optimal Sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems

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optimal Sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems

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Mohammad Ali Yazdanpanah-Jahromi

*

,

, Seyed-Masoud Barakati and Said Farahat

University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

SUMMARY

This paper propose a new method for designing a stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic-diesel-battery

system that minimizes the inequality coefcient and annualized cost of system and maximizes the correla-

tion coefcient using multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm. The proposed method uses

data from solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed that are collected from the city of Zabol, located

in south-east of Iran. The results are presented as an optimal Pareto front set and the optimal number of

devices, as well as objective functions, that is, inequality coefcient, annualized cost of system, and corre-

lation coefcient. Additionally, a study of the operating hours of diesel generator in optimal conguration is

carried out. Simulation results show the match rate between demand, supply, and energy storage. The

optimal number of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, and batteries ensuring that the system total cost

is minimized, while guaranteeing a highly reliable source of load power is obtained. The proposed sizing

method can be applied to any other locations with different weather data, load demands, and different

characteristics. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

key words: large-scale optimization; hybrid power systems; wind-PV-power systems; multi-objective

optimization; sizing method; electricity match rate (EMR)

1. INTRODUCTION

Ever-increasing need for energy, global environmental concerns, and growth of population calls for com-

bining multiple renewable energy resources in a practical fashion. Wind power has recently become the

fastest growing renewable energy resource and is projected to lead the growth of the renewable power

portfolio in the near term [1]. Solar energy, both as a thermal and as an electric source, has been also well

suited as an environmentally friendly power source. Additionally, wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic

(PV) have been considered as promising power generating sources because of their complementary power

generation characteristics, that is, there is more sunlight during lowwind and more wind at night time. The

reliability of hybrid systems must be considered during the planning and design stages, although design-

ing hybrid systems with both solar and wind components increases the reliability of such systems [2].

Adoption of renewable energy technologies poses risks of compromising system reliability because of

the intermittent nature of renewable sources. The social cost of emissions helps to justify hybrids

implementation. Many simulation studies have been performed to justify the hybrid systems. Hybrid

stand-alone electric generating systems are usually more reliable and less costly than systems that use only

a single source of energy [3]. Additionally, energy storage devices are necessary in the hybrid systems

because of the intermittent nature of wind and solar energies. Traditionally, deep-cycle lead-acid batteries

are used to store direct current electrical energy in electrochemical form[4]. In order to generate the power

from renewable energy continuously, there is a need for back-up systems. A diesel generator is usually

used as a back-up system to supply the load demand and to charge the batteries.

*Correspondence to: Mohammad Ali Yazdanpanah-Jahromi, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.

E-mail: M.yazdanpanah.j@gmail.com

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS

Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/etep.1790

The optimal design of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems includes proper capacity plan-

ning and sizing, to ensure the lowest investment and optimal deployment of hybrid energy resources.

The optimal design should consider the coordination among hybrid energy sources, energy storage

systems, and load demand proles. Various optimization techniques in sizing of hybrid energy

resources have been reported in literature. Classical optimization techniques may be computationally

intensive or may not take into account all relevant parameters. Because some of the practical problem

involves objective functions that are not continuous and/or differentiable, the classical optimization

technique has limited scope in practical application [5]. Some other optimization method is conceptu-

ally different from the traditional method. These methods are labeled as modern or nontraditional

method of optimization [5]. Modern optimization methods on the other hand provide nondominated

solutions with minimal computational requirements. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimiza-

tion (PSO) are emerging as valuable, robust, simple, and effective tools for traction in industrial pro-

cess automation and online control adaption [6]. An optimized wind-PV hybrid power system using

PSO algorithm resulting in higher capacity and better efciency has been proposed in [7]. The

nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) that is used to simultaneously minimize power

losses in transmission network and cost has been proposed by Dhillon (2009) in [8]. The use of genetic

algorithm in unit sizing of PV/wind generator systems has been discussed in [9]. Juhari et al. (2009)

have discussed sizing and determined the optimum combination of a hybrid PV-wind-hydro-diesel

energy system [10]. Erdinc and Uzunoglu (2012) have reviewed different optimum sizing approaches

that are available in literature [11]. PSO is especially suited to deal with complex engineering

designs because of its fast convergence performance and simple operations [12]. In this paper, a

multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm has been proposed to handle the problem.

Hybrid systems are usually designed with the lowest total cost and pollutant emissions for the life of

the installation. Boomsma et al. (2012) have presented a framework to evaluate investment time frame

and capacity for renewable energy scenarios [13]. Some other researchers have developed preprocess-

ing techniques and heuristic algorithms for timetabling and labor scheduling, obtaining excellent

results [14]. Two different hierarchical approaches, fuzzy logic and physical model-based optimiza-

tion, to control the heat transfer uid output temperature and attempt to maximize prot by nding

the optimal operating point have been performed in [15].

Proper design of stand-alone renewable energy system by maximizing the power reliability and cost

minimization has been considered in recent years. One parameter that helps to elucidate the systems

reliability is the loss of power supply probability. Optimal congurations for different hybrid systems

have been obtained by the loss of power supply probability technique and minimum annualized cost of

system (ACS) [1621]. Some others have sized the hybrid power systems based on minimization of

the levelized cost of energy and the carbon dioxide emission [22,23]. The levelized cost of energy

can be dened as a metric that describes the cost of every unit of energy generated by a project. A

multi-objective design of hybrid systems by minimizing the total cost, pollutant emission, and unmet

load has been presented in [24]. The different sizing methodologies developed in recent years have

been reviewed by Luna-Rubio et al. (2012) [25]. Match evaluation method (MEM), which is used

in this article, can be another sizing method [26]. The MEM is based on the coordination criteria

between generation and consumption intervals.

