Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

IF Clause Type 1

Form
if + Simple Present, will-Future
Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-Future on
how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I dont see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a
certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually
will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic so we think it is likely to
happen.
Example: If I find her address, Ill send her an invitation.
I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however,
that I will find it.
Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I
think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.




IF Clause Type 2
Form
if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on
how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldnt stay here.
Were instead of Was
In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use were even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it .
Example: If I were you, I would not do this.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the
present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change, however. I just
imagine what would happen if
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I
cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.
Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He
would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the
money to buy one in the near future.


IF Clause Type 3
Form
if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Past Perfect and Conditional II on
how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I hadnt studied, I wouldnt have passed my exams.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in
the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just
imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address,
however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.
Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.
I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He
would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.




Mixed Conditionals
Those of you who have been following the Conditional Tutorial should now be familiar with
present, past and future conditional verb forms. Sometimes Unreal Conditional sentences are
mixed. This means that the time in the if-clause is not the same as the time in the result. Study
the examples below to learn how to mix conditional verb forms like a native speaker.
Verbs in green are in the Present Unreal Conditional.
Verbs in red are in the Past Unreal Conditional.
Verbs in purple are in the Future Unreal Conditional.
Mixed Conditional Patterns
PAST PRESENT
Examples:
If I had won the lottery, I would be rich.
But I didn't win the lottery in the past and I am not rich now.
If I had taken French in high school, I would have more job opportunities.
But I didn't take French in high school and I don't have many job opportunities.
If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn't need a visa to work here.
But she wasn't born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here.
PAST FUTURE
Examples:
If she had signed up for the ski trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow.
But she didn't sign up for the ski trip last week and she isn't going to join us tomorrow.
If Mark had gotten the job instead of Joe, he would be moving to Shanghai.
But Mark didn't get the job and Mark is not going to move to Shanghai.
If Darren hadn't wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas, he would go to Mexico with
us next month.
But Darren wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas and he won't go to Mexico with us
next month.
PRESENT PAST
Examples:
If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday.
But I am not currently rich and that is why I didn't buy the Ferrari yesterday.
If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you.
But Sam doesn't speak Russian and that is why he didn't translate the letter.
If I didn't have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night.
But I have to work a lot and that is why I didn't go to the party last night.
PRESENT FUTURE
Examples:
If I didn't have so much vacation time, I wouldn't go with you on the cruise to Alaska next week.
But I do have a lot of vacation time and I will go on the trip next week.
If Cindy were more creative, the company would send her to New York to work on the new
advertising campaign.
But Cindy is not creative and the company won't send her to New York to work on the new
campaign.
If Dan weren't so nice, he wouldn't be tutoring you in math tonight.
But Dan is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight.
FUTURE PAST
Examples:
If I weren't going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at
work.
But I am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why I didn't accept that new
assignment at work.
If my parents weren't coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of
us to Napa Valley.
But my parents are going to come this weekend, and that is why I didn't plan a trip for the two of
us to Napa Valley.
If Donna weren't making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice
Italian restaurant.
But she is going to make us a big dinner tonight, and that is why I didn't suggest that we go to
that nice Italian restaurant.
FUTURE PRESENT
Examples:
If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited.
But I am not going to go to that concert tonight and that is why I am not excited.
If Sandy were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous.
But Sandy is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous.
If Seb didn't come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed.
But Seb will come with us to the desert and that is why everyone is so happy.