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The greatest extent of the Fatimid caliphate (909–

1171).

Enlarge for more detail

( 9 0 9 – 1 1 7 1 ) The greatest extent of the FatimidEnlarge for more detail The minaret of the Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail City wall, Bab al-Nasr (1087), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-1-29" src="pdf-obj-1-29.jpg">
( 9 0 9 – 1 1 7 1 ) The greatest extent of the FatimidEnlarge for more detail The minaret of the Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail City wall, Bab al-Nasr (1087), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-1-31" src="pdf-obj-1-31.jpg">

The minaret of the Mosque of

al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail

City wall, Bab al-Nasr (1087),

Cairo. Enlarge for more detail

( 9 0 9 – 1 1 7 1 ) The greatest extent of the FatimidEnlarge for more detail The minaret of the Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail City wall, Bab al-Nasr (1087), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-1-49" src="pdf-obj-1-49.jpg">
( 9 0 9 – 1 1 7 1 ) The greatest extent of the FatimidEnlarge for more detail The minaret of the Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail City wall, Bab al-Nasr (1087), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-1-51" src="pdf-obj-1-51.jpg">
( 9 0 9 – 1 1 7 1 ) The greatest extent of the FatimidEnlarge for more detail The minaret of the Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail City wall, Bab al-Nasr (1087), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-1-53" src="pdf-obj-1-53.jpg">
( 9 0 9 – 1 1 7 1 ) The greatest extent of the FatimidEnlarge for more detail The minaret of the Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail City wall, Bab al-Nasr (1087), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-1-55" src="pdf-obj-1-55.jpg">
The Mosque of al-Aqmar <a href=( 1125 ) , Cairo. Enlarge for more detail In the tenth to twelfth centuries, an area including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily, Egypt, and Syria came unde Fatimid dynasty (909–1171), an offshoot of a Shi i sect from North Africa. The Fatimid rulers traced descent from M Fatima (hence Fatimid) via Isma il, the seventh Shi i imam, and thus presented a threat to the political and religious orthodox Sunni Abbasid caliph . The circular design of the city of al-Mansuriya, one of their first capitals, founded in interpreted as a deliberate challenge to the round city of Abbasid Baghdad, the "city of peace" ( madinat al-salam ). became more significant following the Fatimid conquest of Egypt in 969. At this time, the Fatimids founded the city "the triumphant") and established it as their new capital (973). While Egypt came to enjoy enormous prosperity prim intermediary role in the lucrative trade between the Mediterranean and India, Cairo soon rivaled the Abbasid capita The opulence of the Fatimid court fueled a renaissance in the decorative arts , which made Cairo the most importan Islamic world. Nearby, Old Cairo, known as al-Fustat, became a major center for the production of pottery, glass , a rock-crystal, ivory, and wood carving; textile factories run by government officials created tiraz fabrics in the name o in the Egyptian region, especially the Nile Delta. A novel, more refined style developed in pottery; bands with small inscriptions now formed the major decoration in textiles; and rock-crystal carvers demonstrated great skill in works treasured by the caliphs themselves. The artwork from this period exemplifies the creativity and ingenuity of Fatimid craftsmen. The technique of lusterw developed originally in Iraq, was revived in Egypt and Syria. Some lusterware pieces from this period are signed by indication of the esteem in which the craftsmen were held. Wood carving and jewelry were executed with equal skil Fatimid artists created new decorative motifs and made greater use of figural forms , both human and animal. Figur lively, while traditional vegetal and geometric decorations maintained their abstract quality. In architecture, the Fatimids followed Tulunid techniques and used similar materials, but also developed those of th first congregational mosque was al-Azhar ("the splendid") founded along with the city (969–73), which, together wit institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University), became the spiritual center for Isma ili Shi i. The Mosque of al-H important example of Fatimid architecture and architectural decoration, played a critical role in Fatimid ceremonial emphasized the religious and political role of the Fatimid caliph. Besides elaborate funerary monuments, other surv structures include the Mosque of al-Aqmar (1125) as well as the monumental gates for Cairo's city walls commissio Fatimid emir and vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. 1073–94). Suzan Yalman Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Citation for this page: Yalman, Suzan. "The Art of the Fatimid Period (909–1171)". In Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan M http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/fati/hd_fati.htm (October 2001) Suggested Further Reading Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "Architecture of the Fatimid Period." In her Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction , pp 1989. Contadini, Anna. Fatimid Art at the Victoria and Albert Museum . London: V&A Publications, 1998. Learn more on www.metmuseum.or g Islamic Art: Features & Exhibitions ; Collection ; Online Resources (links) ; Books in the Met Store Antonio Ratti Textile Center: Features & Exhibitions ; Collection ; Online Resources (links) " id="pdf-obj-2-2" src="pdf-obj-2-2.jpg">

