You are on page 1of 25

DON BOSCO TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Mechanical Engineering Department


Mandaluyong City
De!ign o" a Sa#oiniu! $ind tur%ine that produce! &' ($ o" )o*er+
De!ign )ropo!al
In partial "ul"illment o" the re,uirement! in -luid Machinery
S.BMITTED B/0
El (ing M1 )o!ada! I23ME
Sean Tutaan
S.BMITTED TO0
Engr1 Erne!to M1 )once )1M1E1 M1B1A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPROVAL SHEET
CHAPTERS
)AGE
Ac4no*ledgement 55555555555555555511 &
Bac4ground o" the Study55555555555555555511 6
Actual de!ign 555555555555555555511 7
Data o" the De!ign555555555555555555511 8
Data !heet5555555555555555555555511 8
-ormulation55555555555555555551 9
A!!umption55555555555555555551 &6
De!ign dra*n5555555555555555555511 &:
Calculation55555555555555555555551 &7
Summari;ation5555555555555555555555111 6'
De!ign dra* in the "ield555555555555555555555 6&
<ecommendation55555555555555555551 66
Conclu!ion55555555555555555 66
<e"erence55555555555555555555555511 6:
=
Acknowledgement:
-ir!t o" all I *ould ac4no*ledge our )ro"e!!or Engr1 Erne!to L1 )once )1M1E>
M1B1A1 "or helping me to complete and gi#e me idea! "or de!igning thi! pro?ect and
than4ing him "or %eing a good teacher and a good e@ample "or u!1 He i! the one *ho
pu!he! u! to our limit to ma4e impo!!i%le thing! and gi#ing u! deeper under!tanding
on our le!!on!1 I *ould li4e to than4 al!o my parent! "or gi#ing me ad#ice! and
*illingly !upporting me trough my hard time!1 I *ould li4e to than4 al!o my
colleague! "or gi#ing comment! and ad#ice! on my de!ign1 O" cour!e I *ould than4
God "or gi#ing me in!piration and !trength in li"e e#en in my *or!t day! and
hard!hip!1 I" it i! not "or him I cannot do thi! de!ign1
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Backgo!nd o" t#e St!d$
)o*er energy i! one o" the %igge!t con!umption o" people *hether it come! "rom nuclear>
!olar> mechanical> hydro> *ind> thermal> !ound> 4inetic> geothermal and !o "orth1 The!e entire
thing! are con!umed %y each one o" u!1
Li4e*i!e> hydro po*er i! !omething that *e need to "ocu! on !ince it i! "ree and a#aila%le
to anyone1 A! a re!ult> thi! e@plain! *hy generating energy through hydro po*er ha! %ecome one
o" the cheape!t method!1 Hydro )o*er al!o !igni"ie! a rene*a%le !ource o" energy1 In no *ay
could you e#er run out o" hydro po*er1 It i! capa%le o" generating con!idera%ly high amount! o"
e@tracta%le po*er> *hich i! higher than the ,uantity u!ed %y human! currently "rom all com%ined
!ource! a#aila%le1
There are many *ay! in *hich tran!"orming *ater into energy can %e %ene"icial> a! *ater i! u!ed
"or a #ariety o" purpo!e! and acti#itie!1
$e !hall no* e@plore a range o" hydro energy "actor!> including ho* *ater can %e "un and ho*
to u!e thi! *ater to your o*n ad#antage1
hydro energy ha! e@i!ted !ince li"e on our planet %eganA it i! currently u!ed in recreation and
indu!try1
*ater tur%ine i! a de#ice that con#ert! 4inetic energy "rom the *ater into mechanical energy1 I"
the mechanical energy i! u!ed to produce electricity> the de#ice may %e called a *ater
generator or *ater charger1 I" the mechanical energy i! u!ed to dri#e machinery> !uch a! "or
grinding grain or pumping *ater> the de#ice i! called a tidal mill or *ater pump1 De#eloped "or
o#er a millennium> todayB! *ind tur%ine! are manu"actured in a range o" #ertical and hori;ontal
a@i! type!1
*ater tur%ine! are u!e"ul "or many people1 It i! not ?u!t en#ironmental "riendly and it generate!
