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What causes a tsunami?

A tsunami is usually caused by a powerful earthquake under the


ocean floor. This earthquake pushes a large volume of water to
the surface, creating waves. These waves are the tsunami.
In the deep ocean these waves are small. As they approach the
coast these waves get bigger and more dangerous. Tsunami
waves can cause tremendous damage when they reach land.
A tsunami can also be triggered by a volcanic eruption,
landslide, or other movements of the Earths surface.

HOW DO TSUNAMI'S IMPACT THE ENVIRONMENT?

Tsunamis impact the environment in many different ways. The first way that
they impact the environment is for animals, if they arent living in their
specific areas, they could die. Also vegetation can be hurt in areas due to
saltwater intrusion. When strong waves hit coral reefs in the water, some of
it comes off. Lastly, due to saltwater invasions in the ground water,
Tsunamis and other major floods have occurred. For example, if a whale
or a dolphin is out at sea, a tsunami cant hurt it. But, a fish close to shore
can be thrown out of the water and onto the beach. The word Tsunami is
a Japanese word represented by two characters: Tsu and nami.

Tsu means harbour and nami means wave. A tsunami can last for
SEVERAL hours. The biggest wave recorded was it can be as great as 10
meters, even 30 meters in some cases, and it can move inland for several
hundred meters. Also Tsunamis are very dangerous to be around, so if you
are around one go to the highest point near you and stay there until further
notice. Secondly, when an earthquake shook the floor beneath the Indian
Ocean in December 2004, resulting tidal waves devastated the shores of
Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and other countries. This had left
approximately 300,000 people dead and damages. This tsunami was the
second largest Tsunami/earthquake recorded in the history. Also if you
know a friend that is near by you should go tell them to go somewhere
safe.

Detecting tsunami
How the detection process works
An undersea earthquake causes disturbance to both the sea floor
and body of ocean above it. Seismic waves (in red) travel much
faster than tsunami waves away from the earthquake source.
Earthquakes are detected through a network of seismic monitoring
stations. Any resulting tsunami are then verified by sea-level
monitoring stations and deep-ocean tsunami detection buoys. The
seismic monitoring stations can determine the location and depth of
earthquakes that have the potential to cause tsunami. The sea-level
gauges and deep-ocean detection buoys measure any abnormal
changes in sea level to verify if a tsunami has been generated.


Deep-ocean tsunami detection buoys
Deep-ocean tsunami detection buoys are one of two types of
instruments used by the Bureau to confirm the existence of tsunami
generated by undersea earthquakes. These buoys observe and
record changes in sea-level out in deep ocean. This enhances the
capability for early detection and real time reporting of tsunami before
they reach land. These systems are capable of measuring sea-level
changes of less than a millimetre in the deep ocean.
A typical tsunami buoy system comprises of two components, the
pressure sensor anchored to the sea floor and the surface buoy. The
sensor on the sea floor measures the change in height of the water
column above by measuring associated changes in the water
pressure. This water column height is communicated to the surface
buoy by acoustic telemetry and then relayed via satellite to the
JATWC.

Landslide
This article is about the geological phenomenon. For other uses,
see Landslide (disambiguation).

Computer simulation of a "slump" landslide in San Mateo County, California
(USA) in January 1997
A landslide, also known as a landslip (see also mudslide), is a geological
phenomenon which includes a wide range of violent ground movements,
such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which
can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the
action ofgravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there
are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Typically,
pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make
the area/slope prone to failure, whereas the actual landslide often requires
a trigger before being released.

contingency plan
Part of the Business terms glossary:
What is a contingency plan?
In business continuity and risk management, a contingency plan is a process that
prepares an organization to respond coherently to an unplanned event. The
contingency plan can be also used as an alternative for action if expected results
fail to materialize. A contingency plan is sometimes referred to as "Plan B."