The Mosque of al-Aqmar

(1125), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail

In the tenth to twelfth centuries, an area including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily, Egypt, and Syria came unde Fatimid dynasty (909–1171), an offshoot of a Shi c i sect from North Africa. The Fatimid rulers traced descent from M Fatima (hence Fatimid) via Isma c il, the seventh Shi c i imam, and thus presented a threat to the political and religious orthodox Sunni c Abbasid caliph. The circular design of the city of al-Mansuriya, one of their first capitals, founded in interpreted as a deliberate challenge to the round city of c Abbasid Baghdad, the "city of peace" (madinat al-salam). became more significant following the Fatimid conquest of Egypt in 969. At this time, the Fatimids founded the city "the triumphant") and established it as their new capital (973). While Egypt came to enjoy enormous prosperity prim intermediary role in the lucrative trade between the Mediterranean and India, Cairo soon rivaled the c Abbasid capita

The opulence of the Fatimid court fueled a renaissance in the decorative arts, which made Cairo the most importan Islamic world. Nearby, Old Cairo, known as al-Fustat, became a major center for the production of pottery, glass, a rock-crystal, ivory, and wood carving; textile factories run by government officials created tiraz fabrics in the name o in the Egyptian region, especially the Nile Delta. A novel, more refined style developed in pottery; bands with small inscriptions now formed the major decoration in textiles; and rock-crystal carvers demonstrated great skill in works treasured by the caliphs themselves.

The artwork from this period exemplifies the creativity and ingenuity of Fatimid craftsmen. The technique of lusterw developed originally in Iraq, was revived in Egypt and Syria. Some lusterware pieces from this period are signed by indication of the esteem in which the craftsmen were held. Wood carving and jewelry were executed with equal skil Fatimid artists created new decorative motifs and made greater use of figural forms, both human and animal. Figur lively, while traditional vegetal and geometric decorations maintained their abstract quality.

In architecture, the Fatimids followed Tulunid techniques and used similar materials, but also developed those of th first congregational mosque was al-Azhar ("the splendid") founded along with the city (969–73), which, together wit institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University), became the spiritual center for Isma c ili Shi c i. The Mosque of al-H important example of Fatimid architecture and architectural decoration, played a critical role in Fatimid ceremonial emphasized the religious and political role of the Fatimid caliph. Besides elaborate funerary monuments, other surv structures include the Mosque of al-Aqmar (1125) as well as the monumental gates for Cairo's city walls commissio Fatimid emir and vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. 1073–94).

Suzan Yalman

Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Citation for this page:

Yalman, Suzan. "The Art of the Fatimid Period (909–1171)". In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan M http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/fati/hd_fati.htm (October 2001)