In this paper, a wind-PV-diesel-battery (WPDB) hybrid power generation system is suggested. The

WPDB hybrid systems consist of many components. Ways to match various components are the main

challenge in such systems. More coordination between the components increases the system ef-

ciency. When the output power of renewable energy resources cannot meet the load demand, the strat-

egy will be used to start the diesel generator or use the battery power. The WPDB components have

nonlinear characteristics. Therefore, to have an optimal power generation, a nonlinear optimization

problem must be solved.

Correctly designed of hybrid systems can greatly increase the rate of hybrid adoption and could jus-

tify by the additional social benets of emissions reduction. The design of hybrid WPDB system has

been studied extensively in recent years [18,19,22,23]. However, these references do not calculate the

electricity match rate (EMR). Some of the studies have used monthly average weather conditions such

as solar insolation and wind speed for a year. However, it is not accurate and not suitable to size the

hybrid system based on monthly average because of the intermittent nature of renewable energy

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

sources [17]. Some of the researchers have determined the optimal number of hybrid components

based on iteration techniques [16]. These techniques take a lot of computational times. Changing the

weather data such as solar insolation and wind speed is also difcult in these techniques.

In this paper, a new optimum sizing methodology for hybrid systems based on the coordination

between electricity generation and consumption periods with the lowest cost is developed. The

EMR technique, considered to be the criterion for sizing, is deployed in a WPDB hybrid system.

The EMR sizing technique is based on MOPSO algorithm. For this technique, hourly average solar

irradiation, temperature, wind speed, and demand data for a small village in Sistan and Baluchestan

province, Iran, are collected for 1 year. The data are used for system modeling and optimization. It

is assumed that the hourly generation and hourly demand are constant. In this technique, three param-

eters are used: inequality coefcient (IC), correlation coefcient (CC), and ACS. IC and CC control the

EMR, whereas ACS represents the system cost. IC provides a measure of how well a time series of

estimated values compares with a corresponding time series of observed values [27]. In other words,

IC provides a relative measure of forecast accuracy in terms of deviation from the perfect forecast

[28]. CC measures of how well the predicted values from a forecast model t with the real-life data

[29]. IC gives the match magnitude, whereas CC deals with trend matching. Hence, IC and CC are

selected together, to check the EMR between supply and load demand proles. These two objectives

together provide a good match rate for hybrid systems. The calculation of IC will always result in a

value between zero and one, with zero denoting a perfect match and one indicating no match. The

CC can range in values between 1 and 1. The results of 1 denote perfect positive correlation, and

1 shows perfect negative correlation. A value of zero represents no correlation between the variables.

The ACS checks the total system cost. The economical approach, according to the concept of ACS, is

developed. For the proposed hybrid WPDB system, the ACS is composed of annualized capital cost

(ACC), annualized replacement cost, annualized maintenance cost, and annualized fuel cost.

The optimum combination of IC, CC, and ACS parameters results in the most efcient hybrid

WPDB system. The optimization is achieved by an iterative process using a system model and real

weather and load demand data to investigate the efciency of the proposed methodology. The simula-

tion is carried out on the basis of the algorithm developed for the proposed hybrid system using the

climate data of the mentioned area, located in south-east of Iran. Using the EMR objective functions,

the conguration of the proposed hybrid system, which gives the highest match rate requirements, can

be obtained. The decision variables included in the optimization process are the number of PV mod-

ules, WTs, and batteries. This proposed algorithm is most suitable for global optimization of renewable

energy systems with variable nature. The results show a set of possible solutions as a Pareto front. The

designer can select the solution he or she considers most suitable from the Pareto front obtained, study-

ing for each solution its IC, CC, and ACS. The designer can also limit the acceptable upper and lower

bound of each objective.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the mathematical model of

hybrid components. Sections 3 and 4 formulate the hybrid system design problem. The proposed

MOPSO algorithm is detailed in Section 5. The operation strategy is discussed in Section 6. Simulation

results and analysis are presented in Section 7. Finally, conclusions are drawn, and future research di-

rection is suggested.

2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HYBRID SYSTEM

The proposed hybrid power generation system consists of WT, PV array, battery bank, diesel, controller,

inverter, cables, and other accessory devices. Mathematical modeling of the hybrid components is

performed before applying optimal sizing algorithm to ensure the hybrid system meets the load demand.

A brief description for modeling of the proposed hybrid system is presented in the following sections.

2.1. Modeling of photovoltaic generator

Photovoltaic technology is identied as the most environment friendly technology [30]. The simula-

tion of PV array performance has been carried out by considering the modeling of the maximum power

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

point tracking. This model can predict the output power of PV panels in different temperatures and

various irradiation levels. The output power of a PV panel can be calculated by using the following

equations [31]:

I V

lx

1-exp -

1

b

_ _ 1 exp

V

bVx

1

b

_ _ _ _

(1)

Vx s

E

i

E

iN

TCV T T

N

sV

max

s V

max

V

min

exp

E

i

E

iN

ln

V

max

V

oc

V

max

V

min

_ _ _ _

(2)

lx p

E

i

E

iN

l

sc

TC

i

T T

N

(3)