po*er "or u!1 $e ?u!t need to 4no* ho* to u!e our re!ource! *ell1
A tide mill i! a *ater mill dri#en %y tidal ri!e and "all1 A dam *ith a !luice i! created acro!! a
!uita%le tidal inlet> or a !ection o" ri#ere!tuary i! made into a re!er#oir1 A! the tide come! in> it
enter! the mill pond through a one *ay gate> and thi! gate clo!e! automatically *hen the tide
%egin! to "all1 $hen the tide i! lo* enough> the !tored *ater can %e relea!ed to turn a *ater
*heel1
Tide mill! are u!ually !ituated in ri#er e!tuarie!> a*ay "rom the e""ect! o" *a#e! %ut clo!e
enough to the !ea to ha#e a rea!ona%le tidal range1 The!e mill! ha#e e@i!ted !ince the Middle
Age!> and !ome may go %ac4 to the <oman period1
A modern #er!ion o" a tide mill i! the electricity generating tidal %arrage1
Ne*er type! o" tidal po*er o"ten propo!e a dam acro!! a large ri#er e!tuary1 Although it
repre!ent! a !ource o" rene*a%le energy> each propo!al tend! to come under local oppo!ition
%ecau!e o" it! li4ely impact on coa!tal ha%itat!1 One propo!al> *hich came to "ruition in &C88> i!
the <ance %arrage *hich generate! 67'M$1 .nli4e hi!torical tide mill! *hich could only
operate on an e%% tide> the <ance %arrage can generate electricity on %oth "lo*! o" the tide or it
can %e u!ed "or pumped !torage depending on demand1 A le!! intru!i#e de!ign i! "or a &M$ "ree
!tanding tur%ine> con!tructed in 6''9 at Strang"ord Lough Narro*! 3 al!o clo!e to an old tide
mill1
The Darrieu! t!%&ne i! popular "or t&dal current po*er generation in Dapan1 It i! !imple in
!tructure *ith !traight *ing! rotating around a #ertical a@i!> !o that it ha! no directionality
again!t the motion o" t&dal "lo* *hich change! it! direction t*ice a day1 Ho*e#er> there i!
one de"ect in the Darrieu! t!%&neA it! !mall !tarting tor,ue1 Once it !top!> a Darrieu!
tur%ine i! hard to re3!tart until a "airly "a!t current i! e@erted on it1 To impro#e the !tarting
tor,ue o" the Darrieu! t!%&ne u!ed "or t&dal po*er generation> a hy%rid t!%&ne> compo!ed
o" a Darrieu! t!%&ne and a 'a(on&!' rotor i! propo!ed1 Hydrodynamic characteri!tic! o" a
!emi3circular !ection u!ed "or the Sa(on&!' %uc4et *ere mea!ured in a *ind tunnel1 The
tor,ue o" a t*o %uc4et Sa#oniu! rotor *a! mea!ured in a circulating *ater channel> *here
"our di""erent con"iguration! o" the %uc4et *ere compared1 A com%ined Darrieu! and
Sa(on&!' T!%&ne *a! te!ted in the circulating *ater channel> *here the e""ect o" the
attaching angle %et*een Darrieu! *ing and Sa(on&!' rotor *a! !tudied1 -inally> po*er
generation e@periment! u!ing a EF pole electric generator *ere conducted in a to*ing tan4
and the po*er coe""icient! *ere compared *ith the re!ult! o" e@periment! o%tained in the
circulating *ater channel1
Act!al de'&gn:
)arameter! that !hould %e con!idered upon the application o" the Sa#oniu! *ind tur%ine1
&1 T#e locat&on G thi! i! e!!ential to the de!ign thi! "actor *ill a""ect the de!ign1 The *ind
#elocity o" the location i! needed "or the e""iciency o" the tur%ine1 The Sa#oniu! *ind
tur%ine need! a lot o" !pace and ha! a good *ind #elocity "or ma@imum e""iciency1
61 T#e '&)e o" t#e de'&gn G the !i;e o" the de!ign i! important %ecau!e o" the po*er needed
in thi! ca!e I need to produce &'($ o" tur%ine po*er !o the area o" the de!ign *ill %e in
a %ig !cale de!ign1
:1 *eat#e cond&t&on' 3 the de!ign !hould al!o con!ider the atmo!pheric condition!1 The
de!ign i! in a %ig !cale !o the de!ign !hould *ith!tand all the *eather condition!1
E1 Co't o" mate&al' !'ed &n t#e de'&gn G the co!t i! e!!ential to the de!ign1 The de!ign
!hould %e le!! cheap %ut e""icient "or the in#e!tor! that *ill rai!e the "und! "or the pro?ect1
DATA OF THE DESI+N
I ha#e %een a!4ed to de!ign a Sa#oniu! *ind tur%ine that *ill produce &'>''' $att! o"
tur%ine po*er1 It ha! a ma@imum height o" E' meter!1
DATA SHEET
&1 Gi#en output o" &'>''' $att! or &'($1
61 $ind #elocity o" EmH!