The Mosque of al-Aqmar <a href=( 1125 ) , Cairo. Enlarge for more detail In the tenth to twelfth centuries, an area including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily, Egypt, and Syria came unde Fatimid dynasty (909–1171), an offshoot of a Shi i sect from North Africa. The Fatimid rulers traced descent from M Fatima (hence Fatimid) via Isma il, the seventh Shi i imam, and thus presented a threat to the political and religious orthodox Sunni Abbasid caliph . The circular design of the city of al-Mansuriya, one of their first capitals, founded in interpreted as a deliberate challenge to the round city of Abbasid Baghdad, the "city of peace" ( madinat al-salam ). became more significant following the Fatimid conquest of Egypt in 969. At this time, the Fatimids founded the city "the triumphant") and established it as their new capital (973). While Egypt came to enjoy enormous prosperity prim intermediary role in the lucrative trade between the Mediterranean and India, Cairo soon rivaled the Abbasid capita The opulence of the Fatimid court fueled a renaissance in the decorative arts , which made Cairo the most importan Islamic world. Nearby, Old Cairo, known as al-Fustat, became a major center for the production of pottery, glass , a rock-crystal, ivory, and wood carving; textile factories run by government officials created tiraz fabrics in the name o in the Egyptian region, especially the Nile Delta. A novel, more refined style developed in pottery; bands with small inscriptions now formed the major decoration in textiles; and rock-crystal carvers demonstrated great skill in works treasured by the caliphs themselves. The artwork from this period exemplifies the creativity and ingenuity of Fatimid craftsmen. The technique of lusterw developed originally in Iraq, was revived in Egypt and Syria. Some lusterware pieces from this period are signed by indication of the esteem in which the craftsmen were held. Wood carving and jewelry were executed with equal skil Fatimid artists created new decorative motifs and made greater use of figural forms , both human and animal. Figur lively, while traditional vegetal and geometric decorations maintained their abstract quality. In architecture, the Fatimids followed Tulunid techniques and used similar materials, but also developed those of th first congregational mosque was al-Azhar ("the splendid") founded along with the city (969–73), which, together wit institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University), became the spiritual center for Isma ili Shi i. The Mosque of al-H important example of Fatimid architecture and architectural decoration, played a critical role in Fatimid ceremonial emphasized the religious and political role of the Fatimid caliph. Besides elaborate funerary monuments, other surv structures include the Mosque of al-Aqmar (1125) as well as the monumental gates for Cairo's city walls commissio Fatimid emir and vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. 1073–94). Suzan Yalman Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Citation for this page: Yalman, Suzan. "The Art of the Fatimid Period (909–1171)". In Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan M http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/fati/hd_fati.htm (October 2001) Suggested Further Reading Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "Architecture of the Fatimid Period." In her Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction , pp 1989. Contadini, Anna. Fatimid Art at the Victoria and Albert Museum . London: V&A Publications, 1998. Learn more on www.metmuseum.or g Islamic Art: Features & Exhibitions ; Collection ; Online Resources (links) ; Books in the Met Store Antonio Ratti Textile Center: Features & Exhibitions ; Collection ; Online Resources (links) " id="pdf-obj-2-65" src="pdf-obj-2-65.jpg">

Suggested Further Reading Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "Architecture of the Fatimid Period." In her Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction, pp

1989.

Contadini, Anna. Fatimid Art at the Victoria and Albert Museum. London: V&A Publications, 1998.

Africa, Western North Africa , Religious Art, Islam, Africa, Egypt, Islamic World, Islamic Art in the Medieval Period, Period

Department of Islamic Art

Ayyubid Period, Calligraphy in Islamic Art, Figural Representation in Islamic Art, Geometric Patterns in Islamic Art, Umayyad Period in Spain, Vegetal Patterns in Islamic Art, Abridged List of Rulers: Islamic World, Abbasid Period,

Arabian Peninsula, 500-1000 A.D., Arabian Peninsula, 1000-1400 A.D., The Eastern Mediterranean, 500-1000 A.D Mediterranean, 1000-1400 A.D., Egypt, 500-1000 A.D., Egypt, 1000-1400 A.D., Iberian Peninsula, 500-1000 A.D., 1400 A.D., Iraq (Mesopotamia) 500-1000 A.D., Italian Peninsula, 500-1000 A.D., Western North Africa (The Maghri Western North Africa (The Maghrib), 1000-1400 A.D.,

West Asia, 500-1000 A.D.

