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# PowerFlow3

1.0 Introduction
We define and discuss some terminology
necessary for understanding the power flow
problem and solution procedure.
2.0 Classification of buses
Although it is physically appealing to
categorize buses based on the
generation/load mix connected to it, we need
to be more precise in order to analytically
formulate the power flow problem. For
proper analytical formulation, it is
appropriate to categorize the buses
according to what information is known
about them before we solve the power flow
problem.
For each bus, there are four possible
variables that characterize the buses
electrical condition. et us consider an
!
arbitrary bus numbered k. "he four variables
are real and reactive power in#ection, \$
k
and
%
k
, respectively, and voltage magnitude and
angle, &'
k
& and
k
, respectively. From this
perspective, there are three basic types of
buses. We refer to the first two types using
terminology that remind us of the known
variables.
PV Buses( For type \$' buses, we know \$
k
and &'
k
& but not %
k
or
k
. "hese buses fall
under the category of voltage-controlled
buses because of the ability to specify )and
therefore to know* the voltage magnitude
of this bus. +ost generator buses fall into
this category, independent of whether it
!. buses that have reactive power
in#ection at either the generator-s upper
limit )%
max
* or at its lower limit )%
min
*,
and
.. the system swing bus )we further
describe the swing bus below*.
.
"here are also special cases where a
non/generator bus )i.e., either a bus with
load or a bus with neither generation or
load* may be classified as type \$', and
some examples of these special cases are
buses having switched shunt capacitors
or static var compensation systems
)0'1s*. 2n the example that we worked
on previously, illustrated below for
convenience, buses 3. and 34 are type
\$'.
Fig. !
4
"he real power in#ections of the type \$'
buses are chosen according to the system
dispatch corresponding to the modeled
magnitudes of the type \$' buses are
chosen according to the expected terminal
voltage settings, sometimes called the
generator 5set points,6 of the units.
PQ Buses( For type \$% buses, we know \$
k
and %
k
but not &'
k
& or
k
fall into this category, including buses that
have not either load or generation. 2n Fig.
!, buses 7 and 8 are type \$%. "he real
power in#ections of the type \$% buses are
being modeled. "he reactive power
in#ections of the type \$% buses are chosen
according to the expected power factor of
"he third type of bus is referred to as the
swing bus. "wo other common terms for this
bus are slack bus and reference bus. "here is
only one swing bus, and it can be designated
7
by the engineer to be any generator bus in
the system. For the swing bus, we know &'&
and . "he fact that we know is the reason
why it is sometimes called the reference bus.
\$hysically, there is nothing special about the
swing bus, in fact, it is a mathematical
artifact of the solution procedure.
At this point in our treatment of the power
flow problem, it is most appropriate to
understand this last statement in the
following way. "he generation must supply
both the load and the losses on the circuits.
3efore solving the power flow problem, we
will know all in#ections at \$% buses, but we
will not know what the losses will be,
because losses are a function of the flows on
the circuits which are yet to be computed.
0o we may set the real power in#ections for,
at most, all but one of the generators. "he
one generator for which we do not set the
real power in#ection is the one modeled at
8
the swing bus. "hus, this generator 5swings6
to compensate for the network losses, or,
one may say that it 5takes up the slack.6
"herefore, rather than call this generator a &
'& bus )as the above naming convention
would have it*, we choose the terminology
5swing6 or 5slack6 as it helps us to better
remember its function. "he voltage
magnitude of the swing bus is chosen to
correspond to the typical voltage setting of
this generator. "he voltage angle may be
designated to be any angle, but normally it is
designated as 9
o
.
A word of caution about the swing bus is in
order. 3ecause the real power in#ection of
the swing bus is not set by the engineer but
rather is an output of the power flow
solution, it can take on mathematically
tractable but physically impossible values.
"herefore, the engineer must always check
the swing bus generation level following a
:
solution to ensure that it is within the
physical limitations of the generator.
3.0 Number of variables and equations
1onsider a power system network having ;
buses, ;
<
of which are voltage/regulating
generators. =ne of these must be the swing
bus. "hus there are ;
<
/! type \$' buses, and
;/;
<
type \$% buses. We assume that the
swing bus is numbered bus !, the type \$'
buses are numbered .,>, ;
<
, and the type
\$% buses are numbered ;
<
?!,>,; )this
assumption on numbering is not necessary,
but it makes the following development
notationally convenient*.
2t is typical that we know, in advance, the
)implying that it is input data to the
problem*(
@
!. "he admittances of all series and shunt
elements )implying that we can obtain the
A/bus*,
.. "he voltage magnitudes '
k
, kB!,>,;
<,
at all ;
<
generator buses,
4. "he real power in#ection of all buses
except the swing bus, \$
k
, kB.,>,;
7. "he reactive power in#ection of all type
\$% buses, %
k
, kB;
<
?!, >, ;
0tatements 4 and 7 indicate power flow
eCuations for which we know the in#ections,
i.e., the values of the left/hand side of the
power flow eCuations. "hese particular
power flow eCuations are very valuable
because they have one less unknown than
eCuations for which we do not know the left/
hand/side. "he number of these eCuations
for which we know the left/hand/side can be
determined by adding the number of buses
for which we know the real power in#ection
)statement 4 above* to the number of buses
for which we know the reactive power
in#ection )statement 7 above*.
D
"his is );/!*?);/;
<
*B.;/!/;
<
. We repeat
the power flow eCuations here, but this time,
we denote the appropriate number to the
right.
( )