P V

Vlx

1 exp

1

b

_ _ 1 exp

V

bVx

1

b

_ _ _ _

(4)

where P(V) is the output power of the PV panel in watts (W); I(V) is the output current of the PV panel

in amperes (A); V is the output voltage of the PV in volts (V); I

sc

and V

oc

are the short-circuit current

and the open-circuit voltage at 25C and 1000 W/m

2

, respectively; V

max

is the maximum open-circuit

voltage at 25C and 1200 W/m

2

(usually, V

max

is close to 1.03 V

oc

); V

min

is the minimum open-circuit

voltage at 25C and 1200 W/m

2

(usually, V

min

is close to 0.85 V

oc

); T is the solar panel temperature

(C); E

i

is the effective solar irradiation impinging the cell in watts per square meter (W/m

2

); T

w

is the

25C standard test condition; TC

i

is the temperature coefcient of I

SC

in A/C; TCV is the temperature

coefcient of V

oc

in V/C; Ix and Vx are the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage, respectively,

at any given E

i

and T; s is the number of PVpanels in series; p is the number of PVpanels in parallel; and b

is the characteristic constant based on the I-V curve. The characteristic constant, b, usually varies from

0.01 to 0.18 and can be calculated using Equation (5) with iterative procedures [32]:

b

n1

V

op

V

oc

V

oc

ln 1

I

op

I

sc

1 exp

1

b

n

_ _ _ _ _ _ (5)

where V

op

is the nominal voltage in volts, and I

op

is the nominal current of the selected module in amperes.

For calculating the available energy of PVarray at a specic site, which its solar radiation prole has been

shown in Figure 1, the following equation is used [32]:

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Time (Hour in a year)

I

n

s

o

l

a

t

i

o

n

(

k

W

/

m

2

)

Figure 1. Meteorological conditions of solar radiation.

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

E

PV

P

out

E

x

SolarWindow TotalDay (6)

where E

PV

is the yearly production of the PV energy in kilowatt hour (kWh),SolarWindow is the total

time hours that the sun hits the PV module at an average hourly solar irradiation, the product of

TotalDay is to change from daily to monthly or yearly quantities, and P

out

(E

x

) is the PV module power

output at an average hourly solar irradiation (E

x

). The KyoceraKC200 GHT-2 PV module type is used

in this simulation procedure. The P-V and I-V curves for 36 PVs in series (s =36 and p =1) have been

shown in Figure 2.

2.2. The Wind Turbine Model

Adjusting the measured wind speed to the hub height (h), by using the wind speed data at a reference

height (h

r

) from the database, is an important stage before calculating the output power of WT. This

can be carried out through the wind power law equation as describe in Equation (7) [33]:

v t v

r

t

h

h

r

_ _

(7)

where is the wind speed at the desired height h,

r

is the wind speed measured at known height h

r

, is

the wind shear exponent coefcient, which varies with pressure, temperature, and time of day. A

commonly used value for in open lands is 1/7.

The variation in wind speed are best described by the Weibull probability distribution function

(PDF), f, with two parameters, the shape factor , and the scale factor [34]. The PDF calculates

the probability that the wind speed will be occurred between zero and innity during the entire chosen

period. Note that the PDF curve shape and the height of it provide in some way that the area under the

PDF curve is unity. There are various notations for the Weibull PDF in literature. In this paper, the

Weibull PDF is dened as follow [34]:

f v

_ _

1

e

(8)

where is the shape factor, and v is the wind speed. Figures 3 and 4 are the plot of f versus v for dif-

ferent values of and in Equation 8, respectively. The value of controls the curve shape and hence

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

x 10

4

Voltage (V)

P

o

w

e

r

(

W

)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

0

5

10

15

20

25

Voltage (V)

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

A

)

Figure 2. P-V and I-V curve for 36 photovoltaics in series.

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

is called the shape factor. The larger shape factor indicates a relatively narrow distribution of wind

speeds around the average, whereas the lower shape factor indicates a relatively wide distribution of

wind speeds around the average. The scale factor () denes where the bulk of the distribution lies

and how stretched out [32]. For wind speed prole, which is shown in Figure 5, the Weibull PDF is

shown in Figure 6.

The PDF is the key information needed to estimate the total kilowatt hour produced in a year by a

WT at a given site. Using the WT power curve, the annual output energy can then be calculated. A

power curve is a graph that presents the output power of WT at any wind speed. This curve is a

function of the turbine design and normally obtained from the WT manufacturer. The power curve

of the selected WT is shown in Figure 7. The energy available for a WT at a specic site can be cal-

culated as follows [35]:

E

WT

days hours P

c

f v; ; (9)

where E

WT

is the generated energy of WT in kilowatt hour for a specic site, P

c

is the output power of

WT, f(v) is the Weibull PDF for wind speed , is the shape factor, and is the scale factor. The

0 5 10 15 20 25

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

Wind Speed (m/s)

W

e

i

b

u

l

l

p

d

f

Shape Factor=1

Shape Factor=2

Shape Factor=3

Shape Factor=4

Shape Factor=5

Figure 3. Weibull probability distribution function with scale factor =10 and shape factor =1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

0 5 10 15 20 25

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

Wind Speed (m/s)

W

e

i

b

u

l

l

p

d

f

Scale Factor=6

Scale Factor=7

Scale Factor=8

Scale Factor=9

Scale Factor=10

Scale Factor=11

Scale Factor=12

Figure 4. Weibull probability distribution function with shape factor =2 and scale factor

= 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Time (Hour of day)

W

i

n

d

S

p

e

e

d

(

m

/

s

)

Figure 5. Meteorological conditions of wind speed.

0 5 10 15 20 25

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Wind Speed (m/s)

f

(

V

)

Figure 6. Weibull probability density function [f(v)].

0 5 10 15 20 25

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Wind Speed (m/s)

P

o

w

e

r

O

u

t

p

u

t

(

K

W

)

Figure 7. Power curve of selected wind turbine (the symbols represent the data sampled from the power

curve graphs given by the manufacturer).