Africa, Western North Africa , Religious Art, Islam, Africa, Egypt, Islamic World, Islamic Art in theWHAT IS THE TIMELINE? | FIRST-TIME USER | MULTIMEDIA | SELECTED READINGS | USEFUL LINKS | CREDITS | IMAGE COPYRIGHTS AND CREDITS | TELL US HOW YOU USE THE TIMELINE | SEND AN E-CARD | SITE SURVEY Home | Works of Art | Permanent Collection | Features | Timeline of Art History | Explore & Learn | The Met Store | Membership | Ways to Give | Visitor Information | Calendar | The Cloisters | Concerts & Lectures | Educational Resources | Events & Programs | FAQs | Special Exhibitions | My Met Museum | Press Room | Site Index | Now at the Met | MuseumKids Photograph Credits Copyright © 2000–2007 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions | Privacy Policy . Bowl , ca. 1000; Fatimid Egypt Earthenware, glazed and luster-painted; Diam. 10 in. (25.4 cm) Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles K. Wilkinson, 1963 (63.178.1) The signature of the artist Muslim appears beneath the eagle's right claw and underneath the foot of this remarkab Muslim is the only Egyptian potter of this period (ca. 1000) whose name is known. In representing this heraldic eag motif that had been popular for a long time and was not limited to the iconography of Fatimid works. Pendant , 11th century; Fatimid Egypt Gold, cloisonné enamel; 1 3/4 x 1 3/8 in. (4.5 x 3.5 cm) " id="pdf-obj-3-12" src="pdf-obj-3-12.jpg">
 

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Copyright © 2000–2007 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions | Privacy Policy.

 

Bowl, ca. 1000; Fatimid Egypt Earthenware, glazed and luster-painted; Diam. 10 in. (25.4 cm) Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles K. Wilkinson, 1963 (63.178.1)

The signature of the artist Muslim appears beneath the eagle's right claw and underneath the foot of this remarkab

Muslim is the only Egyptian potter of this period (ca. 1000) whose name is known. In representing this heraldic eag motif that had been popular for a long time and was not limited to the iconography of Fatimid works.

The Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.95.37)

Few works with enamels have survived from the early Islamic period. The fabrication of this pendant is typical of F

goldsmiths' craftsmanship: boxlike construction, gold stringing loops, openwork design with a strip support, S-shap elements, and paired twisted wires. The enamels had to be secured to the back with an adhesive after the object w

Pyxis, second half of 11th century Syria Composite body; luster-painted; Total H. 8 in. (20.3 cm); Bowl H. 5 1/8 in. (13 cm); Lid H. 3 5/8 in. (9.2 cm); Max. Diam. 5 1/2 in. (14 cm) Purchase, Lila Acheson Wallace Gift, Harvey and Elizabeth Plotnick Gift, and Louis E. and Theresa S. Seley Purchase Fund for Islamic Art, 1998 (1998.298ab)

This type of luster-painted pottery is known as Tell Minis, after the name of a village in central Syria where a number of these ceramics were found, though there is no evidence proving they were potted there. The condition of this well-proportioned lidded bowl is exceptional, since its surface retains a lustrous quality. The band with vegetal scrolls under the rim offers a pleasant chromatic contrast, and the sequence of partridges atop the lid animates and enhances the decoration. The prominent inscription, in kufic, is an aphorism praising the virtues of patience.

Casket, 11th–12th century Probably southern Italy or Sicily Ivory; L. 15 in. (38.1 cm), W. 8 in. (20.3 cm) Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917 (17.190.241)

This box, known as the "Morgan casket," is one of the most accomplished Islamic works of art in ivory. Even thoug

probably produced in southern Italy, the animals enclosed in the interlacing vine are similar in style and iconograph contemporaneous Fatimid art from Egypt. Sicily was under Muslim rule for almost three centuries, which explains t influence on the works produced there in medieval times.

       

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1 7 1 – 1 2 6 0 ) The greatest extent of the Ayyubid sultanateEnlarge for more detail Citadel (early 13th century)in Aleppo Enlarge for more detail Tomb of the Abbasid Caliphs (1242–43), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-6-21" src="pdf-obj-6-21.jpg">

The greatest extent of the Ayyubid sultanate (1171–

1250).

