L T Y C H E M I C A L S
Applications
TRACER BEADS additive is designed
to refract light and is used in deep-
water applications where intervals
have been drilled without returns
and annular volumes are unknown.
Typically, an unspecified amount of
cement and spacers is prepared and
pumped, and the only method of
assuring cement returns around
the casing is by viewing the oper -
ation with a Remotely Operated
Vehicle (ROV) and trying to discern
differences between the mud and
the cement that is displacing the
mud out of the hole.
When TRACER BEADS additive is
mixed in the cement or the cement
spacers, the ROV can distinguish
the difference in the fluids because
the TRACER BEADS material refracts
light, allowing visual confirmation
of cement returns to the sea floor.
TRACER BEADS material can be
added to cement, cement spacers,
and drilling fluids of all types.
Recommended concentration
is 1.75 to 2 sacks per barrel, and can
be mixed through the mud hopper.
Advantages
Extremely visible with ROV
Allows positive identification
of cement returns
Minimizes excess cement
No effect on mud properties
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
TRACER BEADS additive is packaged
in 1.11 ft
3
(0.03 m
3
), multi-walled,
paper sacks. Weight per bag is
variable due to variation in product
specific gravity. Store in a dry loca-
tion away from sources of heat
or ignition, and minimize dust.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Translucent spheres
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.60 to 0.90
Solubility in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insoluble
Actual photo of ALPINE TRACER BEADS in
mud pill.
ALPINE TRACER BEADS
*
deepwater
cement identifier is a one-sack
mixture of different-sized macro-
porous, translucent spheres
designed to refract light. TRACER
BEADS spheres allow recognition
of lead cement and spacers in
deepwater applications where
the required volumes of cement
and spacers cannot be determined
except through visual identifica-
tion. The unique property of TRACER
BEADS additive allows visual con -
firmation when bottoms up has
occurred at the sea floor. TRACER
BEADS material is inert and has
no effect on mud properties. The
product can be used in all types
of fluids, including cement and
cement spacers.
2007 M-I L.L.C. All rights reserved. *Mark of M-I L.L.C.
M-I SWACO* customers are pushing the limits of performance, drilling depths, well
complexity and field productivity. As they face challenges such as oil sands and
SAGD drilling, they are also contending with stricter environmental regulations.
This is where our talent for innovation has helped so many operators. Because
we have our own R&D, manufacturing, environmental and technical resources,
we can create solutions that solve very specific problems in an environmentally
responsible manner.
Our flexibility to innovate helps our customers succeed
www.miswaco.com
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DRILPLEXHDD
62
A specialty product used to
enhance the gel strengths of
MAX GEL
*
viscosifier, DRILPLEX
*
HDD viscosifier is an inorganic
chemical viscosifier for water-
base, bentonite drilling fluids.
DRILPLEX HDD viscosifier is only
slightly soluble in water.
Applications
DRILPLEX HDD viscosifier allows
the formulation of fluids with
exceptional shear-thinning prop -
erties, resulting in a drilling fluid
with both excellent dynamic and
static carrying capacity for solids.
This is indicated by high yield-
point and low plastic-viscosity
readings. When not circulating,
the mud instantly reverts to a
gelled state and results in high
suspending capacity indicated
by high, non-progressive
gel-strength readings.
For 300 gal (1,136 L) of drilling
fluid mix:
Add 1 sacks (75 lb [34 kg])
MAX GEL viscosifier in freshwater
and hydrate for 10 min. If higher
rheological properties are desired,
mix more gel. For every 7 lb (3.2kg)
of additional gel added, the yield
point rises approximately 20 points.
After the gel is hydrated, add
6 lb (2.7 kg) of DRILPLEX HDD
(3 vis cups) viscosifier and mix
for an additional 5 to 10 min
For torque reduction, add
1.5 gal (5.7 L) of ROD EASE
*
lubricant
Advantages
High rate of penetration
Optimum cuttings transport
Excellent solids suspension
Borehole stabilization
Low drilling costs
Limitations
DRILPLEX HDD fluids are not com-
patible with anionic products. Do
not add any polymers or thinners
to this fluid. Polymers and thinners
destroy the rheological properties
of the fluid. DRILPLEX HDD fluid
should only be used to enhance a
bentonite-base fluid. The mixing
tank must be clean before being
used to mix DRILPLEX HDD fluid.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
DRILPLEX HDD viscosifier comes in
25-lb (11.3-kg) multi-walled, paper
sacks with 80 sacks to a pallet.
Store in a dry location away from
sources of heat or ignition, and
minimize dust.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Off-white powder
Odor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . None
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 to 3.1
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS
63
DUO-VIS
*
/SUPER-VIS
*
xanthan gum
is a high-molecular-weight biopoly-
mer used for increasing carrying
capacity in water-base systems.
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS biopolymer
has the unique ability to produce a
fluid that is highly shear-thinning
and thixotropic.
Applications
The primary function of DUO-VIS/
SUPER-VIS biopolymer is to increase
low-shear viscosity for cuttings
transport and suspension. This
product performs effectively in
all water-base fluids, from highly
weighted to low-solids systems,
including freshwater, seawater,
salt and heavy-brine systems.
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS xanthan
gumworks to provide an optimized
rheological profile with elevated
low-shear-rate viscosity and highly
shear-thinning characteristics with
low n values. These characteris -
tics frequently result in fluids with
inverted flow properties (i.e., the
yield point is greater than the plas-
tic viscosity). Shear-thinning fluids
have low effective viscosities at the
high shear rates encountered inside
the drillstring and at the bit. This
low effective viscosity for minimal
pressure losses and standpipe pres-
sures allows optimized hydraulics
and maximized rates of penetra-
tion. Conversely, at the low shear
rates experienced in the annulus,
the DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS product
enables the drilling fluid to have
a high effective viscosity for ade-
quately cleaning the well and
suspending cuttings.
Advantages
Highly effective suspension
enhancer; small treatments
produce significant results
Provides a shear-thinning
rheological profile for
improved hydraulics
Minimum frictional pressure
losses for additional hydraulic
horsepower at the bit and low,
high-shear-rate viscosity for maxi-
mum penetration rates
Viscous laminar flow in
the annulus for improved
wellbore stability with
maximumhole-cleaning
and suspension capacity
Easy to mix
Limitations
Trivalent ions such as chromium
and iron can cause biopolymer
precipitation and loss of viscosity
or cross-linking
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS systems should
be pretreated with either sodium
bicarbonate or SAPP, and possibly
citric acid, prior to drilling cement
Subject to bacterial degradation;
a biocide should be used to pre-
vent fermentation if used for
prolonged periods
Lightly anionic nature of DUO-VIS/
SUPER-VIS biopolymer requires
special mixing procedures when
mixed with cationic materials
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
DUO-VIS product is packaged in
25-lb (11.3-kg) sacks.
SUPER-VIS product is packaged in
2-gal (7.6-L) buckets (12.5-lb [5.7-kg]
per bucket). The product can also
be packaged in 15- to 21-lb (6.8
to 9.5 kg) baggies per 5-gal
(18.9-L) bucket.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream-to-tan powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 lb/ft
3
(800 kg/m
3
)
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
MAXBOREHDD
64
The MAX BORE
*
HDD system is a
proprietary, blended, high-yielding
Wyoming bentonite supplied as a
single-sack product used especially
in boring-fluid applications. The
MAX BORE HDD system provides
suspension, wellbore stability
and filtration control. The system
also helps reduce torque and
drag for water-base applications
and is designed to minimize
environmental impact.
Applications
The MAX BORE HDD system provides
suspension, improves wellbore sta-
bility, controls filtration, and helps
reduce torque and drag in boring-
fluid applications. It is a cost-
effective product for achieving
viscosity for hole cleaning, gel
strength for cuttings suspension
and transport, wellbore stability,
fluid-loss control, and filter-cake
quality in freshwater and seawater
applications. Typical concentrations
of the MAX BORE HDD system range
from 15 to 45 lb/100 gal (18 to
54 kg/m
3
).
Advantages
One-sack system provides ease
of mixing and reduces the number
of products required to prepare
boring fluid
Hydrates more than other types
of clays and is best for generating
viscosity for hole cleaning, devel -
oping gels for suspension and
controlling filtration
Unique size, shape and high sur-
face area provide superior filtration
characteristics
Provides lubricity and wellbore
stability for ease of drilling and
stability of water-sensitive clays
and shales
Non-toxic and
environmentally safe
Limitations
Performance is reduced in
salty (>10,000 mg/L Cl

) or hard
(>240 mg/L Ca++) waters due
to decreased hydration.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
The MAX BORE HDD system is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg) multi-walled
sacks, 56 per pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated area
away from sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.6
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 to 52 lb/ft
3
(769 to 833 kg/m
3
)
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 20 25 8.5 10 25 29
Clay environments 10 15 4 6 12 18
Gravel/rock/cobble 25 30 10 13 29 37
Typical Amounts of MAX BORE HDD Additions Added to Freshwater
MAXGEL
65
MAX GEL
*
viscosifier is a premium
220-bbl yield Wyoming bentonite
blended with special extenders,
capable of yielding more than
twice as much viscosity as regu -
lar Wyoming bentonite. MAX GEL
viscosifier is an easily mixed,
superior Wyoming sodium ben-
tonite for freshwater drilling
and boring applications.
Applications
MAX GEL viscosifier is used in
the following applications to
rapidly build mud viscosity and
provide superior hole cleaning,
as well as to help control lost cir -
culation, formation sloughing
and promote hole stability in
unconsolidated formations:
Potable-water wells
Mineral exploration (coring and
rotary drilling)
Horizontal directional drilling
Blast holes
Shaft drilling
Monitor/observation wells
Gel-foam, air-drilling applications
Advantages
Yields more quickly than
API-standard bentonite
Non-toxic and proven suitable for
use in drilling potable water wells
Higher penetration rates than
regular bentonite systems due
to lower solids content
Reduced transportation and stor-
age costs as a result of less product
required for treatment
Finer grind to enable rapid mixing
Limitations
Loses effectiveness in water
containing >7,500 mg/L sodium
chloride/240 mg/L calcium.
If dispersants or thinners are
to be used, they should be added
sparingly, using 50% or less of the
normal treatment.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
MAX GEL bentonite is packaged in
50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled, paper
sacks and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet) and minimize dust (use
dustless systems for handling, stor-
age and cleanup). Material can be
palletized at either 56 sacks/pallet
or 70 sacks/pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.5
Approximate yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 bbl/ton
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 15 25 6 11 15 30
In gravel or other poorly
consolidated formation 25 40 12 18 35 50
Lost-circulation control 35 45 15 20 40 45
Added to freshwater mud to improve
hole-cleaning properties, increase hole
stability and develop filter cakes 5 10 2 5 6 14
Typical Amounts of MAX GEL Additions Added to Freshwater
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
POLYPACR
66
POLYPAC
*
R polyanionic cellulose
is a high-quality, water-soluble
polymer designed to control fluid
loss and increase viscosity in
water-base muds.
Applications
POLYPAC R additive controls fluid
loss in freshwater, seawater, KCl
and salt muds. The polymer forms
a thin, resilient, low-permeability
filter cake that minimizes the
potential for differential sticking
and the invasion of filtrate and mud
solids into permeable formations.
POLYPAC R fluid-loss-control addi-
tive resists bacterial attack, elimi-
nating the need for biocides or
preservatives. It is effective in low
concentrations, with the normal
fluid-loss treatment ranging from
0.25 to 1 lb/bbl (0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
).
POLYPAC R polymer also develops vis-
cosity to a degree that is dependent
on the solids concentration, salinity
and makeup water chemistry.
POLYPAC R anionic polymer
attaches to and encapsulates
exposed shales and drill cuttings.
This protective polymer envelope
inhibits the dispersion of shale cut-
tings and restricts fluid interactions
with exposed shales.
Advantages
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss and
building viscosity
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Applicable in all water-base
muds, ranging from low-solids,
non-dispersed polymer systems to
high-density, dispersed systems
Compatible with all common
mud-treating additives
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
of approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated in
the combined presence of high
hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLYPAC R anionic polymer is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg) and 55-lb
(25-kg), heavy-duty, multi-walled,
waterproof sacks.
Store in a dry, well-ventilated
area away from incompatibles or
sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, free-flowing powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 1.6
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.0
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
POLYPAC UL
67
POLYPAC
*
UL Polyanionic Cellulose
(PAC) is a high-quality, water-
soluble polymer designed to
control fluid loss. Because it is an
Ultra-Low (UL) additive, it causes
minimal increase in viscosity in
water-base muds.
Applications
POLYPAC UL polymer controls fluid
loss in freshwater, seawater, KCl,
and salt muds. It forms a thin,
resilient, low-permeability filter
cake that minimizes the poten -
tial for differential sticking and
the invasion of filtrate and mud
solids into permeable formations.
POLYPAC UL additive resists bacter -
ial attack, eliminating the need for
biocides or preservatives. It is effec-
tive in low concentrations, with the
normal fluid-loss treatment rang-
ing from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl (0.71 to
2.85 kg/m
3
). In saltwater and
PAC-polymer systems, higher
concentrations are required for
encapsulation, with normal con -
centrations ranging from 1 to
3 lb/bbl (2.85 to 8.6 kg/m
3
).
POLYPAC UL additive gener -
ates less viscosity than regular
POLYPAC polymer. The viscosity
generated depends on solids
concentration, salinity, and
makeup-water chemistry.
The anionic POLYPAC UL polymer
attaches to and encapsulates
exposed shales and drill cuttings.
This protective polymer envelope
helps inhibit the dispersion of
shale cuttings and restricts fluid
interactions with exposed shales.
In saturated salt systems,
POLYPAC UL additive tends to
work significantly better than
regular-viscosity PAC materials.
For difficult filtration-control fluids,
a combination of UL and regular-
viscosity PAC products is generally
more effective.
Advantages
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss and
building viscosity
Produces minimal
viscosity increase
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Has application in all water-
base muds (compatible with all
common mud-treating additives)
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated
in the combined presence of
high hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLYPAC UL polymer is packaged
in 50-lb (22.7-kg) and 55-lb
(25-kg), heavy-duty, multi-walled,
waterproof sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, free-flowing powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 1.6
pH (1% solubility). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.0
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
RODEASE
68
This product is a superior lubricant
for HDD, coring, and rotary drilling.
Applications
ROD EASE
*
lubricant mixes instantly
and is not affected by water quality.
For this product to deliver rod pro-
tection and reduce torque after
drilling has started, consideration
must be given to the number of rods
and the amount of fluid in the hole.
Treatment can require dosing the
system with several pails of lubri-
cant. Established maintenance lev-
els are required after initial dosage
and treatment. Normal treatment
levels are 1 to 2% of fluid volume or
1 to 2 pints (0.473 to 0.946 L) per
100 gal (378.5 L) of drilling fluid. The
dosage amount should be increased
if the penetration rate decreases,
torque increases, or the run length
decreases indicating poor cutting.
Advantages
Reduces torque
Prevents rust and scale
Environmentally safe
Increases penetration rates
Extends bit and mud motor life
Increases mud motor efficiency
Reduces wear on rods
and equipment
Maximizes rig potential and
steering control
Enhances the effectiveness of
powdered drilling-fluid additives
ROD EASE lubricant is based on an
environmentally safe technology
that has proven effective in lubri-
cating downhole consumables.
This product has produced both
bit-life and penetration increases
of more than 25% during drilling
operations. Because ROD EASE lubri-
cant reduces torque and drag, the
operator can use the drill rig to its
full potential, meaning thrusts
and pulls are at a minimum, and
steering control is precise.
Tests performed in the
M-I SWACO laboratory in
Houston confirm the effects of
ROD EASE lubricant.
Limitations
None.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
ROD EASE lubricant is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets and 55-gal
(208.2-L) drums.
Store in a well-ventilated area
away from sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dark brown liquid
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.887
pH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 to 7.5
Boiling point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 F (>300 C)
Freezing point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 F (25 C)
Flash point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 F (290 C)
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
PLATINUMPAC
69
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
PLATINUMPAC* polyanionic cellu-
lose is a readily dispersible, water-
soluble polymer designed to control
fluid loss in water-base muds.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). This product
is applicable in all water-base
muds, ranging from low-solids,
non-dispersed polymer systems
to high-density, dispersed systems.
It is used as a filtrate reducer and
borehole stabilizer in water-base
drilling applications.
Advantages
Controls fluid loss and produces
a thin, slick, tough filter cake
Inhibits the hydration of drill
solids and encapsulates the drill
solids for easier removal
Exhibits superior mixing in
low-shear environments
Is more readily dispersible than
conventional dry PAC polymers
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Compatible with all common
mud-treating additives
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated
in the combined presence of
high hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is packaged in 2-lb (0.91-kg) bottles,
25/case, 25-lb (11.3-kg) net product
in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets, and 50-lb
(22.7-kg) bags.
PLATINUMPAC additive should
be stored inside under cool,
dry conditions.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White or off-white powder
Ionic character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.64 to 9.0 g/cm
3
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 9.0
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
PLATINUMPAC UL
PLATINUMPAC* UL Polyanionic
Cellulose (PAC) is a high-quality,
water-soluble polymer designed
to control fluid loss. Because it is
an Ultra-Low (UL) additive, it
causes a minimal increase in
viscosity in water-base muds.
PLATINUMPACUL additive is readily
dispersible in a wide range of
water-base mud systems.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC UL additive controls
fluid loss in freshwater, seawater,
KCl, and salt muds. It forms a thin,
resilient, low-permeability filter
cake that minimizes the potential
for differential sticking and the
invasion of filtrate and mud
solids into permeable formations.
PLATINUMPAC UL additive resists
bacterial attack, eliminating the
need for biocides or preservatives.
It is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). In saltwater
and PAC-polymer systems, higher
concentrations are required for
encapsulation, with normal concen-
trations ranging from 1 to 3 lb/bbl
(2.85 to 8.6 kg/m
3
).
Because PLATINUMPAC UL
additive is low viscosity, gen er -
ating less viscosity as compared
to the POLYPAC
*
and PLATINUMPAC
products. The viscosity gener -
ated depends on the solids
concentration, salinity and
makeup-water chemistry.
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic poly-
mer attaches to and encapsulates
exposed shales and drill cuttings.
This protective polymer envelope
inhibits the dispersion of shale cut-
tings and restricts fluid interactions
with exposed shales.
In saturated salt systems,
PLATINUMPAC UL additive tends
to work significantly better than
regular-viscosity PAC materials. For
difficult filtration-control fluids, a
combination of the UL product and
regular-viscosity PAC products is
generally most effective.
Advantages
Readily dispersible
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss and
building viscosity
Produces minimal
viscosity increase
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Has application in all water-base,
low-solids, non-dispersed mud
systems. Com patible with all
common mud-treating additives.
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated in
the combined presence of high
hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic polymer is
packaged with 25-lb (11.3-kg) net
product in 5-gal (19-L) buckets and
50-lb (22.7-kg) bags.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, free-flowing powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 1.6
pH (1% solubility). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.0
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
70
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
KLA-GARD
*
shale stabilizer reduces
the swelling of sensitive shales and
drill cuttings exposed to water-base
drilling fluids. It inhibits shale hydra-
tion, reducing the effect of drill solids
on viscosity, and it works to mini-
mize problems such as excessive
dilution rates, increased torque and
drag, high surge and swab pressures,
and bottomhole assembly balling.
This high-quality, concentrated prod-
uct has applications in a wide vari-
ety of mud systems and has such
low toxicity characteristics it can be
considered for offshore applications.
Applications
KLA-GARD stabilizer should be spec-
ified for applications where addi-
tional inhibition is needed as an
alternative to gyp, lime and potas-
sium systems. It can improve the
inhibition of water-base fluids to a
level that competes with oil-base
muds for many applications.
Due to the powerful effect
KLA-GARD stabilizer has on active
solids, it should only be added
to: mud systems containing low
concentrations of active solids,
bentonite-free systems or freshly
prepared low-solids systems con-
taining a minimum amount of
prehydrated bentonite. These sys-
tems should have a methylene blue
capacity of less than 12.5 lb/bbl
(35.6 kg/m
3
) with 2 to 5 lb/bbl
(5.7 to 14.3 kg/m
3
) of prehydrated
bentonite for filtration control.
KLA-GARD stabilizer is compatible
with most drilling-fluid additives,
and is especially suited for use in
freshly prepared, low-solids poly-
mer systems such as the POLY-PLUS
*
system. It is most effective when
the use of organic thinners, such
as SPERSENE
*
lignosulfonate,
is minimized.
Normal concentrations of
KLA-GARD stabilizer range from
4 to 8 lb/bbl (11.4 to 22.8 kg/m
3
)
depending on hole size, rate of
penetration, interval length and
reactivity of the shale. A mini -
mumconcentration of 4 lb/bbl
(11.4 kg/m
3
) is required for the
product to be effective. One lb/bbl
of KLA-GARD stabilizer contributes
508 mg/L chlorides; KLA-GARD B
stabilizer, a chloride-free formula-
tion, is available. To prevent bacterial
attack, a biocide should be used.
KLA-GARD stabilizer works by
being adsorbed onto active solids,
thereby reducing their sensitivity
to water. This action causes the
product to be depleted from the
mud system at a rate dependent on
the reactivity of the formation, cut-
tings size and amount of hole vol-
ume drilled. A test procedure is
available to monitor the approxi-
mate concentration of excess
KLA-GARD stabilizer.
Advantages
Highly effective shale stabilizer
Effective at all pH levels
Environmentally acceptable
Stable at temperatures in excess
of 400 F (204 C)
Reduces potential for bit balling
Reduces the amount of dilution
required and the associated
treatment costs
Unaffected by contaminants such
as hard water, cement or CO
2
Limitations
Should not be added to systems
containing high concentrations
of active solids; flocculates muds
with high Methylene Blue
Test (MBT) values, causing
excessive viscosity
Limits the hydration of all clay
materials, therefore bentonite
additions must be prehydrated
in freshwater
Due to the interaction of KLA-GARD
stabilizer with active solids and
bentonite, increased attention
must be given to filtration control
Product is biodegradable and
requires a biocide
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
KLA-GARD stabilizer is packaged in
55-gal (208-L) drums and 5-gal
(18.9-L) cans.
Store in a dry, well-ventilated
area. Keep container closed. Keep
away from heat, sparks and flames.
Store away from incompatibles.
Follow safe warehousing practices
regarding palletizing, banding,
shrink-wrapping and/or stacking.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear, blue liquid
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
pH (1% solution). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.5
Solubility in water @ 68 F (20 C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%
Flash point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >210 F (99 C) (PMCC)
KLA-GUARD
71
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
FLO-PLEX fluid-loss-control agent is
a polysaccharide derivative used to
control filtration in the DRILPLEX
system at recommended concen -
trations. FLO-PLEX additive will not
destroy the low-end rheology of the
DRILPLEX system as observed with
conventional anionic fluid-loss-
control agents such as CMC and
PAC. FLO-PLEX additive is effective
in seawater fluids, but all hardness
should be treated out before adding
the FLO-PLEX product. FLO-PLEX agent
may be used in any other type of
fluid where starches and cellulosic
additives are permitted. The tem-
perature stability of FLO-PLEX agent
is about 250 F (120 C), but may be
extended to 300 F (149 C) by the
addition of a thermal stability
agent such as PTS-200* additive.
FLO-PLEX additive is resistant to
bacterial degradation.
Applications
Traditional fluid-loss additives
tend to destroy the high-end
rheology that makes the DRILPLEX
system unique.
Conventional anionic fluid-loss
agents will thin the DRILPLEX sys-
tem. Therefore, a separate additive
was developed to provide fluid-loss
control without lowering the yield-
point value and breaking the
cross-links. FLO-PLEX fluid-loss-
control additive, a polysaccharide
derivative, is very effective in the
DRILPLEX system.
When preparing new fluid,
FLO-PLEX agent should be added
at concentrations no less than
3.5 lb/bbl (9.8 kg/m
3
), if fluid-loss
control is required. Lower concen-
trations can cause loss of rheology.
Treat ment levels can be increased
to 4.5 to 5 lb/bbl (12.8 to 14.3 kg/m
3
)
as required to maintain low
filtration rates.
Hardness in the seawater should
be treated out. FLO-PLEX additive can
be used in other water-base systems,
and it will not be degraded by the
action of bacteria.
Advantages
Specially designed as the
fluid-loss- control agent for
the DRILPLEX system
Performs in other water-base
systems
Resistant to attack from bacteria
Temperature limits may be
increased to 300 F (149 C) by
using thermal-extension additives
Limitations
Water hardness must be removed
Ineffective in high levels
of magnesium
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
FLO-PLEX additive is packaged
in 50-lb (22.7-kg) multi-walled,
paper sacks.
Store in a dry location away
fromsources of heat or ignition,
and minimize dust.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White powder
pH (4% water) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 to 10.5
Solubility in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soluble
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 40 lb/ft
3
(560 to 640 kg/m
3
)
FLO-PLEX
72
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N E W - T E C H N O L O G Y D R I L L I N G
DRILPLEXHDD
A specialty product used to
enhance the gel strengths of
MAX GEL
*
viscosifier, DRILPLEX
*
HDD viscosifier is an inorganic
chemical viscosifier for water-
base, bentonite drilling fluids.
DRILPLEX HDD viscosifier is only
slightly soluble in water.
Applications
DRILPLEX HDD viscosifier allows
the formulation of fluids with
exceptional shear-thinning prop -
erties, resulting in a drilling fluid
with both excellent dynamic and
static carrying capacity for solids.
This is indicated by high yield-
point and low plastic-viscosity
readings. When not circulating,
the mud instantly reverts to a
gelled state and results in high
suspending capacity indicated
by high, non-progressive
gel-strength readings.
For 300 gal (1,136 L) of drilling
fluid mix:
Add 1 sacks (75 lb [34 kg])
MAX GEL viscosifier in freshwater
and hydrate for 10 min. If higher
rheological properties are desired,
mix more gel. For every 7 lb (3.2kg)
of additional gel added, the yield
point rises approximately 20 points.
After the gel is hydrated, add
6 lb (2.7 kg) of DRILPLEX HDD
(3 vis cups) viscosifier and mix
for an additional 5 to 10 min
For torque reduction, add
1.5 gal (5.7 L) of ROD EASE
*
lubricant
Advantages
High rate of penetration
Optimum cuttings transport
Excellent solids suspension
Borehole stabilization
Low drilling costs
Limitations
DRILPLEX HDD fluids are not com-
patible with anionic products. Do
not add any polymers or thinners
to this fluid. Polymers and thinners
destroy the rheological properties
of the fluid. DRILPLEX HDD fluid
should only be used to enhance a
bentonite-base fluid. The mixing
tank must be clean before being
used to mix DRILPLEX HDD fluid.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
DRILPLEX HDD viscosifier comes in
25-lb (11.3-kg) multi-walled, paper
sacks with 80 sacks to a pallet.
Store in a dry location away from
sources of heat or ignition, and
minimize dust.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Off-white powder
Odor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . None
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 to 3.1
73
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
DUO-TEC
*
additive is a dispersible,
non-clarified technical-grade xan-
than gum that provides viscosity,
including low-shear-rate viscosity,
and weight-material suspension
for all water-base mud systems.
DUO-TEC xanthan gum has the
unique ability to produce a fluid
that is highly shear-thinning
and thixotropic.
Applications
The primary function of DUO-TEC
xanthan gum is to increase viscos-
ity for cuttings transport and sus-
pension. DUO-TEC xanthan gum
performs effectively in all water-
base fluids, from highly weighted
to low-solids systems. This includes
freshwater, seawater, salt and
heavy-brine systems.
DUO-TEC xanthan gum works to
provide an optimized rheological
profile with elevated low-shear-rate
viscosity and highly shear-thinning
characteristics with low n values.
These characteristics frequently
result in fluids with inverted flow
properties, i.e., the yield point being
greater than the plastic viscosity.
Shear-thinning fluids have low
effective viscosities at the high
shear rates encountered inside the
drillstring and at the bit. This low
effective viscosity for minimal pres-
sure losses and standpipe pressures
allows optimized hydraulics and
maximized rates of penetration.
Conversely, at the low shear rates
experienced in the annulus,
DUO-TEC xanthan gum enables
the fluid to have a high effective
viscosity for adequately cleaning
the well and suspending cuttings.
DUO-TEC xanthan gum should
be added slowly through the hopper
to prevent lumping and minimize
waste. It should be added at the rate
of approximately one 25-lb (11.3-kg)
sack every seven minutes. The time
required for the product to yield its
ultimate viscosity depends on salin-
ity, temperature and shear.
The amount of DUO-TEC xanthan
gum required depends upon the
desired viscosity. Normal concentra -
tions range from 0.50 to 2.5 lb/bbl
(1.43 to 7.1 kg/m
3
) for most mud
systems. Special fluids and diffi -
cult hole cleaning conditions can
require higher concentrations up
to 4 lb/bbl (11.4 kg/m
3
).
The addition of salt, an anti -
oxidant and thermal stabilizers
improves temperature stability
in DUO-TEC fluids from 250 to
280 F (121 to 138C). Specially
formulated systems/pills have
been used at temperatures up to
400 F (204 C). DUO-TEC xanthan
gum is subject to bacterial degra -
dation, and treatments with a
biocide are recommended to
prevent fermentation.
Advantages
Highly effective viscosifier
Shear-thinning rheological profile
for improved hydraulics
Minimum frictional pressure
losses for additional hydraulic
horsepower at the bit and low,
high-shear-rate viscosity for
maximum penetration rates
Viscous laminar flow in the annu-
lus for improved wellbore stability
with maximum hole cleaning and
suspension capacity
Easy to mix
Limitations
Trivalent ions such as chromium
and iron can cause biopolymer
precipitation and loss of viscosity
or cross-linking
Not tolerant of high pH or high
calcium ion conditions
DUO-TEC systems should be pre-
treated with either sodium bicar-
bonate or SAPP and possibly citric
acid prior to drilling cement
Subject to bacterial degradation,
a biocide should be used to pre-
vent fermentation. Slightly
anionic nature of DUO-TEC
xanthan gum requires special
mixing procedures when
mixed with cationic materials.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
DUO-TEC xanthan gum is pack -
aged in 25-lb (11.3-kg) or 55.1-lb
(25-kg), plastic-lined, multi-walled,
paper sacks.
Store at room temperature in a dry,
well-ventilated area. Keep in original
container. Keep container closed.
Store away from incompatibles.
DUO-TEC
74
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream-to-tan powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 lb/ft
3
(800 kg/m
3
)
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
DUO-VIS
*
/SUPER-VIS
*
xanthan gum
is a high-molecular-weight biopoly-
mer used for increasing carrying
capacity in water-base systems.
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS biopolymer
has the unique ability to produce a
fluid that is highly shear-thinning
and thixotropic.
Applications
The primary function of DUO-VIS/
SUPER-VIS biopolymer is to increase
low-shear viscosity for cuttings
transport and suspension. This
product performs effectively in
all water-base fluids, from highly
weighted to low-solids systems,
including freshwater, seawater,
salt and heavy-brine systems.
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS xanthan
gumworks to provide an optimized
rheological profile with elevated
low-shear-rate viscosity and highly
shear-thinning characteristics with
low n values. These characteris -
tics frequently result in fluids with
inverted flow properties (i.e., the
yield point is greater than the plas-
tic viscosity). Shear-thinning fluids
have low effective viscosities at the
high shear rates encountered inside
the drillstring and at the bit. This
low effective viscosity for minimal
pressure losses and standpipe pres-
sures allows optimized hydraulics
and maximized rates of penetra-
tion. Conversely, at the low shear
rates experienced in the annulus,
the DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS product
enables the drilling fluid to have
a high effective viscosity for ade-
quately cleaning the well and
suspending cuttings.
Advantages
Highly effective suspension
enhancer; small treatments
produce significant results
Provides a shear-thinning
rheological profile for
improved hydraulics
Minimum frictional pressure
losses for additional hydraulic
horsepower at the bit and low,
high-shear-rate viscosity for maxi-
mum penetration rates
Viscous laminar flow in
the annulus for improved
wellbore stability with
maximumhole-cleaning
and suspension capacity
Easy to mix
Limitations
Trivalent ions such as chromium
and iron can cause biopolymer
precipitation and loss of viscosity
or cross-linking
DUO-VIS/SUPER-VIS systems should
be pretreated with either sodium
bicarbonate or SAPP, and possibly
citric acid, prior to drilling cement
Subject to bacterial degradation;
a biocide should be used to pre-
vent fermentation if used for
prolonged periods
Lightly anionic nature of DUO-VIS/
SUPER-VIS biopolymer requires
special mixing procedures when
mixed with cationic materials
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
DUO-VIS product is packaged in
25-lb (11.3-kg) sacks.
SUPER-VIS product is packaged in
2-gal (7.6-L) buckets (12.5-lb [5.7-kg]
per bucket). The product can also
be packaged in 15- to 21-lb (6.8
to 9.5 kg) baggies per 5-gal
(18.9-L) bucket.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream-to-tan powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 lb/ft
3
(800 kg/m
3
)
POLY-PLUS
POLY-PLUS
*
polymer is a high-
molecular-weight, anionic liquid
designed to provide cuttings encap-
sulation and shale stabilization.
POLY-PLUS additive also acts as a
viscosifier, friction reducer and floc-
culant. POLY-PLUS polymer can be
used in mud systems using makeup
waters from freshwater to saltwater.
Applications
POLY-PLUS polymer mud systems.
The POLY-PLUS system provides
excellent cuttings encapsulation
and improved wellbore stability.
Typical concentrations of POLY-PLUS
are 0.75 to 3 lb/bbl (2.1 to 8.5 kg/m
3
).
It is also effective in salt muds, such
as KCl- or NaCl-enhanced fluids,
although slightly higher concen -
trations of POLY-PLUS polymer may
be required.
Clear-water fluids. POLY-PLUS
polymer can be used in clear-water,
solids-free drilling fluids. The
POLY-PLUS system increases viscos-
ity and enhances solids removal by
flocculating the undesired solids. It
also provides cuttings encapsulation
and improved wellbore stability.
This system is frequently used in
slim-hole, continuous-coring appli-
cations. Adding 0.5 to 1.75 lb/bbl
(1.4 to 5 kg/m
3
) enhances solids
removal by flocculating solids.
Low-Solids, Non-Dispersed (LSND)
muds. POLY-PLUS polymer is well
suited to LSND systems. In reduced-
bentonite muds, POLY-PLUS additive
serves as a bentonite extender to
increase viscosity and as a floccu-
lant to more efficiently remove drill
solids. It also encapsulates cuttings
and improves wellbore stability.
Weighted muds. POLY-PLUS polymer
can be used in weighted muds for
cuttings encapsulation, improved
wellbore stability, secondary vis -
cosity, and improved filter-cake
integrity. The effectiveness of
the polymer diminishes as the
concentration of organic, anionic
dispersants increases.
POLY-PLUS sweeps. Viscous
POLY-PLUS sweeps are effective
for periodic hole cleaning.
Circulating a POLY-PLUS sweep
through the well or borehole helps
clear accumulated cuttings and
maintain a clean hole.
Advantages
Provides excellent cuttings
encapsulation and limits
cuttings dispersion
Provides improved shale
stabilization
Enhances drill-solids removal
in clear water systems and the
carrying capacity of foams
Liquid product for easy mixing
and rapid yield
Is versatile and multipurpose
Low pour point of 20 F (28.9 C)
for easy use in cold climates
Can be used to viscosify clear-
water, low-solids drilling fluids
Improves the lubricity of most
mud systems, particularly non-
dispersed systems, dispersed
mud, when used in combination
with a lubricant
Helps prevent bit balling and
balling on stabilizers and bottom-
hole assemblies by coating and
lubricating solids
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS polymer is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets. Store in a dry
location away from sources of heat
or ignition, and minimize dust.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream colored, opaque liquid
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly hydrocarbon
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07 to 1.10
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 to 9.0
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >200 F (93.3 C) (PMCC)
Pour point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 F (28.9 C)
Viscosity (typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 500 cP
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
76
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
Concentration
1
lb/bbl (kg/m
3
) gal/bbl (L/m
3
) gal/100 gal
0.50 (1.4) 0.056 (1.3) 0.133
0.75 (2.1) 0.084 (2.0) 0.200
1.00 (3.0) 0.110 (2.6) 0.262
1.50 (4.3) 0.170 (4.0) 0.405
1
Based on 30% active material
POLY-PLUS LV acrylic co-polymer is
a low-molecular-weight, medium-
charge acrylic co-polymer designed
to provide cuttings encapsulation
and clay-dispersion inhibition. It
is designed for use in fluids based
on fresh and saline water envi -
ronments. POLY-PLUS LV acrylic
co-polymer provides minimal vis -
cosity increase and can enhance fil -
tra tion properties. When added to
MAX GEL
*
viscosifier or MAX BORE
*
HDD benton ite, POLY-PLUS LV acrylic
co-polymer produces an inhibitive
drilling-fluid system without
affecting fluid properties.
Applications
POLY-PLUS LV acrylic co-polymer pro-
vides excellent cuttings encapsu -
lation by adsorbing onto the clay
surfaces and forming a protective
film that prevents cuttings from
sticking to each other or the shaker
screen. The product is also effective
in seawater and KCl-based fluids.
Normal dosage rates are between
1and 3 lb/bbl (3 and 9 kg/m
3
).
Due to the low molecular weight
of this polymer, the mixing process
requires less shear than polymers
with higher molecular weights. The
resulting fluid can pass through fine
shaker screens without blinding.
Recommendations: Total hard-
ness should be treated out first with
bicarbonate/soda ash. Maintain pH
below 10 for optimum performance.
Recommended treatment
Approximate amounts of
POLY-PLUS LV acrylic co-polymer
added to water-base fluid.
Advantages
Provides excellent cuttings
encapsulation and limits
cuttings dispersion
Enhances removal of drill solids
by reducing dispersion tendencies
Minimal contribution to the
viscosity of the system
For use in seawater, KCl or
freshwater systems
Provides improved shale
stabilization
Significantly lower screen-
blinding potential compared
to higher-molecular-weight
encapsulators
Does not negatively affect positive
rheological profiles
Limitations
Makeup water should be treated
with soda ash or bicarbonate to
reduce hardness and increase the
performance of the product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS LV acrylic co-polymer is
packaged in 27.5-lb (12.5-kg), 5-gal
(18.9-L) buckets.
Store in a dry location away
fromsources of heat or ignition,
and minimize dust.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, granular powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7
pH (0.5 % solution). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 to 8.0
Solubility in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soluble
POLY-PLUS LV
77
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Bentonite-free drilling fluid 0.5 to 1.5 0.2 to 0.6 0.6 to 1.8
Added to MAX GEL
*
viscosifier or
MAX BORE
*
HDD bentonite for inhibition 0.25 to 0.75 0.1 to 0.3 0.3 to 1.0
Foam drilling (stiff foams) 0.5 to 1.0 0.2 to 0.4 0.6 to 1.2
POLY-PLUS RD
78
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
(PHPA) is a readily dispersible prod-
uct designed to provide cuttings
encapsulation and shale stabiliza-
tion. It is formulated for easy mixing
with improved dispersion to elimi-
nate fish eyes. This is beneficial
when rapidly mixing either large
quantities or high concentrations of
polymer where good mixing equip-
ment is unavailable. POLY-PLUS RD
acrylic co-polymer acts as a viscosi-
fier, friction reducer and flocculant. It
also provides some fluid-loss control.
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer is
a specially treated, high-molecular-
weight product. It can be used in
systems ranging from low solids
to weighted muds, using makeup
waters from freshwater to saltwater.
Applications
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
mud systems. POLY-PLUS RD additive
provides excellent cuttings encap -
sulation and improved wellbore sta-
bility. Typical concentrations of
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer are
0.25 to 1 lb/bbl (0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
).
It is also effective in salt muds, such
as KCl- or NaCl-enhanced fluids,
although slightly higher concen -
trations of POLY-PLUS RD acrylic
co-polymer can be required.
Clear-water fluids. POLY-PLUS RD
acrylic co-polymer can be used in
clear-water, solids-free drilling flu-
ids. This product enhances solids
removal by flocculating the unde-
sired solids and increasing viscos-
ity. The polymer also provides
cuttings encapsulation and
improved wellbore stability.
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
is frequently used in slim-hole,
continuous-coring applications.
Low-Solids, Non-Dispersed
(LSND) muds. POLY-PLUS RD acrylic
co-polymer is well suited to LSND
systems. In reduced-bentonite
muds, POLY-PLUS RD additive extends
bentonite to increase viscosity, floc-
culates drill solids for more efficient
removal, encapsulates cuttings and
improves wellbore stability.
POLY-PLUS RD sweeps. Viscous
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
sweeps are effective for periodic
hole cleaning. Circulating a
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
sweep through the well helps
clear accumulated cuttings and
maintain a clean hole.
Addition method
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
can be mixed directly into the
active mud system. It can also be
premixed at higher concentrations
in a separate pit or chemical barrel,
then blended into the active system.
Sweeps can be prepared by mixing
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
directly in the active system at the
suction pit or by premixing a high
concentration in a separate pit and
allowing the polymer to fully yield
before being pumped.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, granular powder
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly hydrocarbon
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.25 to 1.40
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 46 lb/ft
3
(641 to 737 kg/m
3
)
Nature of charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >90%
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
Concentration PV YP Marsh Funnel
lb/bbl (kg/m
3
) cP lb/100 ft
2
sec/qt
0.125 (0.4) 2 1 28
0.25 (0.7) 3 2 31
0.50 (1.4) 4 4 34
0.75 (2.1) 6 8 46
1.00 (2.9) 9 11 60
1.50 (4.3) 15 17 110
Typical Properties of POLY-PLUS RD in Freshwater
79
Advantages
Readily dispersible and does not
form fish eyes
Excellent cuttings encapsulator
limits cuttings dispersion
Provides improved shale
stabilization
Powdered material has sig -
nificantly lower toxicity than
invert-emulsion, liquid polymers
Highly concentrated product
(>90%activity) reduces trans -
portation costs and storage
space requirements
Aids in preventing balling on
the bit, stabilizers and bottom -
hole assembly by coating and
lubricating solids
Enhances removal of drill solids
Can be used to viscosify clear-
water and low-solids drilling fluids
Limitations
Severe flocculation can occur
during the initial treatment of
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
ina non-dispersed mud system.
Flocculation causes high viscosity
until all of the solids are coated.
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
mud systems use low concentra-
tions (<15 lb/bbl [<43 kg/m
3
]) of
MAX GEL viscosifier to reduce this
interaction. Continued additions
of POLY-PLUS RD polymer result
ina stable system with the
desired rheology.
Calcium-sensitive begins to
precipitate when the calcium
concentration exceeds 300 mg/L.
pH-sensitive with an optimum pH
range of 8.5 to 10.5. At levels above
this range, hydrolysis can convert
acrylamide into acrylate and
release ammonia (NH
3
).
Temperature-stable to approxi-
mately 350 F (177 C), although
the co-polymer can begin to release
ammonia (NH
3
) and hydrolyze into
polyacrylate when exposed to pro-
longed temperatures above 275 F
(135 C)
Subject to shear degradation of
its viscosity and can lose its ability
to viscosify. Cuttings encapsula-
tion and shale stabilization are
not affected.
Contamination
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
reacts with multivalent cations such
as calcium. In concentrations greater
than 300 mg/L, calcium causes the
polymer to precipitate. Use soda ash
to remove calcium concentrations
above 300 mg/L.
Treat cement contamination to
keep the calcium and pH as low as
possible. Use sodium bicarbonate
along with a pH-reducing product
like lignite or citric acid to treat
cement contamination.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
uponrequest.
No special requirements are
necessary for handling and stor -
age. Avoid inhalation of dust. A
dust respirator and goggles are
recommended if mixing in an
enclosed area.
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
is packaged in 50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-
walled, paper sacks or 5-gal (18.9-L)
buckets.
Store in a dry location away
fromsources of heat or ignition,
and minimize dust.
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PLATINUMPAC
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
80
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
PLATINUMPAC* polyanionic cellu-
lose is a readily dispersible, water-
soluble polymer designed to control
fluid loss in water-base muds.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). This product
is applicable in all water-base
muds, ranging from low-solids,
non-dispersed polymer systems
to high-density, dispersed systems.
It is used as a filtrate reducer and
borehole stabilizer in water-base
drilling applications.
Advantages
Controls fluid loss and produces
a thin, slick, tough filter cake
Inhibits the hydration of drill
solids and encapsulates the drill
solids for easier removal
Exhibits superior mixing in
low-shear environments
Is more readily dispersible than
conventional dry PAC polymers
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Compatible with all common
mud-treating additives
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated
in the combined presence of
high hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is packaged in 2-lb (0.91-kg) bottles,
25/case, 25-lb (11.3-kg) net product
in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets, and 50-lb
(22.7-kg) bags.
PLATINUMPAC additive should
be stored inside under cool,
dry conditions.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White or off-white powder
Ionic character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.64 to 9.0 g/cm
3
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 9.0
PLATINUMPAC UL
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
81
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
PLATINUMPAC* UL Polyanionic
Cellulose (PAC) is a high-quality,
water-soluble polymer designed
to control fluid loss. Because it is
an Ultra-Low (UL) additive, it
causes a minimal increase in
viscosity in water-base muds.
PLATINUMPACUL additive is readily
dispersible in a wide range of
water-base mud systems.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC UL additive controls
fluid loss in freshwater, seawater,
KCl, and salt muds. It forms a thin,
resilient, low-permeability filter
cake that minimizes the potential
for differential sticking and the
invasion of filtrate and mud
solids into permeable formations.
PLATINUMPAC UL additive resists
bacterial attack, eliminating the
need for biocides or preservatives.
It is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). In saltwater
and PAC-polymer systems, higher
concentrations are required for
encapsulation, with normal concen-
trations ranging from 1 to 3 lb/bbl
(2.85 to 8.6 kg/m
3
).
Because PLATINUMPAC UL
additive is low viscosity, gen er -
ating less viscosity as compared
to the POLYPAC
*
and PLATINUMPAC
products. The viscosity gener -
ated depends on the solids
concentration, salinity and
makeup-water chemistry.
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic poly-
mer attaches to and encapsulates
exposed shales and drill cuttings.
This protective polymer envelope
inhibits the dispersion of shale cut-
tings and restricts fluid interactions
with exposed shales.
In saturated salt systems,
PLATINUMPAC UL additive tends
to work significantly better than
regular-viscosity PAC materials. For
difficult filtration-control fluids, a
combination of the UL product and
regular-viscosity PAC products is
generally most effective.
Advantages
Readily dispersible
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss and
building viscosity
Produces minimal
viscosity increase
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Has application in all water-base,
low-solids, non-dispersed mud
systems. Com patible with all
common mud-treating additives.
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated in
the combined presence of high
hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic polymer is
packaged with 25-lb (11.3-kg) net
product in 5-gal (19-L) buckets and
50-lb (22.7-kg) bags.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, free-flowing powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 1.6
pH (1% solubility). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.0
PLATINUMD-D* additive is an
aqueous blend of surface-active
agents. It is designed to reduce the
surface tension of all water-base
mud systems and reduce the stick-
ing tendency of water-sensitive
shale cuttings.
Applications
PLATINUMD-D additive has applica-
tion in all drilling areas and can be
used in virtually any water-base
drilling fluid. It is used primarily in
upper-hole drilling to minimize bit
and Bottomhole Assembly (BHA)
balling, reduce surface tension, and
aid in dropping sand and removing
drill solids.
PLATINUMD-D additive fre-
quently reduces torque and drag,
even when no oil is present in the
system. Normal treatments range
from 0.1 to 0.2 lb/bbl (0.29 to
0.57 kg/m
3
) and provide satisfac -
tory performance under most condi-
tions. In severe gumbo shale areas,
4 to 6 lb/bbl (11.4 to 17.1 kg/m
3
)
concentrations of PLATINUMD-D
additive are recommended to mini-
mize bit and BHA balling; higher
concentrations can cause foaming
and require a defoamer. This prod-
uct is effective in all water-base sys-
tems including freshwater, brackish
water, seawater and saturated
saltwater fluids.
Advantages
Minimizes bit and BHA balling
Reduces the surface tension of the
liquid phase, helping to drop sand
and remove drill solids
Improves water-wetting action on
all solids and reduces the sticking
tendency of reactive shale cuttings
Effective in all water-base muds
Limitations
The freezing point of PLATINUMD-D
additive is 32 F (0 C). D-D CWT
additive, a special cold-weather for-
mulation with a freezing point of
29 F (20 C), is also available.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Fluids containing high concentra-
tions of PLATINUMD-D additive may
not be suitable for discharge into all
marine environments.
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMD-D liquid is packaged
in 5-gal (18.9-L) cans and 55-gal
(208.2-L) drums.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light red liquid
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.038
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 to 8.5
Solubility in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >200 F (>93 C)
PLATINUMD-D
82
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
MAXBOREHDD
The MAX BORE
*
HDD system is a
proprietary, blended, high-yielding
Wyoming bentonite supplied as a
single-sack product used especially
in boring-fluid applications. The
MAX BORE HDD system provides
suspension, wellbore stability
and filtration control. The system
also helps reduce torque and
drag for water-base applications
and is designed to minimize
environmental impact.
Applications
The MAX BORE HDD system provides
suspension, improves wellbore sta-
bility, controls filtration, and helps
reduce torque and drag in boring-
fluid applications. It is a cost-
effective product for achieving
viscosity for hole cleaning, gel
strength for cuttings suspension
and transport, wellbore stability,
fluid-loss control, and filter-cake
quality in freshwater and seawater
applications. Typical concentrations
of the MAX BORE HDD system range
from 15 to 45 lb/100 gal (18 to
54 kg/m
3
).
Advantages
One-sack system provides ease
of mixing and reduces the number
of products required to prepare
boring fluid
Hydrates more than other types
of clays and is best for generating
viscosity for hole cleaning, devel -
oping gels for suspension and
controlling filtration
Unique size, shape and high sur-
face area provide superior filtration
characteristics
Provides lubricity and wellbore
stability for ease of drilling and
stability of water-sensitive clays
and shales
Non-toxic and
environmentally safe
Limitations
Performance is reduced in
salty (>10,000 mg/L Cl