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

multiplication of days by hours gives the total hours in the period of simulation. ARE442, a small WT

type, is employed in this simulation. Figure 8 shows the total energy output for the selected WT in 1 year.

2.3. Battery Performance Model

Batteries are the most widely used devices for energy storage. Leadacid batteries are usually used for

stand-alone hybrid wind-PV-diesel generation systems. Surplus electrical energy is stored in a battery

bank, which supplies power to the load when the total power output of WTs and PVs is insufcient. So

the correct battery sizing is critical. There are different models in literature for battery behavior

simulation. The modeling of battery based on state of charge (SOC) is the most commonly used model.

SOC is an important parameter in system assessments [18]. Temperature can also affect battery capac-

ity. The available battery capacity [C

bat

(Ah)], in a given temperature [T

bat

(K)], can be calculated using

Equation (10) [16]:

C

bat

C

}

bat

1

c

T

bat

298:15 (10)

where

c

is temperature coefcient. The value of 0.6% per degree is usually used for

c

, unless other-

wise specied by the manufacturer.

For the proposed hybrid WPDB system, it is supposed that the WT has the direct current output. If

the cable losses in the system are neglected, the battery current rate at time t can be expressed as

Equation (11) [18]:

I

bat

t

P

PV

t P

Wind

t

P

ACLoad

t

inverter

P

DCLoad

V

bat

t

(11)

where

inverter

is the inverter efciency, which is considered as 92% in this study.

The SOC at any hour t is depending on the battery current, the charge or discharge time, and the pre-

vious SOC. By all the aforementioned consideration, the battery SOC can be dened as follows [18]:

SOC t 1 SOC t 1

:t

24

I

bat

t t

bat

C

bat

_ _

(12)

where

bat

is the battery efciency, which 90% for charging stage and 100% in discharging process are

recommended. is the self-discharge rate; 0.2% per day is recommended, and t is the desire time inter-

val. When the WT and PV modules supply power more than the load demand, the overcharging process is

occurred. On the other hand, when the load demand is more than the total output energy of supply sources,

the battery SOCmay decrease to the minimumlevel, which is dened as SOC

min

=1 DOD, where DOD

is the depth of discharging of battery. In this study, for longevity of battery lifetime, the value of DOD is

0 5 10 15 20 25

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

Wind Speed (m/s)

E

n

e

r

g

y

(

k

W

h

/

Y

e

a

r

)

Figure 8. Total wind turbine energy output for 1 year.

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

considered 50%. In order to prevent the batteries against destruction, it is important to control the batteries

SOC at the following constrain:

SOC

min

SOC SOC

max

(13)

where SOC

max

is the maximum SOC for batteries (SOC

max

=1). The US Battery US250 battery type is

used for this simulation. The selected battery has a voltage of 6 V and a capacity of 250 Ah.

2.4. Load Model

The total output power of the proposed hybrid system (WT, PV, battery, and diesel generator) should

meet the power load demand. The hourly load data used in this study is shown in Figure 9. This is the

yearly variation of domestic load prole in the region.

3. SIZING MODEL BASED ON MATCH EVALUATION METHOD

The maximization of EMR between demand and supply in hybrid renewable energy systems is an es-

sential issue in power generation. In other words, the generating periods for renewable resources

should closely match the consumption periods. For quantifying the deviation between two set of data

variables, the least squares (LS) approach is used. The following equation describes LS [36]:

LS

n

t0

D

t

S

t

2

(14)

where D

t

and S

t

are the demand and supply at time t, respectively. The value of LS is always a positive

value, and zero value shows a perfect match. Spearmans Rank CC is one of the objectives that can

describe the correlation between supply and demands. CC can vary from 1 to 1. One shows the

perfect positive match, 1 shows the perfect negative correlation, and 0 represents no match.

The CC can be expressed as Equation (15) [37]:

CC

n

t0

D

t

d S

t

s

n

t0

D

t

d

2

n

t0

S

t

s

2

(15)

where D

t

is the demand and S

t

is the supply at time t, and d and s are the demand and supply average over

period n, respectively. The CC is used to describe the trend matching between the time series of two data

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Time (Hour of day)

L

o

a

d

(

k

W

)

Figure 9. Yearly variation of domestic load prole.

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

sets. It does not explain the relative match magnitudes of the individual variables. Thus, if the size of a

power supply doubled, however the excess supply would be far greater, the CC would stabilize the same.

Moreover, if two proles are perfectly in phase with each other, but of very different magnitudes, would

result in perfect correlation but not a perfect match rate. For a perfect match rate, both phase and magni-

tude must be considered. Hence, another criterion is needed to determine the match magnitude. The IC,

describes the inequality in the magnitude domain because of three sources: unequal tendency (mean), un-

equal variation (variance), and imperfect covariation (covariance) [37]. Therefore, IC and CCare selected

together, to check the EMRbetween supply and load demand. The resultant ICcan range in value between

0 and 1. The smaller IC denotes the larger match rate. Value of 0 represents a perfect match, and 1 shows

no match. The IC can be given by the following equation [37]:

IC

1

n

n

t0

D

t

S

t

2

1

n

n

t0

D

t

2

1

n

n

t0

S

t

2

_

(16)

where D

t

and S

t

are the demand and supply at time t, respectively; and n is the total time period. Value of

IC between 0 and 0.4 shows good match, and value greater than 0.5 represents weak match [38]. IC is the

best criterion for matching between supply and demand. However, CCis also good criteria, but it is not as

well as IC[38]. In this work, MEMis used for sizing purpose. The algorithmhas been implemented on the

basis of the MEM technique. Load is needed to be matched with different supplies in a way that resultant

supply (N

1

.S

1

+N

2

S

2

++N

n

.S

n

) meets the load with high EMR. The main objective of the proposed op-

timal algorithm is to nd the optimal values of N

1

, N

2

, , N

n

. S

t

in Equations 15 and 16 is the sum of

two parts, N

PV

.S

PV

, N

WT

.S

WT

, and N

batt

.S

batt

or N

PV

.S

PV

, N

WT

S

WT

, and S

Diesel

that respectively denote the

energy supply sources, PV modules, WTs, and battery or PV modules, WTs, and diesel generator. N

PV

is

the total number of PV modules, N

WT

is the total number of the WTs, and N

batt

is the number of battery.