Enlarge for more detail

1 7 1 – 1 2 6 0 ) The greatest extent of the Ayyubid sultanateEnlarge for more detail Citadel (early 13th century)in Aleppo Enlarge for more detail Tomb of the Abbasid Caliphs (1242–43), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-6-30" src="pdf-obj-6-30.jpg">
1 7 1 – 1 2 6 0 ) The greatest extent of the Ayyubid sultanateEnlarge for more detail Citadel (early 13th century)in Aleppo Enlarge for more detail Tomb of the Abbasid Caliphs (1242–43), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail " id="pdf-obj-6-32" src="pdf-obj-6-32.jpg">

Citadel (early 13th century)in

Aleppo Enlarge for more detail

Tomb of the c Abbasid Caliphs

(1242–43), Cairo. Enlarge for more detail

Madrasa al-Salih Najm al-Din A <a href=yy ub ( 1243), Cairo Enlarge for more detail The Ayyubid dynasty came to power under the leadership of the Kurdish Zengid general Salah al-Din (r. 1169–93), Saladin. After repulsing a Crusader army that had reached the gates of Fatimid Cairo and occupying Egypt on beh (1160s), Salah al-Din declared the Fatimid caliphate to be at its end, and established the Ayyubid sultanate (1171). Salah al-Din also gained control over Yemen (1174) and Syria (1180s). The conflict with the Crusaders continued t period; Jerusalem was captured by the Muslims in 1187, then, following a failed treaty, ceded until 1244, when the good. The sultanate depended on mamluks (slave soldiers) for its military organization, yet the end of the dynasty i caused by Turkic mamluks themselves, who overthrew the last Ayyubid sultan in Egypt, al-Malik al-Ashraf (r. 1249– Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517) . In the arts, the Ayyubids are known especially for their works in inlaid metalwork and ceramics, particularly luster- a painted wares. Some objects from this period, including a group of inlaid metalwork pieces, also have Christian sce artists on refined and prized brass works inlaid with silver seem to indicate that the craftsmen were from Mosul (in had fled from the approaching Mongol armies. In the case of ceramics produced in Syria, the influence of Seljuq Ira other arts, enameled glass rose to excellence in this period and carved wood was also esteemed by Ayyubid patro established and developed during this time formed the foundation of the arts in the Mamluk period. The Ayyubids were also vigorous builders. Their generous patronage led to tremendous architectural activity in Egy Syria, and their local courts revived the cities of Damascus and Aleppo. The outstanding secular architecture from t fortified citadels of Cairo (1187) and Aleppo (early thirteenth century). Meanwhile, the establishment of madrasas, h religious learning, such as the Zahiriya (1219) in Aleppo and that of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1243) in Cairo, exem interest in Sunni education after the Shi i interlude in the region under the Fatimids. Furthermore, the Madrasa al-S (1233), built by Salah al-Din’s sister Rabia Khatun, as well as the Mausoleum of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1250), c wife Shajarat al-Durr, reflects the importance of women as patrons of architecture under the Ayyubids. In terms of c buildings and pious architectural initiatives, the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi i (1211) and the Tomb of the Abbasid Cairo are especially noteworthy. Suzan Yalman Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Based on original work by Linda Komaroff Citation for this page: Yalman, Suzan. Based on original work by Linda Komaroff. "The Art of the Ayyubid Period (ca. 1171–1260)". In Timeli York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ayyu/hd_ayyu.htm (October 200 Suggested Further Reading Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "Architecture of the Ayyubid Period." In her Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction , p Brill, 1989. Raby, Julian, ed. The Art of Syria and the Jazira, 1100–1250 . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Learn more on www.metmuseum.or g Islamic Art: Features & Exhibitions ; Collection ; Online Resources (links) ; Books in the Met Store Religious Art, Islam, Metalwork, Brass, Ceramic, Glazed, West Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Africa, Egypt, Islamic West Asia, Islamic Art in the Medieval Period Department of Islamic Art Calligraphy in Islamic Art, Enameled and Gilded Glass from Islamic Lands, Figural Representation in Islamic Art, G " id="pdf-obj-7-2" src="pdf-obj-7-2.jpg">