) or hard
(>240 mg/L Ca++) waters due
to decreased hydration.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi -
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
The MAX BORE HDD system is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg) multi-walled
sacks, 56 per pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated area
away from sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.6
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 to 52 lb/ft
3
(769 to 833 kg/m
3
)
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 20 25 8.5 10 25 29
Clay environments 10 15 4 6 12 18
Gravel/rock/cobble 25 30 10 13 29 37
Typical Amounts of MAX BORE HDD Additions Added to Freshwater
83
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
MAXGEL
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
84
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
MAX GEL
*
viscosifier is a premium
220-bbl yield Wyoming bentonite
blended with special extenders,
capable of yielding more than
twice as much viscosity as regu -
lar Wyoming bentonite. MAX GEL
viscosifier is an easily mixed,
superior Wyoming sodium ben-
tonite for freshwater drilling
and boring applications.
Applications
MAX GEL viscosifier is used in
the following applications to
rapidly build mud viscosity and
provide superior hole cleaning,
as well as to help control lost cir -
culation, formation sloughing
and promote hole stability in
unconsolidated formations:
Potable-water wells
Mineral exploration (coring and
rotary drilling)
Horizontal directional drilling
Blast holes
Shaft drilling
Monitor/observation wells
Gel-foam, air-drilling applications
Advantages
Yields more quickly than
API-standard bentonite
Non-toxic and proven suitable for
use in drilling potable water wells
Higher penetration rates than
regular bentonite systems due
to lower solids content
Reduced transportation and stor-
age costs as a result of less product
required for treatment
Finer grind to enable rapid mixing
Limitations
Loses effectiveness in water
containing >7,500 mg/L sodium
chloride/240 mg/L calcium.
If dispersants or thinners are
to be used, they should be added
sparingly, using 50% or less of the
normal treatment.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
MAX GEL bentonite is packaged in
50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled, paper
sacks and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet) and minimize dust (use
dustless systems for handling, stor-
age and cleanup). Material can be
palletized at either 56 sacks/pallet
or 70 sacks/pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.5
Approximate yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 bbl/ton
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 15 25 6 11 15 30
In gravel or other poorly
consolidated formation 25 40 12 18 35 50
Lost-circulation control 35 45 15 20 40 45
Added to freshwater mud to improve
hole-cleaning properties, increase hole
stability and develop filter cakes 5 10 2 5 6 14
Typical Amounts of MAX GEL Additions Added to Freshwater
RODEASE
85
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
This product is a superior lubricant
for HDD, coring, and rotary drilling.
Applications
ROD EASE
*
lubricant mixes instantly
and is not affected by water quality.
For this product to deliver rod pro-
tection and reduce torque after
drilling has started, consideration
must be given to the number of rods
and the amount of fluid in the hole.
Treatment can require dosing the
system with several pails of lubri-
cant. Established maintenance lev-
els are required after initial dosage
and treatment. Normal treatment
levels are 1 to 2% of fluid volume or
1 to 2 pints (0.473 to 0.946 L) per
100 gal (378.5 L) of drilling fluid. The
dosage amount should be increased
if the penetration rate decreases,
torque increases, or the run length
decreases indicating poor cutting.
Advantages
Reduces torque
Prevents rust and scale
Environmentally safe
Increases penetration rates
Extends bit and mud motor life
Increases mud motor efficiency
Reduces wear on rods
and equipment
Maximizes rig potential and
steering control
Enhances the effectiveness of
powdered drilling-fluid additives
ROD EASE lubricant is based on an
environmentally safe technology
that has proven effective in lubri-
cating downhole consumables.
This product has produced both
bit-life and penetration increases
of more than 25% during drilling
operations. Because ROD EASE lubri-
cant reduces torque and drag, the
operator can use the drill rig to its
full potential, meaning thrusts
and pulls are at a minimum, and
steering control is precise.
Tests performed in the
M-I SWACO laboratory in
Houston confirm the effects of
ROD EASE lubricant.
Limitations
None.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
ROD EASE lubricant is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets and 55-gal
(208.2-L) drums.
Store in a well-ventilated area
away from sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dark brown liquid
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.887
pH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 to 7.5
Boiling point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 F (>300 C)
Freezing point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 F (25 C)
Flash point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 F (290 C)
Cedar Fiber
Cedar Fiber is a specially processed
blend of fibers of controlled length,
giving proper size distribution for
regaining circulation.
Non-fermenting
Amounts used vary from
1 to 35%by volume
Packaging and storage
Cedar Fiber is packaged in 40-lb
(18-kg) bags.
Mica
Mica is a selected, non-abrasive
mineral available in fine and
coarse grades. Mica has no adverse
effect on mud properties. It is used
to prevent and regain lost returns.
Fine mica can pass through a
20-mesh screen.
Application
Lost circulation: 5 to 15 lb (2.25 to
6.75 kg)
Packaging and storage
Mica is packaged in 50-lb
(22.68-kg) sacks.
Drilling Paper
Drilling paper is a blend of
variable-sized particles of ground
paper that is applicable for use in
all water-base mud systems.
Drilling paper can be used in
concentrations of up to 20 lb/bbl
(57 kg/m
3
) in slug treatments or
as an additive to the entire system.
In areas of known lost-circulation
zones, it is advisable to pretreat the
system before drilling into the zone
of loss. Drilling paper can be mixed
through the mud hopper or added
directly to the pits and gunned into
the mud.
The most important aspect of com-
bating lost circulation is using the
correct particle size. Consequently, it
is recommended that a combination
of materials be added to ensure a
good particle-size distribution. If left
in the mud for an extended period
of time, drilling paper may be sus -
ceptible to bacterial degradation.
Abactericide may be necessary to
prevent fermentation.
Packaging and storage
Drilling paper is packaged in 40-lb
(18-kg) plastic sacks.
Cottonseed Hulls
Cottonseed hulls are fibrous and
biodegradable, creating an excellent
bridging agent when large-particle-
size material is needed. They can be
used in any water-base mud system.
Cottonseed hulls are used in
concentrations of up to 20 lb/bbl
(57 kg/m
3
) as slug treatments or
as an additive to the entire system.
In areas of known lost-circulation
zones, it is advisable to pretreat
the system before drilling into the
zone of loss. Cottonseed hulls can
be mixed through the mud hopper
or added directly to the pits and
gunned into the mud. The most
important aspect of combating
lost circulation is using the correct
particle size. Consequently, it is rec-
ommended that a combination of
materials be added to ensure a
good particle-size distribution.
If left in the mud for an extended
period of time, cottonseed hulls
can be susceptible to bacterial
degradation, resulting in the
release of H
2
S and CO
2
into the
mud. Bactericide may be necessary
to prevent fermentation.
Packaging and storage
Cottonseed hulls are packaged
in 50-lb (22.68-kg) and 100-lb
(45.37-kg) burlap or paper sacks.
FED-SEAL
FED-SEAL
*
lost-circulation material
is an engineered product that con-
tains an optimum blend of granu-
lar, fibrous and flake materials.
FED-SEAL LCM is available in three
grinds (coarse, medium and fine)
covering a wide range of lost-
circulation problems. FED-SEAL
additive is normally recommended
in concentrations of 20 to 30 lb/bbl
(57 to 86 kg/m
3
) mixed in a slug of
100 to 200 bbl and spotted at the
zone of loss, displacing the slurry at
a reduced pumping rate with either
large nozzles or an open-ended sys-
tem. FED-SEAL LCM can be added to
either the water-base mud being
used at the time of loss or in any
special purpose slurry prepared
for squeeze applications.
The FED-SEAL product has been
used for preventive measures or
as a filler because the fine grade
can pass through 20-mesh shaker
screens in concentrations of 2 to
10 lb/bbl (6 to 28 kg/m
3
).
Limitations
Do not mix in oil muds.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Packaging and storage
FED-SEAL LCM is packaged in 40-lb
(18-kg) multi-walled, paper sacks.
Lost-Circulation Materials (LCM)
86
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : H D D P R O D U C T S
MAXGEL
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
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MAX GEL
*
viscosifier is a premium
220-bbl yield Wyoming bentonite
blended with special extenders,
capable of yielding more than
twice as much viscosity as regu -
lar Wyoming bentonite. MAX GEL
viscosifier is an easily mixed,
superior Wyoming sodium ben-
tonite for freshwater drilling
and boring applications.
Applications
MAX GEL viscosifier is used in
the following applications to
rapidly build mud viscosity and
provide superior hole cleaning,
as well as to help control lost cir -
culation, formation sloughing
and promote hole stability in
unconsolidated formations:
Potable-water wells
Mineral exploration (coring and
rotary drilling)
Horizontal directional drilling
Blast holes
Shaft drilling
Monitor/observation wells
Gel-foam, air-drilling applications
Advantages
Yields more quickly than
API-standard bentonite
Non-toxic and proven suitable for
use in drilling potable water wells
Higher penetration rates than
regular bentonite systems due
to lower solids content
Reduced transportation and stor-
age costs as a result of less product
required for treatment
Finer grind to enable rapid mixing
Limitations
Loses effectiveness in water
containing >7,500 mg/L sodium
chloride/240 mg/L calcium.
If dispersants or thinners are
to be used, they should be added
sparingly, using 50% or less of the
normal treatment.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
MAX GEL bentonite is packaged in
50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled, paper
sacks and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet) and minimize dust (use
dustless systems for handling, stor-
age and cleanup). Material can be
palletized at either 56 sacks/pallet
or 70 sacks/pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.5
Approximate yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 bbl/ton
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 15 25 6 11 15 30
In gravel or other poorly
consolidated formation 25 40 12 18 35 50
Lost-circulation control 35 45 15 20 40 45
Added to freshwater mud to improve
hole-cleaning properties, increase hole
stability and develop filter cakes 5 10 2 5 6 14
Typical Amounts of MAX GEL Additions Added to Freshwater
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
PLATINUMPAC
88
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
PLATINUMPAC* polyanionic cellu-
lose is a readily dispersible, water-
soluble polymer designed to control
fluid loss in water-base muds.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). This product
is applicable in all water-base
muds, ranging from low-solids,
non-dispersed polymer systems
to high-density, dispersed systems.
It is used as a filtrate reducer and
borehole stabilizer in water-base
drilling applications.
Advantages
Controls fluid loss and produces
a thin, slick, tough filter cake
Inhibits the hydration of drill
solids and encapsulates the drill
solids for easier removal
Exhibits superior mixing in
low-shear environments
Is more readily dispersible than
conventional dry PAC polymers
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Compatible with all common
mud-treating additives
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated
in the combined presence of
high hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is packaged in 2-lb (0.91-kg) bottles,
25/case, 25-lb (11.3-kg) net product
in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets, and 50-lb
(22.7-kg) bags.
PLATINUMPAC additive should
be stored inside under cool,
dry conditions.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White or off-white powder
Ionic character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.64 to 9.0 g/cm
3
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 9.0
POLY-PLUS 2000
89
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
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POLY-PLUS 2000 polymer is a multi-
function synthetic co-polymer
developed for use in freshwater-,
potassium- and saltwater-base
drilling fluids. POLY-PLUS 2000
water-free dispersion has excellent
freeze/thaw stability and is not sub-
ject to phase separation or prema-
ture activation inside the pail or
drum. POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer
provides the same benefits as regu-
lar POLY-PLUS polymer, but at lower
concentration.
Applications
Viscosity. POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer
is a cost-effective viscosifier in low-
salinity fluids. Its shear- thinning
properties maximize penetration
rates at the bit under high shear
rates and exhibit excellent hole-
cleaning characteristics under low
shear rates. It also allows for easy
solids deposition in settling pits.
Shale stabilization/inhibition.
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer can be
used alone or in conjunction with
KCl to stabilize active shales. It pro-
tects by encapsulating reactive
shales, forming a protective coating
on the wellbore and around cut-
tings. Coating reduces the shales
tendency to absorb water, swell
and slough.
Foam stabilization. The long-chain
polymer of POLY-PLUS 2000 additive
creates a tighter, stronger foam,
which improves the fluids
cuttings-carrying capacity.
Flowline flocculant. Small con -
centra tions of POLY-PLUS 2000
co-polymer (0.01 to 0.05 lb/bbl
[0.028to 0.14kg/m
3
]) economically
floc culate drill solids. Additions
should be made at the flowline to
optimize settling time of drill solids
in the pits.
Friction reduction/lubrication.
The POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymers
shear-thinning properties reduce
power losses at points of high shear,
especially at the drill bit and at
the other restrictions such as the
pump discharge, drill collars, etc.
The polymer structure also helps
reduce turbulence, which reduces
erosion and the likelihood of
washouts in weak formations.
Application
Viscosity. Add 1 to 3 vis cups (1 to
3 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of fluid for
desired viscosity.
Shale inhibition. At least 1 vis cup
(1 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of fluid.
Fluid-loss control. At least 2 vis
cups (2 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of
fluid to be effective. Some solids
can be required.
Lubricity. At least 1 vis cup (1 L) per
300 gal (1,135 L) of fluid.
Foam stabilization. 1 to 2 vis cups
(1 to 2 L) per 100 gal (378.5 L) of fluid.
Advantages
50% active material
Low dosage rate for comparable
viscosities
Encapsulates drill solids
Stabilizes clay formations
Cleanup
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer can be
chemically broken down with liq-
uid bleach in regular household
concentration (5% sodium hypo -
chlorite). Use 5 gal (18.9 L) of liquid
bleach per 100 gal (378.5 L) of fluid
formulated with POLY-PLUS 2000
additive. Do not use perfumed
liquid bleach or solid calcium
hypochlorite.
Limitations
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer is less
effective in fluids with total hard-
ness values in excess of 200 ppm.
To optimize POLY-PLUS 2000
co-polymer characteristics, total
hardness should be maintained
at 100 ppm or less. POLY-PLUS 2000
additive is not as effective in tem-
peratures above 275 F (135 C).
The effective temperature range
can be increased to 325 F (162 C)
by adding an oxygen scavenger
to the mud. The effectiveness
of POLY-PLUS 2000 additive also
decreases in fluids that have a
pHof 10.2 or greater.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described on the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer is
supplied in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White liquid dispersion
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly hydrocarbon
Viscosity (typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 to 500 cP
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.06 to 1.08
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 7.5
Flash point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 F (120 C)
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
POLY-PLUS EHV
90
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
is an extremely-high-molecular-
weight, high-charge, polyacry-
lamide supplied as a dry granular
powder. POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer produces very high
viscosity solutions at low dosage
rates, particularly in freshwater.
It has excellent handling character-
istics, mixes easily and dissolves
quickly when added to water-base
fluid systems.
Applications
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
is ideally suited for applications
such as water-well drilling,
mineral exploration, and
construction applications.
Due to its very high molecular
weight, POLY-PLUS EHV additive is
also an excellent flocculant for
dewatering drilling fluids, waste
pits and sumps.
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
has several functions, including:
Viscosifier. As a viscosifier, the
addition of 0.5 to 1 lb/bbl (1.4 to
2.9 kg/m
3
) of POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer is a cost-effective way
to generate viscosity in fresh- or
low-salinity drilling fluids. Its shear-
thinning capacity ensures maxi-
mum power at the bit under high
shear while retaining excel -
lent carrying capacity under
low-shear conditions.
Flocculant. As a flowline flocculant,
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
can also be used for clear-water or
low-solids drilling. Adding a 5%
solution of POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer into the flowline or just
prior to any mechanical separation
greatly enhances the removal of
drill solids.
Friction reducer. Adding POLY-PLUS
EHV acrylic co-polymer into a drill -
ing fluid helps to reduce turbulent
flow, friction, and power losses at
points of high shear. Lowering tur-
bulent flow also helps reduce ero-
sion and washouts of fragile
geologic structures.
Add slowly and uniformly
through a high-shear jet type mixer.
Continue to circulate and agitate
the slurry until all materials are
dispersed and dissolved.
Recommended application
amounts:
Normal consolidated formation:
1.5 to 2 lb (0.7 to 0.9 kg) per 100 gal
(378.5 L) water (0.6 to 0.8 lb/bbl
[1.7 to 2.3 kg/m
3
])
Unconsolidated formation:
2.5 to 3.5 lb (1.1 to 1.6 kg) per 100 gal
(378.5 L) water (1 to 1.5 lb/bbl [2.9 to
4.3 kg/m
3
])
Advantages
Provides a clay-free boring fluid
that disperses easily with
minimal shear
Soil stabilizer can be used to
replace bentonite at a ratio of
1:100 (e.g., one 50-lb [22.7-kg]
bag can replace 2.5 tons [2.3 met-
ric tons] of bentonite in a typical
geo-construction application)
Produces very-high-viscosity
slurries at low dosage rates
Slurries typically have low
gel strength
Slurry binds loose sand, clay,
shale and gravel, facilitating their
removal and preventing dispersal
into the slurry
Reduces fluid loss by penetrating
the surrounding soil with a high-
viscosity gel fluid, sealing the
walls of the excavation site with-
out the use of a conventional
filter cake
Stabilizes reactive formations and
is an efficient viscosifier for a
clear, solids-free drilling fluid
Provides high cohesiveness to bind
sandy soil and gravel
Enhances core recovery in continu-
ous wireline coring operations
Facilitates the removal of drilled
soils from augers
Non-fermenting, no petroleum
distillates and easily broken down
with household bleach
Cleanup
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
can be chemically broken down
with liquid bleach in regular house-
hold concentration (5% sodium
hypochlorite). Use 1 gal (3.8 L) of
liquid bleach per 100 gal (378.5 L)
of fluid formulated with POLY-PLUS
EHV acrylic co-polymer. Do not use
perfumed liquid bleach or solid
calcium hypochlorite.
Toxicity and handling
When used in accordance with the
manufacturers published instruc-
tions, this product is considered
non-hazardous. Drill cuttings
exposed to POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer should be washed with
calcium hypochlorite to break
down the POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer before the cuttings can
be confined or stored in a sealed
container or drum.
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer is
supplied in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets.
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
should be stored inside under cool,
dry conditions. When stored under
these conditions, it has a shelf life
of at least one year.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, granular powder
Ionic character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 g/cc
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 lb/ft
3
(800 kg/m
3
)
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 to 8.0
2008 M-I L.L.C. All rights reserved. *Mark of M-I L.L.C.
www.miswaco.com
INCREASE
Profits Drilling efficiency Total performance Safety Project completions
ASK
about the new MEERKAT
*
PT shaker with reduced footprint, optional dual motion and killer economics.
REDUCE
Drilling waste Screen costs Transport costs Setup Footprint Crane lifts
91
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POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
(PHPA) is a readily dispersible prod-
uct designed to provide cuttings
encapsulation and shale stabiliza-
tion. It is formulated for easy mixing
with improved dispersion to elimi-
nate fish eyes. This is beneficial
when rapidly mixing either large
quantities or high concentrations of
polymer where good mixing equip-
ment is unavailable. POLY-PLUS RD
acrylic co-polymer acts as a viscosi-
fier, friction reducer and flocculant. It
also provides some fluid-loss control.
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer is
a specially treated, high-molecular-
weight product. It can be used in
systems ranging from low solids
to weighted muds, using makeup
waters from freshwater to saltwater.
Applications
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
mud systems. POLY-PLUS RD additive
provides excellent cuttings encap -
sulation and improved wellbore sta-
bility. Typical concentrations of
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer are
0.25 to 1 lb/bbl (0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
).
It is also effective in salt muds, such
as KCl- or NaCl-enhanced fluids,
although slightly higher concen -
trations of POLY-PLUS RD acrylic
co-polymer can be required.
Clear-water fluids. POLY-PLUS RD
acrylic co-polymer can be used in
clear-water, solids-free drilling flu-
ids. This product enhances solids
removal by flocculating the unde-
sired solids and increasing viscos-
ity. The polymer also provides
cuttings encapsulation and
improved wellbore stability.
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
is frequently used in slim-hole,
continuous-coring applications.
Low-Solids, Non-Dispersed
(LSND) muds. POLY-PLUS RD acrylic
co-polymer is well suited to LSND
systems. In reduced-bentonite
muds, POLY-PLUS RD additive extends
bentonite to increase viscosity, floc-
culates drill solids for more efficient
removal, encapsulates cuttings and
improves wellbore stability.
POLY-PLUS RD sweeps. Viscous
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
sweeps are effective for periodic
hole cleaning. Circulating a
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
sweep through the well helps
clear accumulated cuttings and
maintain a clean hole.
Addition method
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
can be mixed directly into the
active mud system. It can also be
premixed at higher concentrations
in a separate pit or chemical barrel,
then blended into the active system.
Sweeps can be prepared by mixing
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
directly in the active system at the
suction pit or by premixing a high
concentration in a separate pit and
allowing the polymer to fully yield
before being pumped.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, granular powder
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly hydrocarbon
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.25 to 1.40
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 46 lb/ft
3
(641 to 737 kg/m
3
)
Nature of charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >90%
POLY-PLUS RD
92
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
Concentration PV YP Marsh Funnel
lb/bbl (kg/m
3
) cP lb/100 ft
2
sec/qt
0.125 (0.4) 2 1 28
0.25 (0.7) 3 2 31
0.50 (1.4) 4 4 34
0.75 (2.1) 6 8 46
1.00 (2.9) 9 11 60
1.50 (4.3) 15 17 110
Typical Properties of POLY-PLUS RD in Freshwater
93
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Advantages
Readily dispersible and does not
form fish eyes
Excellent cuttings encapsulator
limits cuttings dispersion
Provides improved shale
stabilization
Powdered material has sig -
nificantly lower toxicity than
invert-emulsion, liquid polymers
Highly concentrated product
(>90%activity) reduces trans -
portation costs and storage
space requirements
Aids in preventing balling on
the bit, stabilizers and bottom -
hole assembly by coating and
lubricating solids
Enhances removal of drill solids
Can be used to viscosify clear-
water and low-solids drilling fluids
Limitations
Severe flocculation can occur
during the initial treatment of
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
ina non-dispersed mud system.
Flocculation causes high viscosity
until all of the solids are coated.
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
mud systems use low concentra-
tions (<15 lb/bbl [<43 kg/m
3
]) of
MAX GEL viscosifier to reduce this
interaction. Continued additions
of POLY-PLUS RD polymer result
ina stable system with the
desired rheology.
Calcium-sensitive begins to
precipitate when the calcium
concentration exceeds 300 mg/L.
pH-sensitive with an optimum pH
range of 8.5 to 10.5. At levels above
this range, hydrolysis can convert
acrylamide into acrylate and
release ammonia (NH
3
).
Temperature-stable to approxi-
mately 350 F (177 C), although
the co-polymer can begin to release
ammonia (NH
3
) and hydrolyze into
polyacrylate when exposed to pro-
longed temperatures above 275 F
(135 C)
Subject to shear degradation of
its viscosity and can lose its ability
to viscosify. Cuttings encapsula-
tion and shale stabilization are
not affected.
Contamination
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
reacts with multivalent cations such
as calcium. In concentrations greater
than 300 mg/L, calcium causes the
polymer to precipitate. Use soda ash
to remove calcium concentrations
above 300 mg/L.
Treat cement contamination to
keep the calcium and pH as low as
possible. Use sodium bicarbonate
along with a pH-reducing product
like lignite or citric acid to treat
cement contamination.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
uponrequest.
No special requirements are
necessary for handling and stor -
age. Avoid inhalation of dust. A
dust respirator and goggles are
recommended if mixing in an
enclosed area.
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS RD acrylic co-polymer
is packaged in 50-lb (22.7-kg),
multi-walled, paper sacks or 5-gal
(18.9-L) buckets.
Store in a dry location away
fromsources of heat or ignition,
and minimize dust.
POLYPACR
94
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
POLYPAC
*
R polyanionic cellulose
is a high-quality, water-soluble
polymer designed to control fluid
loss and increase viscosity in
water-base muds.
Applications
POLYPAC R additive controls fluid
loss in freshwater, seawater, KCl
and salt muds. The polymer forms
a thin, resilient, low-permeability
filter cake that minimizes the
potential for differential sticking
and the invasion of filtrate and mud
solids into permeable formations.
POLYPAC R fluid-loss-control addi-
tive resists bacterial attack, elimi-
nating the need for biocides or
preservatives. It is effective in low
concentrations, with the normal
fluid-loss treatment ranging from
0.25 to 1 lb/bbl (0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
).
POLYPAC R polymer also develops vis-
cosity to a degree that is dependent
on the solids concentration, salinity
and makeup water chemistry.
POLYPAC R anionic polymer
attaches to and encapsulates
exposed shales and drill cuttings.
This protective polymer envelope
inhibits the dispersion of shale cut-
tings and restricts fluid interactions
with exposed shales.
Advantages
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss and
building viscosity
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Applicable in all water-base
muds, ranging from low-solids,
non-dispersed polymer systems to
high-density, dispersed systems
Compatible with all common
mud-treating additives
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
of approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated in
the combined presence of high
hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLYPAC R anionic polymer is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg) and 55-lb
(25-kg), heavy-duty, multi-walled,
waterproof sacks.
Store in a dry, well-ventilated
area away from incompatibles or
sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, free-flowing powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 1.6
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.0
POLYSWELL
95
POLYSWELL
*
co-polymer is used in
lost circulation and expands to 200
times its volume in freshwater. This
material is environmentally safe.
Applications
POLYSWELL co-polymer is used to fill
or seal fractures. As the material
fully hydrates, the fracture/void is
sealed. This product can also be
spotted in caving zones to reduce
caving problems.
Directly after placing the
POLYSWELL pill, pull up above the
problem zone to prevent sticking.
Full hydration occurs in 20 to 30
min. Circulate with mud and Lost-
Circulation Material (LCM) to fill
the bridge.
Advantages
POLYSWELL co-polymer can be
prehydrated before adding
Because of its swelling capacity
and variability in size, POLYSWELL
additive can accumulate in a
variety of fracture sizes
Method of addition
POLYSWELL additive can be mixed in
water or drilling mud with or with-
out LCM. Add 1 to 3 lb (0.5 to 1.5 kg)
per 4 gal (20 L) of water or mud in a
pail. (Lesser and greater amounts
have been used.) Pump the mixture
as soon as possible once the dry
polymer beads are mixed. When
using POLYSWELL additive in core
drilling, be sure the core tube has
been pulled before pumping the
solution downhole. Repeat as
necessary to stop fluid loss.
Limitations
Improper placement of the
POLYSWELL additive can result
in stuck drill rods.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLYSWELL co-polymer is packaged
in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets.
Store in a dry location away from
sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 to 1.0
Solubility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swells on contact with water
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
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RINGFREE
96
RINGFREE
*
additive is a highly effi-
cient, thermally stable thinner and
surface-active agent that removes
bentonite clays from the drillstring.
It is environmentally acceptable
and contains no heavy metals.
Because it dissolves rapidly,
RINGFREE additive immediately
affects the rheology of most
drilling fluids.
Applications
RINGFREE additive is used primarily
to prevent bit balling and mud
rings. It can also be used to reduce
the viscosity and gel strengths of
most freshwater drilling fluids.
Advantages
RINGFREE additive is an excellent
clay dispersant that quickly pene-
trates sticky clays that can cause
tools to stick
Works quickly to alleviate hole
problems and reduce costly
pulling times or lost pipe
Methods of addition
Bit balling/mud rings: Use
vis cup (0.5 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L)
of fluid up to 0.5 to 1.5 gal (1.9
to 5.7 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of
fluid. An alternate method is to
slug rods with 1 vis cup (1 L)
on connections.
Thinning: Slowly add RINGFREE
additive to the mud as needed to
reduce viscosity.
Limitations
Effectiveness is reduced in fluids
with more than 1,000 ppm dis-
solved calcium and 10,000 ppm
chlorides. Since RINGFREE additive
reduces mud rheology, caution
should be exercised when adding
it to the active mud system.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
RINGFREE additive is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pale yellow liquid
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
pH as supplied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 7.5
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
RODEASE
97
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This product is a superior lubricant
for HDD, coring, and rotary drilling.
Applications
ROD EASE
*
lubricant mixes instantly
and is not affected by water quality.
For this product to deliver rod pro-
tection and reduce torque after
drilling has started, consideration
must be given to the number of rods
and the amount of fluid in the hole.
Treatment can require dosing the
system with several pails of lubri-
cant. Established maintenance lev-
els are required after initial dosage
and treatment. Normal treatment
levels are 1 to 2% of fluid volume or
1 to 2 pints (0.473 to 0.946 L) per
100 gal (378.5 L) of drilling fluid. The
dosage amount should be increased
if the penetration rate decreases,
torque increases, or the run length
decreases indicating poor cutting.
Advantages
Reduces torque
Prevents rust and scale
Environmentally safe
Increases penetration rates
Extends bit and mud motor life
Increases mud motor efficiency
Reduces wear on rods
and equipment
Maximizes rig potential and
steering control
Enhances the effectiveness of
powdered drilling-fluid additives
ROD EASE lubricant is based on an
environmentally safe technology
that has proven effective in lubri-
cating downhole consumables.
This product has produced both
bit-life and penetration increases
of more than 25% during drilling
operations. Because ROD EASE lubri-
cant reduces torque and drag, the
operator can use the drill rig to its
full potential, meaning thrusts
and pulls are at a minimum, and
steering control is precise.
Tests performed in the
M-I SWACO laboratory in
Houston confirm the effects of
ROD EASE lubricant.
Limitations
None.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
ROD EASE lubricant is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets and 55-gal
(208.2-L) drums.
Store in a well-ventilated area
away from sources of heat or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dark brown liquid
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.887
pH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 to 7.5
Boiling point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 F (>300 C)
Freezing point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 F (25 C)
Flash point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 F (290 C)
THREAD BOND
*
Z is a unique grease
containing 50% metallic-zinc pow-
der. It is easy to apply, offers good
coverage and has excellent adhe-
sion. The high level of solids enables
THREAD BOND Z to provide anti-
seizing capabilities, help reduce
friction, prevent galling and resist
water washout. THREAD BOND Z
helps minimize rusting of the pipe
threads during storage.
Applications
THREAD BOND Z is used primarily
on the threads of rotary, shouldered
connections in drill pipe and drill
collars. It helps prevent galling dur-
ing makeup and is an effective
thread sealant under high tempera-
tures and pressures. It is particu-
larly suited for drilling deep wells.
Advantages
THREAD BOND Z reduces costs
by extending the life of tool
joints. Athin layer of this product
is sufficient to perform well in
all drilling applications.
Method of addition
THREAD BOND Z can be brushed on
joints down to 0 F (17.7 C) while
retaining its consistency up to
385 F (196 C). Extreme tempera-
tures may cause the base grease to
melt and the mineral oil to oxidize,
however, the solid fillers will
remain to prevent metal-to-metal
contact and reduce seizure. This
product should be thoroughly
mixed prior to use to ensure homo-
geneity as it may separate during
extended storage periods.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
THREAD BOND Z is packaged in 3-gal
(11.4-L) buckets.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grey paste
Solids %. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Dropping point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 F (196 C)
Flash point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 F (221 C)
THREAD BOND Z
98
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
TUBE LUBE
99
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : M I N I N G P R O D U C T S
TUBE LUBE
*
paste is brown and
opaque. Since TUBE LUBE paste is
made completely of natural fatty
acids, it is 100% biodegradable and
non-toxic.
Applications
TUBE LUBE paste is used to lubri -
cate the inner core barrel and
core to facilitate core entry and
removal. TUBE LUBE additive pro-
vides increased lubricity to water-
base drilling fluids. It can be used
as a maintenance addition or can
be added when torque and drag
become a problem. TUBE LUBE
paste is especially applicable in
high-angle, exploratory drilling
to reduce bit wear and increase
effective bit weight.
Advantages
TUBE LUBE paste lubricates the
inner tube, which allows highly
fragmented or unconsolidated
cores to enter easily and not be
lost to the hole after coring
Reduces core-removal time
Method of addition
To lubricate the inner core tube, put
a ball of TUBE LUBE paste inside the
inner core barrel prior to running
into the core barrel. The lubricating
ability of TUBE LUBE additive can be
increased by coating the ball with
a polymer, such as POLYPAC
*
addi-
tive, prior to inserting the ball into
the inner tube. TUBE LUBE paste
can be added to the drilling fluid
to increase the lubricity. For most
applications, the concentration of
this product is 0.5 to 1.5% by vol-
ume. At this concentration 1.5 to
4.5 gal (5.7 to 17.1 L) of TUBE LUBE
paste per 300 gal (1,135 L) of fluid
is required to build the proper ratio.
Some cases can require more paste.
The quantity depends on the mud
type and drilling characteristics.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
TUBE LUBE paste is packed in 3-gal
(11.4-L) buckets.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brown opaque paste
Odor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faint soap
pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5
Solubility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%
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Lost-Circulation Materials (LCM)
Cedar Fiber
Cedar Fiber is a specially processed
blend of fibers of controlled length,
giving proper size distribution for
regaining circulation.
Non-fermenting
Amounts used vary from
1 to 35%by volume
Packaging and storage
Cedar Fiber is packaged in 40-lb
(18-kg) bags.
Mica
Mica is a selected, non-abrasive
mineral available in fine and
coarse grades. Mica has no adverse
effect on mud properties. It is used
to prevent and regain lost returns.
Fine mica can pass through a
20-mesh screen.
Application
Lost circulation: 5 to 15 lb (2.25 to
6.75 kg)
Packaging and storage
Mica is packaged in 50-lb
(22.68-kg) sacks.
Drilling Paper
Drilling paper is a blend of
variable-sized particles of ground
paper that is applicable for use in
all water-base mud systems.
Drilling paper can be used in
concentrations of up to 20 lb/bbl
(57 kg/m
3
) in slug treatments or
as an additive to the entire system.
In areas of known lost-circulation
zones, it is advisable to pretreat the
system before drilling into the zone
of loss. Drilling paper can be mixed
through the mud hopper or added
directly to the pits and gunned into
the mud.
The most important aspect of com-
bating lost circulation is using the
correct particle size. Consequently, it
is recommended that a combination
of materials be added to ensure a
good particle-size distribution. If left
in the mud for an extended period
of time, drilling paper may be sus -
ceptible to bacterial degradation.
Abactericide may be necessary to
prevent fermentation.
Packaging and storage
Drilling paper is packaged in 40-lb
(18-kg) plastic sacks.
Cottonseed Hulls
Cottonseed hulls are fibrous and
biodegradable, creating an excellent
bridging agent when large-particle-
size material is needed. They can be
used in any water-base mud system.
Cottonseed hulls are used in
concentrations of up to 20 lb/bbl
(57 kg/m
3
) as slug treatments or
as an additive to the entire system.
In areas of known lost-circulation
zones, it is advisable to pretreat
the system before drilling into the
zone of loss. Cottonseed hulls can
be mixed through the mud hopper
or added directly to the pits and
gunned into the mud. The most
important aspect of combating
lost circulation is using the correct
particle size. Consequently, it is rec-
ommended that a combination of
materials be added to ensure a
good particle-size distribution.
If left in the mud for an extended
period of time, cottonseed hulls
can be susceptible to bacterial
degradation, resulting in the
release of H
2
S and CO
2
into the
mud. Bactericide may be necessary
to prevent fermentation.
Packaging and storage
Cottonseed hulls are packaged
in 50-lb (22.68-kg) and 100-lb
(45.37-kg) burlap or paper sacks.
FED-SEAL
FED-SEAL
*
lost-circulation material
is an engineered product that con-
tains an optimum blend of granu-
lar, fibrous and flake materials.
FED-SEAL LCM is available in three
grinds (coarse, medium and fine)
covering a wide range of lost-
circulation problems. FED-SEAL
additive is normally recommended
in concentrations of 20 to 30 lb/bbl
(57 to 86 kg/m
3
) mixed in a slug of
100 to 200 bbl and spotted at the
zone of loss, displacing the slurry at
a reduced pumping rate with either
large nozzles or an open-ended sys-
tem. FED-SEAL LCM can be added to
either the water-base mud being
used at the time of loss or in any
special purpose slurry prepared
for squeeze applications.
The FED-SEAL product has been
used for preventive measures or
as a filler because the fine grade
can pass through 20-mesh shaker
screens in concentrations of 2 to
10 lb/bbl (6 to 28 kg/m
3
).
Limitations
Do not mix in oil muds.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Packaging and storage
FED-SEAL LCM is packaged in 40-lb
(18-kg) multi-walled, paper sacks.
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
100
POLY-PLUS
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
101
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POLY-PLUS
*
polymer is a high-
molecular-weight, anionic liquid
designed to provide cuttings encap-
sulation and shale stabilization.
POLY-PLUS additive also acts as a
viscosifier, friction reducer and floc-
culant. POLY-PLUS polymer can be
used in mud systems using makeup
waters from freshwater to saltwater.
Applications
POLY-PLUS polymer mud systems.
The POLY-PLUS system provides
excellent cuttings encapsulation
and improved wellbore stability.
Typical concentrations of POLY-PLUS
are 0.75 to 3 lb/bbl (2.1 to 8.5 kg/m
3
).
It is also effective in salt muds, such
as KCl- or NaCl-enhanced fluids,
although slightly higher concen -
trations of POLY-PLUS polymer may
be required.
Clear-water fluids. POLY-PLUS
polymer can be used in clear-water,
solids-free drilling fluids. The
POLY-PLUS system increases viscos-
ity and enhances solids removal by
flocculating the undesired solids. It
also provides cuttings encapsulation
and improved wellbore stability.
This system is frequently used in
slim-hole, continuous-coring appli-
cations. Adding 0.5 to 1.75 lb/bbl
(1.4 to 5 kg/m
3
) enhances solids
removal by flocculating solids.
Low-Solids, Non-Dispersed (LSND)
muds. POLY-PLUS polymer is well
suited to LSND systems. In reduced-
bentonite muds, POLY-PLUS additive
serves as a bentonite extender to
increase viscosity and as a floccu-
lant to more efficiently remove drill
solids. It also encapsulates cuttings
and improves wellbore stability.
Weighted muds. POLY-PLUS polymer
can be used in weighted muds for
cuttings encapsulation, improved
wellbore stability, secondary vis -
cosity, and improved filter-cake
integrity. The effectiveness of
the polymer diminishes as the
concentration of organic, anionic
dispersants increases.
POLY-PLUS sweeps. Viscous
POLY-PLUS sweeps are effective
for periodic hole cleaning.
Circulating a POLY-PLUS sweep
through the well or borehole helps
clear accumulated cuttings and
maintain a clean hole.
Advantages
Provides excellent cuttings
encapsulation and limits
cuttings dispersion
Provides improved shale
stabilization
Enhances drill-solids removal
in clear water systems and the
carrying capacity of foams
Liquid product for easy mixing
and rapid yield
Is versatile and multipurpose
Low pour point of 20 F (28.9 C)
for easy use in cold climates
Can be used to viscosify clear-
water, low-solids drilling fluids
Improves the lubricity of most
mud systems, particularly non-
dispersed systems, dispersed
mud, when used in combination
with a lubricant
Helps prevent bit balling and
balling on stabilizers and bottom-
hole assemblies by coating and
lubricating solids
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS polymer is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets. Store in a dry
location away from sources of heat
or ignition, and minimize dust.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream colored, opaque liquid
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly hydrocarbon
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07 to 1.10
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 to 9.0
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >200 F (93.3 C) (PMCC)
Pour point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 F (28.9 C)
Viscosity (Typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 500 cP
Concentration
1
lb/bbl (kg/m
3
) gal/bbl (L/m
3
) gal/100 gal
0.50 (1.4) 0.056 (1.3) 0.133
0.75 (2.1) 0.084 (2.0) 0.200
1.00 (3.0) 0.110 (2.6) 0.262
1.50 (4.3) 0.170 (4.0) 0.405
1
Based on 30% active material
SUPERFOAM
102
SUPERFOAM
*
agent is water-soluble
and biodegradable. This material,
designed exclusively for mineral
and water-well drilling, has the
ability to foam in fresh, brackish
or salty waters.
Applications
Used in air-drilling applications,
the SUPERFOAMproduct acts as
a foaming agent. Based on the
amount of product added and
the injection rate, it can be used
for dust suppression, mist, foam
and stiff-foam drilling.
Advantages
SUPERFOAMliquid is more concen-
trated and is an economically viable
alternative to regular foaming agents.
Methods of addition
To use as a dust suppressor or to
prevent bit balling in damp for -
mations: Mix to pints (0.11 to
0.23 L) per 50 gal (189 L) of water.
For mist drilling with moderate
amounts of water intrusion: Mix
1 to 2 pints (0.5 to 0.95 L) per 50 gal
(189 L) of water.
For foam drilling with excessive
amounts of water intrusion: Mix
4 pints (1.89 L) of SUPERFOAMliquid
per 50 gal (189 L) of water.
For slug drilling: Mix pint (0.11 L)
in 2 gal (7.6 L) of water
Stiff foams: To obtain desired vis-
cosity, mix MAX GEL or POLY-PLUS
2000 product in 50 gal (189 L) of
water and stir in gal (1.9 L) of
SUPERFOAMliquid. Pump the slurry
into the air stream at 7 to 10 gal
(26.6 to 38 L) per min.
Limitations
When used as recommended, there
are no limitations imposed on this
product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SUPERFOAMliquid is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets and 55-gal
(208.2-L) drums.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear liquid
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07
Solubility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
SUPERFOAMAF
103
SUPERFOAMAF product is a water-
soluble, biodegradable foaming
agent. This material is designed
exclusively for mineral and water-
well drilling. SUPERFOAMAF addi-
tive has the ability to foam in fresh,
brackish or salty waters. SUPERFOAM
AF foaming agent is completely
biodegradable and will not con -
taminate streams or groundwater.
SUPERFOAMAF foaming agent
presents no disposal problems
and is not harmful to personnel,
vegetation or livestock.
Applications
SUPERFOAMAF additive is used
as a foaming agent in air-drilling
applications. Based on the amount
of SUPERFOAMAF foaming agent
added and the injection rate, it can
be used for dust suppression, mist,
foam and stiff-foam drilling.
Advantages
Produces stable, consistent foam
in all types of water
Environmentally acceptable
and biodegradable
Lubricating properties make
it suitable for use with
downhole hammers
Improves hole cleaning and
penetration rates
Methods of addition
To use as a dust suppressor or to
prevent bit balling in damp for -
mations: Mix
1
3 to pints (0.2 to
0.4 L) per 50 gal (189 L) of water.
For mist drilling with moderate
amounts of water intrusion:
Mix 1.5 to 3 pints (0.8 to 1.5 L)
per 50 gal (189 L) of water.
For foam drilling with excessive
amounts of water intrusion:
Mix6pints (2.9 L) of SUPERFOAMAF
foaming agent per 50 gal (189 L)
of water.
For slug drilling:
1
3 pint (0.2 L)
in 2 gal (7.6 L) of water
Stiff foams: To obtain desired vis-
cosity, mix MAX GEL viscosifier or
POLY-PLUS 2000 additive in 50 gal
(189 L) of water to 32 sec/qt and
stir in gal (3 L) of SUPERFOAMAF
foaming agent. Pump the slurry
into the air stream at 7 to 10 gal
(26.6 to 38 L) per min.
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SUPERFOAMAF foaming agent is
packaged in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets
and 55-gal (208.2-L) drums.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear, amber solution
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.01
Solubility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%
pH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 8
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
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SUPER PLUG
104
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
SUPER PLUG
*
additive is a propri-
etary blend of bentonite, hydrox-
ides and silicates. It is a 100%
inorganic additive designed to
minimize environmental impacts
in hole-abandonment applications.
SUPER PLUG additive is designed
to offer superior sealing character-
istics where low-permeability,
flexible seals are required.
Applications
SUPER PLUG additive can be used
to plug and abandon any type of
drilled hole.
Advantages
SUPER PLUG additive is an
all-natural bentonite product
Hydrates easily and
sets efficiently
Method of addition
Mix one 50-lb (22.7-kg) bag of
SUPER PLUG additive with 33 to
43 gal (125 to 163 L) freshwater.
This mixture is pumpable with
most pumping equipment avail-
able. Though progressive cavity
or positive displacement pumps
offer the best results, diaphragm
or gear pumps can also be used.
Limitations
Limitations are the same as for
most bentonite products. High
chlorides and calcium decrease
the yield of this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SUPER PLUG additive is packaged
in 50-lb (22.7-kg) multi-walled,
moisture-resistant bags. It is also
available in super sacks.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan to gray powder
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.45 to 2.55
pH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 to 10.0 (5% aqueous suspension)
Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insoluble in water, forms colloidal suspension
SUPER Density
PLUG
*
Water lb/gal Fluid loss Solids
lb (kg) gal (L) (kg/L) cm
3
(in
3
) content %
50 (22.7) 33 (125) 9.2 (1.1) 8.9 (.54) 15.4
50 (22.7) 43 (163) 9 (1.08) 13 (0.8) 12.1
SUPER PLUG Slurry at Various Solids Content
MAXGEL
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
105
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
MAX GEL
*
viscosifier is a premium
220-bbl yield Wyoming bentonite
blended with special extenders,
capable of yielding more than
twice as much viscosity as regu -
lar Wyoming bentonite. MAX GEL
viscosifier is an easily mixed,
superior Wyoming sodium ben-
tonite for freshwater drilling
and boring applications.
Applications
MAX GEL viscosifier is used in
the following applications to
rapidly build mud viscosity and
provide superior hole cleaning,
as well as to help control lost cir -
culation, formation sloughing
and promote hole stability in
unconsolidated formations:
Potable-water wells
Mineral exploration (coring and
rotary drilling)
Horizontal directional drilling
Blast holes
Shaft drilling
Monitor/observation wells
Gel-foam, air-drilling applications
Advantages
Yields more quickly than
API-standard bentonite
Non-toxic and proven suitable for
use in drilling potable water wells
Higher penetration rates than
regular bentonite systems due
to lower solids content
Reduced transportation and stor-
age costs as a result of less product
required for treatment
Finer grind to enable rapid mixing
Limitations
Loses effectiveness in water
containing >7,500 mg/L sodium
chloride/240 mg/L calcium.
If dispersants or thinners are
to be used, they should be added
sparingly, using 50% or less of the
normal treatment.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
MAX GEL bentonite is packaged in
50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled, paper
sacks and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet) and minimize dust (use
dustless systems for handling, stor-
age and cleanup). Material can be
palletized at either 56 sacks/pallet
or 70 sacks/pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.5
Approximate yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 bbl/ton
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 15 25 6 11 15 30
In gravel or other poorly
consolidated formation 25 40 12 18 35 50
Lost-circulation control 35 45 15 20 40 45
Added to freshwater mud to improve
hole-cleaning properties, increase hole
stability and develop filter cakes 5 10 2 5 6 14
Typical Amounts of MAX GEL Additions Added to Freshwater
PLATINUMPAC
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
106
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
PLATINUMPAC* polyanionic cellu-
lose is a readily dispersible, water-
soluble polymer designed to control
fluid loss in water-base muds.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). This product
is applicable in all water-base
muds, ranging from low-solids,
non-dispersed polymer systems
to high-density, dispersed systems.
It is used as a filtrate reducer and
borehole stabilizer in water-base
drilling applications.
Advantages
Controls fluid loss and produces
a thin, slick, tough filter cake
Inhibits the hydration of drill
solids and encapsulates the drill
solids for easier removal
Exhibits superior mixing in
low-shear environments
Is more readily dispersible than
conventional dry PAC polymers
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Compatible with all common
mud-treating additives
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated
in the combined presence of
high hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is packaged in 2-lb (0.91-kg) bottles,
25/case, 25-lb (11.3-kg) net product
in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets, and 50-lb
(22.7-kg) bags.
PLATINUMPAC additive should
be stored inside under cool,
dry conditions.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White or off-white powder
Ionic character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.64 to 9.0 g/cm
3
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 9.0
PLATINUMPAC* UL Polyanionic
Ccellulose (PAC) is a high-quality,
water-soluble polymer designed
to control fluid loss. Because it is
an Ultra-Low (UL) additive, it
causes a minimal increase in
viscosity in water-base muds.
PLATINUMPACUL additive is readily
dispersible in a wide range of
water-base mud systems.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC UL additive controls
fluid loss in freshwater, seawater,
KCl, and salt muds. It forms a thin,
resilient, low-permeability filter
cake that minimizes the potential
for differential sticking and the
invasion of filtrate and mud
solids into permeable formations.
PLATINUMPAC UL additive resists
bacterial attack, eliminating the
need for biocides or preservatives.
It is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). In saltwater
and PAC-polymer systems, higher
concentrations are required for
encapsulation, with normal concen-
trations ranging from 1 to 3 lb/bbl
(2.85 to 8.6 kg/m
3
).
Because PLATINUMPAC UL
additive is low viscosity, gen er -
ating less viscosity as compared
to the POLYPAC
*
and PLATINUMPAC
products. The viscosity gener -
ated depends on the solids
concentration, salinity and
makeup-water chemistry.
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic poly-
mer attaches to and encapsulates
exposed shales and drill cuttings.
This protective polymer envelope
inhibits the dispersion of shale cut-
tings and restricts fluid interactions
with exposed shales.
In saturated salt systems,
PLATINUMPAC UL additive tends
to work significantly better than
regular-viscosity PAC materials. For
difficult filtration-control fluids, a
combination of the UL product and
regular-viscosity PAC products is
generally most effective.
Advantages
Readily dispersible
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss and
building viscosity
Produces minimal
viscosity increase
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Has application in all water-base,
low-solids, non-dispersed mud
systems. Com patible with all
common mud-treating additives.
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated in
the combined presence of high
hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic polymer is
packaged with 25-lb (11.3-kg) net
product in 5-gal (19-L) buckets and
50-lb (22.7-kg) bags.
Store in a cool, dry place.
PLATINUMPAC UL
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
107
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, free-flowing powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 1.6
pH (1% solubility). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.0
SMOOTHGROUT20
108
SMOOTHGROUT
*
20 slurry is an
easy-to-use bentonite-grouting
composition containing high-
swelling sodium montmorillonite
clay. It is designed for use in water
wells and monitoring wells, for
sealing the annular space around
a well casing, and for plugging
drilled holes and abandoned wells.
SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry contains
no organic additives or polymers.
The SMOOTH GROUT 20 system,
a one-sack formulation, mixes
with freshwater to yield a 20%
pump able grouting slurry with
an extended working time. When
set up, the SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry
develops a satisfactory seal with
adequate structural strength and
low-hydraulic conductivity. When
properly placed, SMOOTHGROUT 20
slurry remains flexible, rehydrat-
able and unstratified through
heating and cooling cycles.
Applications
Sealing and grouting casings
Sanitary sealing in water-well
construction
Sealing in monitoring wells
Plugging abandoned
exploration boreholes
Advantages
Inorganic, non-fermenting
and non-toxic
Develops lower-solids slurries
up to 20% total active solids
Easy one-sack mixing
Mixed and handled with most
conventional rig equipment
Permanent, flexible seal pre -
vents entry of contaminants
fromthe surface
Extended working time controlled
by grout-solids content
Firm texture providing structural
stability after grout is set
Addition method
SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry should
be mixed with freshwater to obtain
optimum results. The recommended
mixing rate is a 50-lb (22.7-kg) sack
of SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry with
24 gal (90.8 L) of water to make a
20%-active-solids slurry. The viscos-
ity and consistency of mixed-grout
slurry can be modified by adjusting
the amount of water used to obtain
varying solids content.
1. Using a mixing device, blend one
50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of SMOOTH
GROUT 20 slurry into 24 gal
(90.8 L) of freshwater.
2. Blend, do not over-mix. The
resulting slurry should look like
cake batter, containing partially
yielded bentonite. This pumpable
slurry contains 20% solids. Pump
into hole without delay.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg), heavy-duty,
multi-walled, waterproof sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place. Store in
a dry location away from sources of
heat or ignition, and minimize dust.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan powder
Moisture content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8%
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
pH (8% slurry) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
Slurry density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 lb/gal (1.1 kg/L) for 20% solids
Dry bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 lb/ft
3
(961.1 kg/m
3
)
Screen analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75% min. passing through 200-mesh
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
SMOOTH Solids Usable Estimate
GROUT
*
20 Water content slurry working
lb (kg) gal (L) % gal (L) time (min)
50 (22.7) 30 (113.6) 16.7 33 (124.9) 30 60
50 (22.7) 27 (102.2) 18.2 30 (113.6) 15 30
50 (22.7) 24 (90.8) 20 27 (102.2) 5 15
SMOOTH GROUT 20 Slurry at Various Solids Content
SMOOTHGROUT30
109
SMOOTH GROUT
*
30 additive is an
easy-to-use bentonite-grouting
composition containing high-
swelling, sodium montmorillonite
clay. It is designed for use in water
wells and monitoring wells, for
sealing the annular space around
the well casing, and for plugging
drilled holes and abandoned wells.
SMOOTHGROUT 30 material contains
no organic additives or polymers.
A one-sack formulation of
SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive mixes
with freshwater to yield a 30%
pumpable grouting slurry with
an extended working time. When
it sets up, the SMOOTHGROUT 30
slurry develops a satisfactory
seal with adequate structural
strength and low hydraulic con -
ductivity. When properly placed,
the SMOOTHGROUT 30 composition
remains flexible, rehydratable, and
unstratified though heating and
cooling cycles.
Applications
Sealing and grouting casing
Sanitary sealing in water-well
construction
Sealing in monitoring wells
Plugging and abandoning
exploration boreholes
Advantages
Inorganic, non-fermenting
and non-toxic
Develops lower-solids slurries
up to 30% activity
Easily mixed with most
conventional rig equipment
Permanent, flexible seal pre -
vents entry of contaminants
fromthe surface
Extended working time controlled
by the grout solids content
Firm texture providing structural
stability after grout set
Addition method
SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive should
be mixed with freshwater to obtain
maximum results. A 50-lb (22.7-kg)
sack of SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive
with 14 gal (53 L) of water makes
a 30%-active-solids slurry. The vis-
cosity and consistency of a mixed
grout slurry can be modified by
adjusting the amount of water used
to obtain varying solids content.
1. Using a mixing device, blend one
50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of SMOOTH
GROUT 30 additive into 14 gal
(53 L) of freshwater.
2. Blend, do not over-mix. The
resulting slurry should look like
cake batter. Pump through tremie
line without delay.
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled,
paper sacks and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet) and minimize dust (use
dustless systems for handling,
storage, and cleanup).
Material can be palletized at
either 56/pallet or 70/pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan powder
Moisture content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8%
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
pH (8% slurry) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
Slurry density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) for 30% solids
Dry bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 lb/ft
3
(1,025.2 kg/m
3
)
Screen analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75% min. passing through 200-mesh
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
SMOOTH Solids Usable Estimate
GROUT
*
30 Water content slurry working
lb (kg) gal (L) % gal (L) time (min)
50 (22.7) 14 (53) 30 17 (64.4) 30 60
50 (22.7) 15 (56.8) 28.6 18 (68.1) 15 30
50 (22.7) 16 (61) 27.3 19 (72) 5 15
SMOOTH GROUT 30 Slurry at Various Solids Content
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GOPHERGROUT
110
GOPHER GROUT
*
granular bentonite
grouting composition contains high-
swelling sodium montmorillonite
clay. It is designed for use in water
wells and monitoring wells, for
sealing the annular space around
well casing, and for plugging
drilled holes and abandoned wells.
GOPHER GROUT composition contains
no organic additives or polymers.
A one-sack formulation of
GOPHER GROUT granular bentonite
grouting composition mixes with
freshwater to yield 20%-pumpable
grouting slurry with an extended
working time. When set up, the
GOPHER GROUT grouting compo -
sition develops a satisfactory
seal with adequate structural
strength and low hydraulic con -
ductivity. When properly placed,
GOPHER GROUT grouting composi-
tion remains flexible, rehydratable
and unstratified through heating
and cooling cycles.
Applications
Sealing and grouting casing
Sanitary sealing in water
well construction
Sealing monitor wells
Plugging and abandoning
exploration boreholes
Advantages
Inorganic, non-fermenting
and non-toxic
Develops lower-solids slurries up
to 20% total active solids
Easily mixed and handled
with most conventional
mixing equipment
Permanent, flexible seal pre-
vents entry of contaminants
fromthe surface
Extended working time controlled
by grout solids content
Firm texture providing structural
stability after grout set
Addition methods
GOPHER GROUT grouting com -
position should be mixed with
fresh water to obtain maximum
results. The recommended mix -
ing rate is a 50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of
GOPHER GROUT grouting composi-
tion with 24 gal (91 L) of water to
make a 20%-active-solids slurry.
Adjust the amount of water to
alter viscosity and consistency.
Waterwell mixing procedures
1. Using a mixing device, blend
one 50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of
GOPHER GROUT grouting com -
position into 24 gal (91 L)
of freshwater.
2. Blend, do not over-mix. The
resulting slurry should be like
lumpy cake batter. Pump through
tremie line without delay.
Geothermal mixing procedures
1. Start the mixing device in 27 gal
(102 L) of freshwater and add one
50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of GOPHER
GROUT grouting composition.
2. Mix for approximately 1 min.
3. Add silica sand at a steady, con-
tinuous rate (approximately
2 min). Continue mixing until a
consistent mixture is reached.
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described on the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
GOPHER GROUT grouting com -
position is packaged in 50-lb
(22.7-kg), heavy-duty, multi-
walled, waterproof sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan granular
Screen analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90% max passing through 20-mesh
Moisture content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8%
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
Slurry density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 lb/gal (1.1 kg/L) for 20% solids
Dry bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 lb/ft
3
(1,281 kg/m
3
)
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
GOPHER Solids Usable Estimate
GROUT
*
Water content slurry working
lb (kg) gal (L) % gal (L) time (min)
50 (22.7) 30 (114) 16.7 33 (125) 30 60
50 (22.7) 28 (106) 17.5 31 (117) 15 30
50 (22.7) 24 (91) 20.0 27 (102) 5 15
GOPHER GROUT Slurry at Various Solids Content
KWIK-PLUGFine & Micro
111
KWIK-PLUG
*
Fine and KWIK-PLUG
Micro granular bentonite products
are composed of dried sodium-
montmorillonite clay. KWIK-PLUG
products can be used as a sealant
for earthen structures and dry,
shallow-hole abandonment.
KWIK-PLUG products can also be
used to control lost circulation
in mud used in rotary or
coring operations.
Applications
Seal or grout casing in
well construction
Plug abandoned
earthen boreholes
Seal ponds and other
water structures
Advantages
High-swelling Wyoming
bentonite that forms tight seals
Granular product with
reduced dust
Forms a low, permeable and
flexible seal
Addition methods
For an earthen structure seal,
the normal treatment is 1 to
2lb/ft
2
(4.88 to 9.76 kg/m
2
), depend-
ing on the soil type. Treatment con-
centration should be tested using
a 5-gal (18.9-L) bucket with holes
punched in the bottom. Put the soil
to be treated in the bucket and add
1 to 2 lb (0.5 to 0.9 kg) of KWIK-PLUG
granular bentonite. Pour water into
the bucket and observe the seal. By
using this method, the exact con-
centration of KWIK-PLUG product
can be determined.
For lost-circulation control in
mud rotary applications, add
KWIK-PLUG granular bentonite
directly to the suction pit. For
coring-rig applications, mix
KWIK-PLUG product in vegetable
oil and pour the solution down
the rods. Pump slurry to the point
of the lost circulation, then pick
up the rods and wait while the
slurry hydrates.
For dry, shallow-hole abandon-
ment, pour the required amount
of KWIK-PLUG product directly
down the borehole and hydrate
with freshwater.
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
KWIK-PLUG granular bentonite prod-
uct is packaged in 50-lb (22.7-kg),
heavy-duty, multi-walled, waterproof
sacks and various sized super sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gray-white granular
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insoluble in water
KWIK-PLUG Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97% min. passing 4-mesh
KWIK-PLUG Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% max. passing 20-mesh
KWIK-PLUG Micro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97% min. passing 8-mesh
KWIK-PLUG Micro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% max. passing 20-mesh
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
KWIK-PLUGMedium & Coarse
112
The KWIK-PLUG Medium & Coarse
products are screen-sized bentonite
composed of a naturally occurring
clay which is used to seal and plug
earthen boreholes. KWIK-PLUG
material will travel through water
standing in the hole and reach the
bottom of the hole with minimum
hydration or swelling. The annular
space can be completely filled, and
bridging of the particles in the
upper portion of the hole mini-
mized. The annular space being
completely filled is necessary to
form an effective, long-term plug.
KWIK-PLUG material is available in
two sizes: KWIK-PLUG Coarse (-in.
[19.1-mm]) size and KWIK-PLUG
Medium (
3
8-in. [9.5-mm]) size. The
size of the open annular space will
determine which size should be
used. When the annular space is
-in. (19.1-mm) or more, KWIK-PLUG
Medium material is recommended.
When the annular space is 1 in.
(38.1 mm) or more, KWIK-PLUG
Coarse material is recommended.
Applications
Environmental monitoring wells
Sealing outside casing annulus
Plugging decommissioned
boreholes
Sealing lost-circulation zones
Sealing above gravel packs
Advantages
Prevents entry of surface water
into boreholes
Forms a permanent, flexible,
downhole seal
Allows hole re-entry
Easy to apply, no mixing expense
More cost effective compared to
pelletized bentonite
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described on the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
KWIK-PLUG material is packaged
in 50-lb (22.7-kg), heavy-duty,
multi-walled, waterproof sacks
and various sized super sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 to 2.6
Permeability of resulting plug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 10
9
cm/sec.
Moisture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15%
Bulk density KWIK-PLUG Medium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 lb/ft
3
(1,089.2 kg
3
)
Bulk density KWIK-PLUG Coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 lb/ft
3
(1,025.2 kg
3
)
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : W A T E R W E L L P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
GELSUPREME
113
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
GEL SUPREME
*
viscosifier is a
premium-grade Wyoming ben-
tonite (a sodium montmorillonite
clay) which has not been chemically
treated. It is used as a primary
filter-cake-building filtration-
control and suspension agent
in freshwater systems, and has
application in all water-base
mud systems. GEL SUPREME is
a high-quality product that
meets the API specification
for non-treated bentonite.
Applications
GEL SUPREME bentonite is used to
increase viscosity and reduce fluid
loss in water-base drilling fluids.
It is a cost-effective product for
achieving viscosity, controlling fluid
loss and maintaining filter cake
quality in freshwater and seawater
muds. Typical con centrations for
GEL SUPREME additive range from
5 to 35 lb/bbl (14.3 to 100 kg/m
3
).
As with all bentonite products
the yield decreases as the salinity
increases. In muds containing more
than 10,000 mg/L chlorides, the
per formance of GEL SUPREME viscosi-
fier is sig nificantly reduced unless it
is prehydrated infreshwater, before
adding it to the mud system.
Advantages
Hydrates more than other types
of clays and is best for generating
viscosity, developing gels for sus-
pension and controlling filtration
A premium-grade, API, non-
treated bentonite. Therefore,
it does not contain chemical
treatments and is considered
to be more desirable for
certain applications.
The small particle size, unique
flat shape and high surface area
of hydrated GEL SUPREME viscosi-
fier provides superior filtration
characteristics
Promotes the deposition of
thin compressible, filter cakes
in the wellbore
Limitations
Performance reduced in salty
(>5,000 mg/L C1

