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Anatomy, Histology and Embryology II


1st week:
Lecture: Topographical anatomy of the head and neck - part one. Topographical anatomy of the head
and neck- part two. Topographical anatomy of the oral and nasal cavities. Anatomy, histology and
development of the teeth.
Practical:
Anatomy:
Topographical anatomy of the head and neck I.-II.
a. Topographical anatomy of the head and neck: part one. Surface anatomy: Draw the surface
projections and landmarks of the following structures on the cadaver: Head: cutaneous branches of
the trigeminal nerve. Branches of the facial nerve on the face and neck. Facial, superficial temporal
and external carotid arteries. Retromandibular vein. Parotid gland and parotid duct. Lymph nodes and
lymphatic drainage of head. Neck: Triangles of the neck. Superficial veins (ext. jugular vein).
Cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus. Position of the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, thyroid gland.
The carotid sheath (vagina vasorum) and its structures. The site of cricothyrotomy. Surface projection
of the apex of the lungs. Relations of the scalene muscles. Lymphatic drainage of the neck. Make
schematic drawings of these structures! Incise the skin in the midline and peel off laterally. The
incision of the facial skin has to be made from the medial part of the orbit down to the philtrum
passing round the nose, then continued through the lower lip to the chin. At the neck region a vertical
incision has to be made in the midline, from the base of the mandible to the sternum, and a
transversal incision along the clavicle. The skin is to be folded laterally. Attention: Branches of the
supraclavicular nerves cross the clavicle!
b. Dissect the superficial structures: branches of the Vth and VIIth cranial nerves, facial artery and
vein, parotid duct, cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus, superficial cervical artery, external
jugular vein, triangles of the neck. Careful preparation of the muscles of face. Face: Topography of
the parotid gland. Nerves and blood vessels related to the parotid gland. Remove the parotid gland
only one side by careful preparation of branches of the facial nerve and blood vessels. Dissection of
the frontal and temporal regions. Neck: dissection of the supraclavicular triangle. Spare the
sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Histology:
a. - b. Repetition of general histology
1. Large intestine (HE stain)
2. Trachea (HE stain)
3. Oesophagus (HE stain)
4. Axillary skin (HE stain)
5. Urethra masculina (HE stain)
6. Ureter (HE stain)
7. Granulation tissue (healing wound from rat skin) (HE stain)
8. Knee joint (HE stain)
9. Cardiac muscle (PTAH)
10. Blood smear (May-Grnwald-Giemsa stain)
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2nd week:
Lecture: Pharynx. Larynx. Development of the face, and oral and nasal cavities. Development of the
pharyngeal gut.
Practical:
Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the neck: III. -IV.
a. Dissection of the submandibular triangle. Continue the dissection of the frontal, temporal and
supraclavicular regions. Cut the sternocleidomastoid muscle. At the side of the intact parotid gland
dissect the structures which pierce the gland. The parotid gland itself remains in position.
b. Carotid triangle and the middle part of the neck. Sulcus lateralis linguae, muscles of the floor of the
mouth. Topography of the salivary glands. Dissection of the scalenotracheal fossa. Branches of the
subclavian artery. Repetition of the superficial regions of the head and neck.
Histology:
a. b. Lip, tongue and salivary glands
1. Lip (HE stain).
2. Tongue (filiform and fungiform papillae) (HE stain).
3. Tongue (circumvallate papillae) (HE stain)
4. Parotid gland (HE stain)
5. Submandibular gland (HE stain)
6. Sublingual gland (PAS + H stain)

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3rd week:
Lecture: Clinical anatomy of the head and neck - part one. Clinical anatomy of the head and neck -
part two. Lymphatic tissue - part one. Lymphatic tissue - part two.
Practical:
Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the neck: V. -VI.
a. Head: Infratemporal fossa. At the side of the removed parotid gland dissect the alveolar nerve and
artery from the mandibular canal and remove that half of the mandible. Cut out the masseter, the
external and internal pterygoid muscles by careful preparation of the structures between the two
pterygoid muscles. Preparation of the inferior alveolar nerve, lingual nerve, chorda tympani, maxillary
artery, auriculotemporal nerve, middle meningeal artery, stylohyoid, styloglossus, stylopharyngeus
muscles, glossopharyngeal nerve. Remove the lateral plate of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid
bone. Find the muscles of the soft palate.
b. Dissection of the nuchal region from the external occipital protuberance to the 7th thoracic vertebra.
Occipital artery, muscles of the nuchal region from layer to layer. Identify the suboccipital triangle and
its elements. Remove all muscles attached to the occipital bone. Make visible the posterior arch of the
atlas and exarticulate the atlanto-occipital joint. Cut through the alar ligaments and the apical
ligament. Bend the head forward. The head remains connected to the body only through the pharynx
and oesophagus. In the other cadaver, structures related to the pharynx are dissected.
Histology:
a. b.Tooth.
1. Tooth grinding (Fuchsin)
2., 3. Development of teeth (teeth primordia in the rat's head) (HE stain).
4., 5. Development of teeth (teeth primordia in the rat's head) (Azan stain).