Madrasa al-Salih Najm al-Din

Ayyub (1243), Cairo Enlarge for more detail

The Ayyubid dynasty came to power under the leadership of the Kurdish Zengid general Salah al-Din (r. 1169–93), Saladin. After repulsing a Crusader army that had reached the gates of Fatimid Cairo and occupying Egypt on beh (1160s), Salah al-Din declared the Fatimid caliphate to be at its end, and established the Ayyubid sultanate (1171). Salah al-Din also gained control over Yemen (1174) and Syria (1180s). The conflict with the Crusaders continued t period; Jerusalem was captured by the Muslims in 1187, then, following a failed treaty, ceded until 1244, when the good. The sultanate depended on mamluks (slave soldiers) for its military organization, yet the end of the dynasty i caused by Turkic mamluks themselves, who overthrew the last Ayyubid sultan in Egypt, al-Malik al-Ashraf (r. 1249– Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517).

In the arts, the Ayyubids are known especially for their works in inlaid metalwork and ceramics, particularly luster- a painted wares. Some objects from this period, including a group of inlaid metalwork pieces, also have Christian sce artists on refined and prized brass works inlaid with silver seem to indicate that the craftsmen were from Mosul (in had fled from the approaching Mongol armies. In the case of ceramics produced in Syria, the influence of Seljuq Ira other arts, enameled glass rose to excellence in this period and carved wood was also esteemed by Ayyubid patro established and developed during this time formed the foundation of the arts in the Mamluk period.

The Ayyubids were also vigorous builders. Their generous patronage led to tremendous architectural activity in Egy Syria, and their local courts revived the cities of Damascus and Aleppo. The outstanding secular architecture from t fortified citadels of Cairo (1187) and Aleppo (early thirteenth century). Meanwhile, the establishment of madrasas, h religious learning, such as the Zahiriya (1219) in Aleppo and that of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1243) in Cairo, exem interest in Sunni education after the Shi c i interlude in the region under the Fatimids. Furthermore, the Madrasa al-S (1233), built by Salah al-Din’s sister Rabia Khatun, as well as the Mausoleum of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1250), c wife Shajarat al-Durr, reflects the importance of women as patrons of architecture under the Ayyubids. In terms of c buildings and pious architectural initiatives, the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi c i (1211) and the Tomb of the c Abbasid Cairo are especially noteworthy.

Suzan Yalman

Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Based on original work by Linda Komaroff

Citation for this page:

Yalman, Suzan. Based on original work by Linda Komaroff. "The Art of the Ayyubid Period (ca. 1171–1260)". In Timeli York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ayyu/hd_ayyu.htm (October 200

