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DEVELOPMENT AND

DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL
The Nigerian Institution Of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
A division of the Nigerian Society of Engineers
Kaduna Branch
DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL
INFRASTRUCTURES IN
MODERN CITIES
- 08028451593, 08054143288, 08030723801
By Engr. Paul I. Audu
Developing Electrical Infrastructures in a City setup
involves the following components:-
Load growth and load demand of the area to be
served (load forecast).
This depends on Historical Data, Geographical
factors, Land use, City plans, Industrial plans, factors, Land use, City plans, Industrial plans,
Community Development Plans, Alternative Energy
Sources, Load Density, and Population Growth.
Injection Substation sites election depends on Load
Forecast , proximity to existing 33KV lines, Land
availability, Land acquisition, Land use regulations,
Feeder Limitations, coverage of nearest 33KV
injection substation, proximity to load centers and
load density.
A typical Map of a new City Development showing Land use
Distribution and requiring Bulk Power Supply is shown
below:
Based on the concept behind the city layout, our electrical
facility shall be solely based on four main objectives as
summarized below:
To comply with the applicable codes and standards;
To meet the specific power and communications
requirements for the different zones/plots; requirements for the different zones/plots;
To achieve reliability and durability of systems and
components;
To implement safety measures for the protection and
safety of people and equipment.
Consideration
While achieving the design objectives, other important
factors shall have to be considered carefully:
Cost effectiveness;
Efficiency and energy conservation;
Co-ordination with other design elements;
Simplifying installation operation and Simplifying installation operation and
maintenance;
Two considerations shall be adopted as follows:
1. Primary Supply Consideration
2. Secondary Feeder Consideration
Design Consideration for Primary Feeder
This is the portion between the injection substation and the
Distribution Transformers.
It consists of main and Lateral (or Tee-offs) as indicated in
figure 1
Due to growing emphasis on service Reliability, the Protection
Scheme will be more sophisticated, incorporating remotely
controlled automatic devices based on supervisory
controlled or computer controlled system.
The Congested and high density location in the metropolitan
area shall be served with underground primary feeders.
FIGURE 1B: TYPICAL LOOPED-FEEDER UNDERGROUND CIRCUITSUSING
TWO SOURCES
FIGURE 1A: TYPICAL LOOPED-FEEDER UNDERGROUND CIRCUITS
Design Consideration for Primary Feeder
The various and interrelated factors affecting the selection of the
primary feeder shall include:
The nature of the load to be connected (Residential,
Commercial or Industrial)
The load density of the area to be served
The growth rate of the load The growth rate of the load
The need for spare capacity on emergency operation
The type and cost of circuit construction employed
The design and capacity of the substations involved
The type of regulating equipment to be used
The quality of service required
The continuity of service required
Design Consideration for Secondary Feeders
The part of the electric utility system between the primary
system and the customers property shall be considered as
the secondary system. This includes the step-down
distribution transformers, secondary circuits (secondary
mains), consumer services (service drops) and metering
facilities.
In this design, it shall be borne in mind that the customer In this design, it shall be borne in mind that the customer
shall install all types of energy-consuming devices that can
be connected in every conceivable combination and times of
customers choice.
Consequent upon the consideration above, our concept of
distribution shall start with the individual customers and
loads, and proceed through several gathering stages to
include various groups of increasing number of customers
and their loads.
Design Consideration for Secondary Feeders
To minimize secondary-circuit lengths, we shall locate the
distribution transformers close to the load centres and will
try to have secondary service drops to the individual
customers as short as possible.
Most of the secondary systems shall be radial-designed
except for some specific areas like central business districts, except for some specific areas like central business districts,
security installations, hospitals etc. where reliability and
service-continuity considerations are far more important
than the cost and economic considerations.
In the special considerations mentioned above, the design
shall be grid- or mesh-type network configurations.
The one-line diagram of a small segment of a typical
secondary network to be utilized is shown in figure 2.
FIGURE 2: ONE-LINE DIAGRAM OF
A TYPICAL SECONDARY NETWORK
Based on the concept behind the city layout, our electrical facility
shall be solely based on factors that enhance adequate power
capability, system flexibility, power reliability and availability, as
well as network optimization. In this regard, the power system
components shall be considered as follows:
1 Network Configuration
The basis for design of the primary feeder in this particular instance
is service continuity and near-unity reliability, and the loop-type
primary feeder best suites this purpose.
For the looped network to be effective, packaged substations shall
be used and the network shall be essentially underground system
best suited for looped ring-main operation as indicated in figure 1a
above.