The initial assumption of the hybrid system conguration will be subjected to the following constrains:

Min N

PV

; N

WT

; N

batt

1 (17)

Max N

PV

; N

WT

; N

batt

max D = min S

n

(18)

where max(D) and min(S

n

) are, respectively, the maximum and minimum values of demand and supply

over considered period. An initial population of 200 particles, comprising the 1st generation, is generated

randomly and the constraints described by (17) and (18) are evaluated for each particle. If any of the initial

population particles violates the problem constraints, then it is replaced by a new particle, which is gen-

erated randomly and fullls these constraints.

4. COST ANALYSIS BASED ON ANNUALIZED COST OF SYSTEM CONCEPT

A cost analysis of the system is performed according to the concept of ACS. The ACS is composed of

individual annualized capital cost (ACC) of components, annualized operation and maintenance cost

(AOC), annual replacement cost (ARC), and annual fuel cost. It supposes that the life of the project

is 20 years. ACS can be calculated as follows:

ACS ACC PV Wind Tower Diesel Battery AOC PV Wind Tower Battery

ARC Battery AFC Diesel

(19)

4.1. Annualized capital cost

The annualized capital cost (ACC) of each component has taken into account the installation cost. The

ACC of each component can be calculated by using Equation (20):

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

ACC C

cap

CRF i; n

proj

_ _

(20)

where C

cap

is capital cost of each component ($), n

proj

is the component lifetime (year), and CRF is

capital recovery factor, dened as Equation (21):

CRF i; n

proj

_ _

i: 1 i

n

proj

1 i

n

proj

1

(21)

where i is the annual interest rate, consisting of nominal interest rate (i

loan

, the rate at which a loan can

be obtained) and the annual ination rate, f, calculated as follows:

i

i

loan

f

1 f

(22)

In this study, the i

loan

and f are considered to be 5% and 2%, respectively.

4.2. Operation and maintenance cost

The operation and maintenance cost is the maintenance and repair cost of each hybrid component cal-

culated by using Equation (23):

AOC n AOC 1 1 f

n

(23)

where AOC(n) is the maintenance cost of nth year, and the AOC(1) is the component maintenance cost

for the rst year of the project.

4.3. Annual replacement cost

Annual replacement cost is the annual cost value for replacing the components during the project

lifetime. The components that have a lifetime less than the lifetime of the project needs to be replaced

during the project lifetime. In this study, components that need replacement are batteries. Other

components do not need for replacement because their lifetime is the same as the project lifetime.

The ARC is calculated as the following Equation (24):

ARC C

rep

SFF i; n

rep

_ _

(24)

where C

rep

is the replacement cost of units, SFF is the Sinking Fund Factor that depends on lifetime of

units (n

rep

) and interest rate (i). SFF is a ratio that calculates the future value of a series of equal annual

cash ow and can be calculated as the following Equation (25):

SFF i; n

rep

_ _

i

1 i

n

rep

1

(25)

4.4. Annual fuel cost

The cost of fuel for diesel generator is calculated by using the following Equation (26):

AFC T

fc

CRF i; n (26)

where T

fc

is total fuel consumption for 20 years.

The fuel (gas oil) price is considered 0.16049 $/kWh. The expected carbon dioxide emission is

0.669 kg/kWh. The output power of diesel generator is 5 kW. Other cost parameters used in this paper

are shown in Table I.

5. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE

PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

Implementation of MOPSO and NSGA-II for various engineering and business applications have been

carried out in recent years. MOPSO is an evolutionary computation optimization technique (a search

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

method based on a natural system) [39,40]. MOPSO is a form of swarm intelligence, and it is moti-

vated by social behavior of organism such as ock of birds. In bird ocking, if a member nds a

suitable way to move for food or protection, other individuals in the swarm will follow its movement.

This behavior can be modeled by swarms of particle. Each particle, having both position and velocity,

is rst randomly initialized. Then, its tness value is calculated according to the tness measure

prespecied. If the position is better than the best position (P

best

) encountered by itself and its neigh-

bors, the current value is set as the new P

best

. The particle that has the best tness value of all particles

is chosen as the global best (G

best

). The position and the velocity of each particle are updated according

to its own ight experience and that of its companions. Finally, stopping criteria such as maximum it-

erations can be used to stop the algorithm.

Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II is another multi-objective evolutionary algorithm that

was rst proposed by Deb et al. in 2000 [41]. NSGA-II is a revised version of NSGA, which was pro-

posed by Srinivas and Deb in 1994 [42]. NSGA-II uses a fast nondominated sorting approach, an elitist

strategy, and no niching parameter. Diversity is preserved by the use of crowded comparison in the

tournament selection and in the phase of population reduction [43]. The MOPSO and NSGA-II share

several common points. For instance, both of them improve the solution quality through continues

adjustment parameters; the tness value of each individual evaluates by the prespecied criteria; both

begin with a population generated randomly. However, there are several aspects that make their inner

working different from one another. The philosophy of MOSPO is to follow the leader, whereas that

of NSGA-II is survival of the ttest. In MOPSO, the particles update their states with the internal

velocity, and there are no genetic operators such as crossover and mutation. The mechanism of infor-

mation sharing signicantly differs from one another. In MOSPO, just local and global positions are

transparent to other individuals, which is a form of one-way communication. However, in NSGA-II,

the whole population moves toward the promising region because individuals share information with

each other. The control parameters are fewer in MOPSO compared with NSGA-II. So, in MOSPO, all

the particle tend to converge to the best solution quickly, comparing with NSGA-II [6].

These two multi-objective optimization algorithms can nd Pareto-optimal solution in one single simu-

lation run. The objectives of sizing stand-alone hybrid power systemare usually in conict with each other.

The sizing of the hybrid wind/PV systems is much more complicated than the single source power gener-

ation systems. This is due to multiple variables and parameters that have to be taken into account in system

optimization. Long-term system performance, cost parameters, and EMR objectives must be considered in

order to reach the best compromise for both power match rate and cost. Both algorithms were applied to the

proposed system. It was found that with the same number of iteration and population, MOPSO converged

faster than NSGA-II [26]. Therefore, MOPSO was selected for this optimization procedure.

The MOPSO algorithm achieves system optimization by dynamically searching for the optimal con-

guration based on maximizing the EMR and minimizing ACS and IC parameters and maximizing the

CC parameter. It is noted that ACS, IC, and CC parameters, essential for the optimization process, con-

ict with one another. By employing the MOPSO algorithm for each conguration, a set of possible

solutions (Pareto set) are obtained.

A proper sizing algorithm is the one that can nd the optimal size of each component in each con-

guration to maximize the EMR between demand and supply. The numbers of PV panels, WTs, and

battery are considered design variables for proper sizing. The minimum value (lower limit) of design

variables is selected to be one to be sure that there is at least one of each resource in the system. The

owchart for applying the MOPSO algorithm is shown in Figure 10.

Table I. The costs and lifetime aspect for the proposed hybrid components.

Components

Initial capital

cost ($)

Maintenance cost in the

rst year ($)

Replacement

cost ($)

Life time

(year)

Photovoltaic module 800.00 65.00 Null 20.00

Wind turbine and its tower 1404.86 101.50 Null 20.00

Battery 126.35 25.00 126.35 5.00

Diesel 500.00 1000.00 Null 20.00

Other components 900.00 90.00 Null 20.00

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

6. OPERATION STRATEGY OF PROPOSED HYBRID WIND-PV-DIESEL-BATTERY SYSTEM

One of the crucial factor for optimization is to determinate the best time for starting and stopping the

diesel generator. A suitable operation strategy can optimize the fuel consumption, which is one of the

main concerns for the entire operation cost of a diesel generator over its lifetime. The optimized model

achieves the optimal size for hybrid components based on the maximum EMR and minimum ACS.

The operating strategy is as follows:

If the total power generated from WTs (P

WT

) and PV panels (P

PV

) is more than the load demand

(P

L

), the excess power is used to charge the batteries. In this case, the sizing optimization will be

carried out with only two supplies (PV and wind).

If the total generated power (P

WT

+P

PV

+P

batt

) is less than the load demand and SOC of batteries

is higher than SOC

min

, the batteries will supply the extra power. The sizing optimization will be

carried out with PV, wind, and battery.

If the batteries SOC are equal or less than SOC

min

, the diesel generator will start and supply the

power in order to protect the batteries against excessive draining. Surplus power from diesel will

charge the batteries as amount as SOC

max

. In this case, the calculation of sizing optimization will

be carried out with PV-wind including one diesel generator.

The decision parameters for the optimization algorithm are the numbers of PV modules, WTs, and

batteries. The simulation assumes ambient air temperature, high WT installation, hourly solar

Initial Guess of NPV, NWT and NBatt

Fitness Function

Evaluation:

Minimization of IC and

ACS and also

Maximization Of CC

Diesel

Generation

All Combination

Optimized

Optimum Number of

Units:

NWT, NPV and NBatt

Selection Operation:

Minimum ACS

Crossover and Mutation

Operation of MOPSO

(or NSGA-II)

Hourly Meteorological Data for One Year

(Wind Speed, Solar irradiation and Load

Demand Data)

Wind Turbine

Model and

Calculation Of PWT

PV System Model

and Calculation

Of PPV

The PV Module

Temperature

(TPV)

Desire High

(H

WT

)

Battery

Performance

Model

N

New Generation of

Configuration

Y

Figure 10. Flowchart of the optimization procedure for the multi-objective particle swarm optimization

(MOPSO) algorithm.

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

irradiation on a horizontal surface, existence of wind, and load demand for 1 year. The output power of

PV array and WT is calculated according to the models described before. The battery storage system is

permitted to discharge up to a limit dened by the maximum DOD. The proposed strategy determines

the best value for diesel generator starting and stopping points, which are the keys to achieve an opti-

mum operation. The system design is optimized by employing the MOPSO algorithm, which dynam-

ically searches for the optimal conguration in somehow to maximize the EMR in the lowest ACS.

The proposed strategy of operating the hybrid WPDB system is presented as a owchart in Figure 11.

7. OPTIMIZATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The output power of PV array and WT is calculated according to the model that was described previ-

ously. The maximum power point tracker method has been employed in the PV systems. The actual

collected solar radiation, temperature, wind speed, and load demand data from south-east of Iran are

used for simulation. The optimization process, which dynamically searches for the optimal congura-

tion by minimizing the IC and ACS and maximizing the CC, is deployed. The results of optimal solu-

tion obtained for optimal capacities of WT and PV generation from MOPSO and the Pareto front are

presented in Table II. As mentioned, for having good EMR, IC values must be as low as possible. The

values lower than 0.4 are acceptable for providing a good match rate between supply and demand [38].

The ACS cost should be as low as possible. Higher CC is another criterion for this process. It is worth

mentioning that CC deals with trend matching, whereas IC shows the match magnitude. Hence, IC and

Read Hourly Wind Speed, Solar

Irradiation And Load Demand DATA

PL>PWT+PPV

SOC<SOCmax

Charge the

Batteries

Calculate IC, CC

and ACS as:

S1=PV, S2=Wind

PL>PBatt+PWT+PPV

Or

SOC<SOCmin

Diesel Start and

Supply the Power.

Surplus Power Will

Charge the Batteries

The Batteries

Supply the Power

and Will Be

Discharged.

Calculate IC, CC and

ACS as:

S1=PV, S2=Wind and

S3=Diesel

Calculate IC, CC

and ACS as:

S1=PV, S2=Wind

and S3=Battery

Calculation of Available

Output Energy for Wind

Turbine (PWT)

Y

Y

N

Dump the

Excess Power

N

Y

N

Calculation of Available

Output Energy for PV

Module (PPV)

Figure 11. Operation strategy of proposed hybrid system.

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

CC values are selected together to ensure the match rate between supply and demand. The IC param-

eter is especially of greater importance than CC or ACS. Furthermore, the CC parameter is of greater

importance when compared with ACS. Therefore, the Pareto front has been plotted for IC and CC, IC

and ACS, and CC and ACS, as shown in Figures 12, 13, and 14, respectively. When a prespecied

iteration count (N= N

max

) is reached, MOPSO is terminated (N

max

=300 and a population size of

N

pop

=200 are considered).

The 20 best sizing selections out of 30 runs searching for the best conguration have been obtained

and rounding up. The solutions found by these optimization algorithms are shown in Table II. These

results show the optimum combination of equipment needed to supply the energy to the load at the

lowest cost possible.

Table II. Pareto front/optimal solutions obtained from multi-objective optimization.

Solution

Obtained results from MOPSO algorithm

IC CC ACS N

PV

N

WIND

N

batt

N

PV-New

N

WI-New

N

batt-New

1 0.1041 0.8924 2207.1 1.0102 1.0266 1.0242 2 2 2

2 0.1055 0.8934 2301.8 1.0116 1.4203 1.0000 2 2 1

3 0.0980 0.9022 2373.2 1.0680 1.1641 1.3246 2 2 2

4 0.0903 0.9116 2347.7 1.0065 1.3256 1.8844 2 2 2

5 0.0886 0.9111 2559.4 1.0000 1.0024 1.7803 1 2 2

6 0.1018 0.8948 2206.2 1.0105 1.0000 1.0942 2 1 2

7 0.0900 0.9123 2354.1 1.0050 1.4004 1.7371 2 2 2

8 0.1046 0.8900 2559.1 1.0042 1.2515 1.0000 2 2 1

9 0.0942 0.9086 2392.2 1.0442 1.5754 1.6031 2 2 2

10 0.0923 0.9078 2240.6 1.0288 1.0000 1.4954 2 1 2

11 0.0921 0.9077 2339.5 1.0126 1.0176 1.4582 2 2 2

12 0.1044 0.8965 2312.6 1.1620 1.1443 1.7070 2 2 2

13 0.0914 0.9109 2358.6 1.0051 1.4805 1.5452 2 2 2

14 0.0917 0.9086 2265.7 1.0378 1.0525 1.6334 2 2 2

15 0.0928 0.9069 2263.2 1.0242 1.0000 1.4500 2 1 2

16 0.0911 0.9116 2363.4 1.0146 1.4500 1.6829 2 2 2

17 0.0907 0.9105 2295.1 1.0017 1.2249 1.5408 2 2 2

18 0.0923 0.9106 2362.2 1.0289 1.4499 1.6508 2 2 2

19 0.0899 0.9104 2350.4 1.0110 1.0000 1.6529 2 1 2

20 0.0941 0.9096 2460.7 1.0050 1.9275 1.4536 2 2 2

MOPSO, multi-objective particle swarm optimization; IC, inequality coefcient; CC, correlation coefcient; ACS, annualized

cost of system.

0.0885 0.089 0.0895 0.09 0.0905 0.091 0.0915 0.092 0.0925

0.914

0.9135

0.913

0.9125

0.912

0.9115

0.911

0.9105

C

C

Figure 12. 2D Pareto front for the last generation inequality coefcient (IC) versus correlation coefcient

(CC).

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

New parameters values for the rounded sizing numbers are shown in Table III. One can conclude

that there are variations in optimization parameter functions. As shown in Table II, all the obtained

results for PV sizing numbers are near 1. Rounding these values to the greater one, disturb the match

rate. The optimal sizing numbers, which is shown in Table III, show that the values 1, 2, and 2 for PV

modules, WT, and battery, respectively, give us the best match rate.

0.088 0.09 0.092 0.094 0.096 0.098 0.1 0.102 0.104 0.106

1580

1590

1600

1610

1620

1630

1640

1650

IC

A

C

S

Figure 13. 2D Pareto front for the last generation inequality coefcient (IC) versus annualized cost of

system (ACS).

