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http://career-management-promotions.knoji.com/the-benefits-of-choosing-a-career-vs-a-job/
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Career
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choices.html#ixzz2tAThT29u
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DEFINITION OF CAREER
Career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's "course or progress
through life (or a distinct portion of life)". In this definition career is understood to relate
to a range of aspects of an individual's life, learning and work. Career is also frequently
understood to relate to the working aspects of an individuals life e.g. as in career woman.
A third way in which the term career is used to describe an occupation or a profession
that usually involves special training or formal education, and is considered to be a
persons lifework. In this case "a career" is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually
pursued within a single industry or sector e.g. "a career in law" or "a career in the
building trade".
The etymology of the term comes from the m. French word carriere ("road, racecourse")
which, in turn, comes from the Latin word "cararia" (track for wheeled vehicles) which
originated from the Latin word carrus" which means "wagon".
A career includes all the roles you undertake throughout your life - education, training,
paid and unpaid work, family, volunteer work, leisure activities and more.
"Career" was traditionally associated with paid employment and referred to a single
occupation and a rewarding future. In today's world the term career is seen as a
continuous process of learning and development. Activities that contribute to a career can
include:
training
education
employment
work experience
community activities
enterprise activities
employment
different life roles
volunteer work
leisure activities

Importance of Choosing a Career for Early Focus
How many times have we heard a graduating senior state he/she has no idea what the
future holds for a career. Kids often go to college for the basic foundational classes in
hopes of discovering their niche somewhere along the way. In the process, a lot of
unnecessary electives are chosen, majors are changed, and it generally leads to a few
years of uncertainty and tension. Instead, students need to learn early on the importance
of choosing a career for early focus.
Planning
A child who has no vision for the future usually has difficulty in high school. While
everyone has to take the same core classes, how does one decide what electives to take?
It definitely helps to know where one hopes to be after college. It can never be too early
to choose a particular area of interest and forge a path to a promising future.
For example, a girl discovers at a young age an overwhelming love for music. From that
day forward, all her electives center around the classes best suited to help her reach the
goal of becoming a professional musician, or work in some position related to music. She
definitely has the focus to make the necessary strides toward achieving her desire to play
instruments for a living.
Time
For the people who cannot decide what to be when they grow up, much of the
educational experience can be a waste of time. For instance, a young man chooses a
major course of study in college. Half way through the program, he decides his vision of
the future has changed. But, along with a change in the career course also comes
additional classes required to gain a degree in the new area of interest. Sometimes,
people actually graduate with a specific career in mind. Then, after less than a year on
the job, they decide to go in a different direction. Ouch! What a waste of time and
money!
Finances
Yes, not choosing a career for early focus can be costly. Every time a student's career
expectations oscillate, it usually translates into unnecessary expenditures. All the books
purchased for other classes are essentially useless. Dropping classes may get some of the
tuition returned, but it is rarely the full amount. Then, there is the expense of taking extra
credits to satisfy another career choice. A student may actually take extra years worth of
credits simply because he/she cannot make a decision regarding a future career.

Focus


Finally, we have come full circle back to the importance of choosing a career for early
focus. Studies have proven that students with a clear focus for the future are more
intrinsically motivated to succeed. The translation is simple. Kids with a plan are likely
to push themselves to achieve the best education possible. Grades will be higher, courses
will be well-chosen to compliment the plan, and students will be less apt to get involved
in drugs or other questionable activities. The kids are running a race toward a positive
career choice, and the finish line is in full view.