:1 Standard height o" E' meter!
Gi#en in the data !heet a%o#e> I mu!t con!ider the "ollo*ing
&1& Ba!e on my re!earch> a *indmill can attain tho!e "igure!> a much more e""icient :
%laded i! the mo!t pre"er modern de!ign o" *indmill no*aday!A it can produce a
much more e""icient energy1 But in my condition *hich I *ill create a !a#oniu! *ind
tur%ine> a drag type *ind tur%ine> "ir!t I mu!t con!ider the !cale o" my *ind tur%ine1
&16 The *ind tur%ine can produce &'>''' $att! u!ing the air #elocity o" EmH!1 The *ind
tur%ine !hould comply to the !tandard #elocity o" air1
&1: Standard height o" E' meter! to the ground le#el1 It i! the minimum height that !hould
%e "ollo*ed %ecau!e o" the *ind #elocity a%o#e i! greater than the air #elocity in
lo*er ground!1
Needed In"omat&on to com,lete t#e de'&gn and "om!lat&on':
In the data o" the de!ign I enumerate tho!e parameter! that are %eing gi#en to po!!i%ly
ma4e my de!ign %ut no* I *ill e@tent it "urther "or the data needed or in"ormation need "or
me to complete my de!ign1
&1 -ir!t I need to 4no* the concept! and e,uation! and principle! u!ed to compute "or
my *ind tur%ine1
61 -ir!t *e mu!t analy;e the "orce! hitting the %lade! %y analy;ing drag "orce! o" *ind
to the %lade!1
-
D
IC
D
A
p
JK2
o
6
H6L
$hereA
-
D
I Drag "orce
C
D
ICoe""icient o" drag
A
p
I)ro?ected area
JI Den!ity o" air
2
o
I Initial #elocity o" the *ind
In thi! ta%le *e can determine the coe""icient o" drag *here the *ind pa!!e! on
di""erent 4ind! o" !hape! o" %lade!1
:1 The tip !peed ratio along *ith the coe""icient o" the rotor
A! you can !ee in the chart> the Sa#oniu! *indmill ha! the ma@imum coe""icient o" 1&7
and tip !peed ratio o" 1F> *ell thi! chart i! %eing deri#ed a! an empirical> *hich i! the
cau!e o" e@perience o" tho!e e@pert! dealing *ith tur%ine1
E1 Com,!t&ng "o t#e Tangent&al (eloc&t$
TS<I 2
BH
2
*
$hereA
TS<I TI) S)EED <ATIO
2
B I
Tangential #elocity
2
*
I2elocity o" the *ind
71 Com,!t&ng "o t#e e(ol!t&on ,e m&n!te
N I K2
%
H6MrL 8'
$hereA
2
%
I Tangential "orce
r I radiu! o" the %lade to the !ha"t
81 Com,!t&ng "o ang!la (eloc&t$
Gi#ing the e,uation
N I 6MNH8'
$hereA
N I angular #elocity
NI re#olution per minute
91 Com,!t&ng "o t#e to-!e
-
D&
KrL3-
D6
KrL
I
T
$hereA
-
D&
I Drag "orce on the Semicircular !ection &
-
D6
I Drag "orce on the Semicircular !ection 6
r I radiu! "rom the center o" the tur%ine to the tip o" %lade!
F1 Com,!t&ng t#e Powe o" t#e t!%&ne
)
T
I T N
$hereA
)
T
I )o*er o" the tur%ine
T I Tor,ue
N I angular #elocity
C1 Com,!t&ng "o t#e Powe o" t#e *&nd
)
*
I&H6JA2
&
:
$hereA
)
*
I )o*er o" the *ind
J I Den!ity o" the air
2
&
I Initial #elocity o" the *ind
A
T
I Area total o" the %lade!