2 Service Delivery
With emphasis on reliability of service, the definite trend in this
design shall be greater use of protection and sectionalizing
equipment in the primary system so as to minimize the number of
outage to customer as well as outage time on the feeder.
High-voltage Distribution Systems (HVDS) shall be essentially High-voltage Distribution Systems (HVDS) shall be essentially
utilized to reduce voltage-drop and extend major equipment to the
city load centres.
We shall explore the need for optimization of distribution voltage
and substation size in planning the primary distribution network
using the tract area served, area shape (ratio of length and breadth)
and the anticipated load density in MVA/square kilometer based on
nature of load.
The length of the primary trunk feeders and tee-offs shall be based
on the following relationship (assuming a square area).
Length of primary circuits (Km) N, A
Length of Tee-offs (Km) N, A and X
Where,
N number of primary circuits
A tract area in Km
2
A tract area in Km
2
X Unit Distribution Transformer area in Km
2
3 Load Centres
Load centre consideration shall be based on two premises
Substation
For a cost-effective load centres, the substation locations shall be
based on:
Minimum Losses and better voltage regulation with proximity Minimum Losses and better voltage regulation with proximity
of the substation to loads of its service area as related by
d l, S
i
Where,
d optimum distance for minimum losses
l respective distances of load from source
S
i
loads of service area
Location that allows proper access to incoming and other outgoing
primary feeders as well as giving room for future growth.
3 Load Centres
Distribution Transformers
For location of distribution transformers, location points (X,Y) shall
be established by moments equated round the reference point of
origin x- and y-axis, using loads of a service area as masses (see
figure 3).
FIGURE 3: TYPICAL DISTRIBUTION
TRANSFORMER LOAD CENTRE
LOCATION
The LT line lengths and load positions shall be plotted on
graph/survey sheet to scale as per geographical orientation. The load
centres on X and Y axis are chosen as follows:
(L
i
)X L
i
x
i
(L
i
)Y L
i
y
i
(L
i
)Y L
i
y
i
Where,
L
i
= loads on x- and y-axis
x
i
, y
i
= distances of loads on x- and y-axis
4 Primary Feeder Loading
Factors that shall be taken to consideration in primary feeder loading
are:
4 Primary Feeder Loading
Factors that shall be taken to consideration in primary feeder loading
are:
The density of feeder load
Nature of feeder load
Expected growth rate Expected growth rate
The reserve-capacity requirements for emergency
Service-continuity requirements
Service-reliability requirements
The quality of service
Primary-feeder voltage level
Type and cost of construction
Location and capacity of the distribution substation
The voltage regulation requirements
5 Development of Distribution Feeder Exit
This shall be done with a view to providing uniform development
plan to minimize circuitry changes associated with distribution
extension.
Rectangular type of development shall be used to determine
primary feeder loads.
The main thrust is to maximize flow and minimize losses. The main thrust is to maximize flow and minimize losses.
Network flow augmentation shall be used to establish maximum
flow and minimum-cut for optimum feeder exit as illustrated in
figure 4.
FIGURE 4: FLOW DIAGRAM FOR DISTRIBUTION EXIT DESIGN
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
6
R
5
R
7
N
1
N
3
N
4
N
5
N
i
= Service Nodes
R
i
= Service Routes
N
2
5.1 Rectangular Development Strategy
This shall be adopted with a view to locating distribution
transformers in their optimal service outlets and providing
options for additional service extension.
Figures 5 and 6 are illustrations of strategies to be adopted for
high-and low-density service areas. high-and low-density service areas.
In general, adjacent service areas are served from different
transformer banks in order to provide for transfer to adjacent
circuits in the event of transformer outages.
FIGURE 5: RECTANGULAR
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR
HIGH-DENSITY AREAS
In service areas with high-load
density, the adjacent substations
are developed to provide for are developed to provide for
adequate load-transfer capability
and service continuity.
Sufficient circuit ties must be
available to support the loss of
large transformer unit.
The 1-2-4-8-12 feeder method is
especially desirable.
FIGURE 6 : RECTANGULAR
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR
LOW-DENSITY AREAS
In low-load density areas, where
the adjacent substations are
not adequately developed and not adequately developed and
circuit ties are not available due
to excessive distances between
substations , the 1-2-4-6-8-12
circuit-developing substation
scheme is more suitable as
shown in figure 6.