Madrasa al-Salih Najm al-Din A <a href=yy ub ( 1243), Cairo Enlarge for more detail The Ayyubid dynasty came to power under the leadership of the Kurdish Zengid general Salah al-Din (r. 1169–93), Saladin. After repulsing a Crusader army that had reached the gates of Fatimid Cairo and occupying Egypt on beh (1160s), Salah al-Din declared the Fatimid caliphate to be at its end, and established the Ayyubid sultanate (1171). Salah al-Din also gained control over Yemen (1174) and Syria (1180s). The conflict with the Crusaders continued t period; Jerusalem was captured by the Muslims in 1187, then, following a failed treaty, ceded until 1244, when the good. The sultanate depended on mamluks (slave soldiers) for its military organization, yet the end of the dynasty i caused by Turkic mamluks themselves, who overthrew the last Ayyubid sultan in Egypt, al-Malik al-Ashraf (r. 1249– Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517) . In the arts, the Ayyubids are known especially for their works in inlaid metalwork and ceramics, particularly luster- a painted wares. Some objects from this period, including a group of inlaid metalwork pieces, also have Christian sce artists on refined and prized brass works inlaid with silver seem to indicate that the craftsmen were from Mosul (in had fled from the approaching Mongol armies. In the case of ceramics produced in Syria, the influence of Seljuq Ira other arts, enameled glass rose to excellence in this period and carved wood was also esteemed by Ayyubid patro established and developed during this time formed the foundation of the arts in the Mamluk period. The Ayyubids were also vigorous builders. Their generous patronage led to tremendous architectural activity in Egy Syria, and their local courts revived the cities of Damascus and Aleppo. The outstanding secular architecture from t fortified citadels of Cairo (1187) and Aleppo (early thirteenth century). Meanwhile, the establishment of madrasas, h religious learning, such as the Zahiriya (1219) in Aleppo and that of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1243) in Cairo, exem interest in Sunni education after the Shi i interlude in the region under the Fatimids. Furthermore, the Madrasa al-S (1233), built by Salah al-Din’s sister Rabia Khatun, as well as the Mausoleum of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1250), c wife Shajarat al-Durr, reflects the importance of women as patrons of architecture under the Ayyubids. In terms of c buildings and pious architectural initiatives, the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi i (1211) and the Tomb of the Abbasid Cairo are especially noteworthy. Suzan Yalman Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Based on original work by Linda Komaroff Citation for this page: Yalman, Suzan. Based on original work by Linda Komaroff. "The Art of the Ayyubid Period (ca. 1171–1260)". In Timeli York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ayyu/hd_ayyu.htm (October 200 Suggested Further Reading Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "Architecture of the Ayyubid Period." In her Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction , p Brill, 1989. Raby, Julian, ed. The Art of Syria and the Jazira, 1100–1250 . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Learn more on www.metmuseum.or g Islamic Art: Features & Exhibitions ; Collection ; Online Resources (links) ; Books in the Met Store Religious Art, Islam, Metalwork, Brass, Ceramic, Glazed, West Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Africa, Egypt, Islamic West Asia, Islamic Art in the Medieval Period Department of Islamic Art Calligraphy in Islamic Art, Enameled and Gilded Glass from Islamic Lands, Figural Representation in Islamic Art, G " id="pdf-obj-7-51" src="pdf-obj-7-51.jpg">

Suggested Further Reading Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "Architecture of the Ayyubid Period." In her Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction, p Brill, 1989. Raby, Julian, ed. The Art of Syria and the Jazira, 1100–1250. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Religious Art, Islam, Metalwork, Brass, Ceramic, Glazed, West Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Africa, Egypt, Islamic West Asia, Islamic Art in the Medieval Period

Department of Islamic Art

Calligraphy in Islamic Art, Enameled and Gilded Glass from Islamic Lands, Figural Representation in Islamic Art, G

Islamic Art, The Mamluk Period, The Nature of Islamic Art, Vegetal Patterns in Islamic Art, Abridged List of Rulers:

Period, Fatimid Period, The Crusades, Seljuq Period in Iran,

Arabian Peninsula, 500-1000 A.D., Arabian Peninsula, 1000-1400 A.D., Eastern Mediterranean, 1000-1400 A.D., E

West Asia, 2000-1000 B.C.