&'1 Com,!t&ng "o t#e '#a"t d&amete and 'elect&ng o" mate&al
D I K:6KNLHMLKO:HEKTHS
y
L
6
L
&H:
$hereA
N I De!ign "actor
T I Tor,ue
S
y
I /ield point
I
-ir!t> *e mu!t determine the propertie! o" !teel !ha"t1
-rom "igure AE36>
No* *e get the
&1 Sy
61 )ercent Elongation more than 7P i! ductile enough
Ot#e ele(ant a''!m,t&on' w. com,lete de'&gn /!'t&"&cat&on:
01 D&amete o" t#e %lade'
The diameter o" the %lade! i! e!!ential to the de!ign1 I analy;e it *ell and reali;e that the
diameter and !i;e o" the %lade i! directly proportional to the po*er output1 The material
that *ill %e u!e "or the %lade i! -i%er rein"orced pla!tic1 The thic4ne!! o" the %lade i! 17
inch1
21 D&amete o" t#e '#a"t
The diameter o" the !ha"t i! analy;ed and %a!e "rom my under!tanding reading and
re!earching that the !ha"t need to %e ductile %ecau!e o" "luctuating load! or dynamic
load!1
31 +eneato
The generator *ill %e a permanent generator magnet "or #ertical tur%ine!1 The generator
*ill %e connected along *ith a gear %o@ to the %ottom o" the !ha"t o" the tur%ine1 The
generator that *ill %e u!e i! a :4* generator1 So I *ill %e ma4ing E !a#oniu! *ind
tur%ine !o I can reach the &'4* re,uirement1
DESIGN D<A$N
&1 The diameter o" the %lade!1 Each %lade i! a !emi circular1
-orce! acting upon the %lade!
61 The total height o" the tur%ine and the total height o" the %lade!1 <epre!entation o" !ha"t
and the %earing1 The generator *ill %e connected u!ing a !proc4et a%o#e & meter the
%elo* %earing1
:1 Three Dimen!ional dra*ing o" the Sa#oniu! *ind tur%ine
CALCULATION AND SU44ARI5ATION
&1 GI2EN0
2 I EmH!
AI K6'mLKFLI &8'm
6
JI &16: 4gHm
:
TS<I 1F
61 Computing "or the Drag "orce
-
D
IC
D
A
p
JK2
o
6
H6L
$hereA C
D
i! analy;ed on the ta%le o" type! o" drag "orce on the %lade
-
D&
I 61:KE@6'LK&16:LKFL
-
D&
I &F&'178 N
-
D6
I &16KE@6'LK&16:LKFL
-
D6
I CEE1C6 N
-
D
total I -
D& 3
-
D6
-
D
total I F871C6 N
:1 Computing "or the Tor,ue
.!ing !ummation o" Moment at the center o" the Blade!
-
D&
KrL3-
D6
KrL
I
T
&F&'178K:17'L 3 CEE1C6K:17'L I T
T I :':'196 N3m
E1 Computing "or the tangential #elocity
TS<I 2
BH
2
*
1FI 2
B
HE
2
B
I :16 mH!
71 Computing "or the re#olution o" the %lade! per minute
N I K2
%
H6MrL 8'
N I K:16H6MK:17LLK8'L
N I F19: rpm
81 Computing "or the )o*er o" the Tur%ine
)
T
I T N
$hereA
N I 6MNH8'
)
T
I TK6MNH8'L
)
T
I :':'196K6MKF19:LH8'L
)
T
I 699'18C $att!
91 Computing "or the )o*er o" the $ind
)
*
I&H6JA2
&
:
)
*
I QKK&16:LK6'@FLKEL
:
)
*
I86C918 $att!
F1 Computing "or the Sha"t diameter
D I K:6KNLHMLKO:HEKTHS
y
L
6
L
&H:
$hereA
-rom ta%le AE36> $e u!e AISI &&EE C''-
N I 617 "or the de!ign "actor
S
y
IF8>'''
DI K:6K617LHMLKO:HEK68F6E1'CHF8'''L
6
L
&H:
DI 1E&F m
C1 -or the %earing "or the !ha"t *e *ill choo!e "rom the ta%le %elo*
In our computation o" the !ha"t i! E&Fmm !o *e *ill u!e the E''mm diameter o"
%earing in the !ha"t a#aila%le in the ta%le1
&'1 The generator *ill %e u!e i! a #ertical permanent Generator that can !tore :4*

The gear ratio *ill %e &08 in order to comply to the rpm needed in the !peci"ication o"
the generator1
S.MMA<IRATION
&1 Total Drag "orce I -
D
total I F871C6 N
61 Tor,ue I T I :':'196 N3m
:1 Tangential #elocity I 2
B
I :16 mH!
E1 <e#olution I N I F19: rpm
71 )o*er o" the Tur%ine I )
T
I 699'18C $att!
81 )o*er o" the *ind I )
*
I86C918 $att!
91 Sha"t Diameter ID I 1E&F m
F1 Area o" the %lade! I &8'm
6
C1 Total drag "orce I -
D
total I F871C6 N
&'1 /ield point o" the !ha"t I S
y
IF8>'''
&&1 Generator I :(*>77 rpm>&974g
&61 Sha"t material I AISI &&EE C''-
&:1 Material "or the %lade I -i%er rein"orced pla!tic
&E1 Height o" the %lade! I 6' m
&71 Diameter o" the Blade I 9 m
&81 Thic4ne!! o" the %lade i! I 17 in
DESIGN D<A$ ON THE -IELD
Each tur%ine produce! 699'18C @ E I&&>'F6198 $att!
RECOMMENDATION
From the results and researching about this turbine I may recommend that this kind of
turbine needs a place that has a wind velocity of 4m/s or higher. This turbine is a drag
type so it needs a high wind velocity. To maximize the power output we may need to
make a large savonius turbine. e may increase the height or enlarge the diameter. I
may recommend that the materials that will be used needs to be strong because it is a
drag type it catches power of wind to rotate.
CONCLUSION
In my experience designing the turbine! I have concluded that the savonius turbine
needs a lot of space because it needs to be a large one to produce a greater power. I
have concluded that the blades are semi circular with different drag coefficient in each
side. The savonius turbine is a high tor"ue it means that it can rotate easily the gears.
The generator is a permanent. The turbine needs two bearings. The savonius blade
velocity is slower than the wind. I have concluded that it needs a strong supports so it
may not cause danger.
GLOSSA</
#. Drag -orce 3 re"er! to "orce! *hich act on a !olid o%?ect in the direction o" the
relati#e "luid "lo* #elocity
$. Tor,ue 3 i! the tendency o" a "orce to rotate an o%?ect a%out an a@i!>
:1 Tangential #elocity 3 $hen the rigid o%?ect rotate! around in a circle> the linear #elocity
at a point r meter! a*ay "rom the center o" the circle K*ith the #ector %eing tangent to the
circleL i! the tangential #elocity1
4. Tur%ine 3 i! a rotary engine that e@tract! energy "rom a "luid "lo* and con#ert! it into
u!e"ul *or41
%. Generator 3 an electric generator i! a de#ice that con#ert! mechanical energy to electrical
energy1 A generator "orce! electric charge Ku!ually carried %y electron!L to "lo* through
an e@ternal electrical circuit1
&. Semi3circle 3 i! a t*o3dimen!ional geometric !hape that "orm! hal" o" a circle1
'. Diameter 3 a diameter o" a circle i! any !traight line !egment that pa!!e! through the
center o" the circle and *ho!e endpoint! are on the circle1
(. Elongation 3 i! the tran!"ormation o" a %ody "rom a reference con"iguration to
a current con"iguration
). Den!ity 3 material i! de"ined a! it! ma!! per unit #olume1
&'1 $ind energy3 i! one o" the mo!t co!t e""ecti#e o" all type! o" rene*a%le energy1 It doe!
not create pollution or *a!te and the "uel> *ind> i! not u!ed "a!ter than it i! produced1
&&1 E""icient 3 *ind tur%ine!> *hich con#ert the mechanical energy o" the *ind into u!a%le
electrical energy> re,uire! e@ten!i#e u!e o" phy!ic!
&61 2A$T 3 are a type o" *ind tur%ine *here the main rotor !ha"t i! !et #ertically and the
main component! are located at the %a!e o" the tur%ine=
&:1 Angular #elocity 3i! de"ined a! the rate o" change o" angular di!placement and i!
a #ector ,uantity Kmore preci!ely> a p!eudo#ectorL *hich !peci"ie! the angular !peed o"
an o%?ect and the a@i! a%out *hich the o%?ect i! rotating1
#4. Tip Speed ratio 3 "or *ind tur%ine! i! the ratio %et*een the rotational !peed o" the tip o" a
%lade and the actual #elocity o" the *ind1
#%. Coe""icient o" Drag 3 i! a dimen!ionle!! ,uantity that i! u!ed to ,uanti"y the drag or
re!i!tance o" an o%?ect in a "luid en#ironment !uch a! air or *ater1
&81 Gear 3 i! a rotating machine part ha#ing cut teeth> or cogs> *hich mesh *ith another
toothed part in order to tran!mit tor,ue1
&91 Bearing 3 i! a de#ice to allo* con!trained relati#e motion %et*een t*o or more part!>
typically rotation or linear mo#ement1
Re"eence':
&1 Cro*e> Elger> <o%ert!on1 Engineering -luidmechanic!1 $iley eight Edition
61 S1 L1 Di@on and C1A1 Hall> -luid Mechanic! and Thermodynamic! o" Tur%omachinery>
Si@th Edition1
:1 Mott <o%ert L1 Machine Element! De!ign A )ractical Approach+> L)E -ourth Edition