CAREER CYCLE
1. Growth The early years (4 to 13 years old) is a time when the individual first
becomes aware of the future. People start to find ways to develop competencies and to
achieve in order to increase control over their life.
2. Exploration From the early teens to mid-twenties, people begin to crystallize,
specify and implement an occupational choice. Different roles are tried and various
occupational options are explored though school, leisure, part-time work and
volunteering. Trial jobs may be tested before more firmly finding a more stable and
appropriate fit.
3. Establishment In the mid-twenties through mid-forties, typically a suitable field is
selected and efforts are made to secure a long-term place in the chosen career. Young
adulthood tends to be a time for stabilizing, consolidating, building momentum and
moving up. Obtaining certifications, credentials, and advanced degrees may be the norm.
4. Maintenance - This stage usually happens in the mid-forties to mid-sixties and is
characterized by constancy: 1) Holding on (stagnating or plateauing), or 2) Keeping up
(updating or enriching). Continuity, stress, safety and stability tend to be the standard.
Sometimes people feel risk adverse with various career options which may lead to
frustration or even depression. In middle adulthood we may ask ourselves, What have I
done with my life? or Is this all there is? or even What do I truly want? For men, state
of health or career accomplishment may predominate. Women sometimes perceive this
period as an opportunity to pursue new personal or professional goals now that their
nurturing role has peaked.
5. Disengagement The mid-sixties is typically marked by decelerating from formal
employment to finding new roles with a view to retirement. Baby Boomers are teaching
us that this stage should be more appropriately named Re-inventment. They are
completely redesigning the notion of retirement preferring to work in some form while
pursuing new or renewed outside interests. In later adulthood, there may be a need to
assist or mentor younger members of society or seek self-employment.
However, it has limitation due to the rapidly changing nature of work and each persons
own circumstances. Not everyone transitions through these five stages at fixed ages or in
the same manner.
FACTOR WHICH AFFECT A PERSONS CHOICE OF CAREER
Interests
-Most students, when making career choices, will say I want something
interesting. Your interests have already influenced many of the choices made in your
life: your choice of A-level and degree subjects; the ways in which you spend your spare
time; the holidays, and perhaps the jobs, which you have taken during vacations. They
may have been responsible for many of the friends you have made and helped you to
develop your personal skills. These interests are likely to have a similar influence on your
career.
For some people, an interest is of such importance in their life that it is the main influence
on their career choice. A gifted athlete, for example, may be able to use their interest and
ability to succeed in a sporting career. Many more people will be content to play their
sport at a recreational level, but will still take this interest into account when selecting a
career or an employer. Some may enter sports-related careers, in leisure management,
sports administration or promotion, retailing sports goods or teaching physical education.
Others will seek out careers in different fields that offer similar opportunities for physical
activity, teamwork, competition or challenge. Or they may simply choose between
employers on the basis of the company sports facilities.
Values

Be who you are and say what you feel, because those who mind don't matter, and those
who matter don't mind.
Bernard M. Baruch
Your values are those things in your life that you consider to be important. In
relation to work, values are what give purpose to a job in the eyes of the individual
who does it. The effort, commitment and motivation that a person brings to a job is
usually in direct proportion to the values that they perceive in it. Another name
sometimes used for values is motivators.
Your values are likely to be the main factor in deciding on a career, or a career
path within a particular field of employment.
INDEPENDENCE. Freedom to work alone, make your own decisions, plan your own
work.
HELPING. Helping, advising or caring for others in face-to-face work
situations.
RISK-TAKING. The sense of excitement, adventure and challenge that
comes from taking risks, whether personal, physical or to an organization.
VARIETY. Change and diversity in work content, personal contacts or
location.
PRESTIGE. The status, recognition and importance of a job, either within
your own organization or that accorded by the general public.
LEADERSHIP. Work in close co-operation with others to achieve a
common goal.
TEAM MEMBERSHIP. Working in close cooperation with others to
achieve a common goal.
ADVANCEMENT. Promotion, career progression and upward mobility.
MATERIAL BENEFITS. The financial, or other material rewards that
ensure a comfortable lifestyle.
SECURITY. Stability of employment and assured salary.
ARTISTIC CREATIVITY. Engage in creative work in any art form.

PERSONALITY
Your skills may determine your chances of success in a career and your interests and
values will help you decide where to apply these skills: but do you need to also consider
your personality?
Some characteristics are widely applicable. Resilience can be equally valuable to a police
officer, a television producer, or anybody who commutes to work! Tact and sensitivity
are not just for social workers but help anybody to get on with their colleagues.
These personal characteristics can have a strong influence on your career choice.
Anybody who feels that terms like outgoing'', and independent'' are the complete
antithesis of their personality is unlikely to be happy, for example, in sales or at the Bar.
You may think that certain personal styles, such as being careful have negative
connotations, but it is a valuable attribute in financial jobs and crucial for medical
occupations (imagine the surgeon who isn't careful!). Similarly, being reserved may be
linked to powers of concentration and attention to detail: important in the science and
computing fields.
You need to also make sure that you know what a particular career demands. If you are
methodical, meticulous and reliable you may do well as an accountant: but you also
need to be adaptable and confident to deal with the range of clients you will encounter.
Strength
Your strengths are a mixture of your talents, knowledge and skills. The theory
behind strengths is based on positive psychology: everyone has strengths they are born
with but few people know what these are. By identifying your strengths and matching
yourself to the role, you will enjoy it more and perform better that those who have to try
hard to fill the role.
When you are using your strengths your demonstrate flow. When involved in flow
activities
you have a sense of energy and engagement;
you often lose your sense of time because you are so engrossed in the task;
you rapidly learn new information and approaches;
you show high levels of performance;
you want to do things that use your strengths: even when you are tired or
stressed.
Using your strengths focuses on doing more of what you are good at rather than what
you are just capable of doing.
High achievers spend most of their time using their strengths. They focus on developing
strengths and managing weaknesses. They may not have more strengths than the average
individual, but they HAVE learned to utilize them better and to apply them to new
situations.
Location
The family's location is an issue when selecting a career because the distance
between the home and the job will determine the commute's outcome. Other factors to
consider in a daily commute include traffic, gas, mileage and tolls, as well as the travel
time it will take to return home if there are any unexpected emergencies. The city and
state where the family resides may also play a part in the number of jobs available.
According to "The Best Cities for Jobs" on the Forbes website, the compiled 2010 list
displays a pattern from previous years in which the smaller communities almost totally
dominated the top overall rankings for the job market. It also states that Americans, as
well as jobs, have been moving to smaller cities for most of the past decade. When
making a career choice, relocation may be a beneficial option if the family is willing to
move to where job growth and opportunities are progressing.

