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Politics in the Philippines has been under the control of a few notable families.

It is normal for
a politician's son, wife, brother, or other kinsman, to run for the same or other government office.
The term coined by Filipinos to describe this practice is "Political dynasty", the equivalent of
an oligarchy in political science.
One can trace its roots from the Spanish colonial times where favored families of
the mestizo stock, or the Illustrados were given responsibilities ofGobernadorcillo, or Alcalde.
As such, these men have wielded some influence in their communities, and patronage politics
was a common undertaking.
During the early years of American rule of the Philippine Islands, these Illustrados joined the
democratic process introduced by the Philippine Bill of 1902. During this period, family names
such as Cojuangcos, Lopezes, Marcoses, Osmeas and Aquinos started to emerge, later on
becoming household names.
The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines states in Article II Section 26, "The State shall
guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as
may be defined by law."
Many have called for the Congress to pass the Anti-Dynasty Law, but this bill has been passed
over by each Congress since 1987. Some have pointed thatoligarchy is the root problem of all the
corruption in the Philippine government
disadvantage and advantage of political dynasty
Hello,I wanna answer this question but I am not sure if this answer is superbly right just wanna
share my question. I am a Filipino too and I think because of our government but as I said I think
this question is not superbly right. Thanks.
the effect of political dynasty is it can cause of corruption,but it depends to the family that will
governed the city said
The reason why corruption occurs in the Philippines is that many officials want to get rich in a
very simple way. They get the money allotted for the improvement of the country. When this
occurs, the Philippine treasury will lose the money that can be used for the improvement of the
country, and then, the Philippines will burrow money from other countries to meet the needs. As
the country continues to burrow money, it will still lack the needs that result to poverty,
unfinished projects, economic loss.

Proem
The 1986 Philippines Constitution provides in Article II, Sec. 26, The State shall guarantee
equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibits political dynasties as may be
defined by law.
A paradox is defined in the dictionary as a statement seemingly absurd or contradictory, yet in
fact true.
The dictionary definition of dynasty is a line or succession of sovereigns from the same
family. A political dynasty is defined as a political group or party whose member or members
occupies the same elective position for many successive elections.

The COMELEC defines political dynasty as a situation where persons related to each other
within the third civil degree of consanguinity or affinity hold elective office simultaneously or
some offices successively in a region, legislative district, province, city or municipality.
Constitutional Paradox
Art. II, Sec. 26, guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service This means that
anyone who satisfies the needed qualifications can run for a particular elective office. The
accident of birth or marriage that makes people relatives is not a prohibition.
The provision continues, and prohibits political dynasties If it is taken as a continuation to
the previous statement, the political dynasty should mean the grouping or political party
because it is not a person. Any person, according to the preceding statement is guaranteed
equal access.
However, the last phrase says, as may be defined by law. The Constitution allows itself to
be contradicted in its statement if the law will define political dynasty that does not guarantee
equal access to opportunities for public service.
Maybe it is the reason why until the present, after 26 years, Congress could not yet define what is
Political Dynasty.
Political Dominance
The definition of COMELEC is not Political Dynasty in accordance to Standard English
dictionaries. At best, the COMELEC definition can be classified within Political Dominance
and it is not prohibited by the Constitution. There are really people who know how to win an
election. They could be individuals, relatives, or members of a party or groups. Shall these
kinds of people be punished for their ability to win elections?
How about if one brother will run for Mayor in one town and another brother in another town
and the father runs for Governor, will they be deprived by law for presenting themselves as
candidates? Will the accident of birth govern even if the relatives are already very different in
principles and outlooks in life?
In my opinion, let them run, and let the voters decide. The definition of Political Dynasty must
not contradict the proviso of guaranteed equal access for the opportunity of public service. The
essence of democracy should prevail.
Voting Paradox
I have just finished a Poll Survey for a town in Bohol. When I ask the method of campaigning
Mohatag og inangayan. = Will give money as a method of campaigning, the response was only
7.6%. In other words, 92.4% does not want that money should be a consideration in the
campaign.
However, when asked Kun hatagan ka og kuwarta aron pabotaron sa usa ka kandidato, unsa ang imong
buhaton? = If you will be given money to vote for a candidate, what will you do? Answer:
Modawat og mobotar. = Will accept and vote has 71% positive response.
The paradox is, the voters do not want money to be given (92.4%) but yet will vote for the
candidate when given a certain amount of money (71%). For me it is a paradox, but maybe to
the voters it is not a paradox because the same behavior was also observed during the 2010
election.
The queer things is that there is a satisfaction amount. Below the satisfaction amount the voters
will not vote and above the amount the voters will not also vote. I am still in a quandary how to
explain this queer behavior.