6 33/11KV Injection Substations
The basic philosophy behind the design of the injection
substations is hinged on the following criteria:
Sufficient capacity for the supply of the entire city
loads
Short primary feeder lengths to avoid unnecessary
voltage drops voltage drops
High network flexibility to forestall unnecessary
power outage in the event of failures
Near-unity Reliability and availability to ensure
continuity of supply at all times as well as adequate
maintainability provisions
Effective substation location to establish optimal
service load-centres
7 Bulk Power Supply
It may be obvious that there is the need to locate a 132KV bulkpower
supply source within the proximity of the development areas because
of the load requirements and the location of the presently
available sources.
Power system stability cannot be guaranteed from 33KV sources
that may be close to the development area for loads beyond
30MVA capacity, using PHCN present configurations. 30MVA capacity, using PHCN present configurations.
The source and substation location shall be guided by:
Proximity of available 132KV source
Optimal load-centre location for the entire nine districts of
the development area
Most economic feeder-route that will not interfere with the
city master-plan
Provisions for future developments in the entire
development area
LOAD ALLOCATION FOR L.V. CUSTOMER FEEDER UNITS
Load allocation per plot is dependent on the size and type of housing
units in a plot. For houses that qualify for single-phase supply, such as
medium density townhouses, the expectation is that load demand
can range between 15A 45A (or 3.3KVA 9.9KVA) and so an average
of about 7KVA is allocated to each of these.
Houses designed to take loads of 12KW (15KVA) and above are Houses designed to take loads of 12KW (15KVA) and above are
normally supplied on three phase. Allowance is made for load range
of 15 25KVA baring load and diversity factors. These include houses
lowdensity and mediumdensity areas.
Commercial establishments and as are found in blocks of flats for
mixed use in high density areas institutions like secondary schools
and health-care centres are given allocations suitable for 50A whole-
current MD meters. This places the demand on a minimum of 36KVA
load allocation.
LOAD ALLOCATION FOR L.V. CUSTOMER FEEDER UNITS
Light Industrial locations, large commercial areas, large institutions,
hospitals e.t.c. are expected to take minimumof 0.0279KVA allocation
per m
2
by our original estimate. Therefore, a transformer of 1,500KVA
shall be taken for an industrial land area of 53,763.4m
2
.
BASED ON THE OUTLINED LOAD REQUIREMENTS, THE TYPICAL CITY BASED ON THE OUTLINED LOAD REQUIREMENTS, THE TYPICAL CITY
LAND-USE DISTRIBUTION MAP IS DIVIDED INTO VARIOUS RINGED
LOOPS FOR EFFECTIVE SUPPLY AS INDICATED IN FIGURE 7 BELOW.
THE LOOPS ARE ALSO COMBINED TO ESTABLISH THE INJECTION
SUBSTATION REQUIREMENTS AS SHOWN FIGURE 8.
FIG. 7 PARTITIONING OF CITY INTOELECTRICAL LOOP NETWORK
2 x 15MVA,33/11KV
2 x 15MVA,33/11KV
2 x 7.5MVA,33/11KV
33KV LINE
SUBSTATION
33KV PRIMARY NETWORK
INTER-CONNECTIONS ON
MODIFIED RING-LOOPS
2 x 15MVA,33/11KV
FIG. 8
The perceived network configuration is shown in figure 9
The substation locations are made to take care of
interconnections to all looped ring-circuits in such a way
that power quality is not compromised.
The substations are expected to be custom-built, complete with state-
of-the-art SCADA facilities such that each field components and
activities can be coordinated from a remote central control via
computerized detection schemes and ultramodern communication
facilities.
By this arrangement, the status of field equipment can be monitored
and controlled from a remote base station.
The inter-connections are such that the field equipment in each of the
loops are supervised and controlled in real time at the substation
level with the information gathered from the intelligent field ring-
main-units or pole-mounted RTUs and also translated to the remote
control centre for information or active control.
Real-time protection and control is also achieved through the
coordinated substations computerized control and monitoring
systems.
11KV RING NETWORK
As indicated earlier in this report, the 11KV Ring network shall
be fed from various loops. The loops in this option shall be fed
from a dual-network overhead lines using the interface model
indicated in fig. 10.
The loops in-feed to the 11KV network is shown in fig. 10.
Based on desires to optimise and economise system
configurations using 11KV overhead ring network, the
components for the HV network is largely based on overhead
materials with accompanying cable interface coupled to
transformers substations via intelligent Ring-main-units which
is SCADA compliant.
A typical 11KV intelligent Ring-main-unit proposed is the
modern LUCY type with the automated features.
The development of the GEMINIRTU2 has enabled Lucy
Switchgear to provide automated solutions for its range of
RMU and pole-mounted switchgear.