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4th week:
Lecture: Lymphatic tissue - part three. The skin. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system. Hypopysis
and epiphysis.
Practical:
Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the neck: VII. -VIII.
a. Open the posterior wall of the pharynx and investigate the related structures. Study the faucial
isthmus. Dissection of the larynx in situ: remove the lamina of the thyroid cartilage the one side and
dissect the muscles of larynx.
b. Demonstration of the median section of the head and neck. Conclusion of the dissection of the
pharynx and larynx. Make a schematic drawing of the median section of the head. Demonstration of
the pharynx, larynx, tongue, palatine and lingual tonsil. Make schematic drawings of these structures.
Histology:
a. Lymphatic tissues - part one
1. Thymus (HE stain)
2. Lymphatic follicle (large intestine) HE stain
3. Lymph node (HE stain)
4. Demonstration: Cells of the lymph node (video)
b. Lymphatic tissues part two
1.Spleen (HE stain)
2.Palatine tonsil (HE stain)
3.Linqual tonsil (HE stain)

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5th week:
Lecture: Thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, suprarenal gland. The APUD system. Heart - part one.
Heart - part two.
Practical:
Anatomy:
Topographical anatomy of the head and the neck: IX. SELF CONTROL.
a. Repetition of the topographic anatomy of the head and neck.
b. SELF CONTROL: Topographical anatomy of the head and neck. Pharynx, larynx, oral and nasal
cavities.
Histology:
a. The skin
1.Fingertip (HE stain)
2.Skin (HE stain)
3.Mammary gland (HE stain)
b. Endocrine organs - part one
1. Hypophysis (HE stain)
2. Hypophysis (Azan stain)
3. Epiphysis (HE stain)

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6th week:
Lecture: Heart - part three. Development of the heart - part one. Development of the heart - part two.
Trachea and lungs.
Practical:
Anatomy: Dissection of the thoracic cavity I-II.
a. Surface projections of the thoracic organs. On the anterior thoracic wall draw the following
landmarks, projection lines of the heart and its orifices, the auscultation areas of the cardiac valves,
margins of the cardiovascular shadow, projections of the lungs, pleurae and pleural recesses. These
drawings are to be transmitted into the body scheme provided in your anatomy schedule handout.
Carefully relate the projections to the position of the sternum and ribs in the schematic drawing!
Presentation of radiographs.
b. Structure of the thoracic wall. Topography of the intercostal spaces. Lymphatic drainage of the
breast. After removing the pectoralis major muscle, dissect the intercostal branches of the internal
thoracic artery and the intercostal muscles. Opening of the thoracic cavity: exarticulate the
sternoclavicular joint and cut the ribs along the anterior axillary fold. Compare the surface projection
lines on the body and in your own schematic drawings with t he in situ positions of the thoracic organs.
Mediastinum and its divisions.
Histology:
a. Endocrine organs - part two
1. Thyroid gland (HE stain)
2. Parathyroid gland (HE stain)
3. Suprarenal gland (HE stain)
4. Demonstration: Thyroid gland: parafollicular cells (C) cells (silver impregnation,
immunohistochemistry)
b. SELF CONTROL Histology of the lip, tongue, salivary glands, teeth, lymphatic tissue, skin,
endocrine organs.