Thursday, February 21, 2013


THREE members of different political clans in Tacloban City see no problem with the perception of their families being a
political dynasty.
Councilor Jerry Uy said he does not even consider himself as part of a political dynasty.
Were only two in the family involved in politics. We should not be blamed for getting into important posts if this is what
the public wants. We are duly elected by the people, Uy told Leyte Samar Daily Express.
Uy is the brother of Councilor Wilson Uy of Palo, Leyte.
People can scrutinize our track records. At the end of the day its still them who will vote. If they want our brand of
service, we are willing to work for them, Uy added.
He emphasized that there is no law defining political dynasty and even if there is a provision in the Constitution about it,
there should be an enabling law defining it.
Under Section 26 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution, it stipulates that The state shall guarantee equal access to
opportunities for public service and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law.
Jose Mari Jom Bagulaya, son of Leyte Governor Mimiette Bagulaya, does not perceive himself as part of a growing
political family.
For me, political dynasty exists in one particular place like here in Tacloban, if Im running for councilor and a member
of my family is also running here, then thats probably political dynasty, the young Bagulaya said.
Its only me and my mother who are running. I see many members of one family running for various positions in one
place, and thats real dynasty. Also, my mother is running in the third district, she is far from Tacloban City, Bagulaya
added.
He said people would always have a choice when it comes to the issue of the so-called political dynasties so it should not
be an issue anymore.
Raissa Villasin, another member of a political family, said there is nothing wrong with political dynasty that has a legacy.
Its the people that decide and they could judge for themselves based on the progress of the place where these so-called
political dynasts rule, Villasin said.
Villasin is the daughter of former Leyte second district board member and later vice governor Nestor Villasin, who is now
the general manager of Leyte Metropolitan Water District. She is also the brother of incumbent Leyte second district board
member Nico Villasin.
I think voters nowadays are smart enough to choose their candidates by looking through the track records and not those
from political families free ride, Villasin added.
Newcomer Ace Young, meanwhile, said it may be a normal occurrence for children to take after their parents and follow
their career choice.
Young said children of businessmen, lawyers, doctors and even actors follow their parents footsteps, and added that it is
same with politicians.
I dont belong to any political clan but it is unfair not to vote for candidates just because they have politicians as
relatives, Young said.
A bill has already been filed in Senate by Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago providing that no spouse or person related
within the second civil degree of consanguinity or affinity could run in the same province in the same election.
Under the bill, if an incumbent official holds a national position, the politicians relatives would be disqualified from
running in the province where the official is a registered voter. (Leyte Samar Daily Express)



A federal government is a government system in which power is distributed between
numerous regional (state/provinces) governments and a central, national government in
rough balance (although the central government may be stronger or weaker, overall, than
the regional governments).

A federal system of government is used by the USA, as well as numerous Latin American
countries, Canada, Australia, and Germany.

Federalism can lead to considerable variety in laws and standards between regional
governments. For example, in the USA, most criminal laws are set by the states, along with
their punishments. Medical use of marijuana is legal in some states, but not others. Oregon
allows physician-assisted suicide, while a doctor doing the same thing in Utah would go to
jail. In Texas, a murderer can be executed (and Texas executed 18 people in 2008), but in
Michigan, the death penalty is not used.