) or hard
(>240 mg/L Ca
++
) waters due
to decreased hydration.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
GEL SUPREME bentonite is packaged
in 50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled,
paper sacks and is available in
bulk. Minimize dust (use dustless
systems for handling, storage
and cleanup).
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet).
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.6
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 to 52 lb/ft
3
(769 to 833 kg/m
3
)
API Specifications Suspension Properties
1
Dispersed plastic viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10cP, min.
Yield point/plastic viscosity ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5, max.
Dispersed API filtrate volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 cm
3
, max.
1
Suspension of 25 grams non-treated bentonite in 350 cm
3
deionized water.
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 50 70 20 30 60 85
In gravel or other poorly
consolidated formation 70 95 30 40 85 115
Lost-circulation control 105 130 45 55 125 155
Added to freshwater mud to improve
hole-cleaning properties, increase
hole stability and develop thin filter cakes 45 20 55
Typical Amounts of GEL SUPREME Additions Added to Freshwater
GOPHERGROUT
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
114
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
GOPHER GROUT
*
granular bentonite
grouting composition contains high-
swelling sodium montmorillonite
clay. It is designed for use in water
wells and monitoring wells, for
sealing the annular space around
well casing, and for plugging
drilled holes and abandoned wells.
GOPHER GROUT composition contains
no organic additives or polymers.
A one-sack formulation of
GOPHER GROUT granular bentonite
grouting composition mixes with
freshwater to yield 20%-pumpable
grouting slurry with an extended
working time. When set up, the
GOPHER GROUT grouting compo -
sition develops a satisfactory
seal with adequate structural
strength and low hydraulic con -
ductivity. When properly placed,
GOPHER GROUT grouting composi-
tion remains flexible, rehydratable
and unstratified through heating
and cooling cycles.
Applications
Sealing and grouting casing
Sanitary sealing in water
well construction
Sealing monitor wells
Plugging and abandoning
exploration boreholes
Advantages
Inorganic, non-fermenting
and non-toxic
Develops lower-solids slurries up
to 20% total active solids
Easily mixed and handled
with most conventional
mixing equipment
Permanent, flexible seal pre-
vents entry of contaminants
fromthe surface
Extended working time controlled
by grout solids content
Firm texture providing structural
stability after grout set
Addition methods
GOPHER GROUT grouting com -
position should be mixed with
fresh water to obtain maximum
results. The recommended mix -
ing rate is a 50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of
GOPHER GROUT grouting composi-
tion with 24 gal (91 L) of water to
make a 20%-active-solids slurry.
Adjust the amount of water to
alter viscosity and consistency.
Waterwell mixing procedures
1. Using a mixing device, blend
one 50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of
GOPHER GROUT grouting com -
position into 24 gal (91 L)
of freshwater.
2. Blend, do not over-mix. The
resulting slurry should be like
lumpy cake batter. Pump through
tremie line without delay.
Geothermal mixing procedures
1. Start the mixing device in 27 gal
(102 L) of freshwater and add one
50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of GOPHER
GROUT grouting composition.
2. Mix for approximately 1 min.
3. Add silica sand at a steady, con-
tinuous rate (approximately
2 min). Continue mixing until a
consistent mixture is reached.
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described on the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
GOPHER GROUT grouting com -
position is packaged in 50-lb
(22.7-kg), heavy-duty, multi-
walled, waterproof sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan granular
Screen analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90% max passing through 20-mesh
Moisture content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8%
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
Slurry density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 lb/gal (1.1 kg/L) for 20% solids
Dry bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 lb/ft
3
(1,281 kg/m
3
)
GOPHER Solids Usable Estimate
GROUT
*
Water content slurry working
lb (kg) gal (L) % gal (L) time (min)
50 (22.7) 30 (114) 16.7 33 (125) 30 60
50 (22.7) 28 (106) 17.5 31 (117) 15 30
50 (22.7) 24 (91) 20.0 27 (102) 5 15
GOPHER GROUT Slurry at Various Solids Content
KWIK-PLUGFine & Micro
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
115
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
KWIK-PLUG
*
Fine and KWIK-PLUG
Micro granular bentonite products
are composed of dried sodium-
montmorillonite clay. KWIK-PLUG
products can be used as a sealant
for earthen structures and dry,
shallow-hole abandonment.
KWIK-PLUG products can also be
used to control lost circulation
in mud used in rotary or
coring operations.
Applications
Seal or grout casing in
well construction
Plug abandoned
earthen boreholes
Seal ponds and other
water structures
Advantages
High-swelling Wyoming
bentonite that forms tight seals
Granular product with
reduced dust
Forms a low, permeable and
flexible seal
Addition methods
For an earthen structure seal,
the normal treatment is 1 to
2lb/ft
2
(4.88 to 9.76 kg/m
2
), depend-
ing on the soil type. Treatment con-
centration should be tested using
a 5-gal (18.9-L) bucket with holes
punched in the bottom. Put the soil
to be treated in the bucket and add
1 to 2 lb (0.5 to 0.9 kg) of KWIK-PLUG
granular bentonite. Pour water into
the bucket and observe the seal. By
using this method, the exact con-
centration of KWIK-PLUG product
can be determined.
For lost-circulation control in
mud rotary applications, add
KWIK-PLUG granular bentonite
directly to the suction pit. For
coring-rig applications, mix
KWIK-PLUG product in vegetable
oil and pour the solution down
the rods. Pump slurry to the point
of the lost circulation, then pick
up the rods and wait while the
slurry hydrates.
For dry, shallow-hole abandon-
ment, pour the required amount
of KWIK-PLUG product directly
down the borehole and hydrate
with freshwater.
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
KWIK-PLUG granular bentonite
product is packaged in 50-lb
(22.7-kg), heavy-duty, multi-
walled, waterproof sacks and
various sized super sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gray-white granular
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insoluble in water
KWIK-PLUG Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97% min. passing 4-mesh
KWIK-PLUG Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% max. passing 20-mesh
KWIK-PLUG Micro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97% min. passing 8-mesh
KWIK-PLUG Micro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% max. passing 20-mesh
KWIK-PLUGMedium & Coarse
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
116
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
The KWIK-PLUG Medium & Coarse
products are screen-sized bentonite
composed of a naturally occurring
clay which is used to seal and plug
earthen boreholes. KWIK-PLUG
material will travel through water
standing in the hole and reach the
bottom of the hole with minimum
hydration or swelling. The annular
space can be completely filled, and
bridging of the particles in the
upper portion of the hole mini-
mized. The annular space being
completely filled is necessary to
form an effective, long-term plug.
KWIK-PLUG material is available in
two sizes: KWIK-PLUG Coarse (-in.
[19.1-mm]) size and KWIK-PLUG
Medium (
3
8-in. [9.5-mm]) size. The
size of the open annular space will
determine which size should be
used. When the annular space is
-in. (19.1-mm) or more, KWIK-PLUG
Medium material is recommended.
When the annular space is 1 in.
(38.1 mm) or more, KWIK-PLUG
Coarse material is recommended.
Applications
Environmental monitoring wells
Sealing outside casing annulus
Plugging decommissioned
boreholes
Sealing lost-circulation zones
Sealing above gravel packs
Advantages
Prevents entry of surface water
into boreholes
Forms a permanent, flexible,
downhole seal
Allows hole re-entry
Easy to apply, no mixing expense
More cost effective compared to
pelletized bentonite
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described on the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
KWIK-PLUG material is packaged
in 50-lb (22.7-kg), heavy-duty,
multi-walled, waterproof sacks
and various sized super sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 to 2.6
Permeability of resulting plug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 x 10
9
cm/sec.
Moisture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15%
Bulk density KWIK-PLUG Medium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 lb/ft
3
(1,089.2 kg
3
)
Bulk density KWIK-PLUG Coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 lb/ft
3
(1,025.2 kg
3
)
PLATINUMPAC
PLATINUMPAC* polyanionic cellu-
lose is a readily dispersible, water-
soluble polymer designed to control
fluid loss in water-base muds.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). This product
is applicable in all water-base
muds, ranging from low-solids,
non-dispersed polymer systems
to high-density, dispersed systems.
It is used as a filtrate reducer and
borehole stabilizer in water-base
drilling applications.
Advantages
Controls fluid loss and produces
a thin, slick, tough filter cake
Inhibits the hydration of drill
solids and encapsulates the drill
solids for easier removal
Exhibits superior mixing in
low-shear environments
Is more readily dispersible than
conventional dry PAC polymers
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Compatible with all common
mud-treating additives
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated
in the combined presence of
high hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC polyanionic cellulose
is packaged in 2-lb (0.91-kg) bottles,
25/case, 25-lb (11.3-kg) net product
in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets, and 50-lb
(22.7-kg) bags.
PLATINUMPAC additive should
be stored inside under cool,
dry conditions.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White or off-white powder
Ionic character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.64 to 9.0 g/cm
3
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 9.0
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
117
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
PLATINUMPAC UL
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
118
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
PLATINUMPAC* UL Polyanionic
Cellulose (PAC) is a high-quality,
water-soluble polymer designed
to control fluid loss. Because it is
an Ultra-Low (UL) additive, it
causes a minimal increase in
viscosity in water-base muds.
PLATINUMPACUL additive is readily
dispersible in a wide range of
water-base mud systems.
Applications
PLATINUMPAC UL additive controls
fluid loss in freshwater, seawater,
KCl, and salt muds. It forms a thin,
resilient, low-permeability filter
cake that minimizes the potential
for differential sticking and the
invasion of filtrate and mud
solids into permeable formations.
PLATINUMPAC UL additive resists
bacterial attack, eliminating the
need for biocides or preservatives.
It is effective in low concentrations,
with the normal fluid-loss treat-
ment ranging from 0.25 to 1 lb/bbl
(0.71 to 2.85 kg/m
3
). In saltwater
and PAC-polymer systems, higher
concentrations are required for
encapsulation, with normal concen-
trations ranging from 1 to 3 lb/bbl
(2.85 to 8.6 kg/m
3
).
Because PLATINUMPAC UL
additive is low viscosity, gen er -
ating less viscosity as compared
to the POLYPAC
*
and PLATINUMPAC
products. The viscosity gener -
ated depends on the solids
concentration, salinity and
makeup-water chemistry.
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic poly-
mer attaches to and encapsulates
exposed shales and drill cuttings.
This protective polymer envelope
inhibits the dispersion of shale cut-
tings and restricts fluid interactions
with exposed shales.
In saturated salt systems,
PLATINUMPAC UL additive tends
to work significantly better than
regular-viscosity PAC materials. For
difficult filtration-control fluids, a
combination of the UL product and
regular-viscosity PAC products is
generally most effective.
Advantages
Readily dispersible
Effective in low concentrations
for controlling fluid loss and
building viscosity
Produces minimal
viscosity increase
Encapsulates shale particles to
inhibit swelling and dispersion
Resists bacterial attack, requiring
no biocides or preservatives
Functions over a wide range of
salinity, hardness and pH levels
Has application in all water-base,
low-solids, non-dispersed mud
systems. Com patible with all
common mud-treating additives.
Excellent environmental
acceptability
Limitations
Circulating temperature stability
to approximately 300 F (149 C)
Effective in systems with total
hardness <1,000 mg/L (as cal-
cium), but can be precipitated in
the combined presence of high
hardness and high pH
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
PLATINUMPAC UL anionic polymer is
packaged with 25-lb (11.3-kg) net
product in 5-gal (19-L) buckets and
50-lb (22.7-kg) bags.
Store in a cool, dry place.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, free-flowing powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 1.6
pH (1% solubility). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 8.0
POLY-PLUS
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
119
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
POLY-PLUS
*
polymer is a high-
molecular-weight, anionic liquid
designed to provide cuttings encap-
sulation and shale stabilization.
POLY-PLUS additive also acts as a
viscosifier, friction reducer and floc-
culant. POLY-PLUS polymer can be
used in mud systems using makeup
waters from freshwater to saltwater.
Applications
POLY-PLUS polymer mud systems.
The POLY-PLUS system provides
excellent cuttings encapsulation
and improved wellbore stability.
Typical concentrations of POLY-PLUS
are 0.75 to 3 lb/bbl (2.1 to 8.5 kg/m
3
).
It is also effective in salt muds, such
as KCl- or NaCl-enhanced fluids,
although slightly higher concen -
trations of POLY-PLUS polymer may
be required.
Clear-water fluids. POLY-PLUS
polymer can be used in clear-water,
solids-free drilling fluids. The
POLY-PLUS system increases viscos-
ity and enhances solids removal by
flocculating the undesired solids. It
also provides cuttings encapsulation
and improved wellbore stability.
This system is frequently used in
slim-hole, continuous-coring appli-
cations. Adding 0.5 to 1.75 lb/bbl
(1.4 to 5 kg/m
3
) enhances solids
removal by flocculating solids.
Low-Solids, Non-Dispersed (LSND)
muds. POLY-PLUS polymer is well
suited to LSND systems. In reduced-
bentonite muds, POLY-PLUS additive
serves as a bentonite extender to
increase viscosity and as a floccu-
lant to more efficiently remove drill
solids. It also encapsulates cuttings
and improves wellbore stability.
Weighted muds. POLY-PLUS polymer
can be used in weighted muds for
cuttings encapsulation, improved
wellbore stability, secondary vis -
cosity, and improved filter-cake
integrity. The effectiveness of
the polymer diminishes as the
concentration of organic, anionic
dispersants increases.
POLY-PLUS sweeps. Viscous
POLY-PLUS sweeps are effective
for periodic hole cleaning.
Circulating a POLY-PLUS sweep
through the well or borehole helps
clear accumulated cuttings and
maintain a clean hole.
Advantages
Provides excellent cuttings
encapsulation and limits
cuttings dispersion
Provides improved shale
stabilization
Enhances drill-solids removal
in clear water systems and the
carrying capacity of foams
Liquid product for easy mixing
and rapid yield
Is versatile and multipurpose
Low pour point of 20 F (28.9 C)
for easy use in cold climates
Can be used to viscosify clear-
water, low-solids drilling fluids
Improves the lubricity of most
mud systems, particularly non-
dispersed systems, dispersed
mud, when used in combination
with a lubricant
Helps prevent bit balling and
balling on stabilizers and bottom-
hole assemblies by coating and
lubricating solids
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS polymer is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets. Store in a dry
location away from sources of heat
or ignition, and minimize dust.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cream colored, opaque liquid
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly hydrocarbon
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07 to 1.10
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 to 9.0
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >200 F (93.3 C) (PMCC)
Pour point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 F (28.9 C)
Viscosity (typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 500 cP
Concentration
1
lb/bbl (kg/m
3
) gal/bbl (L/m
3
) gal/100 gal
0.50 (1.4) 0.056 (1.3) 0.133
0.75 (2.1) 0.084 (2.0) 0.200
1.00 (3.0) 0.110 (2.6) 0.262
1.50 (4.3) 0.170 (4.0) 0.405
1
Based on 30% active material
POLY-PLUS 2000
120
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
POLY-PLUS 2000 polymer is a multi-
function synthetic co-polymer
developed for use in freshwater-,
potassium- and saltwater-base
drilling fluids. POLY-PLUS 2000
water-free dispersion has excellent
freeze/thaw stability and is not sub-
ject to phase separation or prema-
ture activation inside the pail or
drum. POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer
provides the same benefits as regu-
lar POLY-PLUS polymer, but at lower
concentration.
Applications
Viscosity. POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer
is a cost-effective viscosifier in low-
salinity fluids. Its shear- thinning
properties maximize penetration
rates at the bit under high shear
rates and exhibit excellent hole-
cleaning characteristics under low
shear rates. It also allows for easy
solids deposition in settling pits.
Shale stabilization/inhibition.
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer can be
used alone or in conjunction with
KCl to stabilize active shales. It pro-
tects by encapsulating reactive
shales, forming a protective coating
on the wellbore and around cut-
tings. Coating reduces the shales
tendency to absorb water, swell
and slough.
Foam stabilization. The long-chain
polymer of POLY-PLUS 2000 additive
creates a tighter, stronger foam,
which improves the fluids
cuttings-carrying capacity.
Flowline flocculant. Small con -
centra tions of POLY-PLUS 2000
co-polymer (0.01 to 0.05 lb/bbl
[0.028to 0.14kg/m
3
]) economically
floc culate drill solids. Additions
should be made at the flowline to
optimize settling time of drill solids
in the pits.
Friction reduction/lubrication.
The POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymers
shear-thinning properties reduce
power losses at points of high shear,
especially at the drill bit and at
the other restrictions such as the
pump discharge, drill collars, etc.
The polymer structure also helps
reduce turbulence, which reduces
erosion and the likelihood of
washouts in weak formations.
Application
Viscosity. Add 1 to 3 vis cups (1 to
3 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of fluid for
desired viscosity.
Shale inhibition. At least 1 vis cup
(1 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of fluid.
Fluid-loss control. At least 2 vis
cups (2 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of
fluid to be effective. Some solids
can be required.
Lubricity. At least 1 vis cup (1 L) per
300 gal (1,135 L) of fluid.
Foam stabilization. 1 to 2 vis cups
(1 to 2 L) per 100 gal (378.5 L) of fluid.
Advantages
50% active material
Low dosage rate for comparable
viscosities
Encapsulates drill solids
Stabilizes clay formations
Cleanup
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer can be
chemically broken down with liq-
uid bleach in regular household
concentration (5% sodium hypo -
chlorite). Use 5 gal (18.9 L) of liquid
bleach per 100 gal (378.5 L) of fluid
formulated with POLY-PLUS 2000
additive. Do not use perfumed
liquid bleach or solid calcium
hypochlorite.
Limitations
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer is less
effective in fluids with total hard-
ness values in excess of 200 ppm.
To optimize POLY-PLUS 2000
co-polymer characteristics, total
hardness should be maintained
at 100 ppm or less. POLY-PLUS 2000
additive is not as effective in tem-
peratures above 275 F (135 C).
The effective temperature range
can be increased to 325 F (162 C)
by adding an oxygen scavenger
to the mud. The effectiveness
of POLY-PLUS 2000 additive also
decreases in fluids that have a
pHof 10.2 or greater.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described on the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS 2000 co-polymer is
supplied in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White liquid dispersion
Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slightly hydrocarbon
Viscosity (typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 to 500 cP
Specific gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.06 to 1.08
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 to 7.5
Flash point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 F (120 C)
POLY-PLUS EHV
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
121
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
is an extremely-high-molecular-
weight, high-charge, polyacry-
lamide supplied as a dry granular
powder. POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer produces very high
viscosity solutions at low dosage
rates, particularly in freshwater.
It has excellent handling character-
istics, mixes easily and dissolves
quickly when added to water-base
fluid systems.
Applications
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
is ideally suited for applications
such as water-well drilling,
mineral exploration, and
construction applications.
Due to its very high molecular
weight, POLY-PLUS EHV additive is
also an excellent flocculant for
dewatering drilling fluids, waste
pits and sumps.
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
has several functions, including:
Viscosifier. As a viscosifier, the
addition of 0.5 to 1 lb/bbl (1.4 to
2.9 kg/m
3
) of POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer is a cost-effective way
to generate viscosity in fresh- or
low-salinity drilling fluids. Its shear-
thinning capacity ensures maxi-
mum power at the bit under high
shear while retaining excel -
lent carrying capacity under
low-shear conditions.
Flocculant. As a flowline flocculant,
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
can also be used for clear-water or
low-solids drilling. Adding a 5%
solution of POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer into the flowline or just
prior to any mechanical separation
greatly enhances the removal of
drill solids.
Friction reducer. Adding POLY-PLUS
EHV acrylic co-polymer into a drill -
ing fluid helps to reduce turbulent
flow, friction, and power losses at
points of high shear. Lowering tur-
bulent flow also helps reduce ero-
sion and washouts of fragile
geologic structures.
Add slowly and uniformly
through a high-shear jet type mixer.
Continue to circulate and agitate
the slurry until all materials are
dispersed and dissolved.
Recommended application
amounts:
Normal consolidated formation:
1.5 to 2 lb (0.7 to 0.9 kg) per 100 gal
(378.5 L) water (0.6 to 0.8 lb/bbl
[1.7 to 2.3 kg/m
3
])
Unconsolidated formation:
2.5 to 3.5 lb (1.1 to 1.6 kg) per 100 gal
(378.5 L) water (1 to 1.5 lb/bbl [2.9 to
4.3 kg/m
3
])
Advantages
Provides a clay-free boring fluid
that disperses easily with
minimal shear
Soil stabilizer can be used to
replace bentonite at a ratio of
1:100 (e.g., one 50-lb [22.7-kg]
bag can replace 2.5 tons [2.3 met-
ric tons] of bentonite in a typical
geo-construction application)
Produces very-high-viscosity
slurries at low dosage rates
Slurries typically have low
gel strength
Slurry binds loose sand, clay,
shale and gravel, facilitating their
removal and preventing dispersal
into the slurry
Reduces fluid loss by penetrating
the surrounding soil with a high-
viscosity gel fluid, sealing the
walls of the excavation site with-
out the use of a conventional
filter cake
Stabilizes reactive formations and
is an efficient viscosifier for a
clear, solids-free drilling fluid
Provides high cohesiveness to bind
sandy soil and gravel
Enhances core recovery in continu-
ous wireline coring operations
Facilitates the removal of drilled
soils from augers
Non-fermenting, no petroleum
distillates and easily broken down
with household bleach
Cleanup
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
can be chemically broken down
with liquid bleach in regular house-
hold concentration (5% sodium
hypochlorite). Use 1 gal (3.8 L) of
liquid bleach per 100 gal (378.5 L)
of fluid formulated with POLY-PLUS
EHV acrylic co-polymer. Do not use
perfumed liquid bleach or solid
calcium hypochlorite.
Toxicity and handling
When used in accordance with the
manufacturers published instruc-
tions, this product is considered
non-hazardous. Drill cuttings
exposed to POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer should be washed with
calcium hypochlorite to break
down the POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic
co-polymer before the cuttings can
be confined or stored in a sealed
container or drum.
Packaging and storage
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer is
supplied in 5-gal (18.9-L) buckets.
POLY-PLUS EHV acrylic co-polymer
should be stored inside under cool,
dry conditions. When stored under
these conditions, it has a shelf life
of at least one year.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, granular powder
Ionic character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anionic
Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 g/cc
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 lb/ft
3
(800 kg/m
3
)
pH (1% solution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 to 8.0
SMOOTHGROUT20
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
122
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
SMOOTHGROUT
*
20 slurry is an
easy-to-use bentonite-grouting
composition containing high-
swelling sodium montmorillonite
clay. It is designed for use in water
wells and monitoring wells, for
sealing the annular space around
a well casing, and for plugging
drilled holes and abandoned wells.
SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry contains
no organic additives or polymers.
The SMOOTH GROUT 20 system,
a one-sack formulation, mixes
with freshwater to yield a 20%
pump able grouting slurry with
an extended working time. When
set up, the SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry
develops a satisfactory seal with
adequate structural strength and
low-hydraulic conductivity. When
properly placed, SMOOTHGROUT 20
slurry remains flexible, rehydrat-
able and unstratified through
heating and cooling cycles.
Applications
Sealing and grouting casings
Sanitary sealing in water-well
construction
Sealing in monitoring wells
Plugging abandoned
exploration boreholes
Advantages
Inorganic, non-fermenting
and non-toxic
Develops lower-solids slurries
up to 20% total active solids
Easy one-sack mixing
Mixed and handled with most
conventional rig equipment
Permanent, flexible seal pre -
vents entry of contaminants
fromthe surface
Extended working time controlled
by grout-solids content
Firm texture providing structural
stability after grout is set
Addition method
SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry should
be mixed with freshwater to obtain
optimum results. The recommended
mixing rate is a 50-lb (22.7-kg) sack
of SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry with
24 gal (90.8 L) of water to make a
20%-active-solids slurry. The viscos-
ity and consistency of mixed-grout
slurry can be modified by adjusting
the amount of water used to obtain
varying solids content.
1. Using a mixing device, blend one
50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of SMOOTH
GROUT 20 slurry into 24 gal
(90.8 L) of freshwater.
2. Blend, do not over-mix. The
resulting slurry should look like
cake batter, containing partially
yielded bentonite. This pumpable
slurry contains 20% solids. Pump
into hole without delay.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SMOOTHGROUT 20 slurry is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg), heavy-duty,
multi-walled, waterproof sacks.
Store in a cool, dry place. Store in
a dry location away from sources of
heat or ignition, and minimize dust.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan powder
Moisture content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8%
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
pH (8% slurry) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
Slurry density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 lb/gal (1.1 kg/L) for 20% solids
Dry bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 lb/ft
3
(961.1 kg/m
3
)
Screen analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75% min. passing through 200-mesh
SMOOTH Solids Usable Estimate
GROUT
*
20 Water content slurry working
lb (kg) gal (L) % gal (L) time (min)
50 (22.7) 30 (113.6) 16.7 33 (124.9) 30 60
50 (22.7) 27 (102.2) 18.2 30 (113.6) 15 30
50 (22.7) 24 (90.8) 20 27 (102.2) 5 15
SMOOTH GROUT 20 Slurry at Various Solids Content
SMOOTHGROUT30
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
123
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
SMOOTH GROUT
*
30 additive is an
easy-to-use bentonite-grouting
composition containing high-
swelling, sodium montmorillonite
clay. It is designed for use in water
wells and monitoring wells, for
sealing the annular space around
the well casing, and for plugging
drilled holes and abandoned wells.
SMOOTHGROUT 30 material contains
no organic additives or polymers.
A one-sack formulation of
SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive mixes
with freshwater to yield a 30%
pumpable grouting slurry with
an extended working time. When
it sets up, the SMOOTHGROUT 30
slurry develops a satisfactory
seal with adequate structural
strength and low hydraulic con -
ductivity. When properly placed,
the SMOOTHGROUT 30 composition
remains flexible, rehydratable, and
unstratified though heating and
cooling cycles.
Applications
Sealing and grouting casing
Sanitary sealing in water-well
construction
Sealing in monitoring wells
Plugging and abandoning
exploration boreholes
Advantages
Inorganic, non-fermenting
and non-toxic
Develops lower-solids slurries
up to 30% activity
Easily mixed with most
conventional rig equipment
Permanent, flexible seal pre -
vents entry of contaminants
fromthe surface
Extended working time controlled
by the grout solids content
Firm texture providing structural
stability after grout set
Addition method
SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive should
be mixed with freshwater to obtain
maximum results. A 50-lb (22.7-kg)
sack of SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive
with 14 gal (53 L) of water makes
a 30%-active-solids slurry. The vis-
cosity and consistency of a mixed
grout slurry can be modified by
adjusting the amount of water used
to obtain varying solids content.
1. Using a mixing device, blend one
50-lb (22.7-kg) sack of SMOOTH
GROUT 30 additive into 14 gal
(53 L) of freshwater.
2. Blend, do not over-mix. The
resulting slurry should look like
cake batter. Pump through tremie
line without delay.
Limitations
When used as recommended,
there are no limitations imposed
on this product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SMOOTHGROUT 30 additive is pack-
aged in 50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled,
paper sacks and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet) and minimize dust (use
dustless systems for handling,
storage, and cleanup).
Material can be palletized at
either 56/pallet or 70/pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
For more information, please
request a product bulletin from
your M-I SWACO representative.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beige to tan powder
Moisture content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8%
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
pH (8% slurry) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
Slurry density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) for 30% solids
Dry bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 lb/ft
3
(1,025.2 kg/m
3
)
Screen analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75% min. passing through 200-mesh
SMOOTH Solids Usable Estimate
GROUT
*
30 Water content slurry working
lb (kg) gal (L) % gal (L) time (min)
50 (22.7) 14 (53) 30 17 (64.4) 30 60
50 (22.7) 15 (56.8) 28.6 18 (68.1) 15 30
50 (22.7) 16 (61) 27.3 19 (72) 5 15
SMOOTH GROUT 30 Slurry at Various Solids Content
SMOOTHGROUTTHERMAL
Applications
SMOOTHGROUT THERMAL
*
is a spe-
cially blended high-solids bentonite
that can be mixed with sand in a
two-part, thermally conductive
grouting material. SMOOTHGROUT
THERMAL can be mixed to meet
a range of thermal conductivity
from 0.40 to 1.20 Btu. SMOOTH
GROUT THERMAL has been care -
fully developed as a thermally
conductive grout to heighten the
performance of ground-source,
heat-loop applications.
Advantages
SMOOTHGROUT THERMAL improves
the efficiency and system perform-
ance of ground-source, heat-loop
systems by matching the thermal
conductivity of the surrounding soil
and creating a permanent, flexible
seal to prevent aquifer contamina-
tion. Depending on site soil con -
ditions, SMOOTHGROUT THERMAL
can be mixed and adjusted to meet
individual thermal-conductivity
requirements, improving the transfer
of heat between the fluid circulated
in the loop and the surrounding soil
for optimum system performance.
Methods of addition
Place freshwater in a paddle-mixing
tank of a commercial grout mixer.
Start the grout mixer paddle, and
add one 50-lb (22.7-kg) bag of
SMOOTHGROUT THERMAL high-solids
bentonite to the water. Mix for
about 1 min. Add silica sand at a
steady rate (1 to 2 min), and con-
tinue mixing for about 2 min to
obtain a consistent mixture. Pump
with a positive-displacement pump
through a tremie pipe at a rate of 5
to 15 gal/min (18.9 to 56.8 L/min).
Limitations
Makeup water salinity and hard-
ness will determine mixing ability
of the product.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
SMOOTHGROUT THERMAL is
packaged in 50-lb (22.7-kg) bags.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grayish powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.62
Thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4 to 1.20 Btu
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
K Btu/hr Silica Water Weight lb/gal Total
ft F lb (kg) gal (L) Yield (kg/L) solids %
0.40 0 (0) 14 (53) 16.4 10.2 (1.22) 30
0.80 150 (68) 17 (64) 26.2 13.1 (1.57) 58.5
0.90 200 (91) 19 (72) 30.4 13.4 (1.61) 61.2
1.0 300 (136) 22 (83) 38 14 (1.68) 65.2
1.2 350 (159) 25 (95) 43.3 14.1 (1.68) 65.7
124
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
TACKLE
TACKLE
*
liquid polymer is a low-
molecular-weight, anionic thinner
designed to deflocculate a wide
range of water-base drilling fluids.
This concentrated aqueous product
has proven itself in applications
from the surface to total depth.
While it is frequently used as a
shallow-hole thinner to knock
the fluff out of spud mud, it also
maintains effective performance in
more complex systems. This syn-
thetic additive has a high tempera-
ture limit and is not subject to
bacterial degradation.
Applications
TACKLE liquid polymer is an effective
additive for reducing and stabilizing
viscosity in a wide range of systems.
It is most effective in freshwater flu-
ids that are low in soluble calcium.
TACKLE polymer is used most often
in high-temperature applications
and in low-solids, non-dispersed,
polymer muds such as the POLY-PLUS
system. Normal treatments range
from 0.1 to 2 lb/bbl (0.3 to 5.7 kg/m
3
).
Advantages
An effective deflocculant in fresh-
water, KCl and seawater fluids:
Thermally stable to >400 F
(>204 C)
Not subject to bacterial
degradation
Effective in weighted or
unweighted fluids and com -
patible with both non-dispersed
and dispersed systems
Works well as a deflocculant in
POLY-PLUS polymer mud systems
Compatible with most common
mud additives
A concentrated liquid thinner,
easily added to the mud system
through the mud hopper or
directly into the surface system
Limitations
Highly anionic additive precipitated
by high concentrations of divalent
cations such as calcium and mag -
nesium. Total hardness must be
maintained below 200 mg/L with
soda ash.
Should not be used in calcium
systems such as lime, gyp or
untreated seawater muds that
have high soluble calcium
Effectiveness is limited in
high-solids mud
Initial treatments with TACKLE
additive can actually increase vis-
cosity when the concentration is
very low, ~0.1 lb/bbl (~0.3 kg/m
3
).
Dilution to reduce the solids,
in conjunction with continued
treatments with TACKLE additive,
reduces viscosity
Pilot tests are recommended prior
to treating with this product
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
TACKLE liquid polymer is packaged
in 5-gal (18.9-L) cans.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amber to brown liquid
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 to 1.3
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >212 F (>99 C) (PMCC)
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
MAXGEL
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
126
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
MAX GEL
*
viscosifier is a premium
220-bbl yield Wyoming bentonite
blended with special extenders,
capable of yielding more than
twice as much viscosity as regu -
lar Wyoming bentonite. MAX GEL
viscosifier is an easily mixed,
superior Wyoming sodium ben-
tonite for freshwater drilling
and boring applications.
Applications
MAX GEL viscosifier is used in
the following applications to
rapidly build mud viscosity and
provide superior hole cleaning,
as well as to help control lost cir -
culation, formation sloughing
and promote hole stability in
unconsolidated formations:
Potable-water wells
Mineral exploration (coring and
rotary drilling)
Horizontal directional drilling
Blast holes
Shaft drilling
Monitor/observation wells
Gel-foam, air-drilling applications
Advantages
Yields more quickly than
API-standard bentonite
Non-toxic and proven suitable for
use in drilling potable water wells
Higher penetration rates than
regular bentonite systems due
to lower solids content
Reduced transportation and stor-
age costs as a result of less product
required for treatment
Finer grind to enable rapid mixing
Limitations
Loses effectiveness in water
containing >7,500 mg/L sodium
chloride/240 mg/L calcium.
If dispersants or thinners are
to be used, they should be added
sparingly, using 50% or less of the
normal treatment.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
MAX GEL bentonite is packaged in
50-lb (22.7-kg), multi-walled, paper
sacks and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location (slip hazard
when wet) and minimize dust (use
dustless systems for handling, stor-
age and cleanup). Material can be
palletized at either 56 sacks/pallet
or 70 sacks/pallet.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.5
Approximate yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 bbl/ton
Drilling application/desired results lb/100 gal lb/bbl kg/m
3
Normal drilling 15 25 6 11 15 30
In gravel or other poorly
consolidated formation 25 40 12 18 35 50
Lost-circulation control 35 45 15 20 40 45
Added to freshwater mud to improve
hole-cleaning properties, increase hole
stability and develop filter cakes 5 10 2 5 6 14
Typical Amounts of MAX GEL Additions Added to Freshwater
RINGFREE
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H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
RINGFREE
*
additive is a highly effi-
cient, thermally stable thinner and
surface-active agent that removes
bentonite clays from the drillstring.
It is environmentally acceptable
and contains no heavy metals.
Because it dissolves rapidly,
RINGFREE additive immediately
affects the rheology of most
drilling fluids.
Applications
RINGFREE additive is used primarily
to prevent bit balling and mud
rings. It can also be used to reduce
the viscosity and gel strengths of
most freshwater drilling fluids.
Advantages
RINGFREE additive is an excellent
clay dispersant that quickly pene-
trates sticky clays that can cause
tools to stick
Works quickly to alleviate hole
problems and reduce costly
pulling times or lost pipe
Methods of addition
Bit balling/mud rings: Use
vis cup (0.5 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L)
of fluid up to 0.5 to 1.5 gal (1.9
to 5.7 L) per 300 gal (1,135 L) of
fluid. An alternate method is to
slug rods with 1 vis cup (1 L)
on connections.
Thinning: Slowly add RINGFREE
additive to the mud as needed to
reduce viscosity.
Limitations
Effectiveness is reduced in fluids
with more than 1,000 ppm dis-
solved calcium and 10,000 ppm
chlorides. Since RINGFREE additive
reduces mud rheology, caution
should be exercised when adding
it to the active mud system.
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
RINGFREE additive is packaged in
5-gal (18.9-L) buckets.
Store in a well-ventilated
area away from sources of heat
or ignition.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pale yellow liquid
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
pH as supplied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 7.5
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
M-I GEL
128
H D D M I N I N G A N D W A T E R W E L L : N S F C E R T I F I E D P R O D U C T S
M-I GEL
*
viscosifier is a premium-
grade bentonite (a sodium mont-
morillonite clay) that will yield 91
to 100 bbl of 15-cP mud per ton
(1.7 m
3
/100 kg). It is used as a pri-
mary filter-cake-building, filtration-
control and suspension agent in
freshwater systems, and has appli-
cation in all water-base mud sys-
tems. M-I GEL viscosifier is a
high-quality product which meets
the ISO 13500 Clause 9 (formerly
known as API Spec 13A, Section 9)
specifications for bentonite.
Applications
M-I GEL viscosifier is a cost-effective
means of achieving viscosity, fluid-
loss control and filter-cake quality
in freshwater and seawater muds.
Typical concentrations for M-I GEL
viscosifier range from 5 to 35 lb/bbl
(14.3 to 100 kg/m
3
).
As with all bentonite products,
the yield decreases as water salinity
increases. In muds containing more
than 10,000 mg/L chlorides, the per-
formance of M-I GEL viscosifier is
significantly reduced unless prehy-
drated in freshwater before adding
to the mud system.
Advantages
Hydrates more than other types
of clays and is best for generating
viscosity, developing gels for sus-
pension and controlling filtration
Small particle size, unique flat
shape and high surface area of
hydrated M-I GEL viscosifier
provides superior filtration
characteristics
Promotes the deposition of
thin, compressible filter cakes
in the wellbore
Limitations
Performance reduced in salty
(>5,000 mg/L Cl