0.915 0.91 0.905 0.9 0.895 0.89 0.885

2190

2200

2210

2220

2230

2240

2250

2260

Figure 14. 2D Pareto front for the last generation correlation coefcient (CC) vs. annualized cost of system

(ACS).

Table III. The nal goal function values for sizing numbers and the total hours the diesel operates in 1 year.

N

PV-New

N

WT-New

N

batt-New

IC CC ACS

Diesel operating hours for 1 year

(total year hours = 8760)

2 2 2 0.2565 0.7592 2670.9 3230

2 1 2 0.2477 0.7569 2426.2 3269

1 2 2 0.0938 0.9110 2520.9 4907

2 2 1 0.2577 0.7514 2591.9 3906

IC, inequality coefcient; CC, correlation coefcient; ACS, annualized cost of system.

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

One scope of using hybrid renewable energy systems is to use green energies such as solar and wind

instead of fossil fuels. So the total hours the diesel generator operates in 1 year (8760 h) can be one of

the criteria in the selection of optimal solutions. The total hours the diesel operates in 1 year is also

given in Table III.

Table III shows that 2, 2, and 2 sizing numbers for PV modules, WT, and battery, respectively, give

the minimum hours diesel operating, and 1, 2, and 2 have the maximum one.

It depends to the designer to select one of the obtained optimal sizing numbers for the hybrid com-

ponents, by considering the fuel cost, the necessity of match rate, and the cost consideration.

8. CONCLUSION

A new methodology to size an optimal stand-alone hybrid WPDB bank using a MOPSO algorithm has

been presented in this paper. The developed methodology is applied to a selected site to size the hybrid

WPDB systems. The methodology minimizes the IC and ACS, while simultaneously maximizing CC.

The actual collected solar radiation, temperature, wind speed, and load demand data are used for sim-

ulation. The application of the methodology offers several solutions, which are presented under opti-

mal Pareto front. For the hybrid system, a control strategy has been designed to achieve a higher match

rate between supply and demand intervals. Simulation results show that a conguration with one PV,

two WTs, and two battery units have a high EMR with the expense of long operating hours for the

diesel generator. Another conguration with two units of each PV, WTs, and battery has short diesel

operating hours and acceptable match rate, but its ACS is the highest. The designers can select the best

conguration among the Pareto set, which ts their desire. In the future work of this study, other more

decision variables and different design scenarios may be incorporated into system designs.

9. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

9.1. Symbols

Wind shear exponent coefcient

Shape factor

Scale factor

Self-discharge rate of battery

c

Temperature coefcient

AOC(1) Maintenance cost of that component for the rst year of the project

B characteristic constant based on I-V curve

C

bat

Available battery capacity

C

cap

Capital cost of each component ($)

C

rep

Replacement cost of units ($)

C

rep

Replacement cost of units

D Mean demand over time period n

D

t

Demand at time t

D

t

Load demand at time t

E

i

Effective solar irradiation impinging the cell in (W/m

2

)

E

pv

Yearly expected production of photovoltaic energy in kilowatt hour (kWh)

E

wt

Expected energy production of wind turbine in kilowatt hour (kWh) for a specic site

f Annual ination rate

f(v) Weibull PDF for wind speed ()

H

1

Known height

H

2

Desired height

i Annual interest rate

i

loan

Nominal interest rate

I

op

Nominal current in amperes (A)

MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPONENT

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

I

sc

Short-circuit current at 25C and 1000 W/m

2

Ix Short-circuit current at any given E

i

and T

I(V) Output current of the photovoltaic panel (A)

bat

Battery efciency

inverter

Inverter efciency

n

rep

Lifetime of units

N Component lifetime (year)

N

PV

Total number of PV modules

N

WT

Total number of the WTs

P Number of photovoltaic panels in parallel

P Output power of the photovoltaic panel (W)

P

L

Load demand

P

out

(E

x

) PV module output power at an average hourly solar irradiation (E

x

)

P

PV

Total generated powert of PV panels

P

WT

Total generated power of wind turbines

S Number of photovoltaic panels in series

S Supply over time period n

SolarWindow Total time hours that the sun hits the PV module at an average hourly solar irradiation

S

PV

Supplied energy of PV modules

S

WT

Supplied energy of WT

S

t

Supply at time t

T Solar panel temperature (C)

T

bat

Battery temperature

TCi temperature coefcient of I

SC

in (A/C)

TCV Temperature coefcient of V

oc

in (V/C)

T

fc

Total fuel consumption

TotalDay Change from daily to monthly or yearly quantities

T

w

25C standard test condition (STC)

V

1

Wind speed measured at H

1

V

2

Wind speed at H

2

V Output voltage of the photovoltaic (V)

V

max

Maximum open-circuit voltage at 25C and 1200 W/m

2

(usually it is close to 1.03 V

oc

)

V

min

minimumopen-circuit voltage at 25C and 200 W/m

2

(usually, V

min

is close to 0.85 V

oc

)

V

oc

Short-circuit current at 25C and 1000 W/m

2

V

op

Nominal voltage in volts (V)

Vx Open-circuit voltage at any given E

i

and T

9.2. Abbreviations

ACS Annualized cost of system

ACC Annualized capital cost of components

AFC Annual fuel cost

AOC Annualized operation and maintenance cost

ARC Annual replacement cost

CC Spearmans rank correlation coefcient

CRF Capital recovery factor

EMR Electricity match rate

IC Inequality coefcient

LS Least squares

MEM Match evaluation method

PDF Weibull probability distribution function

SFF Sinking Fund Factor

DOD Depth of discharging of battery

SOC Battery based on state of charge

M. A. YAZDANPANAH-JAHROMI ET AL.

Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2013)

DOI: 10.1002/etep

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