Federal government is one of three options for dividing powers between the central
government and smaller, more local governments, the others being unitary government and
confederal government.

In a unitary system, almost all real power is centralised in a national government. Local or
regional governments are set up for convenience, and may issue regulations on traffic,
parking, and the like, but the power of issuing formal identification and permits (like a driving
license) are controlled by the central government. Any powers that are given to the regional
governments are given for the convenience of issuing law, and they may be readily altered
by the national government. The United Kingdom (Great Britain) is unitary, as are many
European democracies.

Finally, a confederal system is one in which power is held by the regional governments, and
the central government has very limited power. The confederal government can conduct
foreign policy, and it may be able to set a standard currency, but it may not have the power
to tax, or to directly call up troops in an emergency, etc. Confederal government is very
uncommon. The USA was a confederation before the adoption of the US Constitution; the
Confederacy in the American Civil War was a confederation, as well. Switzerland used to be
confederal, and is now federal, but the Swiss regional governments (cantons) remain very
strong. The United Arab Emirates could be regarded as a strong confederation or a weak
federation. Most confederations evolve into federal governments.

There's your answer, the short and the long versions.
Source:
Political science graduate


Friday, September 7, 2012


MANILA -- The latest survey showing public satisfaction for President Benigno Aquino III soaring to 77 percent
validates the brand of leadership the administration espoused to achieve significant changes in institutions and
governance, said a Palace official on Friday.
The latest Social Weather Stations (SWS) survey conducted on 1,200 respondents nationwide on August 24-27
showed Aquino's net satisfaction score rose 25 points to a "very good" +67, from the "good" +42 three months
earlier.
Seventy-seven percent of the respondents said they were satisfied with the Presidents performance, up from 63
percent in May. Those who said they were not satisfied accounted for 10 percent, which is an improvement from
the previous record of 21 percent.
The result of the latest survey is the highest rating so far for Aquinos administration since he assumed office in
2010. The SWS Third Quarter survey utilized sampling error margins of 3 percent for national and 6 percent
for area percentages.
"The consistently strong numbers affirm the President's mandate for change; they are tangible indicators of the
people's support for the difficult yet necessary reforms the President has championed since Day One,"
Presidential Spokesperson Edwin Lacierda said.
He added that since the first SWS Survey on public satisfaction in September 2010, the President's ratings have
not dipped below 63 percent and have increased to the current high of 77 percent.
Lacierda said the SWS ratings are indicative of sustained satisfaction in the performance of Aquino.
"These results mirror the strong showing of the Philippines, especially with respect to its institutions and
governance, in the recent Global Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum," he said.
He added that the international community has recognized the reform initiatives of the Aquino administration
and at home, the embodiment of positive change is President Aquino himself.
"The results of these surveys, both within and beyond our borders, validate the brand of leadership that the
President has continuously espoused -- of transparency and accountability, of restoring social trust and rebuilding
public institutions, and of honesty and integrity in public service," Lacierda said.
He also said that public confidence and trust in the President also suggests high morale in a public increasingly
empowered, and itself sustained in its positive feeling about our nations direction and prospects for the future.
Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office Secretary Ramon Carandang said
Aquino was elated with the latest survey result.
"I think any politician who is working so hard to get his programs through would be happy to know that the
public approves of his numbers, of his performance. I think it's safe to assume that the President is happy," said
Carandang in an interview during the send-off of Aquino and his party for the Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation (Apec) Summit in Russia.
Carandang believed that the impeachment of former Chief Justice Renato Corona caused the rise in the
President's satisfaction ratings.
"Yes, I believe that the successful impeachment of the former Chief Justice had something to do with the
approval ratings of the President. Because part of what we're trying to do during the impeachment was -- as part
of our anti-corruption campaign -- was to introduce reform in the judiciary," he said.
Corona was removed from office last May by the Senate impeachment court for culpable violation of the
Constitution and betrayal of public trust for not truthfully disclosing his assets and net worth. (Jill
Beltran/Sunnex)