Finances
The financial situation of the family has a huge impact on selecting a career,
including how the money is budgeted for expenses and the amount of debt the family
may owe for real estate, car loans or credit cards. According to Hoffman Brinker &
Roberts, the average American household's credit card debt in 2007 was $9,840. Whether
the credit card debt of the family is low or high, it is another expense that will affect the
salary. If the family is financially stable with more than enough money to cover
household expenses, selecting a job solely based on the salary may not be the highest
priority compared to other factors, such as the enjoyment of the job, hours or location.
However, if a family is struggling to pay its bills, the salary would be an important factor
when choosing a job over the actual interest in the job. The salary of the chosen career
would need to cover the rent or mortgage payment, car payments, gas, food, utilities,
clothes, savings and family entertainment. When deciding on what career to choose, the
job seeker should assess her family's current financial situation and determine which job
will provide her with a salary that will meet the needs of her family, while working full-
time or part-time hours. Although money should not be the only factor considered when
choosing a career, it is an important one.

Tips

If you dont like your career, change it! Sometimes it takes more work, especially if
youre older, but its possible for anyone.
People rarely know right away what career they should be in and it takes most people
several years to settle into the path they will follow. Dont feel like youre behind!
Its not the end of the world if you choose a career that isnt something you dreamed of
doing ever since you were little. If you have a job that doesnt make you miserable but
which securely provides for your and your familys future, you will be surprised how
happy you feel about your life and career.


Career choice[edit]

According to Behling and others, an individual's decision to join a firm may depend on
any of the three factors viz. objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact.[6]
Objective factor theory assumes that the applicants are rational. The choice, therefore, is
exercised after an objective assessment of the tangible benefits of the job. Factors may
include the salary, other benefits, location, opportunities for career advancement, etc.
Subjective factor theory suggests that decision making is dominated by social and
psychological factors. The status of the job, reputation of the organization and other
similar factors plays an important role.
Critical contact theory advances the idea that a candidate's observations while interacting
with the organization plays a vital role in decision making. For example, how the
recruiter keeps in touch with the candidate, the promptness of response and similar
factors are important. This theory is more valid with experienced professionals.

These theories assume that candidates have a free choice of employers and careers. In
reality the scarcity of jobs and strong competition for desirable jobs severely skews the
decision making process. In many markets employees work particular careers simply
because they were forced to accept whatever work was available to them. Additionally,
Ott-Holland and colleagues found that culture can have a major influence on career
choice, depending on the type of culture.[7]



Finances



The financial situation of the family has a huge impact on selecting a career, including
how the money is budgeted for expenses and the amount of debt the family may owe for
real estate, car loans or credit cards. According to Hoffman Brinker & Roberts, the
average American household's credit card debt in 2007 was $9,840. Whether the credit
card debt of the family is low or high, it is another expense that will affect the salary. If
the family is financially stable with more than enough money to cover household
expenses, selecting a job solely based on the salary may not be the highest priority
compared to other factors, such as the enjoyment of the job, hours or location. However,
if a family is struggling to pay its bills, the salary would be an important factor when
choosing a job over the actual interest in the job. The salary of the chosen career would
need to cover the rent or mortgage payment, car payments, gas, food, utilities, clothes,
savings and family entertainment. When deciding on what career to choose, the job
seeker should assess her family's current financial situation and determine which job will
provide her with a salary that will meet the needs of her family, while working full-time
or part-time hours. Although money should not be the only factor considered when
choosing a career, it is an important one.




PARENTAL INFLUENCE-

Parents play vital roles in thechoice of career amongst their children. Olayinka
(2005)Stresses that parent sometimes censoriously set upstandard worthy of emulation
for their children and thismotivated them to be achievement oriented Roe (2004)States
that , that choice of career among students is partlyinfluenced by the behaviours of their
parent towards theparticular child and the condition of the home environment.