=
+ =
n
k
k i ik k i ik k i i
B G V V P
1
) sin( ) cos(
iB.,>;
( ) ) cos( ) sin(
1
k i ik k i ik
n
k
k i i
B G V V Q =

=
iB;
<
?!,>;
We are trying to find the following
a. "he angles for the voltage phasors at all
buses except the swing bus )it is 9 at the
swing bus*, i.e.,
k
, kB.,>,;
b. "he magnitudes for the voltage phasors at
all type \$% buses, i.e., &'
k
&, kB;
<
?!,..., ;
0tatements a and b imply that we have ;/!
angle unknowns and ;/;
<
voltage
magnitude unknowns, for a total number of
unknowns of );/!*?);/;
<
*B.;/!/;
<
.
Eeferring to the power flow eCuations
above, we see that there are no other
unknowns on the right/hand side besides
F
voltage magnitudes and angles )the real and
imaginary parts of the admittance values, <
k#
and 3
k#
, are known, based on statement !
above*.
"hus we see that the number of eCuations
having known left/hand side )in#ections* is
the same as the number of unknown voltage
magnitudes and angles. "herefore it is
possible to solve the system of .;/;
<
/!
eCuations for the .;/;
<
/! unknowns.
Gowever, we note that these eCuations are
not linear, i.e., they are nonlinear eCuations.
"his nonlinearity comes from the fact that
we have terms containing products of some
of the unknowns and also terms containing
trigonometric functions of some of the
unknowns. 3ecause of these nonlinearities,
we are not able to put them directly into the
familiar matrix form of 5AxBb6 )where A is
a matrix, x is the vector of unknowns, and b
is a vector of constants* to obtain their
!9
solution. We must therefore resort to some
other methods that are applicable for solving
nonlinear eCuations. We will describe such a
method in the next class. 3efore doing that,
however, it may be helpful to more crisply
formulate the exact problem that we want to
solve.
et-s first define the vector of unknown
variables. "his we do in two steps. First,
define the vector of unknown angles )an
underline beneath the variable means it is a
vector or a matrix* and the vector of
unknown voltage magnitudes &'&.

=
+
+
| |V
| |V
| |V
| V |
N
N
N
N
G
G

.
!
4
.
,

## 0econd, define the vector x as the composite

vector of unknown angles and voltage
magnitudes.
!!

=

+

+
+
G
G
G
N N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
x
x
x
x
x
x
| |V
| |V
| |V

| V |

x
! .
!
!
.
!
.
!
4
.

## With this notation, we see that the right/

hand sides of the power flow eCuations )see
top of page F* depend on the elements of the
unknown vector x. Hxpressing this
dependence more explicitly, we rewrite the
power flow eCuations as
,...,N N x Q Q
,...,N i x P P
G i i
i i
1 i ) (
2 ) (
+ = =
= =
2n the above, \$
i
and %
i
are the specified
in#ections )known constants* while the right/
hand sides are functions of the elements in
the unknown vector x. 3ringing the left/
hand side over to the right/hand side, we
have that
!.
,...,N N Q x Q
,...,N i P x P
G i i
i i
1 i 0 ) (
2 0 ) (
+ = =
= =
We now define a vector/valued function f)x*
as(
0
0
0
0
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
2
1 1
2 2
1 2
1
1
=

=
+
+ +

N
N
N
N N
N N
N N
N N
N
N
Q
Q
P
P
Q x Q
Q x Q
P x P
P x P
x f
x f
x f
x f
x f
G
G G
G
"he above eCuation is in the form of f)x*B9,
where f)x* is a vector/valued function and 9
is a vector of zeros, both f)x* and 9 are of
dimension ).;/!/;
<
*!, which is also the
dimension of the vector of unknowns, x. We
have also introduced nomenclature
representing the mismatc vector, as the
vector of \$
i
-s and %
i
-s. "his vector is used
!4
during the solution algorithm, which is
iterative, to identify how good the solution is
corresponding to any particular iteration. 2n
the next class, we introduce this solution
algorithm, which can be used to solve this
kind of system of eCuations. "he method is
called the ;ewton/Eaphson method.
Hxample( For the 8 bus system use
previously, write down the solution vector
and the minimum set of power flow
eCuations necessary to solve the problem.
Fig. !
!7
0olution( We have really already identified
the solution elements in the 5\$owerFlow.6
notes as

!
"
3
2

8
7
V
V
3ut now we write them as a single vector x,

=
8
7
8
7
4
.
:
8
7
4
.
!
V
V
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

## "here will be real power flow eCuations for

all buses except the swing bus( buses ./8.
"here will reactive power flow eCuations for
only the type \$% buses( buses 7/8.
0o the minimal set of eCuations to solve is(
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
3
2
!
"
3
2
! !
" "
2 !
2 "
2 3
2 2
#
!
"
3
2
1
=

=
Q
Q
P
P
P
P
Q x Q
Q x Q
P x P
P x P
P x P
P x P
x f
x f
x f
x f
x f
x f
x f
!8
We are now at a point where we desire to
solve the above set of eCuations. We will do
this in the next set of notes.
!: