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Adapter -Used in the collection of distillate to prevent loss due to evaporation.

Beaker - A deep, wide mouthed, thin-walled, cylindrical vessel with a pouring lip used
for measuring large quantity of liquid.It is also used as a container of boiling liquid
mixture.
Bunsen Burner -Source of heat when non luminous flame is needed for experiment
work.
Burette - A graduated glass tube with a narrow outlet, used for delivering a measured
volume of liquid or measuring the quantity of a gas or liquid collected or discharged.
-Acid Burette - has a stopcock as its stopper
-Base Burette has a pinchcock as its stopper
Burette Clamp - Used to hold the burettes in titration.
Centrifuge - Used for whirling fluids rapidly to separate substances of different densities
through artificial gravity and centrifugal force.
Condenser - Used in the distillation process as the tube collecting the gas distillate so as
to change it into liquid form.
Crucible Tong - Used in holding hot materials or apparatus
Crucible with Cover - A vessel for heating or melting substances requiring extreme heat
and temperature.
Desiccator - A glass vessel containing a drying agent and used to dry substances or to
provide a dry atmosphere for chemical reaction.
Distilling Flask- Used as a container of the solution to be distilled in the distillation
process
Erlenmeyer Flask- Used for measuring large quantity of liquid;
Used as a receiver in titration and distillation;
Used also as a container for liquid samples.
Evaporating Dish- A porcelain dish in which a solution may be evaporated to leave the
dissolved substance as a residue.
Forceps- An instrument, as pincers or tongs, for seizing and holding objects firmly.
Funnel- A cone shaped vessel ending in a tube at the base, used for pouring liquids or
powders through a small opening, and to hold the filter paper in filtration.
Mortar and Pestle-Used for pounding and grinding solid substances into powder form.
Pipette- Used for measuring small volume of liquid direct for the reagent bottle
Reagent Bottle A vessel used to contain chemicals used to bring about a chemical
reaction in another substance.
Spatula An instrument with a broad, flexible, usually dull-edge blade, used for mixing,
scooping or spreading soft substances and liquids.
Spot Plate Re-usable or disposable white plastic spot plates with 12 wells - great for
qualitative analysis of crushed or dissolved mineral samples. Can be considered
disposable. Acid-resistant, but not suitable for use with organic solvents such as
acetone, xylene, methylene chloride, etc. Provides a white background against which
delicate colors will show up for various tests.
Stirring Rod A slender glass shaft used for stirring and as a guide in directing the flow of
liquids for pouring.
Test Tube A glass tube, closed at one end used in making chemical tests
Used for heating small amount of solution in experiments.
Test Tube Holder A metal wire device used to hold test tube
Test Tube Brush Used for cleaning test tubes
Test Tube Rack A framework of wooden or metal bars for supporting test tubes when
not in use or while waiting for the reactions of reagents to take place.
Thermometer Used for measuring temperature
Thistle Tube Used for transferring volatile liquids
Triangular File Used for smoothening sharp edges of a glass tubing
Triple Beam Balance Used for weighing materials accurately in various containers or
vessels.
Tripod A stand with three (3) legs used for supporting the wire gauze and container with
liquid to be heated.
Vial Used as a container in storing small amount of solution or reagent
Voltaic Cell A voltaic cell uses a spontaneous chemical reaction to generate an electric
current.A voltaic cell in a circuit consists of:
- a negative electrode -anode a positive electrode - cathode
- In the electric cell, pieces of Zn and Cu are dipped in CuSO
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.The metals are connected
through a voltmeter so that potential difference is registered . The negative electrode
releases electrons . The electrons flow through the external circuit to the positive
electrode.
As long as there is an external circuit, electrons can flow through it from one electrode
to another. Because zinc tends to lose electrons more readily than copper, zinc atoms in
the zinc electrode lose electrons to produce zinc ions. The net result is that zinc metal
reacts with copper ions to produce zinc ions and copper metal.
Wash Bottle Used for washing the inner sides of the apparatus like tube or flask where
the chemicals that undergo reaction are placed
Watch Glass A crystal used for observing small amount of sample undergoing reaction;
as a cover of the beaker in boiling water or solution and as a container for litmus paper
while not in use during the experiment.
Water Bath Water Bath Used as container in steaming the solution in a test tube or
flask; also prevent the solution from direct heating
Wire Gauze A fine wire woven to make an open gauzy material for strainers; used to
regulate the heat of the flame when used in heating.
Fume hood Fume hoods protect laboratory workers from fumes and potentially
dangerous chemical reactions by continuously vaccuming air out of the lab and by
providing a glass shield. Experiments can be clearly seen by the user, yet the user is
protected from splatter and harmful fumes.





Filtration
Steps in folding a Filter Paper
Fold the filter paper square in half and then into quarters. One quarter is a bit
smaller than the other quarter, then with scissors, cut around to form a circle of
the required size.
Tear off the corner of the smaller quarter in order to make it possible to have a
tight seal between the upper edge of the filter paper and the funnel during
filtration.
Heating Chemicals
Heating in a beaker or flask
The beaker or flask and its contents should be supported about 1 to 2 inches
above the burner by an iron ring on a ring stand. A wire gauze should always be
placed between the beaker (supported by the ring) and the flame to prevent
breakage of the glass by unequal heating.