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7th week:
Lecture: Pleural sac. Development of the respiratory system. Mediastinum. Oesophagus. Clinical
anatomy of the organs of the thorax. Structure of the abdominal wall.
Practical:
Anatomy:
Dissection of the thoracic cavity III.-IV.
a. Study of the heart on isolated preparations. Size and position of the heart. External anatomy of the
heart. Preparation of arteries and veins of the heart. Internal anatomy of the atria and the ventricles of
the heart. Types and functions of the heart valves. Layers of the heart wall. The conducting system.
Functional aspects of the circulatory system. Pulmonary and systemic circulation.
b. In situ dissection of the heart, its vessels and chambers. Topography of the heart and pericardium
and its sinuses. Open the pericardium between the superior and inferior vena cava and near the
diaphragm along an L shaped line. Demonstration of the excised heart. Dissect the coronary arteries,
the coronary sinus, the small cardiac vein, the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein. Open a
window on the anterior surface of the right auricle and turn backward. Remove and wash the
coagulated blood to make the structures of the right atrium and the right atrioventricular orifice visible.
Then cut a window on the anterior surface of the right ventricle starting from the conus, and turn the
flap caudally while preserving the moderator band. Investigate the structures of the right ventricle
including the tricuspid valve. Make a hole on the left ventricle by cutting out a pi ece of its wall, and
identify its structures through the opening. The semilunar valves are studied at the aortic and
pulmonary orifices after making window-like holes on their anterior walls. Presentation of radiographs.
Dissection of the structures of the supracardiac mediastinum.
Histology:
a.- b. SELF CONTROL. REMEDIAL

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8th week:
Lecture: Digestive system - introduction. Development of the primitive gut. Stomach. Small intestines.
Large intestine.
Practical:
Anatomy:
Dissection of the thoracic cavity V.-VI.
a. Study the pleura and its recesses. Remove the lungs and inspect the surfaces. Make schematic
drawings of the medial surfaces of the lungs. Dissect bronchopulmonary segments (in one of the
lungs) and bronchial arborisation (in lung). Structures of the posterior mediastinum.
b. Structures of the posterior mediastinum. Dissection of the intercostal vessels and nerves.
Topography of the intercostal space and the cupula pleurae. Presentation of radiographs.
Histology:
a. Respiratory system.
1. Larynx (HE stain)
2. Trachea (HE stain)
3. Lung (HE stain)
4. Lung (The vascular system filled with drawing ink + HE)
b. Digestive system - part one
1. Oesophagus (HE)
2. Stomach (HE stain)
3. Stomach (PAS+H)
4. Demonstration: Stomach (GEP cells: silver impregnation and immunohistochemical reaction)

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9th week:
Lecture: Histology of the stomach and the intestines. Pancreas. Liver - part one. Liver - part two.
Portal system. Peritoneum. Lesser sac of the peritoneum.
Practical:
Anatomy:
SELF CONTROL: Dissection of the abdominal cavity I.
a. SELF CONTROL. Anatomy of the thorax. Development of the heart, respiratory system, face, oral
ad nasal cavities, pharyngeal gut.
b. Demarcate the regions of the abdominal wall and cavity and draw the surface projections of
abdominal organs on the cadaver. These drawings should be introduced in the body scheme in your
anatomy schedule handout. Dissection of the median abdominal and t he inguinal regions. Structure of
the posterior abdominal wall (repetition). Presentation of radiographs.
Histology:
a. Digestive system - part two
1. Gastro-duodenal junction (HE stain)
2. Gastro-duodenal junction (PAS+H stain)
3. Jejunum (HE stain) 4. Jejunum (Goldner's stain)
b. Digestive system - part three
1. Colon (HE stain)
2. Demonstration: Colon (GEP cells, immunohistochemical reaction)
3. Appendix (HE stain)
4. Rectum (HE stain)

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10th week:
Lecture: Development of the peritoneum and intestines. Separation of the body cavities.
Retroperitoneum. Gross anatomy of the kidneys.

Practical:
Anatomy: Dissection of the abdominal cavity II.-III.
a. Structure of the abdominal wall, layers of the abdominal wall, thoracolumbar fascia. Opening of the
abdominal cavity. Inspection and identification of the abdominal organs. Compare the surface
projections on the body and in your own drawings with the actual positions of the organs.
Presentation of radiographs.
b. Dissection of the lesser omentum and branches of the celiac trunk. Dissection of the blood vessels
of the small and large intestines. Memorise the position of the abdominal viscera. Presentation of
radiographs.
Histology:
a Digestive system - part four
1. Pancreas (HE stain)
2. Demonstration: Pancreas (GEP cells: silver impregnation and immunohistochemical reaction)
3. Liver from pig (HE stain)
4. Liver from pig (Azan stain)
5. Human liver (HE stain)
6. Liver from rat (Trypan blue vital stain + Nuclear fast red stain)
7. Gall bladder (HE)
b. SELF CONTROL: Respiratory system . Digestive system.

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11th week:
Lecture: Structure of the kidneys and urinary system. Development of the urinary system.
Topographical anatomy of the wall of the pelvis and perineal region. Male genital organs: testis and
epidydimis.
Practical:
Anatomy: Dissection of the abdominal cavity IV.-V.
a. Dissection of the blood vessels. Discussion of the abdominal lymphatic system. Removing the
intestines from the duodeno-jejunal flexure to the sigmoid colon-rectal border (only from one cadaver).
Cut and demonstrate the inner surface of different parts of the intestine (including the cecum).
Demonstration of the rectum on an isolated preparation. In the cadaver from which intestines were
removed dissect the structures of the retroperitoneal region.
b. Topography and relations of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas and spleen. Liver: inspect and
make a drawing of the visceral (inferior) surface. Make schematic drawings of the relations of
abdominal organs. Topography and sheaths of the kidney. Layers of the retroperitoneal space.
Histology:
a. SELF CONTROL REMEDIAL
b. Urogenital system - part one
1. Kidney - coronal section (HE stain)

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12th week:
Lecture: Ductus deferens, spermatic cord, seminal vesicle, prostate, scrotum. Penis. Mechanism of
erection. Female genital organs: the ovary. Anatomy of the uterine tube and the uterus. Broad
ligament. Vagina.
Practical:
Anatomy: Dissection of the abdominal cavity VI-VII.
a. Paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Kidneys, suprarenal glands. - Dissection of the
kidney, demarcate a lobe of the kidney. Make a schematic drawing of the coronal section of a kidney.
b. Dissection of the retroperitoneal space. Diaphragm. Openings of the diaphragm and its piercing
structures. Lumbar plexus. Parietal branches of the abdominal aorta.
Histology:
a. Urogenital system - part two
1. Kidney - tangential section (HE stain)
2. Kidney (Vascular infiltration with drawing ink + HE stain)
b. The urogenital system - part three
1. Ureter (HE stain)
2. Urinary bladder (HE stain)
3. Urethra masculina (HE stain)
4. Cross section of an embryonic penis (HE stain)
5. Demonstration: Penis (HE stain)

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13th week:
Lecture: Attachment and peritoneal relations of the uterus. Female external genital organs. Structure
of the uterus and uterine tube. Menstrual cycle and its endocrine regulation. Implantation. The
pregnant uterus. Placenta - part one.
Practical:
Anatomy: True pelvis and perineal region I.-II.
a. Topography of the organs in the true pelvis. External genital organs - demonstration. Dissection of
the branches of the internal iliac artery.
b. Dissection of the perineal region. Structures of the anal region. Ischiorectal fossa. (Removing of the
lower limbs from one of the cadavers).
Histology:
a. Urogenital system - part four
1. Testis and epididymis (HE stain)
2. Spermatic cord (HE stain)
3. Seminal vesicle (HE stain)
4. Prostate (HE stain)
5. Demonstration: Prostate (Goldner's stain)
b. Urogenital system - part five
1. Vagina (HE stain)
2. Ovary (HE stain)
3. Ovary with corpus luteum (HE stain)

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14th week:
Lecture: Placenta - part two. Foetal circulation. Development of the blood vessels. Development of
the genital organs. Subdivision of the cloaca. Sexual differentiation. Sexual anomalies of genetic and
hormonal origin.
Practical:
Anatomy: True pelvis and perineal region III.-IV.
a. Dissection of the urogenital region and external genital organs. Nerves and blood vessels on the
dorsal surface of the penis. Preparation of the roots of penis/clitoris. Preparation of the corpora
cavernosa and corpus spongiosum penis. Layers of the scrotum. Preparation of the pelvis for median
section.
b. Halving of the pelvis in the median plane. Dissection of the organs of the true pelvis from the lateral
aspect. Branches of the internal iliac artery. Make schematic drawings of the female and male pelvic
organs
Histology:
a. Urogenital system - part six
1. Uterine tube (HE stain)
2. Uterus - proliferative stage (HE stain)
3. Uterus - secretory stage (HE stain) Demonstration: Uterine tube with peg-shaped cells (HE stain)
b. Urogenital system - part seven
1. Pregnant uterus (HE stain)
2. Placenta (HE stain)

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15th week:
Lecture: -
Practical:
Anatomy: True pelvis and perineal region V.
a. Male and female genital organs - demonstration of excised preparations. Placenta. Sacral plexus.
b. SELF CONTROL. Anatomy of the abdominal cavity, pelvis and perineal region.
Histology:
a. SELF CONTROL. Histology of the urogenital system.
b. -