) or hard
(>240 mg/L Ca
++
) waters due
to decreased hydration
Toxicity and handling
Bioassay information is available
upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemi-
cal, wearing protective equipment
and observing the precautions as
described in the Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS).
Packaging and storage
M-I GEL viscosifier is packaged in
100-lb (45.4-kg), multi-walled, paper
sacks, 88-lb (40-kg) sacks, big bags
and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry, well-ventilated
area. Keep container closed. Store
away from incompatibles. Follow
safe warehousing practices regard-
ing palletizing, banding, shrink-
wrapping and/or stacking.
Typical physical properties
Physical appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light tan/gray-green powder
Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 to 2.6
Bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 to 52 lb/ft
3
(769 to 833 kg/m
3
)
ISO 135000 Clause 9 Specifications:
Suspension properties
(Suspension of 22.5 g into 350 cm
3
water):
Viscometer dial reading at 600 fpm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, min.
Yield point/plastic viscosity ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, max.
Filtrate volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 cm
3
, max.
Residue >75 (wet screen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% wt, max.
Certified to
NSF/ANSI 60
DRILLING
SOLUTIONS
WELLBORE
PRODUCTIVITY
ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS
2008 M-I L.L.C. All rights reserved. *Mark of M-I L.L.C.
Wellsite and project
engineering
Simulation software
Drilling-fluid systems
and additives
ALPINE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS*
FEDERAL* Wholesale
HDD Mining & Waterwell
Technical support
Cuttings transport
and handling
Cuttings treatment
Mud mixing
Oilfield screens
Pressure control
Rig-equipment engineering
Rig instrumentation
Solids control
Waste injection
Engineering/simulation
software
Reservoir drill-in fluids
Fluid-loss-control systems
Intervention fluids
Packer fluids
Breakers
Spacers and
displacement chemicals
Specialized tools
Completion fluids
Filtration
Enhanced fluids treatment
Vessel cleaning
Oilfield/production
chemicals
Chemical management
H
2
S removal
Drag reduction
Produced water
management
Production-tank cleaning
Production waste
management
Water treatment
Cuttings transport
and handling
Cuttings treatment
Enhanced fluids treatment
Mud mixing
Oilfield screens
Pressure control
Production waste
management
Rig-equipment engineering
Rig instrumentation
Solids control
Vessel cleaning
Waste injection
Water treatment
PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGIES
A complete array of services available worldwide
www.miswaco.com
129
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Integrated Package Delivery
130
R I G - E Q U I P M E N T E N G I N E E R I N G