Islamic Art, The Mamluk Period, The Nature of Islamic Art, Vegetal Patterns in Islamic Art, AbridgedWHAT IS THE TIMELINE? | FIRST-TIME USER | MULTIMEDIA | SELECTED READINGS | USEFUL LINKS | CREDITS | IMAGE COPYRIGHTS AND CREDITS | TELL US HOW YOU USE THE TIMELINE | SEND AN E-CARD | SITE SURVEY Home | Works of Art | Permanent Collection | Features | Timeline of Art History | Explore & Learn | The Met Store | Membership | Ways to Give | Visitor Information | Calendar | The Cloisters | Concerts & Lectures | Educational Resources | Events & Programs | FAQs | Special Exhibitions | My Met Museum | Press Room | Site Index | Now at the Met | MuseumKids Photograph Credits Copyright © 2000–2007 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions | Privacy Policy . Lantern , late 12th–first half of 13th century Syria (Raqqa) Underglaze-painted composite ceramic body and overglaze luster-painted; 9 x 5–6 in. (23 x 12.7– 15.2 cm) Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891 (91.1.138) This rare object, a lantern in the shape of a domed square building suspended by means of chains, fits well in the production of vessels decorated in dark brown luster and blue highlights at Raqqa, Syria, during the Ayyubid period. Colorless and colored glass originally filled the two sides presenting lobed rosettes, whereas the other two sides have openings in the shape of trilobed arches. With its hemispherical dome and decorative finials at the four upper corners, the lantern's structure suggests a tomb or mausoleum, thus pointing to a religious or votive function. In the absence of inscriptions that might confirm its significance, however, it may have equally served a secular function. Ewer , 13th century (1226) Iraq or Syria Brass, engraved and inlaid with silver; H. 14 1/2 in. (36.8 cm), Diam. 8 1/4 in. (20.9 cm) Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891 (91.1.586) This lavishly decorated object is inscribed around the neck: "Made by Umar ibn al-Hajji Jaldak, the apprentice of Ahmad al-Dhaki al-Naqqash al-Mawsili in the year 623 [1226 A.D.]." Ahmad al- " id="pdf-obj-8-10" src="pdf-obj-8-10.jpg">
 

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Copyright © 2000–2007 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions | Privacy Policy.

 

Lantern, late 12th–first half of 13th century Syria (Raqqa) Underglaze-painted composite ceramic body and overglaze luster-painted; 9 x 5–6 in. (23 x 12.7– 15.2 cm) Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891 (91.1.138)

This rare object, a lantern in the shape of a domed square building suspended by means of chains, fits well in the production of vessels decorated in dark brown luster and blue highlights at Raqqa, Syria, during the Ayyubid period. Colorless and colored glass originally filled the two sides presenting lobed rosettes, whereas the other two sides have openings in the shape of trilobed arches. With its hemispherical dome and decorative finials at the four upper corners, the lantern's structure suggests a tomb or mausoleum, thus pointing to a religious or votive function. In the absence of inscriptions that might confirm its significance, however, it may have equally served a secular function.

Ewer, 13th century (1226) Iraq or Syria Brass, engraved and inlaid with silver; H. 14 1/2 in. (36.8 cm), Diam. 8 1/4 in. (20.9 cm) Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891 (91.1.586)

This lavishly decorated object is inscribed around the neck: "Made by c Umar ibn al-Hajji Jaldak, the apprentice of Ahmad al-Dhaki al-Naqqash al-Mawsili in the year 623 [1226 A.D.]." Ahmad al-

Mawsili, originally from Mosul in Upper Mesopotamia, was a famous metalworker who had a number of pupils.

Cylindrical box, ca. 1225–1250; Ayyubid Syrian or northern Mesopotamian (Jazira) Brass with silver inlay; H. 4 1/8 in. (10.5 cm), Diam. 4 1/8 in. (10.5 cm) Rogers Fund, 1971 (1971.39)

Cylindrical lidded boxes (pyxides) were probably used in the Islamic world to hold ushnan (alkaline ashes of the soda plant which were used for washing). A number of these boxes were produced in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods (thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries), and this work, which has no inscription, is among a few that present Christian images. The body, entirely filled with vegetal scrolls, is divided into eight lobed medallions, each containing a figure. One medallion shows the entry of Christ into Jerusalem astride a donkey; he is accompanied by two men who are about to throw their garments under the animal's hooves and by two others who carry palm branches. Two angels hold a canopy above Christ's head, an image similar to secular throne scenes in contemporary Islamic manuscripts from northern Mesopotamia. In the medallion opposite the Entry into Jerusalem scene, a holy man is depicted frontally: he wears a chasuble, has a long, bifurcated beard, and holds a large cross. The remaining six medallions are occupied either by a figure holding an incense burner, a supplicant, or a monk. Four of these figures look toward Christ, emphasizing the focus of the composition, while the other two flank the holy man and turn toward him. The Virgin and Child with Saint Joseph are seen on the lid.