This systems approach has also been possible by the
development of a number of building block products that
allows a secondary automation system to be devised.
The features include: Local control & indication of switch
positions (open/close), RS232 Control Port, Compact G2-
RTU, Padlockable control selector (OFF/LOCAL/REMOTE),
RS232 Configuration Port, Plant Interface Connections,
The substation outlets to the ring network is shown in the
single-line diagram of figure 11 based on the configuration of single-line diagram of figure 11 based on the configuration of
figure 10.
FIGURE 11: 11KV RING CIRCUIT OUTLETS
11/0.415KV TRANSFORMER LOAD ALLOCATION
Based on the concept earlier discussed in previous sections,
our distribution transformer configuration and loading shall be
based strictly on standard PHCN specifications, optimal load
centre and service delivery requirements as well load demand
specification of the original plan.
Modern practice requires that transformer loads be split to Modern practice requires that transformer loads be split to
manageable economic level that will be near enough to the
customer load-centre in order to enhance effective power
quality. In line with this requirements, all loads within a loop
shall be reconfigured to accommodate a maximum transformer
load of 500KVA.
Based on the original planned load configurations, the following
design data are used for distribution transformer location:
1.SERVICE AREA LOCATION
Based on the original planned load configurations, the following
design data are used for distribution transformer location:
1.SERVICE AREA LOCATION
To effectively locate transformers in a service area, the
following parameters were utilized in our design
calculations: calculations:
Number of Primary Circuits
Total Tract Area
Load Density (MVA/Km
2
)
Length of Primary Circuit (Km)
Length of Tee-offs (Km)
Unit Distribution Transformer Area
MV
LOOP
NO
NO OF
PRIMARY
CCTS.
TRACT
AREA
(Km
2
)
LOAD
DENSITY
(MVA/Km
2
)
LENGTH
OF PRY.
CCT. (Km)
LENGTH
OF TEE-
OFFS (Km)
UNIT DIST
TRF. AREA
(Km
2
)
L-1-01
L-1-02
2
2
0.5762
0.2756
7.7751
14.1509
3.50
2.42
0.7596
0.44
0.0640
0.0344
Example of a typical design data for two selected loops is
tabulated below:
2. LOAD CENTRE IDENTIFICATION
Optimal load centres were determined for the injection
substations as well as distribution substations based on
the following parameters:
Optimum Distance for minimum losses
Distances of Load from Source
Loads of Service Area
LT load positions on x-and y-axis
LT load distances on x-and y-axis
Detailed data are given on table 2
SUPPLY
SOURCE
CONNEC-
TED LOOP
AVG.
DISTANCE
FROM
SOURCE (Km)
LOADS OF
SERVICE
AREAS (MVA)
LT LOAD
POSITIONS
(Km)
RESPECTIVE LT
LOAD
DISTANCES (Km)
OPTIMUM
SUBSTATION
DISTANCES (Km)
SUB. 1
(33/11KV)
SUB. 2
(33/11KV)
SUB. 3
(33/11KV)
SUB. 4
(33/11KV)
Loop 1
Loop 2
Loop 3
Loop 1
Loop 2
Loop 3
Loop 1
Loop 2
Loop 3
Loop 1
Loop 2
Loop 3
0.300
0.450
0.555
0.469
0.300
-
-
0.750
0.302
-
0.750
0.525
12.78
3.89
3.54
14.11
4.27
-
-
3.87
18.54
-
10.79
3.75
3.834
1.750
1.965
6.618
1.281
-
-
2.902
5.601
-
8.093
1.969
3. TRANSFORMER ALLOCATION DETAILS
To appropriately allocate the number of transformers
that will adequately serve the loops, the total loop loads
and load densities are shared among several
transformers of standard commercial ratings, to a
maximum of 500KVA.
The typical allocation details for three loops are shown
on table 3
MV
LOOP
NO
TOTAL
DEMAND
(MVA)
TRACT
AREA
(Km
2
)
LOAD
DENSITY
(MVA/Km
2
)
TRANSF.
RATINGS
(KVA)
NUMBER
REQD.
UNIT DIST
TRF. AREA
(Km
2
)
L-1-01
L-1-02
L-1-03
4.48
3.90
4.76
0.5762
0.2756
0.1917
7.7751
14.1509
24.8305
9x500
8x500
9x500, 1x300
9
8
10
0.0640
0.0344
0.01917
SYSTEM LOADING AND INSTALLED CAPACITY
Based on the final parcellation drawings, the installed
capacity on the given load and substation outlets are
evaluated as in the table below for two Substations:
SUBST.