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Any well or DWM project where there
is room for improvement in drilling
time, production rates, environmental
issues and overall costs.

P R O B L E M S
When equipment and process-
control systems have not been
fully integrated, overlap of effort,
ineffective project management, lost
time and increased environmental
risk result.

S O L U T I O N S
Integrated Package Delivery in the
areas of fluids, drilling waste man-
agement equipment and process-
control encourages the use of flexi ble
yet defined processes working in
concert. From in-depth project
understanding to strategic manage-
ment, the solutions afforded by IPD
enable seamless operations.

E C O N O M I C S
As part of a realistic, unified plan,
project-specific bulk-handling and
drilling waste management pack-
ages result in reduced costs of
shared materials and spares,
improved operational efficiency,
and reduced risk.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
Integrated equipment and process-
control packages help ensure the
right balance between production
and environmental impact.
Reduce risk. Lower costs.
Get meas urable, improved
results on your next project.
Those are the exact results that
the M-I SWACO Integrated Package
Delivery (IPD) capabilities deliver
through integrated mud mixing,
fluids processing, drilling and
Drilling Waste Management
(DWM). We can apply this inte gra-
tion to our drilling and DWM prod-
uct lines across the globe, helping
you succeed in harsh environments,
where extended life requirements
of assets and facilities matter most,
where QHSE issues demand contin-
ual close attention, and where it
makes good business sense to
reduce spares.
As the worlds largest supplier of
drilling and completion fluids and
drilling waste management equip-
ment, M-I SWACO can take you
from flowline to ultimate reuse
or disposal as a logical extension
of our vast knowledge of fluid tech-
nology and management. Our
Aberdeen-based IPD organization
manages the design, procurement,
manufacture, installation and com-
missioning of custom-built, inte-
grated equipment packages for
M-I SWACO operations worldwide.
The team also has offices in Houston,
Stavanger, Volgograd and Singapore.
Features and Benefits
Meet goals faster and more effi-
ciently through informed, up-to-
the-minute engineering decisions
Achieve higher-quality results
from improved project insight
Maximize the drilling fluids
program through detailed
engineering equipment
design and process
Reduce non-productive
time through remote control
and monitoring
Mitigate QHSE incidents through
preliminary planning, removal
of personnel from hazardous
environments and consistent
documentation
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
Solids-Control Systems
131
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131
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : S O L I D S - C O N T R O L S Y S T E M S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Onshore and offshore rigs where
an integrated approach to fluids
and cuttings processing is needed to
maximize the operational efficiency
of the drilling rig.

P R O B L E M S
The design of some solids-control
systems does not reflect changes in
technology, regulatory requirements
and the increasing operational chal-
lenges of drilling in new frontiers.

S O L U T I O N S
M-I SWACO has proven experience in
fluids-related technologies, advanced
research and development in solids
control, systems knowledge and
capabilities, and QHSE excellence.

E C O N O M I C S
By optimizing the solids-control
system design and integration
with our fluids knowledge, we
improve drilling efficiency and
reduce operational costs.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
M-I SWACO solids-control and
cuttings-handling systems are
customized to meet local compli-
ance and regulatory guidelines.
Improve drilling efficiency
and environmental compliance
with an integrated solids-
control system
The goal of all modern solids-
control systems is to reduce overall
well costs through the efficient
removal of drilled solids while
reducing and minimizing the loss
of drill fluids. Additional goals
include worker health and safety
and environmental compliance.
The key to designing the best
systems in the market comes down
to working with the rig designers,
contractors, operators and ship
yards to provide the best in class.
To operate each type of equipment
so that the maximum separation
efficiency is achieved requires a lot
of thought, and many factors must
be considered. The quantity and
sizing of equipment must be specific
so that the efficiency of the solids-
control system can be maximized
through data such as final volume
of mud accumulated while drilling,
total volume of solids removed and
fluid dilution rates. The greater per-
centage of drill solids removed and
drilling fluid preserved, the higher
the operating efficiency.
Mud returns
with drill
solids
Header boxes
designed with
controlled flow
distribution
and purpose-built
controls
Latest shaker and
screening
technology

Clean
mud


Drill
solids
Waste
disposal
Delivering solutions
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
Mud-Mixing System
132
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : M U D M I X I N G

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Onshore and offshore rigs where
logistics demand that drilling and
completion fluids be mixed onsite
with the same degree of safety,
accuracy and thoroughness as
fluids mixed at a mud plant.

P R O B L E M S
Manually introducing drilling-fluid
additives to the fluid stream can
pose health hazards, can result in
inaccurate mixtures and can reduce
the productivity of rig personnel.

S O L U T I O N S
The customizable mud-mixing sys-
tem from M-I SWACO is designed,
manufactured and installed by
people with a thorough under -
standing of the mixing process
and the attendant health, safety
and environmental issues.

E C O N O M I C S
The safety, accuracy, automation and
design features of the M-I SWACO
Mud-Mixing system result in
increased worker safety and the
savings in time and money that
result from the systems features.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The enclosures and automated fea-
tures on system components greatly
reduce the exposure of rig personnel
to potentially hazardous materials.
Regardless of rig size or project
complexity, M-I SWACO will use
our operational and engineering
experience to design a system that
meets the customers and market
expectations. We will then engi-
neer, fabricate and commission
the mud-mixing system required
to perform efficiently and safely.
Whether its a single HIRIDE* educ-
tor, or a fully automated, touch-
screen-controlled, multifunction
system, it will deliver the best
performance available.
If one quality best describes the
system, it is versatility. Originally
conceived for mixing drilling fluids,
an M-I SWACO system can be
designed for completion fluids as
well. Rugged construction, using
low-temperature carbon steel and
stainless steel, ensures long life in
hostile environments. All compo-
nents feature a minimized footprint
and the flexibility to be positioned
as rig space dictates.
System components
Solids induction
Bulk-bag-additive unit
Surge tank
Automatic sack slitter
and pallet lifter
HIRIDE
*
eductor
HISIDE
*
blender (rental)
Liquids injection
Caustic soda mix tank
Chemical-additive unit
System control The overall
control system for the fluids-
mixing package consists of a
Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC) control cabinet networked
via Ethernet to a server panel
holding two redundant server
PCs, a logger PC and viewer
monitors. A maintenance and
diagnostic Profibus MPI network
is provided for diagnostic and
maintenance tasks.
The Mud-Mixing system runs on
Cimplicity Plant Edition^ which is
run on the Windows XP^ operating
system as the main SCADA package.
A Microsoft SQL server is configured
as the logging PC to afford reliable
historic data logging and retrieval.
User interface and system control
is achieved via a trackball/mouse
and keyboard. All communications
between the application PLCs and the
workstations are controlled via the
M-I SWACO dual redundant servers.
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
^Cimplicity Plant Edition is a mark of GE Fanuc Automation.
^Windows XP is a mark of Microsoft Corporation.
MEERKATPTShale Shaker
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133
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : S H A K E R S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Drilling rigs and separation
operations where space is at a
premium and performance
requirements are high.

P R O B L E M S
Because drilling rates and condi-
tions change as drilling progresses,
solids-control equipment must han-
dle varying solids characteristics.
When premium drilling fluids are
used, maximum fluids recovery is
of critical concern.

S O L U T I O N S
The dual-motion MEERKAT
*
PT
shaker not only manages the high
cuttings volumes associated with
surface hole sections (linear motion),
it can change on the fly to balanced
elliptical motion for longer cuttings-
retention times. Shaker performance
gets an extra boost from M-I SWACO
specialists and field personnel who
provide expert advice and service.

E C O N O M I C S
The generous throughput capacity
of the shaker can handle cuttings
loads generated by high ROP, saving
rig time. The balanced elliptical
motion recovers greater amounts
of valuable drilling fluid, produces
drier cuttings for easier disposal
and prolongs screen life.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The MEERKAT PT shaker processes
cuttings more thoroughly than con-
ventional units, producing cuttings
that require less treatment for dis-
posal. The thorough processing also
reduces the need for dilution which
results in smaller waste volumes.
The flexibility of dual motion
The dual-motion shale shaker
that adapts as solids change
M-I SWACO has combined linear
and balanced elliptical motion tech-
nology to create the revo lu tion ary
MEERKAT PT dual-motion shaker.
The design incor porates a 0.6-hp
vibrator motor that allows it to
perform on an unparalleled level.
But as drilling conditions change,
the MEERKAT PT dual-motion shaker
can be adjusted on the fly. Simply
flipping a switch on the control
box reconfigures the shaker from
linear to balanced ellip tical motion.
There is no need to suspend or
shut down operations. With the
MEERKAT PT shaker oper ating in the
gentler balanced ellip tical mode,
solids encounter reduced G-forces
and longer screen residence time.
This results in drier solids, improved
drilling-fluid recovery, longer screen
life and reduced operating costs.
Features and Benefits
Units can be customized to meet
both tight-space requirements
and high-performance criteria
All configurations are compact
and modular
Linear motion for fast con-
veyance and heavy loading;
balanced elliptical motion for
maximum retention time and
drier cuttings
Elliptical motion at the flip
of a switch without stopping
the shaker
Balanced basket functions flaw-
lessly in either linear or balanced
elliptical mode, with dry, light
loads or wet, heavy loads
Most reliable mechanical jack-
ing system in the industry
simple and easy to use; requires
no pinning
Unique distribution box option
can replace flowline possum
belly, providing increased
handling capacity and
dampening the velocity
of fluid from the flowline
Pre-tensioned composite
screens for fast screen changes
and overall ease of use
Ultra-tight seal between screen
and screen bed eliminates solids
buildup and costly bypass of solids
Largest net-usable screen
area among shakers of similar
footprint: 15.9 ft
2
(1.5 m
2
)
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
MONGOOSEPTLinear- and Dual-Motion Shale Shaker
134
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : S H A K E R S
1
Patents applicable to MONGOOSE PT include
6,485,640; 6,513,664; 6,679,385; 6,746,602; 6,838,008.

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Onshore and offshore projects
where shaker size is a significant
issue and where cuttings with
varying quantities and properties
are experienced.

P R O B L E M S
Because drilling rates and conditions
change as a well progresses, solids-
control equipment must handle
varying solids characteristics. When
premium drilling fluids are used,
maximum fluids recovery is of
critical concern.

S O L U T I O N S
The dual-motion MONGOOSE
*
PT
shaker not only manages the high
cuttings volumes associated with
surface hole sections (linear motion),
it can change on the fly to balanced
ellip tical motion for longer cuttings-
retention times. Shaker performance
gets an extra boost from M-I SWACO
engineers and field personnel who
provide expert advice and service.

E C O N O M I C S
The generous throughput capacity
of the shaker can handle cuttings
loads generated by high ROP, saving
rig time. The balanced elliptical
motion recovers greater amounts
of valuable drilling fluid, produces
drier cuttings for easier disposal
and prolongs screen life.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The MONGOOSE PT shaker processes
cuttings more thoroughly than con -
ventional units, producing cuttings
that require less treatment for dis-
posal. The thorough processing also
reduces the need for dilution which
results in smaller waste volumes.
The flexibility
of dual motion
The dual-motion shale shaker
that adapts as solids change
M-I SWACO has combined linear
and balanced elliptical motion tech-
nology to create the revo lu tion ary
MONGOOSE PT dual-motion shaker.
The MONGOOSE PT design incor po-
rates a 0.6-hp vibrator motor
1
that allows it to perform on an
unparalleled level.
But as drilling conditions change,
the MONGOOSE PT dual-motion
shaker can be adjusted on the fly.
Simply flipping a switch on the con-
trol box reconfigures the shaker
from linear to balanced ellip tical
motion. There is no need to suspend
or shut down operations. With the
MONGOOSE PT shaker operating
in the gentler balanced ellip tical
mode, solids encounter reduced
G-forces and longer screen resi-
dence time. This results in drier
solids, improved drilling-fluid
recovery, longer screen life and
reduced operating costs.
The economy of linear motion
The dual-motor MONGOOSE PT
linear-motion shaker is especially
effective while drilling top-hole
sections where heavy, high-volume
solids are usually encountered. In
these intervals, shakers need to
generate high G-forces to effec -
tively move dense solids across
the screens.
Features and Benefits
Linear motion for fast con-
veyance and heavy loading;
balanced elliptical motion for
maximum retention time and
drier cuttings
Elliptical motion at the flip
of a switch without stopping
the shaker
Balanced basket functions
flawlessly in either linear or
balanced elliptical mode, with
dry, light loads or heavy loads
Most reliable mechanical
jacking system in the industry
simple and easy to use; requires
no pinning
Unique distribution box option
can replace flowline possum
belly, providing increased
handling capacity and
dampening the velocity
of fluid from the flowline
Pre-tensioned composite screens
for fast screen changes and
overall ease of use
Ultra-tight seal between screen
and screen bed eliminates solids
buildup and costly bypass of
solids
Largest net-usable screen area
among shakers of similar
footprint: 21.2 ft
2
(1.97 m
2
)
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
BEM-650 Shale Shaker
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135
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : S H A K E R S
Features and Benefits
Patented
1
, balanced elliptical
motion produces a drier cuttings
discharge and results in improved
separation efficiency
Stainless steel construction
reduces maintenance costs as
a result of low corrosion
State-of-the-art motion genera-
tors are oilfield proven and
require minimal maintenance
Flowback pan between top
and bottom decks maximizes
effective screening area
Integral scalping deck improves
process capacity, reduces installa-
tion costs and improves primary
deck screen life
Gumbo slide design minimizes
gumbo buildup
Dual-angle bottom deck
improves separation of
water-base-mud cuttings
Shallow header tank delivers
better fluids distribution to
screens with no solids settling
Sloping sump design with left
and/or right discharge minimizes
settling of ultra-fines
Meets certification requirements
at highest level ATEX, NORSOK,
CE and UL-rated versions available
Low operational noise levels
ensure safety
Extra-long drip lips
Easy-to-install optional vapor-
extraction hood reduces operator
exposure to vapors associated
with drilling fluids
M-I SWACO design and service
organization provides assistance
with rig installation surveys,
flow-distribution design to shak-
ers, as well as shaker house and
solids- control system design
Flow-Distribution Box
Detachable flow-distribution box
with built-in lift points allows for
flexible installation
Allows true, cold installation to
10-in. (254-mm) pipe flange
No welding, torch cutting or
grinding is necessary
Two large slide gates, with reliable
tab/slot locators, reduce tendency
to clog with gumbo
Controls
Control panel, with simple
start/stop button is suitable for
remote operation, reducing oper-
ator exposure to vapors associ-
ated with drilling fluids
Easy-to-use pneumohydraulic
deck-angle adjustment
2
reduces
mud losses from screens
Bed-angle indicator aids accurate
adjustment of basket angle
Screen Technology
Composite screen technology
increases effective open area,
improves process capacity and
maximizes screen life
Special, lightweight screen
design allows for easier
screen handling
Pre-tensioned screens (top and
bottom decks) allow for quicker
screen changes
All screens front load to improve
operator safety
Screen-Clamping System
Operated by single three-way,
three-position SST ball valve
Pressure regulator permanently
set to proper operating pressure
Pneumatic quick clamping
of screens
3
for quick screen-
changing operations
Screen clamping and angle
adjustment operated by rig air
supply, lowering maintenance
and utilities
All components bolt on
Clamp blade axles cast into part
with larger shaft size
Clamp blade receivers have
tighter tolerance and increased
materials depth
Two Inspection/Cleanout Ports
Removable cover allows easy
access for rear-screen inspection
and maintenance
Contains splashing and prevents
fluid loss during surges
Improves access to rear
clamp blades
1
Vibratory Screen Separator U.S. Patent No. 5,265,730
2
Patent pending
3
U.S. Patent No. 6,513,665
650

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Offshore and onshore projects
where more effective fluids/solids
separation is required in addition
to the reduction of costs related to
shaker performance.

P R O B L E M S
Conventional shakers exhibit one
or more or all of the following:
inefficient solids handling and fluid
recovery, screen blinding, premature
screen wear and safety issues.

S O L U T I O N S
The BEM-650* shaker is the third-
generation balanced elliptical motion
shale shaker from M-I SWACO. It pro-
vides better solids removal and fluid
recovery with less screen wear while
occupying a relatively small footprint.

E C O N O M I C S
Significantly drier cuttings,
improved solids removal and fluid
recovery at high feed rates, longer
screen life and minimal downtime
add up to significant savings.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
More efficient fluids/solids separa-
tion results in significantly smaller
disposal volumes of dryer cuttings.
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
High-Volume Mud Cleaners
136
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : M U D C L E A N E R S
The M-I SWACO line of mud clean-
ers consists of a two-stage separa-
tion process using a combination
of hydrocyclones mounted over a
shale shaker to operate as a single
unit. Designed to handle the entire
circulating volume, mud cleaners
are effective on both weighted and
unweighted drilling-fluid systems
in removing and drying solids
while retaining the expensive
liquid. The hydrocyclones make
the primary separation with
underflow directed onto the
shakers vibrating screen. Used
correctly, the M-I SWACO mud
cleaners lower both drilling-fluid
and disposal costs.
Versatile. M-I SWACO mud cleaners
can be configured with an M-I SWACO
D-SILTER
*
, a D-SANDER
*
or both over
a high-performance shaker to
process weighted or unweighted
drilling-fluid systems.
Environmentally efficient.
Removing and drying drilled solids
helps meet environmental regula-
tions by minimizing waste gener-
ated and reducing disposal costs.
Minimizes maintenance.
Continuous removal of sand and
abrasive cuttings from drilling
fluids cuts downtime and reduces
repair and replacement of worn
parts on downstream equipment.
Wide range of mud cleaners
for your drilling-fluid system.
M-I SWACO mud cleaners are avail-
able in a variety of configurations.
The Model 6T4 (12 clone), Model
8T4 (16 clone) and Model 10T4
(20 clone) D-SILTERS, when matched
with an M-I SWACO shale shaker,
provide processing rates from
900 to 1,500 GPM (3,406.9 to
5,678.1 L/min). The Model 2-12
D-SANDER, when matched with
an M-I SWACO shaker, provides
processing capabilities to
1,000 GPM (3,785.4 L/min).
The three-in-one Model 2-12
D-SANDER and Model 6T4 (12
clone) D-SILTER mounted over an
M-I SWACO high-performance
shaker provides the most versa tile
separation combination package
with rates of 1,000 and 900 GPM
(3,785.4 and 3,406.9 L/min) respectively.
Works with oil-
or water-base muds
M-I SWACO mud cleaners are
designed to work with either
oil- or water-base weighted muds,
as well as with either dispersed
or non-dispersed muds. They are
also effective on unweighted
drilling-fluid systems, removing
fine drilled solids while retaining
expensive liquid phases. Field-
proven, M-I SWACO mud cleaners
are especially effective in controlling
drilled solids and retaining expen-
sive barite when used in conjunc -
tion with M-I SWACO fine-screen
shale shakers and centrifuges.
Features and Benefits
Assists with environmental
compliances
Cuts downtime and
reduces repair
Complete product
line provides diverse
configuration options
Field-proven performance
Lowers drilling-fluid and
disposal costs
Minimizes maintenance on
downstream equipment
Compatible with oil-
or water-base muds
Effective in controlling
drilled solids and retaining
expensive barite
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
414 CENTRIFUGE
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137
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : C E N T R I F U G E S
The M-I SWACO 414 CENTRIFUGE
*
delivers high performance and
lowoperating costs for oilfield
and industrial mud and fluids-
handling applications. This highly
efficient decanting centrifuge
recovers up to 95% of barite and
returns it to the active system, while
rejecting finer, low-gravity solids.
The advanced design of the stain-
less steel bowl and scroll maintains
an even layer of conveyed solids
for more uniform separation and
maximum solids-control efficiency.
Features and Benefits
The M-I SWACO 414 CENTRIFUGE
precision equipment engineered to
handle rugged oilfield service.
Liquid zone Drying zone
Liquid return to active Pool Beach Solids discard
Whole mud feed
Balanced scroll design increases
recovery capacity
Efficient operation processes up
to 140 GPM (530 L/min) with a
6- to 10-micron cut on weighted
mud systems; processes up
to 250 GPM (946.4 L/min) with
a 5- to 7-micron cut point on
unweighted mud
Stainless steel bowl, scroll
compartment and cover to
resist corrosion and abrasion
Tungsten-carbide scroll points
with wide spacing of flights at
the narrow end create a finer
layer of conveyed solids for
more uniform separation
under high G-forces
Precision balanced to run at high
RPMs for extended periods with
greater efficiency, minimizing
maintenance and downtime
Operating safety controls include
self-limiting vibration and torque
switches to protect against cata-
strophic failure
Variable speed electro-hydraulic
backdrive is available as an
option for the 414 CENTRIFUGE
Recovers up to 95% of barite,
minimizing costly additions
while maintaining prescribed
mud weights
Rejects finer, low-gravity solids
from drilling fluids
Cost-efficient operation
reduces discard volume versus
dilution displacement alterna-
tives 30 to 60% depending upon
mud weights
Ideal for use with weighted or
unweighted mud systems
Rugged construction and
corrosion-resistant materials
provide long service life and
lowmaintenance costs in the
toughest oilfield environments
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
518 CENTRIFUGE
138
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : C E N T R I F U G E S
The M-I SWACO 518 CENTRIFUGE* is
the premier high-speed, decanting
centrifuge for drilling-mud and
fluids-handling applications.
Ruggedly built for oilfield and
industrial service, it is especially
effective in environmentally sen -
sitive areas. It delivers high fluid-
recovery rates and efficient solids
control to significantly reduce the
costs of makeup fluids and disposal.
The M-I SWACO 518 CENTRIFUGE
is precision-balanced for smooth
operation over long periods at
speeds of 1,900 to 3,250 RPM,
generating centrifugal forces
up to 2,100 Gs.
How it works
Features and Benefits
Innovative design includes longer
bowl for increased retention
time, resulting in drier solids and
finer cut points
Tungsten carbide scroll points
with wide spacing flights at
tapered end create a finer layer
of conveyed solids for consistent,
uniform separation and maxi-
mum solids-control efficiency
Stainless steel bowl, scroll, com-
partment and cover resist corro-
sion and provide long service life
Precision balanced to run at high
RPMs for extended periods with
greater efficiency, minimizing
maintenance and downtime
Skid mounted, low profile
minimizes space requirements
Effectively removes the finest
silts and returns valuable fluids
for reuse
Reduces makeup fluids, dilution,
cleanup and disposal costs
Ideal for any solids-control appli-
cation; especially valuable in
environmentally sensitive areas
Rugged construction and
corrosion-resistant materials
provide long service life and
lowmaintenance costs in the
toughest oilfield environments
Works efficiently with other
M-I SWACO equipment to
maximize solids control
The heart of an M-I SWACO cen-
trifuge is its high-speed, precision-
balanced rotating stainless-steel
bowl. Inside the bowl, a double-
lead spiral-screw conveyor rotates
in the same direction as the bowl
but at a slightly slower RPM.
Feed slurry enters through a
hollow axle at the narrow end
and is distributed to the bowl.
Centrifugal force as high as 500 Gs
at 1,900 RPM (or 2,100 Gs at 3,250
RPM) holds the slurry against the
bowl wall in a pool. Trapped silt
and sand-sized particles settle
and spread against the bowl wall
where they are conveyed to the
solids underflow discharge ports
by tungsten-carbide-tipped scroll
flights. Silt and sand particles
exit damp, but with no free liq-
uid. The free-liquid phase carries
the fine, 2- to 3-micron-size par ti-
cles through the nonplugging
stainless steel and tungsten-
carbide hardfaced-discharge ports.
Liquid zone Drying zone
Liquid return to active Pool Beach Solids discard
Whole
mud feed
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
CD-500CENTRIFUGE
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139
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : C E N T R I F U G E S
High-volume solids removal.
The CD-500 CENTRIFUGE can process
up to 200 GPM (757.1 L/min) of
drilling fluid.
Variable bowl speed. The bowl
speed can be adjusted infinitely
from 379 Gs at 1,200 RPM to
2,066 Gs at 2,800 RPM to control
particle separation (cut point)
for improved solids removal or
cleaner effluent:
At 1,600 RPM and feed rates
of 200 GPM (757.1 L/min), it
provides a D
90
cut point of 8 to
12 microns, depending upon
the composition of the mud
At 2,800 RPM and feed rates of
100 GPM, (378.5 L/min) it provides
a D
90
cut point of 3 to 6 microns,
depending upon the composition
of the mud
Variable-speed pump. Calibrating
pump speed with feed rate allows
an optimum relationship between
the two variables that improves
solids-control efficiency.
Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC). The PLC makes and monitors
speed adjustments and may be
housed within an explosion-proof
enclosure. RPM readouts of the con-
veyor and bowl are displayed at the
control panel.
Tungsten-carbide scroll points.
Tungsten-carbide hardfaced points
at the tapered end of the scroll
protect the conveyor against wear.
Specially designed, widely
spaced flights. Conveyor pitch
in the conical section is designed
to reduce plugging and promote
maximum solids removal at high-
differential speeds.
Stainless steel components. The
stainless steel bowl, scroll, compart-
ment and cover resist corrosion and
provide long service life.
Operating safety controls. Safety
features include self-limiting vibra-
tion and torque switches to protect
against catastrophic failure known
to occur in other high-speed
centrifuges.
Drive options. The centrifuge
can be supplied with a number
of drives: standard electric, PLC-
controlled ; variable-frequency drive;
or hydraulic drive.
Mounting options. For tight-fitting
offshore installations, the centri fuge
can be supplied with a pedestal
mount. For land applications, the
low-mount design allows for a
simple centrifuge stand with
one set of handrails.
Features and Benefits
Provides precise control over
the separation process to
accommodate variations in
solids loading and material
sizes; can be regulated to
produce cleaner effluent
High-volume processing
Adjustable speeds on bowl,
scroll and pump
Automatic PLC monitoring
and adjustment compensates
for varied drilling conditions,
while reducing operator
involvement and effort
Allows drilling at high ROP
Runs efficiently at high speeds
for prolonged periods
Rugged construction and
corrosion-resistant materials
provide long service life
and low maintenance costs
in the toughest oilfield
environments
Protection against failure
at high speeds
Reduces solids packoff
Works efficiently with other
M-I SWACO equipment to
maximize solids control
How it works
The heart of the M-I SWACO
CD-500 CENTRIFUGE is its high-
speed, pre cision-balanced rotat-
ing stainless steel bowl. Inside the
bowl, a single-lead spiral-screw
conveyor rotates in the same direc-
tion as the bowl but at a lower RPM.
Feed slurry enters through a
hollow axle at the narrow end
and is distributed to the bowl.
Centrifugal force as high as 379 Gs
at 1,200 RPM (or 2,066 Gs at 2,800
RPM) holds the slurry against the
bowl wall in a pool. Trapped silt
and sand-sized particles settle
and spread against the bowl wall
where they are conveyed to the
solids underflow discharge ports
by the tungsten-carbide-tipped
scroll flights on the conveyor.
Silt and sand particles exit
damp, but with no free liquid.
The cleaned fluid is discharged
through weirs that regulate the
pool depth.
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
CD-600CENTRIFUGE
140
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : C E N T R I F U G E S
The CD-600 CENTRIFUGE
*
from
M-I SWACO is specially engineered
for high-volume drilling. Controlled
and monitored via a Programmable
Logic Controller (PLC), the centrifuge
experiences less solids packoff,
produces cleaner effluents, requires
fewer operating personnel and
features automatic adjustment for
different operating conditions.
A touch screen on the operators
console provides the interface for
monitoring the RPM of the conveyor
and bowl and for adjusting motor
speed. The manual control panel for
the centrifuge has the option for
operating the centrifuge manually
or automatically. The main drive
speed can be adjusted on the touch
screen panel when operating the
CD-600 CENTRIFUGE manually.
Features and Benefits
High processing volumes
Resists packoff
More thorough processing
for cleaner effluents
Requires fewer operating
personnel
Automatically adjusts to
changing drilling conditions
Manual or automatic control
via touch-screen or manual
control panel
Specifications
Physical Data
Bowl size 23.5 x 76 in. (598 x 1,928 mm)
Length 178 in. (4,500 mm)
Width 87 in. (2,210 mm)
Height 85 in. (2,145 mm)
Weight 19,842 lb (9,000 kg)
Rotating Assembly
Length 115 in. (2,911 mm)
Lambda ratio 3.23 (bowl length/
bowl inside diameter)
Weight 2,116 lb (960 kg)
Cylindrical Section
Diameter 23.5 in. (598 mm)
Length 52 in. (1,322 mm)
Material Duplex A890 (4A)
Conical Section
Diameter, large end 23.5 in. (598 mm)
Length 23.9 in. (606 mm)
Diameter, small end 18 in. (450 mm)
Cone angle 7
Material:
Conical section Duplex A890 (4A)
Discharge ports Tungsten carbide
(hard facing/HRC 67)
Overload Protection
Primary Electrical
Secondary Resettable back drive
of the torque limiter
Conveyor
Weight 1,080 lb (490 kg)
Type One lead
Pitch 5.9 in. (150 mm)
Material:
Body Duplex A890 (4A)
Flighting AISI 304 stainless steel
Hard-facing Tungsten carbide
(hard facing/HRC 67)
Gear Box
Type Two-stage ZSPN
621-190-87
(Cyclo SUMITOMO
gear box)
Gear ratio 87:1
Torque 9,330 ft-lb (12,650 Nm)
maximum
Weight 198 lb (90 kg)
Differential speed Variable, 1 to 50 rpm
Control System
Automatic control by PLC
Closed-loop hydraulic power package
with 180-hp electric motor
Touch-screen panel
Area Equivalent
Ae = 2.114 x 10
6
m
2
Theoretical Solids-Conveying Capacity
at 50-rpm Differential Speed
Qs = 38.594 m
3
/hr
Maximum G-force at 2,600-rpm Bowl Speed
G = 2.267 x 10
3
or 2,267 G
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
FLUIDS PROCESSINGSYSTEM(FPS)
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141
S O L I D S C O N T R O L : F L U I D S P R O C E S S I N G S Y S T E M ( F P S )
The FLUIDS PROCESSING SYSTEM
fromM-I SWACO is a complete
solids-control solution from
shale shakers to centrifuges to
D-GASSER units strategically
combined into a single, skid-
mounted unit. Just as important,
every FPS comes with a round-the-
clock service crew, backed by a
system supervisor and on-call
technical services engineers.
System integration. Instead of
a collection of equipment from
various sources, the FPS is a field-
proven network of solids-control
components specifically designed
to function as a single unit.
Custom engineering. M-I SWACO
analyzes well parameters and drill -
ing objectives for each application
and tailors the right combination
of equipment for optimal results.

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Land rigs that require a high degree
of control over the solids-control
function in order to reduce costs,
improve solids-control efficiency
and satisfy the most demanding
environmental requirements.

P R O B L E M S
Despite growing performance and
environmental demands on land
rigs, the solids-control systems on
many rigs are collections of equip-
ment from various sources, with
little or no fine-tuning and real inte-
gration to optimize performance.

S O L U T I O N S
The FLUIDS PROCESSING SYSTEM
*
(FPS*) from M-I SWACO is a complete
solids-control solution from shale
shakers to centrifuges to D-GASSER
units strategically combined into
a single, skid-mounted unit.

E C O N O M I C S
Typical rig-owned solids-control
equipment is less than 50% effec-
tive; the M-I SWACO FPS units
achieve 80 to 90% efficiency
in solids removal and drilling-
fluids recapture.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The system is designed to reduce
or entirely eliminate the need for
reserve pits, minimize waste and
help satisfy the most stringent
environmental requirements.
Features and Benefits
Improved Efficiency and
Processing Rates
M-I SWACO FPS units achieve 80
to 90% efficiency in solids removal
and drilling-fluids recapture
Increased ROP of nearly 40%
Average 37% reduction in
drill bit consumption
An average of 33% faster in
drilling days to TD
Helps prevent lost circulation
Reduces circulation time to
condition mud
Reduces pump maintenance
and downtime
Reduces potential for stuck pipe
and hole problems
Improves well logging, mud circu-
lation and mud conditioning
Cost Savings
Reduces mud costs up to 43%
Reduces costs of transporting
makeup water, diesel and
chemical makeup materials
Significantly reduces site prepa -
ration and restoration costs
Reduces waste haul-off expense
Environmental Advantages
Reduces or entirely eliminates
the need for reserve pits
Minimizes waste
Helps satisfy the most stringent
environmental requirements
Flexibility
Versatile enough for use with
water-, oil- or synthetic-base fluids
Saves transport and assembly time
Equipment Features
Skid shakers and MUD/GAS
SEPARATOR (MGS) together
for one lift
MGS pivots down for easy moving
Hydroclones fold into tanks
Tanks designed for easy cleaning,
easy operating and moving faster
Tanks designed for easy operating
Optional covered tank design to
eliminate roofs
Optional cantilevered skid
(mechanical or hydraulic)
Tanks designed for QHSE issues
Cantilever walkways reduce pinch
points (quicker rig up/down)
Reduces trip hazards by having
valves on side of tank
Reduces operator fatigue
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
CLEANCUTCuttings Collection
142
C U T T I N G S T R A N S P O R T A N D H A N D L I N G
In addition to deeper water depths,
complex logistics and hostile envi-
ronments, offshore operators face
another challenge zero, or near-
zero, discharge of drill solids. With
increasing environmental regula-
tions, operators have had to rethink
the way in which cuttings contami-
nated with oil- and synthetic-base
drilling fluids are handled.
New thinking solves
an old problem
Its not that other companies
havent tried to remediate the cut-
tings disposal situation; they have.
Skip-and-ship, slurrification and
re-injection are just some of the
methods devised for coping with
this situation.
In contrast, the CLEANCUT process
is the comprehensive, economical
solution that is borne of three
decades of proven M-I SWACO
materials handling and worldwide
waste- management expertise. The
result is a complete field-proven
method for containing, handling
and transporting drill cuttings. By
looking at the problem of cuttings
disposal from the operators per-
spective, we have developed a totally
enclosed system for pumping cut-
tings fromshaker to storage,
storage to boat and then from boat
to a receiving station onshore prior
to processing.
The increase in safety and reduc-
tion of environmental exposure is
obvious to even the casual observer.

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Offshore and onshore projects
where large amounts of drill solids
must be handled and stored prior
to shipment.

P R O B L E M S
Under increasingly stringent regu -
lations dictating zero or near-zero
discharge of drill solids, and with
increased concerns of personnel
safety, operators have had to rethink
the way in which cuttings contami-
nated with oil- and synthetic-base
drilling fluids are handled.

S O L U T I O N S
The CLEANCUT
*
process provides a
complete field-proven method for
containing, handling, temporarily
storing and transporting drill cut-
tings within a totally enclosed and
protected environment. Our experi-
enced engineers and technical per-
sonnel ensure that you get the
exact system you need.

E C O N O M I C S
The CLEANCUT system can handle
cuttings generated at high ROP,
reducing and even eliminating
downtime caused by overloaded
processing equipment. The flexi-
ble configuration can be engi-
neered to fit rig layouts with
small equipment footprints.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The totally enclosed system design
prevents exposure of personnel
and the environment to contam i-
nated wastes, even in extreme
arctic and tropical conditions.
Features and Benefits
Safety
Crane lifts are minimized,
improving offshore safety
Conveying is fully enclosed
and automated, with minimum
involvement of personnel
Ease of Use
Flexible installation to
suit rig layout with small
equipment footprints
The system can transfer
rawcuttings at high rates
Cuttings are pumped to
the supply boat through
a quick-connect flexible hose
The ISO-PUMP unit is certified
by DNV for shipping worldwide
as a standard container
Reliability
Dense phase conveying technol-
ogy, now proven in oilfield serv-
ice, has been proven in three
decades of tough service in a
range of industries
All equipment is built and
certified to DNV standards
Environmental Protection
Totally enclosed system
No addition to waste stream
Can encompass the entire
cuttings supply chain
The first total solution from
shaker to process plant
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
VACUUMCOLLECTIONSYSTEM
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143
C U T T I N G S T R A N S P O R T A N D H A N D L I N G
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Rigs and/or other installations
requiring an enclosed system for:
cuttings collection and transporta-
tion; slurrification and re-injection;
rig, pit and tank cleaning; vessel
cleaning; and fluid recovery.

P R O B L E M S
With growing concerns for person-
nel safety, environmental issues
and an increased emphasis on
saving costly rig time, the industry
has required a totally enclosed
system for collecting and storing
drilled cuttings.

S O L U T I O N S
The VACUUMCOLLECTION SYSTEM
*
(VCS*) fromM-I SWACO collects,
moves and stores drilled cuttings
within a totally enclosed envi -
ronment that minimizes spills
and contamination.

E C O N O M I C S
In addition to preventing many
safety and environmental problems,
the VCS is easy to configure to any
rig, requires little or no welding,
and sets up quickly and easily. These
same features allow it to be moved
from one location to another in a
minimal amount of time.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The totally enclosed system mini-
mizes spills and containment prob-
lems, vapor escape or safety issues
that can arise with open systems.
Features and Benefits
Field-Proven
Operated successfully for major
producers around the world
since 1993
Versatile
Suitable for most applications:
cuttings collection and trans-
portation; slurri fication and
re-injection; rig, pit and tank
cleaning; vessel cleaning; and
fluid recovery
Safe
No hazardous moving parts
Fill sensors for automatic shut-off
Vacuum power skid is completely
contained
Customized, non-sparking
blower design with hazardous-
duty class electric motors
Explosion-proof (Class I, Zone I)
30- or 100-hp electric motor
Efficient
Maximizes filling of cuttings-
collection modules
Cuttings collection and disposal
does not interrupt drilling
Conveys fluids and cuttings
horizontally and vertically,
saving valuable rig-floor space
Skid-mounted diaphragm pump
for recycling and fluid transfer
Environmental Compliance
Designed to meet or exceed
future discharge regulations
Total Containment
Contains all
drilling waste streams
Minimizes potential
contamination during drilling
Modular Design
Flexible design allows central rig
location with remote on/off
Suitable for all rig configurations
Simple Installation
Minimal or no welding required
Makes hookup faster and safer
Preinstalled collection pipe serves
multiple collection locations
Equipment tool box with spare
parts includes connections,
pipe, wands and hoses
VERTI-GCuttings Dryer
144
C U T T I N G S T R A N S P O R T A N D H A N D L I N G
In the quest for improved environ-
mental practices, operators need
solids-control solutions that take
liquids/solids separation to a new
level. The VERTI-G cuttings dryer
from M-I SWACO incor porates a
high-speed vertical centrifuge that
achieves maximum liquids/solids
separation in large-volume proc ess-
ing. This gives oper ators a critical
advantage in meeting increasingly
stringent environmental regulations
for offshore cuttings disposal.
The VERTI-G process
Cuttings from shale shakers are con-
veyed to the VERTI-Gdryer through
a variety of site-engineered convey -
ance systems that include gravity
feed, pneumatic transfer, vacuum
transfer and screw conveyors.
The flow of cuttings into the
VERTI-Gcentrifuge is PCL-controlled
and continuously fed to yield opti-
mum liquids/solids separation.
Once cuttings are introduced into
the dryers charge hopper, widely
spaced, independently adjustable
flights continuously direct cuttings
to the screen surface. Flights within
the VERTI-G dryer create a rolling
action that promotes further sep a-
ration and prevents screen plug-
ging. Under high G-forces created
by the large cone diameter, liquids/
solids sep ara tion occurs instantly
as cuttings make contact with the
finer-mesh, high-capacity centri -
fuge screen while producing cleaner
return fluid and drier solids discharge.
Solids are discharged at the
screen bottom and fall by gravity
into the water-flushed cuttings
trough and shunted overboard.
Solids can also be collected for
onshore disposal. Processed liquids
pass through the screen and then
exit through one of two effluent
openings. The fluid is collected and
pumped to the M-I SWACO decant-
ing centrifuge for final processing
and reuse in the active mud system.
Capacity
Typically, VERTI-Gdryers process
up to 60 tons (61 metric tons) of
material per hour.

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Offshore and onshore projects
where the recovery of valuable drill -
ing fluid from cuttings, as well as
recovery of whole mud lost from
shaker failure, rig motion and
screen blinding are priorities.

P R O B L E M S
More stringent cuttings-discharge
regulations have pressured oper a-
tors and drilling contractors to
reduce drilling waste volumes and
recover premium products for reuse.

S O L U T I O N S
The VERTI-G* cuttings dryer features
a state-of-the-art design that can
process varying amounts of cuttings
and fluids, typically up to 60 tons
(61 metric tons) per hour. Dry solids
discharged from the dryer are typi-
cally <5% oil content by wet weight.