NO
TOTAL
INSTALLED
(MVA)
LOOP NO LOAD
DEMAND
(MVA)
TRANSF.
RATINGS
(KVA)
%
LOADING REMARKS
SUB. 1 2 x 15 =30
L-1-01
L-1-02
4.48
3.90
9x500
8x500
These
estimates are SUB. 1
SUB. 2
2 x 15 =30
2 x 15 =30
2 x 15 =30
2 x 7.5 =15
L-1-02
L-1-03
L-1-05
L-1-06
L-2-03
L-3-07
L-1-04
L-1-07
L-1-08
L-1-09
L-2-01
L-2-07
3.90
4.76
5.00
5.00
3.89
3.75
4.35
2.5
4.00
4.00
4.27
4.00
8x500
9x500, 1x300
10x500
10x500
5x500
7x500, 1x300
8x500,2x200
5x500
8x500
8x500
7x500, 1x200
8x500
103%
77.1%
estimates are
based on
installed
capacity
Load factors of
60-80% and
diversity factor
of 85% shall
be applied
PRACTICAL INTELLIGENT RING-MAIN-UNITS
OVER-HEAD RING CONTROL FACILITIES
G2-RTU for ground mounted applications include:
Controls and monitoring for up to 4 motorised
functions (ring switches or circuit breakers)
Inbuilt earth and phase fault passage detection
Supports up to 4 external fault passage indicators
Current monitoring from analogue inputs and
voltage sensing
Embedded automation sequences such as Auto-
changeover or Auto-sectionalising
RTU mounting options include wall, floor or
switchgear
G2-RTU for pole mounted applications include:
Inbuilt low power actuator to drive air break
switch disconnectors (RAPIER RX-RC)
Supports retrofit fault passage indicator/current
sensor (RAPIER RX-RC)
Voltage sensing (RAPIER GX-RC/S) Voltage sensing (RAPIER GX-RC/S)
Sectionaliser functionality (RAPIER GX-RC/S)
Pole mounted RTU
The benefits to the network operator of implementing a
programme of remote control and automation on their
secondary distribution networks are significant and include:
Reduced time in diagnosing system faults,
locate and isolate the faulty section of network
Faster response time and network
reconfiguration resulting in a reduction in reconfiguration resulting in a reduction in
customer minutes lost (CML)
Optimisation of asset management through the
implementation of customized automation
schemes
Reduced operational costs associated with
routine network switching
Increased operator safety
SINGLE-LINE DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL DISTRIBUTION
SUBSTATION
SUMMARY OF LOAD ALLOCATION
Feeder Unit Load Allocation is based on the fact that the
outgoing units from a normal conventional feeder-pillar do not
exceed four (4), operating on a regime of N + 1 concept with
three units active and the fourth as a spare.
As earlier proposed, the distribution transformer shall be As earlier proposed, the distribution transformer shall be
limited to 500KVA maximum per distribution substation and the
number of transformers per loop have already been
determined in our preliminary designs.
Therefore the transformer unit loads per substation relative to
capacity are given as follows:
500KVA = 500/3 = 167KVA per unit
300KVA = 300/3 = 100KVA per unit
200KVA = 200/2 = 100KVA per unit
100KVA = 100/2 = 50KVA per unit
SUMMARY OF LOAD ALLOCATION
Load density has already been taken into consideration in our
earlier determination of number of transformers per ring-loop.
What we set out to do in this detailed design is to adequately
distribute these transformers for effective utilization by the
consumers.
The first step was to adequately locate the optimum load
centres for each of the transformers so that we can effectively
radiate the L.V. feeders.
All allocations and supplies from individual distribution
transformers are as indicated in the detailed distribution
geographical maps.
The allocation detail is tabulated below:
PLOT
TYPE
BUILDING
TYPE
AVERAGE
SIZE
(m
2
)
POWER
REQUIREMENT
(KVA)
NUMBER IN A
UNIT FEEDER REMARKS
Low
Density
Medium
Density
Villas or
Bungalows
Townhouses/R
ow houses
600
250
15 25KVA
3.3 10KVA
8 14
21 27
80% Load/
Diversity
factor
75%
Diversity Density
Medium
Density
High
Density/
Mixed
use
Industrial
ow houses
Flats/apartment
buildings
Commercial
Large Flats
Light Industry/
Hospitals, and
Institutions
1,000
750
750
Varied
25 30KVA
36 50KVA
25 35KVA
0.0279KVA/m
2
6 8
3 6
5 8
Dedicated
Diversity

80% / 75%
Diversity
65 100%
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