E C O N O M I C S
The VERTI-Gcuttings dryer improves
overall cost-efficiency, producing
reduced amounts of extremely dry
cuttings for disposal and recovering
valuable fluid for reuse. It is effective
with water-, oil- and synthetic-base
drilling fluids.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The VERTI-Gdryer minimizes waste
volumes, dramatically reducing dis-
posal costs and ensuring compliance
with local regulations.
Features and Benefits
Superior Environmental
Performance
Highly effective liquids/solids
separation minimizes fluid
content of cuttings
Reduces waste-disposal
volumes
Improved Drilling-Fluid
Recovery
Effective separation reclaims
high percentages of fluid that
can be reused in the active
mud system
Recovers whole mud lost from
shaker failure, rig motion and
screen blinding
Safety
Explosion-proof motors and
start/stop boxes are certified
for use in Class I, Division I
areas
Custom-built stands and
walkways integrated into the
rigs reduce risk to personnel
Skilled Operators
Experienced M-I SWACO
personnel maintain peak
operating efficiency
Operational Advantages
Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC), with auto-
matic warning indicators,
monitors temperature, torque,
oil levels and operating hours
High-capacity, continuous-
feed units have the through-
put to keep up with drilling
Tungsten-carbide-coated,
independently adjustable
flights reduce wear and
ensure optimal tolerance
Ease of Maintenance
Normal wear parts are easily
accessible from the top of
the unit; belts are easily
changed without removing
gear assembly
Interchangeable tungsten-
carbide rotor blades protect
rotor and gear box from exces-
sive erosion, minimizing main
component failure
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
VERTI-GLow-Profile Cuttings Dryer
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145
ARRANGEMENT DRAWI NG: VERTI - G L OW- PROFI L E CUTTI NGS DRYER
All dimensions are expressed in inches (millimeters).
1.8 (46)
C of G
16.3 (413)
C of G
8 (203) liquid effluent
return line
quantity 2 typical
16.2 (411)
C of G
11.8 (300)
C of G
Centrifuge
solids discard
(optional)
42.5
(1,080)
91.7
(2,329)
Stand
height
may
vary
Overboard
flange
12 (304) or
14 (356)
available
81.5 (2,070)
typical width
97.8 (2,484)
10.9
(277)
11.8 (300)
C of G
1.8 (46)
C of G
94 (2,388)
C of G
2 (51) slide
flush rail
can be rotated
System component specifications
VERTI-GLow-Profile Cuttings Dryer
Dryer Length
with Motor Width Height Weight
in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm) lb (kg)
97.8 81.5 42.5 4,200
(2,483) (2,070) (1,080) (1,905)
Power Requirements
380 to 440V/3-phase/60Hz (150-amp circuit breaker)
One (1) 30-hp explosion-proof motor for centrifuge
One (1) 0.5-hp explosion-proof motor for lubricator pump
Operational Specifications
Screen turns up to 1,022 rpm
G-force up to 400
Screen Specifications
Opening Equivalent Canadian & Micron
in. (mm) Tyler mesh U.S. mesh equivalent
0.008 (0.203) 65 70 203
0.010 (0.254) 60 60 254
0.015 (0.381) 45 45 381
0.020 (0.508) 32 35 508
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
XR MESHfor Shale Shaker Screens
146
O I L F I E L D S C R E E N S

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Offshore and onshore projects where
greater flow capacity and longer
screen life for new and existing
shakers would be considered bene-
fits in reducing overall well costs.

P R O B L E M S
Conventional, thin-wire, square-
mesh screens are prone to blinding
and early failure. Conventional,
thin-wire, rectangular-mesh
screens are prone to excessive
wire movement which signifi-
cantly degrades separation.

S O L U T I O N S
The XR MESH
*
weave uses large-
diameter wire and a modified-
mesh geometry that results in a
self-cleaning screen that last two to
four times longer than comparable
standard-mesh screens.

E C O N O M I C S
Operators running XR MESHscreens
on a wide variety of shakers report
significantly increased flow capac i-
ties and major savings in screen-
replacement costs.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
Use of XR MESHscreens has con sis-
tently provided longer screen
life, increased fluids recovery and
improved solids-control perform-
ance, resulting in an overall reduc-
tion of drilling waste.
The extended-life
rectangular mesh
The patented
1
XR MESHdesign com-
bines high-performance geometry
and sturdy construction to dramati-
cally upgrade the effectiveness of
any major OEM shale shaker. Its
unique, rectangular mesh promotes
higher fluid-handling capacity. But
unlike other rectangular designs,
XRMESHmaterial has the stability
and strength to extend screen life by
as much as four times compared to
standard-mesh screens. The result is
a screen mesh that reduces total
costs and sub stantially improves
solids control.
Patented XR design
XR MESH screen is utilized in
a unique three- or four-layer
arrangement that creates excep-
tional shale shaker screens. The
XR MESH screen design features
innovative oblong openings with a
greater length-to-width ratio than
other rectangular meshes. It also
incorporates wire diameters that
are 50% larger than comparable
meshes. The large-diameter wire
is calendared to lock mesh openings
securely in place. All layers are made
of finely woven stainless steel. The
second layer increases screen life
by acting as a buffer between the
fine top mesh and coarse backup
layer(s), as well as serving as a
mechanical deblinding agent
for the top mesh.
Longer life
The larger wire diameters of
XRMESHdesign increase durability
and extend screen life, resulting
in fewer screen changes and less
downtime. Side-by-side testing
conducted in a variety of drilling
environments indicates that
XR MESHequipped screens last
fromtwo to four times longer than
com parable standard-mesh screens.
Increased fluid-
handling capacity
XR MESH screens deliver higher
conduc tance and increased flow
capacity, with significantly less
blinding. The rectangular weave of
an XRMESHscreen maximizes open
area on the screen and allows
greater fluid passage. In addition,
the larger length-to-width ratio of
XR MESHopenings increases flow
capacity from 20 to 40% compared
to standard meshes. Increased con-
ductance allows the use of finer
mesh screens and improves overall
solids performance. Separation
potential for XR MESHscreens
is consistent with layered square
(Ultra-Fine) meshes.
Blinding resistance
All shaker screens experience some
degree of blinding, which occurs
when particles similar in size to the
mesh opening become trapped,
blocking fluid flow. However, the
geometry of XR MESHdesign makes
it much less susceptible to blinding.
In addition, XR MESH screens pro-
vide a measure of self-cleaning.
Since the layers of mesh do not
have to be bonded together, lim-
ited movement can occur during
shaker operation. This allows the
second layer to brush against the
top layer, helping to dislodge
trapped particles.
Conductance/flow capacity
Transmittance is the product of
conductance and usable screening
area, and allows for comparisons
between different screens for total
fluid-handling capacity. Please
note that XR refers to an XR MESH
hookstrip screen with a 1-in.
(25.4-mm) perfo rated backing.
XL (Ultra-Fine) refers to standard
square-mesh hookstrip screens
also with a 1-in. (25.4-mm)
perforated backing.
1
U.S. Patent No. 5,944,197.
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
DURAFLO Composite Screens
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147
O I L F I E L D S C R E E N S
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Offshore and land rigs running
M-I SWACO BEM-600, BEM-650
and MONGOOSE PT shale shakers,
and Brandt VSM 300 brand shakers.

P R O B L E M S
Metal shaker screens have inherent
problems: rusting, delamination,
weight and reduced processing area.

S O L U T I O N S
DURAFLO OEM screens for the
M-I SWACO BEM-600, BEM-650 and
MONGOOSE PT shale shakers and
replacement screens for Brandt
VSM300 brand shakers offer higher
throughput rates than metal screens
as well as longer life, lower weight,
and fast, easy repair.

E C O N O M I C S
Higher throughput rates reduce
operating costs by optimizing
shaker performance, while longer
frame life translates into lower
screen-replacement costs.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
The variety of mesh sizes and types
on the DURAFLOscreen lets operators
match separation efficiency to the
formation, for better separation and
lower drilling waste volumes.
Features and Benefits
Available for M-I SWACO
BEM-600, BEM-650 and
MONGOOSE PT shale shakers
and Brandt VSM 300
brand shakers
Patented, composite
frame design
Smaller, more numerous panels
Open area remains unchanged
Screen weight remains the same
SNAP-LOK plug-repair system for
the Brandt VSM 300 shaker
Improved labeling system
Screen is resistant to fluids that
shorten metal-frame-screen life
Consistently manufactured,
rugged construction
Increased operational life
Lower screen replacement costs
Quick and easy to repair
Less downtime
Does not rust or delaminate
Improved QHSE considerations
1
U.K. Patent No. GB 2,322, 590; U.S. patents pending.
DURAFLO screen frames consist
of a grid made from a composite
of high-strength plastic and glass,
reinforced with high-tensile-
strength steel rods. Because these
frames balance durability with
strength, they are more efficient
transport mechanisms than steel
frames in several ways. DURAFLO
screens have higher throughput
capacities and significantly longer
operational lives. They do not rust
or delaminate, so they can be
used, stored and reused. Model
for model, composite frames
weigh less than all-steel frames.
And they have an increased
open area, providing a higher
conductance rate.
Patented
1
DURAFLO Composite
Frame technology, combined with
three different screen meshes, lets
you choose the right mesh for the
job without sacrificing long life,
through put capacity or any of the
other composite screen advantages.
High-strength,
glass-reinforced
plastic frame
High-tensile-strength
steel rod sub-structure
The anatomy of a three-layer
DURAFLO screen Triple-layer
screen mesh
HIFLO Replacement Screens
148
O I L F I E L D S C R E E N S
Because you have to drill different
types of formations, you have to
make choices in your shaker
screens. Quite often, this choice
involves a trade-off of using a mesh
that is efficient but is mounted on a
frame that leaves a lot to be desired.
With drilling costs on the rise, you
need to be choosing among positive
options, not trade-offs.
HIFLOcomposite
frame technology is the
basis for greater efficiency
As often happens, screen manufac-
turers call great attention to their
screen meshes while avoiding the
subject of the frames. Usually, it is
because the frames are all-metal
and are not engineered as well
as the screen mesh mate rial. In
contrast, HIFLO
*
patented screen
frames consist of a grid made
froma composite of high-strength
plastic and glass, reinforced with
high-tensile-strength steel rods.
Because these frames balance
durability with strength, they
are more efficient transport
mechanisms than steel frames in
several ways. HIFLO screens have
higher throughput capacities and
significantly longer operational
lives. They do not rust or delami-
nate, so they can be used, stored
and reused. Model for model,
HIFLO frames weigh less than
all-steel frames. And they have an
increased open area, providing a
higher conductance rate. When
compared to metal-frame screens,
HIFLO screens for use with Brandt
VSM100^ brand shakers have 27%
more open area.
Features and Benefits
HIFLO frames combine durability,
lightweight and longer life into
a cost-effective alternative to
metal frames
Longer frame life translates into
longer overall screen life
Higher throughput rates further
reduce operating costs by opti-
mizing shaker performance
A choice of mesh styles ensures
flexibility for drilling a range of
formations
TBC mesh delivers a well-defined
separation efficiency or cut
Ultra-Fine (XL) mesh overcomes
the blinding problems associated
with sandstone
XR three-layer mesh config -
uration maintains separation
efficiency while reducing the
effects of inter-cloth abrasion
and resists blinding
Larger-diameter wire gives
XR MESHscreens the longest
life in the industry today
High-strength,
glass-reinforced
plastic frame
High-tensile-strength
steel rod sub-structure
TBC screen mesh
(shown as an
example)
The anatomy of a two-layer HIFLO screen
^Mark of Varco I/P, Inc.
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
2008 M-I L.L.C. All rights reserved. *Mark of M-I L.L.C.
2000
First commercial use
of CLEANCUT system
598
well sections drilled
1,053,593
barrels cuttings collected
2,849,292
feet drilled
72,083
hours operating time
ZERO NPT
Any Questions?
Seven years of delivering solutions
www.miswaco.com
Drilling 16-in. section moves
at 131 ft/hr safely, no NPT
During peak drilling operations in
the OBM phases on this well, the
CLEANCUT* system contained up to
1,273 ft/day (388 m/day) of 16-in. hole
at ROPs of up to 131 ft/hr (40 m/hr).
In the 12-in. and 8-in. sections
and the 12-in. sidetrack, it con -
tained an average of 1,680 ft/day
(512 m/day). No spills or discharges
to the sea. No restrictions on ROP.
No equipment-related Non-Productive
Time (NPT).
Bulk cuttings transfers at up
to 22 tons/hr, 131 ft vertically
For platform-to-vessel conveyance,
the CLEANCUT bulk-transfer sys tem is
proven technology, regularly moving
cuttings 500 ft (152 m) horizontally
and 98 to 164 ft (30 to 50 m) down
to the supply vessel. With the prac -
tice of Waste Injection (WI) increasing,
the systems rate of up to 22 tons/hr
(20 tonnes/hr), 131 ft (40 m) vertically
up or down, is even better news for both
short hauls and interfield transfers.
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149
Waste Injection
150
W A S T E I N J E C T I O N

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Onshore and offshore projects, espe-
cially in remote and environmentally
sensitive locations.

P R O B L E M S
Disposal regulations and policies
have tightened, especially in remote
and environmentally sensitive areas.
Traditional disposal practices, espe-
cially those which could result in
reliance on storage and transport,
may present costly safety and logis -
tical challenges and exposure that
can lead to long-term liability.

S O L U T I O N S
M-I SWACO has optimized the Waste
Injection (WI) process, matching it
to your development-program
requirements. Our integrated serv-
ice is complete: from preliminary
engineering studies through imple-
mentation, continuous injection-
pressure monitoring and analysis
for process assurance.

E C O N O M I C S
When coupled with advanced tech-
nologies for managing logistics, WI
from M-I SWACO offers permanent,
cost-efficient solutions for disposal
of wastes from upstream and
downstream sectors.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
WI is a key component in com pli-
ance strategy, offering a sound
process solution for locales where
traditional disposal options are
not viable, such as extremely
sensitive, highly regulated
environmental areas.
Features and Benefits
Onsite Cuttings Disposal
Is a cost-effective alternative
Eliminates cuttings transport
and landfill disposal fees
Achieves zero discharge
Maintains the goal of total
cuttings containment
Assists in environmental
compliance
Ensures successful operations
through engineered design
and monitoring and analysis
services
Collection and disposal are
accomplished without costly
downtime
Environmentally Responsible
The practical option for onshore
and offshore drilling areas with
zero-discharge policies
Operationally Reliable
Field-proven technology
Redundancy features to
enhance reliability. Shutdown
of one component does not stop
cuttings processing.
Equipment built to the highest
quality standards for safety and
consistent performance
24-hr monitoring analysis
coverage
Equipment Flexibility
Modular components are
custom-configured to adapt
to cuttings volume, flexibility,
space availability and other
specific client requirements
Vacuum system provides more
options for location of equip-
ment, allowing placement
where other conveyance
systems could not work
Compact size leaves more
floor space for other drilling
operations
Expertise
Operations performed by
highly qualified and specialized
M-I SWACO personnel assuring
maximum efficiency
Authorized licensee of the
patented ARCO slurrification/
re-injection process
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
WI Training Centers
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151
Types of wastes
suitable for injection
Drill cuttings
Production waste
Well cleanup waste
Storage waste
Scale waste
Spent drilling fluids
Spent completion fluids
Produced sand
Produced water
Waste water
Naturally occurring radioactive
waste (NORM)
Our record speaks for itself
M-I SWACO has been providing WI
services to the petroleum industry
since 1991. Along the way several
benchmarks have been set at some
of the highest profile, most environ-
mentally sensitive areas of the
world, including the North Sea,
Alaska, Azerbaijan, Mexico, Canada
and Russia. Millions of barrels of
waste slurry have been injected
on single long-term project sites.
M-I SWACO was first: to imple-
ment modular, all-weather offshore
packages designed for high pene-
tration rates (1995); to implement
mobile, unitized, all-weather
onshore WI facilities (1999); to
integrate HMI (Human Machine
Interface) to WI control systems
(2003); and was the first and only
WI pro vider to fully develop and
implement an assurance-based
quality program (CAP-2005).
Our WI assurance process was
created to permit the detection and
identification of potential risks and
suggest mitigating actions. By
understanding and analyzing every
step of the operation, M-I SWACO
provides assurance of success and
monitors efficiency to prolong the
life of the injector. Today, an average
of 4 million barrels are injected on
an annual basis with the number
of jobs increasing exponentially.
Youll find M-I SWACO on the
frontiers of development applying
the newest technologies with the
highest standard of care.
Training is the key to
successful WI operations
M-I SWACO is committed to assur -
ing the competency of personnel
and delivers both theoretical and
practical hands-on training solu-
tions in all aspects of the WI process
to both employees and customers.
Training centers around the world
are fully equipped with training
rooms, laboratories, WI/ CLEANCUT
training sim ulators, a full-scale WI
slurrification system, a CLEANCUT
cuttings col lection and transport
system, a VACUUMCOLLECTION
SYSTEM(VCS) and an M-I SWACO
518 CENTRIFUGE. The WI curricu lum
is competency-based, requir ing
trainees to complete trainer-
assessed tasks and follows the
requirements of ISO 9001 and
ISO10015. M-I SWACO WI Training
Centers are located in Aberdeen,
Scotland; Bangkok, Thailand;
and Houston, Texas.
Thermal Desorption Technologies
152
C U T T I N G S T R E A T M E N T

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Onshore and offshore projects
where drilling waste solids from
oil-base mud operations need
appropriate end-point disposal.

P R O B L E M S
Untreated, oil-contaminated drill -
ing waste creates environmental
liability and often is a source of
unrealized revenue.

S O L U T I O N S
The project-specific, advanced
Thermal Desorption technology
options from M-I SWACO incor -
porate efficient processes for
reclaiming entrained hydro -
carbons, minimizing waste and
preparing solids for disposal.

E C O N O M I C S
M-I SWACO preproject analysis
helps determine the optimum
thermal desorption method(s) for
a particular situation, allowing the
operator to optimize operations
and control the capital cost of the
equipment required.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
Recovered synthetic, oil, diesel or
low-toxicity mineral oil can be rein-
troduced to the active mud system,
used as a supplemental fuel or sold
for reuse. Treated solids are contained
and rigorously tested prior to disposal.
Oil-base drilling waste is a fact of
life in the oil and gas industry. Base
oil entrapped in drill cuttings repre-
sents a potential dual liability: envi-
ronmental and financial. While
oil-base fluids remain the systems
of choice for many operators, strict
regulation of usage in many areas
requires specialized treatment prior
to disposal.
M-I SWACO offers three ther-
mal desorption technologies
Thermal Phase Separation (TPS),
Hammermill (onshore and offshore
systems), and Rotary Kiln. All are
designed to reduce the amount
of produced waste at the source,
reclaim valuable base oils and
prepare solids for disposal.
The M-I SWACO thermal desorp-
tion technologies are capable of pro-
ducing dry, clean solids with less
than 1%, and often less than 0.5%,
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH)
content. All TPS, Hammermill and
Rotary Kiln units are engineered
for high mobility and feature the
flexibility to adapt to changing
operational requirements. After
appropriate treatment, discharge
material can often be used as a
fundamental building material;
for example, as a base material
in the construction of roads or
building blocks.
Finding the best solutions
The best solutions are the result of
an in-depth understanding of the
unique project situation and issues
that can include:
Project location
Source of material
Discharge or reuse
Recovery
Logistics
Storage capacity
Preprocessing preparation
Separation of solids, oil and water
Processor type and capacity
Addressing each set of circum-
stances allows M-I SWACO to
address the broad spectrum cus-
tomer needs, including removal of
contaminants, safe solids disposal,
reuse of hydrocarbons and water,
cost control and safety.
Thermal desorption and
revenue generation
Oil-contaminated cuttings actually
represent two forms of revenue for
operators: one direct and one indirect.
The direct stream is represented
by the base oil recovered from the
cuttings. The reclaimed product can
be reused in making up drilling
fluid, used as a fuel supplement or
sold. The savings or income is direct,
immediate and significant.
The indirect revenue stream
derives from the reduction in dis-
posal costs and environmental
exposure, both of which can quickly
turn a successful project into a
financial liability.
How it works
M-I SWACO uses indirect-heat
thermal desorption to volatilize
hydrocarbons from oily solids
in a closed chamber using
carefully controlled heat.
Temperature levels and reten-
tion time in the chamber are
closely monitored to ensure
maximum phase separa-
tion without exceeding the
fractionation point of the
base oil.
Vapors are collected and rap-
idly condensed. The condensate
is then divided into fractions
with a specially engineered
oil/water separator. Recovered
base oil is collected, tested and
recycled. Water is recovered and
is also used to re-wet treated
solids which can then be dis-
posed of onsite or taken to a
disposal facility.
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
Thermal Desorption: Hammermill
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Hammermill:
Onshore Application
The Hammermill desorption process
is based on direct mechanical heat-
ing through the use of a pounding
mills action on the cuttings. The
combination of high mechanical
shear and in-situ heat generation
creates an environment that pro-
motes flash evaporation of water
and hydrocarbons. There is no igni-
tion source in this type of desorption
process, hence the term friction.
This technology eliminates the need
for large surfaces and complex sys-
tems for warming and maintaining
a heat-transfer medium, e.g., hot oil,
steam or exhaust gas. It is fast, clean
and efficient to run.
Due to the operating flexibility
of the mechanical approach to
desorption, Hammermill systems
can be designed as compact units
that meet the highest safety and
explosion-proofing standards. The
limited process temperatures and
very short retention time required
for complete removal of oil in the
solids are key benefits because
this significantly reduces the risk
of thermal degradation of the
recovered base fluids.
Hammermill: Offshore
The Hammermill unit is sized for
offshore applications and can be
installed in the space previously
allocated for the skips that would
ordinarily be used to collect and
transport cuttings to shore. Through
the integration of the proven
CLEANCUT cuttings transfer and
storage technology with an
M-I SWACO TCC modular design,
we provide the total offshore
solution, including:
Pneumatic transfer of drilled
cuttings to the Hammermill
Completely enclosed system
sized for offshore installations
CLEANCUT system and TCC
Vapormill PLC-controlled reduce
manpower requirements
Cross-trained CLEANCUT and
TCC specialists
Modular, DNV 2-7.1-approved
modules
Minimal rig-up/rig-down time
Plug and socket on cabling to
reduce rig-up/rig-down time
ATEX-approved
Rated for Zone 2 use
Reduced emissions
Best available technology for
drive module featuring the new
CAT C32 low-emissions engine
(less than Tier 2)
Reduces emissions generated
in the transport and handling
of skips:
Offshore diesel crane for
loading boats
Ship-to-shore boat hauling skips
Onshore diesel cranes
handling skips
Transport trucks hauling skips
for onshore processing
Diesel cranes unloading skips at
the onshore treatment facility
Forklifts emptying skips at the
onshore treatment facility
Reduced cost, increased safety
Eliminates rental of cuttings
containers
Eliminates waste hauling to shore
Eliminates manpower needed
for handling skips
Eliminates crane lifts
handling skips
Features
ATEX approved
CE marked
Small footprint
Low manpower requirements
Operates very cleanly
and quietly
Excellent for offshore
application as well
as onshore
Benefits
Limited process temperature
Very short retention time
required for complete removal
of oil in the solids
Reduced risk of thermal degra-
dation of valuable base oils
Efficient, intense agitation
breaks up solid particles
and induces flash distillation
without thermal degradation
of the oil
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
Thermal Desorption: Rotary Kiln
154
C U T T I N G S T R E A T M E N T
Thermal Desorption:
Rotary Kiln
The Rotary Kiln technique of
Thermal Desorption is an effec-
tive, high-throughput method
of recovering produced water
and light hydrocarbons from drill
cuttings. This technique, which
uses a rotating, inclined cylinder,
has been successfully used for
many decades in the oilfield
and other industries.
The M-I SWACO Rotary Kiln
process moves contaminated soil
to a feed auger that delivers it into
the kiln where an indirectly fired
thermal desorber heats the soil,
driving off the oil and water as
vapor. In indirect-firing all heat
is transferred to the cuttings
through the vessel shell wall,
a process designed to preserve
the characteristics of the recovered
oil. The oil-free soil is then cooled
by a water spray in the discharge
end of the kiln and is next moved
to a discharge auger where it is
further cooled for disposal offsite.
Features
Variable process rates from
15 MT/day to 35MT/day
depending on material
composition and kiln size
Modular design enables
customsystem configurations
Truck-mounted mobile design
Minimal rig-up /rig-down time
Indirect thermal desorption
Benefits
Operates with low emissions
Recovers more than 99% of valu-
able base oil for immediate reuse
Consistent treated solids results:
1% TPH
Significantly less solids carryover
(<1% BSW) in recovered oil
Effectively treats high-liquid-
content cuttings (>40%)
by weight
Reusable recovered oil quality
Minimal personnel requirements
Rotating cylinder
H
y
d
ra
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n
(W
a
te
r re
c
o
v
e
ry
)
External warming system
(oil recovery)
Contaminated
solids and
fluids enter
Inert solids
Hot gases
Water
Oil
Heat exchanger
Blower
Production of
water and oil
Pump
Condensed fluid
Fluid
recovery
water
oil
Oil Water
Evaporated gases
leave the cylinder
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
Thermal Desorption: FOx System Enhancement
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Thermal Desorption:
FOx System Enhancement
The Fluid Oxidizer (FOx
*
) process
enhancement is a straightforward
solution that removes pungent
odors from thermally recovered oil
and water produced by all three
M-I SWACO Thermal Desorption
technologies.
The process is based on the ozone
treatment of both oil and water,
proven to be an effective method
of removing odors caused by high
temperatures and thermal cracking.
The FOx enhancement is the first
analytical method developed to sci-
entifically quantify and treat odor.
Previously, the industry relied on
a smell test and Volatile-Organic-
Compound (VOC) measurement
to quantify odor of thermally
recovered oil and water. The FOx
enhancement is available for land
projects and is currently being
configured for offshore use.
Field tests with a pilot unit in
Kazakhstan have proved the effec-
tiveness of ozone treatment technol-
ogy in treating thermally recovered
oil with the oxidation of organic
compounds to enhance final prod-
uct quality. The tests showed suc-
cessful treatment of oil and water
in multiple 24-hr continuous runs.
A majority (in the range of 95, 85
and 84%) of participants from three
discrete locations ranked ozone-
treated oil as less offensive than
untreated oil, while some partici-
pants (70, 35 and 33%) ranked
ozone-treated oil as less offensive
than virgin base oil.
Features
Self-contained, 20-ft, (6.1-m)
portable unit
Integrated air supply
CE marked
Benefits
Cleans both water and oil
Purifies oil without creating
a waste stream
Eliminates challenges
associated with clay filtration
Specifications
FOx Land Unit Specifications
Self-contained and portable
Unit size ISO 20-ft (6.1-m)
container
Normal +41 F/104 F
operating (+5 C/+40 C)
temperature
Survival 4 F/104 F
temperature (20 C/+40 C)
Ingress IP55
Protection
Rating
Recovered 793 gal/day
Oil Process (3,000 L/day)
Rate
Recovered 2,906 gal/day
Water (11,000 L/day)
Process Rate
Voltage 400V AC
Frequency 50 Hz
Conformity CE, GOST R
(Voltage, frequency,
IP rating, and conformity
can be configured to suit
each project or application.)
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
D-GASSERs
156
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : D - G A S S E R S
Introduced in 1951, the M-I SWACO
D-GASSER
*
has performed reliably
on over 200,000 wells and earned
its reputation as the standard of the
industry. All M-I SWACO D-GASSER
units are designed to remove virtu-
ally all entrained gases, including H
2
S
and corrosive oxygen, from drilling
mud. This reduces the threat of dan-
gerous and costly blowouts caused
by recirculating gas-cut mud.
With its smaller footprint, 42 x
60.7 in. (1,066.8 x 1,541.8 mm),
the vertical model is ideal for
confined-space applications.
Specifications
Length 157 in.
(3,988 mm)
Width 42 in. (1,067 mm)
Height 87 in. (2,210 mm)
Weight 3,350 lb (1,521 kg)
Capacity 1,000 gpm
(3,785.4 L/min)
Horizontal D-GASSER
ARRANGEMENT DRAWI NG: HORI ZONTAL D- GASSER
176.9
(4,493)
103.5
(2,629)
32.7
(831)
21 Typ.
(533)
17.6
(447)
5.9
(150)
5.8
(147)
6.8
(173)
157
(3,988)
42
(1,067)
47.9
(1,217)
12.5
(318)
34.5
(876)
22.4 (569)
All dimensions are expressed
in inches (millimeters).
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
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Features and Benefits
Skid-mounted. Simplifies spotting
and installation.
Self-contained. The unit consists
of a cylindrical vacuum tank with
internal baffle system, vacuum
pump, jet nozzle and three-way
float valve.
Three-way float valve. Unique
design allows venting to the flare
line during H
2
S service.
Simple operation. The return-
flow, gas-cut mud is drawn into
the tank through a vacuum
created by the discharge jet and
pump. The mud is then dispersed
in a thin layer over a two-tier,
baffle-plate system where the
entrained gas, including H
2
S and
corrosive oxygen, is recovered by
the vacuum pump. The freed gas is
then discharged at a safe distance
from the drilling oper ation while
the restored mud is returned to the
active mud system.
Few moving parts. The D-GASSER
unit features only three moving
parts: the float inside the vacuum
vessel, the vacuum breaker valve,
and the vacuum pump. The float
ensures that the system maintains
the desired mud-fill level within
the vessel during operation.
High performance. An M-I SWACO
D-GASSER can handle up to 1,000
GPM (3,785.4 L/min) while restor-
ing mud to its original density.
Built rugged. The unit is ruggedly
built and coated inside and out
with corrosion-resistant epoxy
to ensure long life and mini-
mummaintenance.
Specifications
Length 60.7 in. (1,541.8 mm)
Width 42 in. (1,066.8 mm)
Height 149 in. (3,784.6 mm)
Weight 2,950 lb (1,339 kg)
Capacity 800 gpm
(3,028.3 L/min)
Vertical D-GASSER
ARRANGEMENT DRAWI NG: VERTI CAL D- GASSER
12
(304.8)
21
(533.4)
45
typ 4 plcs
13.8
(350.5)
54.8
(1,392)
34.2
(868.7)
36
(914.4)
diameter
20.3
(515.6)
149
(3,784.6)
119.9
(3,045.5)
56.9
(1,445.3)
36.3
(922)
20.3
(515.6)
42
(1,066.8)
31.7
(805.2)
60.7
(1,541.8)
27
(685.8)
13.5
(342.9)
.31
(7.9)
2.5
(63.5)
42
(1,066.8)
30.3
(769.6)
18.2
(462.3)
All dimensions are expressed
in inches (millimeters).
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
Compact Vacuum D-GASSER
158
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : D - G A S S E R S
Process overview
Gases are entrained in drilling
fluids from the wellbore during
normal drilling operations as
well as during kicks or well-
control situations. These gases
present safety hazards and create
operational problems when gas-
laden fluid reaches the surface.
Degassing is accomplished at the
surface by one of two methods
(1) atmospheric separation or
(2) vacuum separation.
The simplest form of atmospheric
degassing occurs naturally in the
surface mud tank system. As the
mud flows over the shale shakers
and through the pits, gas bubbles
will form in the mud and escape to
the atmosphere. In event of haz-
ardous gases being present, it is
desirable to localize the point where
gas is released from the mud by
installing a vacuum-style degasser.
Vacuum-style degassers are
installed in the first compartment
downstream of the sand trap
and upstream of any centrifugal
pumps. Vacuum degassers work
by removing entrained gases from
the drilling fluid by exposing the
fluid to pressures well below
ambient atmospheric pressure.
Features and Benefits
Fiberglass leaves eliminate
corrosion; reduce repair and
maintenance costs
Large Cleanout Port allows
easier access for cleaning
inside of D-GASSER
Greater surface area allows
gas-entrained mud to be
released more efficiently
Interchangeability of many
of the parts as the Horizontal
D-GASSER allows use of
existing inventory parts
Same field-proven vacuum
pump as Horizontal D-GASSER
Shorter footprint can be
installed in smaller spaces
How it works
The M-I SWACO Compact D-GASSER
unit works by removing entrained
gases from the drilling fluid
as illustrated at right. Vacuum
degassing is more effective than
atmospheric degassing due to the
exposure of the drilling fluid to
pressures well below ambient
atmospheric pressure. The unit
directs the incoming fluid flow over
internal plates that create large
surface areas over which thin lay-
ers of the fluid continuously flow.
The transit time required for the
gas to travel up, through the fluid
and break out of the mud is min-
imized by spreading the fluid into
thin layers.
At pressures below atmospheric
pressure, the rate at which gas sep-
arates from a fluid is accelerated.
The low pressure promotes the
growth of large gas bubbles which
rise rapidly to the nearest surface.
The free gas that breaks out of
the drilling fluid is continuously
removed from the vessel by the
action of the piston-style vacuum
pump on the unit. The removed
gas is typically directed to the
flare stack.
The level of mud within the ves-
sel is controlled by a float valve to
ensure that the disk stack is never
submerged. As fluid level rises and
lifts the float, air enters the vessel
through the three-way valve to
decrease the vacuum inside the
vessel. With less vacuum inside
the vessel, the rate at which fluid
is drawn into the tank slows and
the rate at which fluid exits the
vessel increases. The fluid level
inside the vessel drops rapidly
until the float lowers and full
vacuum is restored.
A liquid-trap tank in the gas-
removal piping collects any fluid
or condensate that may have
entered the gas-removal piping.
Afloat ball in the liquid-trap
tank prevents the liquids from
entering the vacuum pump.

Incoming fluid disperses in thin
layers over the internal disk stack
Motive force fluid
to venturi jet pump
Outlet to mud pit Inlet: gas cut mud
Fluid level
Gas outlet
Degassed
mud
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
CD-1400 Centrifugal D-GASSER
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : D - G A S S E R S
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159
The M-I SWACO CD-1400 Centrifugal
MUD D-GASSER
*
unit provides an
innovative and space-saving solu-
tion to degassing problems. The
D-GASSER units use a patented,
centrifugal-force system rather
thanconventional vacuum or
impact systems.
M-I SWACO D-GASSER units exert
centrifugal force to the mud, multi-
plying the force acting on the gas
bubbles to increase buoyancy and
release. The increase in buoyancy
accelerates the bubble-rise velocity.
As the bubbles rise toward the
surface, they escape the mud
and are further broken down
by flow turbulence.
The freed gas and the gas-free
mud are then separately discharged
as desired.
Features and Benefits
Removes entrained gases.
The centrifugal D-GASSER units
remove all of the entrained gases
from the drilling fluids in the
return flow by using high-speed
centrifugal force.
Reduces potential blowouts.
The removal of entrained gases,
including H
2
S and corrosive
oxygen, from drilling fluids
reduces the threat of dangerous
and costly blowouts caused by
recirculating gas-cut mud.
In-tank mounting. Easy-to-install,
in-tank mounting vir tually elimi-
nates the need for rig-floor space.
Energy efficient. System
requires less energy to operate
with UL-approved, 25-hp,
explosion-proof 230/460 VAC
3-phase 60-Hz motor.
Self-contained. The unit is
complete with centrifugal cylin-
der unit, screens, electric motor
and mount.
High performance. Provides
lowest hp/GPM throughput
ratio, generating up to 1,000
to 1,300 GPM (4,164 to
4,921 L/min), depending
onoperating conditions.
CD-1400
Centrifugal D-GASSER
ARRANGEMENT DRAWI NG:
CD- 1400 CENTRI FUGAL D- GASSER
N2
24
typ
10
typ
N1
71.7
(1,821.2)
67.1
(1,704.3)
59.4
(1,508.8)
64.9
(1,648.5)
121.9
(3,096.3)
19.9
(505.5)
23.8
(604.5)
13.2
(335.3)
20.8
(528.3)
0.9 typ
(22.9)
on 37.7 B.C.
(957.6)
21.2
(538.5)
21
(533.4)
41.5
(1,054.1)
All dimensions
are expressed in
inches (millimeters).
Notes
N1 Mud discharge nozzle
6 in. (152.4 mm)
N2 Gas discharge nozzle
2.5 in. (63.5 mm)
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
MUD/GAS SEPARATOR
160
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : M U D / G A S S E P A R A T O R S
The field-proven M-I SWACO
MUD/GAS SEPARATOR
*
is an
extremely reliable, vital piece
of safety equipment for todays
drilling operations. It is ideal for
use where drilling is likely to
encounter large volumes of gas,
sour gas or when an operator is
drilling with an underbalanced
mud column. The MUD/GAS
SEPARATOR is primarily used to sep -
arate and safely vent large pockets
of free gas, that may include toxic
gases such as hydrogen sulfide,
from the drilling-fluid system.
Separates free gas. Separates and
vents large pockets of free-gas accu-
mulations, including toxic gases
such as H
2
S, from the active system.
Reduces hazardous gas threat. The
separated gas is carried by vent lines
to a remote location and flared. Fail-
safe gas delivery is controlled by a
back-pressure manifold valve in
the flare line.
Skid-mounted and trailerable.
Simplifies transport, spotting and
installation. Unit can lay down
during over-the-road transport.
Versatile configuration. The
MUD/GAS SEPARATOR is available in
either a land or compact offshore
configuration. The land version is
designed so it can be raised or low-
ered for flowline adjustments to
minimize piping.
ASME and NACE specifications.
The only separator designed in
accordance with ASME and NACE
specifications.
Rugged construction. The unit is
ruggedly built and coated with
corrosion-resistant epoxy to ensure
long life while processing hazardous
and toxic gases.
Features and Benefits
Separates large volumes of
free gas including H
2
S
Reduces threat of hazardous
and toxic gases
Skid-mounted for easy
transport
Versatile configurations
Designed to ASME and NACE
specifications
Corrosion-resistant epoxy
coated to ensure long life
How it works
The M-I SWACO MUD/GAS SEPARATOR
consists of a cylindrical pressure
vessel in a fixed vertical position.
Inside is a series of specially
angled baffle plates, stepped from
the top to the bottom.
When contaminated mud is
routed into the separator, it flows
downward successively over each
plate. During this process, the
heads of entrained gases break
out. The released gas is then
carried by the vent lines to a
remote location where it can
be safely flared.
The flow of liquid from the ves-
sel can be regulated by a liquid-
level-control valve or a U-tube,
ensuring adequate retention time
in the separator for the gas to
break out.
The gas delivery from the
MUD/GAS SEPARATOR to the flare
line can be controlled by a back-
pressure manifold (valve) in the
flare line.
The M-I SWACO MUD/GAS
SEPARATOR is ideal to assist in
controlling dangerous, near-
surface expansion and accumu -
lation of gas during a well kick.
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
SUPER MUD/GAS SEPARATOR (SMGS)
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : M U D / G A S S E P A R A T O R S
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161
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
The M-I SWACO SUPER MUD/GAS
SEPARATOR
*
offers the highest
gas- and liquid-handling capacity
available. Its highly efficient baf-
fling system maximizes mud/gas
sep aration, enabling operators to
drill deeper, larger-diameter wells
and exploratory wells at higher
circu lating rates while safely han-
dling greater volumes of gas. It
also minimizes mist carryover
and gas-cut mud at the flowline.
Features and Benefits
Large 6- x 22.3-ft (1.8- x 6.8-m)
diameter vessel with 12-in.
(304.8-mm) flare line. Allows the
highest gas- and liquid-handling
capacity available.
Optimizes safety and control.
The SUPER MUD/GAS SEPARATOR
unit enhances safe drilling
practices during underbalanced
conditions, improves kick
handling capabilities, permits
optimum cir culation rates and
large-diameter holes to be drilled
through the targeted zone, pro-
vides more efficient separation
of emulsions and gas-cut mud
in either gas or oil environments,
and eliminates the need and cost
of a skimming system in a gas
environment.
High-efficiency baffle system.
Maximizes mud/gas separation,
minimizes mist carryover which
produces a cleaner flare and
minimizes gas-cut mud at the
flowline.
Capable of pressured operation.
Increases gas- and liquid-handling
capacities and permits immedi-
ate sale of gas during drilling
operations.
Adjustable U-tube (liquid seal)
height to 14 ft (4.3 m) without
additional elevation of the vessel.
Increases vessel pressure, creat-
ing higher flare capacity, enabling
more efficient separation of
emulsions and gas-cut mud in
either gas or oil environments.
Higher liquid-capacity vessel
with multiple nozzle ports.
Permits pumping of hot mud
directly into the vessel to reduce
gas hydrates. Increases mud gra-
dient within U-tube to increase
gas-handling capacity.
Manufactured to exacting
standards in accordance with:
NACE MR-01-75 for H
2
S service.
Provides for safe handling of
corrosive, deadly sour gas and
gas-cut drilling fluids.
OSHA 29CFR 1910 for safety.
Provides safe and easy access
for rig-up and servicing via
ladder and platform system.
ASME boiler and pressure ves-
sel code Section VIII, Division I,
Section IX, lethal service and so
stamped. Provides maximum
rigsite safety during underbal-
anced drilling operations.
Specifications
200-ft (60.9-m) flare line up to
12-in. (304.8-mm) diameter
8-in. (203.2-mm) inlet and
12-in. (304.8-mm) return
flowlines
Atmospheric operation
1
:
Gas capacity 65 MMscf/d
Fluid capacity 38,000 bbl/d
Pressured operation:
Gas capacity 83 MMscf/d
Fluid capacity 59,000 bbl/d
Vessel:
Diameter 6 ft (1.8 m)
Height 22.3 ft (6.8 m)
Flare line 12 in. (304.8 mm)
Weight: 24,000 lb (10,866 kg)
Skid: 8 x 10 x 30.4 ft
(2.4 x 3.1 x 9.3 m)
1
Gas- and liquid-handling capacity can be increased
by customizing your system configuration.
How it works
The mud enters the vessel
through the intake line
The fluid runs over the baffle
system as gas is separated and
migrates out of the vessel
through the flare line
The degassed mud is dis-
charged into the active
mud system through the
mud return line
Intake line
Gas to flare line
Degassed mud
returned to system
TOGA System
162
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : M U D / G A S S E P A R A T O R S
M-I SWACO total-gas-containment system
safely vents all gases
Gas vent line
MUD/GAS
SEPARATOR
Gas vent line
Gas vent line
Back flow
Gas-cut
mud from
flowline or
shale shaker
Mud tank
Degassed mud
Vacuum D-GASSER
Almost all the gases encountered
in drilling operations are extremely
dangerous. This is due to the flam-
mability and explosiveness of
hydrocarbon vapors when mixed
with air. These vapors may also
contain highly corrosive hydro-
gen sulfide gas which is fatal to
humans and can cause complete
failure in some steels. Developed
by M-I SWACO research and engi-
neering, the TOGA
*
system com-
bines two field-proven prod ucts
the M-I SWACO D-GASSER and
M-I SWACO MUD/GAS SEPARATOR
working together to totally sepa-
rate and vent or flare all gases.
Safely vents all gases. The TOGA
system is a totally enclosed gas-
separation system that safely
removes and/or flares all gases
in the drilling fluid circulated
fromthe wellbore.
Efficient. Effectively contains
and separates gases encountered
while drilling.
Meets or exceeds safety regu lations.
The TOGAsystem meets USGS and
Texas Railroad Commission regu -
lations as well as API guidelines
and NACE standards for drilling
inH
2
S environments.
Multiple applications. The TOGA
system is suitable for both onshore
and offshore applications. The
system is available in a variety
of efficient configurations includ-
ing land, space-saving offshore,
and highly mobile trailer-mounted
versions .
Used primarily to control high-
volume free gas, the TOGA system
is also a valuable tool during a well
kick to help control the near-surface
expansion of gas. It is also ideal
for control of continuous under -
balanced drilling.
Features and Benefits
Totally enclosed system
safely removes and/or flares
all gases
Ideal for control of continuous
underbalanced drilling
Available in a variety of con-
figurations to accommodate
virtually all applications
Meets or exceeds all safety
regulations for drilling in
H
2
S environments
Two vacuum pumps for
increased discharge capacity
and redundancy for routine
maintenance and repair
Removes virtually all
entrained gases, including
H
2
S and corrosive oxygen,
from drilling fluids
Restores mud to its original
density allowing for reuse in
the active mud system
Reduces the threat of danger-
ous and costly blowouts
Prevents gas from escaping
into the active mud system
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
Standard Chokes
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This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : D I S C - T Y P E C H O K E S
The M-I SWACO 10,000-psi (689-bar),
15,000-psi (1,034-bar) and 20,000-psi
(1,379-bar) SUPERCHOKE
*
units are
the most widely used and respected
well-killing and high-pressure-
control drilling chokes in the indus-
try. For more than 35 years, these
chokes have been especially effec-
tive when used during well kicks,
well testing and well cleanup oper -
ations. They are designed and
manufactured for H
2
S and abrasive-
fluid applications and in accordance
with API and NACE standards.
High pressure drilling chokes.
Built to handle 10,000 to 20,000 psi
(689 to 1,379 bar), M-I SWACO
chokes are precision engineered
for precise well control.
Full Restricted Fully
flow flow closed
Unique choke-plate design. Heavy
duty, diamond-lapped tungsten-
carbide plates are honed to a
flatness measured by lightbands
and feature unique half-moon-
shaped orifices. Rotation of the
actuator fork allows finite regu -
lation of the size of the opening
from full open to full close.
Positive closure. A 17 deadband
overlap beyond the full-close posi-
tion is designed to ensure closure
even if the plates become worn
following extended exposure to
abrasive-laden fluid flow. Pressure
drops or surges dont affect the
quality of the seal in the plate-
to-plate design. In fact, the seal
improves under pressure.
Tungsten-carbide wear sleeves.
Hardfacing on wear sleeves
increases in-service life. Extended
wear sleeves are available to absorb
effects of abrasive downstream
turbulence, especially during under-
balanced drilling operations.
Versatile. Ideal for onshore and
offshore applications. Controls can
be operated from either remote or
onsite consoles.
Three methods of operation
Normal operations: Activation is
rig-air operated
If rig air is lost: Activation is man-
ual with hydraulic pump located
on remote-control skid
If hydraulic lines are severed:
Activation is manual with bar
provided on indicator head
Manufactured to exacting
standards. Constructed for H
2
S
service and abrasive-fluid appli -
cations in accordance with API 6A
and NACE MR-01-75 standards.
Features and Benefits
Built for the oilfield
Precision engineered
Handles 10,000 to 20,000 psi
(689 to 1,379 bar)
Unique choke-plate design
Provides positive closure
Tungsten-carbide wear
sleeves extend in-service life
Ideal for onshore and
offshore applications
10k SUPERCHOKE 15k SUPERCHOKE 20k SUPERCHOKE
Chokes Length Width Height Weight
10k SUPERCHOKE
*
35.7 in. 21.6 in. 11.5 in. 441 lb
(906.8 mm) (548.6 mm) (292.1 mm) (200 kg)
15k SUPERCHOKE 43.3 in. 21.6 in. 11.5 in. 600 lb
(1,099.8 mm) (548.6 mm) (292.1 mm) (272 kg)
20k SUPERCHOKE 43.4 in. 24.3 in. 13.2 in. 650 lb
(1,102.4 mm) (617.2 mm) (335.3 mm) (295 kg)
ESUPERCHOKE
164
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
The ESUPERCHOKE
*
drilling choke
from M-I SWACOis the latest evolu-
tion of a proven idea a remotely
operated, electrically actuated,
variable-speed version of the
SUPERCHOKE
*
drilling choke. The
small, portable, remote actuator
control panel is easily carried to the
drill floor by an operator and will
replace the large choke console cur-
rently required for hydraulic opera-
tion. Although the ESUPERCHOKE unit
has many outstanding features, they
all have one goal to give the oper-
ator a high degree of control, safety
and speed in well-control situations.
Features and Benefits
Variable-speed drive. The opera-
tor can control the speed at which
the choke is opened or closed. This
gives the operator precise choke-
positioning adjustment during
critical well-control situations.
Faster open/close speeds. Eight
seconds from full-open to full-
close. The operator can rely on a
quick response from the actuator
assembly during well-control
operations. The ESUPERCHOKE sys-
tems response time exceeds the
hydrau lic 10k SUPERCHOKE system
in cold weather environments.
Performance tested to full 10k
operating pressure. The electric
actuator required only 26% maxi-
mum available peak current oper-
ating at maximum speed and load.
This performance test assures that
the ESUPERCHOKE unit will meet
the operators well-control needs.
The rated peak current for the
motor is 14.1 amps RMS.
High torque. The ESUPERCHOKE sys-
tem is capable of over 19,400 in.-lb
(2,191.9 Nm) of torque. It can sever
a -in. (12.7-mm) alloy steel rod,
demonstrating its ability to clear
obstructions that may become
lodged between the plates while
drilling or flowing back a well, and
still attain a fully closed position.
Electronic pressure sensing and
transmitting. The design of the
ESUPERCHOKE eliminates the need
for hydraulic hoses and fittings.
This greatly reduces calibration
and maintenance requirements
while enhancing accuracy.
Three modes of operation.
Remote at drillers console, Local
at the choke manifold, Manual
at the choke valve, using the
hand-wheel. Whether on the drill
floor or at the choke man ifold, the
ESUPERCHOKE system allows acces-
si bility for an operator to quickly
respond to a well-control situation.
The three modes of opera tionalso
provide redundancy and ensure
that the operator has control of
the choke at all times.
Reduced cabling requirements.
The ESUPERCHOKE unit requires
only one com munication cable
between the Remote and the
Local console. Simplified cabling
lessens tripping hazards and
trouble shooting while providing
the operator with the best avail-
able transmission medium for
data communication.
Zero gear lash. In critical well-
control situations, the operator
must rely on the choke valve to
open and close without delay. The
ESUPERCHOKE drilling choke pro-
vides absolutely no play in the
gear box when actuated.
Small and portable. The system
is designed for transport by
an operator and easily placed
in the doghouse or on the
drillers console.
Advanced position enunciation.
The LCD digital display includes
both the percentage (%) of open/
close and the choke-bean size. The
operator can closely monitor the
chokes precise position and the rate
of change in the chokes position,
giving a feel for the well during
operation. The advanced position
enunciation is provided at both the
rig floor and the choke manifold for
greater accessibility during critical
well-control operations.
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : D I S C - T Y P E C H O K E S
AUTOCHOKE
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P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : S H U T T L E C H O K E S
The M-I SWACO 10k and 15k
AUTOCHOKE
*
provides easier, more
precise well-pressure control. The
AUTOCHOKE reduces the risk of
formation breakdown or secondary
bubbles during well-control and
drilling operations, assuring faster,
safer kick control and imple men-
tation of Managed-Pressure-Drilling
(MPD) practices. The AUTOCHOKE
regulates pressure automatically
under all conditions. Choke oper a-
tors no longer have to fight con-
trols during transition oper ations
such as mud-pump startup or
shutdown, making or breaking
connections, or when mud and
gas are flowing alternately through
the choke.
The AUTOCHOKE also makes
stripping pipe simpler and safer
by maintaining casing pressure.
As drill pipe is lowered into the
hole, an equal volume of fluid
is automatically displaced through
the choke.
Typical applications include MPD;
UnderBalanced Drilling (UBD); H
2
S
service; all pressure control up to
15,000 psi (1,034 bar); controlling
kicks and killing wells; frac flow-
back; and Equivalent-Circulating-
Density (ECD) drilling.
Features and Benefits
Patented sliding shuttle/ sleeve
design automatically adjusts
fluid flow to regulate well, casing
and drill-pipe pressures
Triple, tungsten-carbide wear
sleeves provide downstream
choke-bore protection
No-leak shut-in seals (metal-to-
metal and Teflon-to-metal)
High-capacity, 3-in. (76.2-mm)
choke bore
Long-life for severe service
operations, tungsten-carbide
static-trim, reversible dynamic
trim, hard-faced (stellite) shuttle
assembly and internal removable-
body sleeve preventing valve-
body erosion
Chrome-plated internal bores
for corrosion resistance
Plated and stainless external
surfaces eliminate painting
Simple seal replacement
Electronic position indicator,
computer compatible; control
console includes digital pump
stroke counters with rate meter,
stop watch and clock
Easy, predictable standpipe
pressure control
Preset maximum pressure
capability
No-leak shut-in
Precision control for stripping
pipe into the hole; for UBD and
MPD techniques when control-
ling back pressures; of bottom-
hole pressure during well-control
operations, UBD and MPD; and
reduces lost circulation, gas
intrusion, fluid costs, production
damage and blowouts
Self-cleaning orifice reduces
plugging; easy-to-maintain
internal components
Tungsten-carbide or stellite-
coated internal wear parts are
all replaceable, eliminating the
need to ever machine or recertify
the valve body; more durable
than needle-valve or rotating-
disc chokes
Improved flow characteristics
at throttle point and through
choke bore
Simple, eight-bolt design allows
internal inspection in only five
minutes
Rated for H
2
S service
Shuttle
Shuttle nut
Inlet
Dynamic
trim
Extended
trim
Discharge
Long trim
Static trim
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
Standard Choke Consoles
166
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L : C H O K E C O N S O L E S
M-I SWACO choke-
control consoles
M-I SWACO choke-control consoles
are available as single- or dual-choke-
control units and with standard
pressure gauges or state-of-the-art
digital gauges.
The single-choke-control console
is precision-built to provide accu-
rate control of your operation, yet
is built to withstand the harshest
conditions. It operates either
hydraulically or manually and is
self-contained and skid-mounted
for easy installation on or near
the rig.
A key feature of the console is the
large easy-to-read gauges which
monitor critical drill-pipe and cas-
ing pressure. A choke position indi-
cator shows relative plate opening
from full open to full close. The
dual-choke control console provides
a separate valve to regulate chokes
from independent hydraulic sys-
tems during special applications.
An operator has full command of
both chokes without switching
controls. The dual unit offers all the
benefits of the single-choke-control
console. For greater space efficiency,
it features the same footprint as the
single-choke-control console.
Digital choke console Features and Benefits
Quick responding and
highly accurate
Provides operator comfort
and reduces fatigue
Long in-service life
Easy to reconfigure from
single- to dual-choke control
Digital and standard flush-
mounted gauges
Easy-to-read gauges
Two choke open/close speeds
Built of corrosion-resistant
stainless steel
Ergonomic panel height and
panel design
The M-I SWACO digital choke
console provides drillers one of
the most accurate and quick-
response choke-control systems
in the industry. The panel layout
is ergonomically designed to pro-
vide operator comfort with user-
friendly placement of gauges.
The console has both digital and
standard 10,000-psi (689-bar)
drill-pipe and casing-pressure
gauges, a 3,000-psi (207-bar)
gauge to display hydraulic
pressure for eachsystem and a
200-psi (14-bar) gauge to display
air-supply pressure. The panel
features a larger choke position
indicator gauge, high-speed
bypass valve and two choke
open/ close speeds Regulated
and Maximum.
Consoles Length Width Height Weight
Single Console 55 in. 27 in. 65 in. 588 lb
(1,397 mm) (686 mm) (1,651 mm) (267 kg)
Dual Console 55 in. 27 in. 69 in. 690 lb
(1,397 mm) (686 mm) (1,753 mm) (313 kg)
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
PRESSURE& FLUIDMANAGEMENTSYSTEM(PFMS)
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167
P R E S S U R E C O N T R O L :
P R E S S U R E & F L U I D M A N A G E M E N T S Y S T E M ( P F M S )

A P P L I C A T I O N S
Coiled-tubing and workover rigs;
conventional drilling projects with
small-footprint requirements; and
cleanup, frac and flowback, re-entry
and recompletion operations.

P R O B L E M S
The equipment configurations
used on most rigs are not suited to
coiled-tubing drilling or other types
of drilling that require very close
monitoring of pressures and solids-
control parameters. Additionally,
these more common configurations
are not optimized for small spaces.

S O L U T I O N S
The M-I SWACO PRESSURE & FLUID
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
*
has been
designed specifically for the needs
of coiled-tubing drilling: automatic,
accurate control of pressures and
fluids parameters; small equipment
footprint; and self-contained electri-
cal and plumbing.

E C O N O M I C S
The PRESSURE & FLUID MANAGEMENT
SYSTEMgives operators and drilling
contractors a big advantage in con-
trolling the problems that can ruin
a project financially: blowouts,
stuck pipe, lost circulation, forma-
tion damage, collateral-equipment
damage and lost time due to
logistics problems.

E N V I R O N M E N T A L
In most areas, smaller drilling oper a-
tions are subject to the same envi-
ronmental restrictions as larger
projects. The PRESSURE & FLUID
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMreduces dis-
posal and fluids costs in addition
to the environmental benefits of
avoiding well-control incidents.
Features and Benefits
Ease of Logistics
The three-piece modular system
is skid-mounted
A 154-bbl, three-compartment
tank with all the pumping,
mixing, fluids-moving
capabilities necessary
Single-point accountability
only M-I SWACO is on location
for Drilling Waste Management
(DWM) and pressure control
No welding or bolting required,
all plumbing uses victaulic or
hammered unions for fast rig-up
Smaller footprint, lighter load,
meets all height and weight
limitations for transportation
Reduced requirements for addi-
tional hoses, pumps and lines
All electrical is self-contained,
requiring only one 300-kw
supply connection to the
main electrical distribution
panel on the tank
Cost Reduction
Significant reduction in well-
control events, stuck pipe,
lost circulation , formation
damage and collateral-
equipment damage
Reduced disposal and fluids costs
Rig-up through rig-down is faster,
improving overall project cost
Superior Performance
A continuous, closed-loop,
pressure-control and drilling
waste management system
of field-proven equipment:
patented 10k AUTOCHOKE
units, FMC 1502 2-in. (50.8-mm),
15,000-psi (1,034-bar) manifold,
M-I SWACO MUD/GAS SEPARATOR,
vacuum D-GASSER, 4T4 D-SILTER
and patented MONGOOSE PT
shaker equipped with patented
OEM composite screens
Sensitive and precise wellhead-
pressure, casing-pressure and
drill-pipe-pressure control
Chokes rated for severe-service
operations (engineered for
reduced wear) and H
2
S rated
The 3-in. (76.2-mm), full-bore
10k AUTOCHOKE features a
non-plugging, self-cleaning
orifice
Efficient gas separation achieved
by a vortex- and baffling-effect
in the MUD/GAS SEPARATOR, and
baffling- and vacuum-effect in
the D-GASSER
Dual-motion MONGOOSE PT
shaker: linear motion for fast
conveyance and heavy loading;
balanced elliptical motion for
maximum retention time and
drier cuttings
Pre-tensioned OEM composite
screens for fast change-out,
accommodate a greater fluid
capacity, resist blinding, produce
a drier solids discharge, and are
the most rugged, efficient and
longest- lasting screens available
A 600-GPM- (2,271.2-L/min-)
capacity 4T4 D-SILTER that will
efficiently remove silt and sand
particles above 25 microns and
some as small as 5 microns
This is a summary page.
For complete information,
please refer to the 2008
M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL
SOLUTIONS catalog.
SG-SMARTData-Acquisition System
168
R I G I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N
The SG-SMART
*
data-acquisition
system is an advanced drillers
monitoring system that can accu-
rately measure, monitor and dis-
play all drilling variables in real
time. This computer-controlled
data-acquisition system employs
integrated microcontroller tech -
nology and fiber optics to provide
accurate, instantaneous measure-
ment and display critical drilling data.
The M-I SWACO SG-SMART data-
acquisition system has been
awarded U.S. patents
1
for its
intrinsically safe operation in
hazardous locations.
Features
Easy to use. A common-sense inter-
face makes the SG-SMART system
simple and easy to use, and its
self-documenting, menu-driven
features facilitate evaluation
and analysis.
Designed for the driller. Both the
hardware and the software are
designed to assist the driller. Data
displays in easy-to-read alpha -
numeric and graphical formats.
Accurate. Integrated microcon-
troller technology and fiber optics
link the sensors with the system
to ensure high-speed accuracy,
reliability and improved measure-
ment resolution.
Safe and reliable. CSA-approved,
field-proven and intrinsically safe
for installations in Class I, Division I
areas, the SG-SMART system can
operate in a wide range of temper -
atures from 25 to 150 F (32
to 65 C).
Minimum maintenance. Built-in
diagnostics simplify trouble shoot-
ing, stainless steel enclosures resist
corrosion, and field repair ability
reduces downtime.
Versatile. Besides measuring and
monitoring parameters onsite,
all information displayed on the
drillers monitor can be transmitted
via regular, voice-grade telephone
lines to a remote monitor located
anywhere in the world.
Flexible. Two levels of capability
allow expandability:
Level I. Provides basic monitoring
and measurement functions of
PVT (up to 10 pits), gain or loss,
PVT for two trip tanks with
gain/loss, total pump strokes
(5 pumps), return-flow rate
(0 to 100%), fill-stroke count
(each fill and total).
Level II. This system monitors
and tracks additional information,
including: Rate of Penetration
(ROP), RPM, pump pressure,
hydraulic and rotary torque,
weight-on-bit, and hook load.
Options. Choice of additional
analog output channels, com-
pany mans display, tool pushers
display, circular chart recorder
and transmission hardware to
remote monitor.
Features and Benefits
Integrated microcontroller
technology, fiber optics and
state-of-the-art electronics
Designed to enhance
drilling operations
Built-in diagnostics to
simplify troubleshooting
Expandable for future
technologies
Drilling data can be trans -
mitted to a remote monitor
Optional data storage of
all parameters
Real-time measurement and
display of critical drilling data
Intrinsically safe operation
in hazardous locations
Reliable operation in a
wide range of temperatures
Simple, practical and
easy to use
Field repairability
reduces downtime
Stainless steel enclosures
resist corrosion
1
U.S. Patent Nos. 5,583,764, 5,838,589 and 6,574,652.
Major Components
The SG-SMART data-acquisition
system consists of four major
components:
Drillers Monitor
CPU Junction Box
Barrier Box
One Satellite Box (Level I) or
Two Satellite Boxes (Level II)
This is a summary page. For complete information, please refer
to the 2008 M-I SWACO ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS catalog.
The solution and results
M-I SWACO installed two MONGOOSE PT shakers over
holding tanks on the operators land rig and connected
them to a manifold carrying fluid evenly to both shakers
in the course of drilling 15 wells. The MONGOOSE PT shakers
successfully handled the same circulating fluid volume as
the three standard shakers: 140- to 250-mesh screens at flow
rates of 450 to 460 GPM (1,703 to 1,741 L/min) and a drilling
rate of 63.6 ft/hr (19.4 m/hr). Improved cuttings dryness (WOC)
resulted in 8% waste reduction and 5,283 gal (20 m
3
) per well of
drilling mud saved an average of $18,156 per well. The ability to
convert the MONGOOSE PT shakers motion from linear to elliptical
helped reduce fluid loss by 8%, for an average mud-cost savings of $2,570.
The 15-well program required only four screens, compared to the 45 screens
consumed for the same number of wells drilled with the standard shakers.
Screen savings amounted to $17,835.
See for yourself how M-I SWACO prevents
costly problems for operators worldwide.
This success story is just one of hundreds where our ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS*
specialists, equipment, processes and services prevent serious problems for
operators every day. Your M-I SWACO representative can tell you more about
our complete suite of solutions.
Onshore Argentina:
Two MONGOOSE PT
shakers outperform
three standard units;
screen usage drops
from 45 to 4
The situation
A major international opera tor
wanted to determine the value of
replacing three standard shaker
units with two M-I SWACO*
MONGOOSE* PT shakers. An
online test while drilling com -
pared flow capacity, cuttings
dryness and time savings.
2007 M-I L.L.C. All rights reserved. *Mark of M-I L.L.C.
M-I SWACO replaced three standard
shakers with two MONGOOSE PT
shakers to optimize solids-control
system efficiency, reduce the WOC
percent in cuttings, cut dilution
expenses and saved $121,465.
www.miswaco.com
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2008 M-I L.L.C. All rights reserved. *Mark of M-I L.L.C.
FMC.0600.0804.R1 (E) 2.5M Litho in U.S.A.
P.O. Box 42842
Houston, Texas 77242-2842
Tel: 2815611300
Fax: 2815611441
www.miswaco.com
E-mail: questions@miswaco.com
Technology Centers:
HOUSTON, TEXAS
Tel: 2815611300 Fax: 2815611441
ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND
Tel: 441224334634 Fax: 441224334650
STAVANGER, NORWAY
Tel: 4751577300 Fax: 4751576503
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