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A method is d.scribed for determining ihe dtiplacawnt
SUrjaC.C)oj a known threedimewion.a 1compre&M.e 130undary-
lizyer @w in terrm of the mm+w defects a880ciat4d with the
projil.tx of the two velocity component.a parallel to the 8-urjace.
llu result i-s a generalization of the plane j?mo concept of dti-
placement thickne8s introduced in order to o?acribe how a thin
bounda~ layer distorts the outer nonmkcoua @w.
% tight oj the diq.?uament @ace above the body SW&UX
jor$ow abowt a yawed injinite cylinder ia 8hown to be equal to
the height characterizing t.lw mm8-- deject of t.lw chordtie
velocity projile. The dtiplucemm&suxjace he@ht is 8hown to
differ, in general, jrom that a880cia&d with the redtant 7nu$8-
@w deject, even at 8tugnation points of the 8econdaw jlo-w.
Numerical valw+x are found for the knm threedi nwwi mml
boundarylayer @o about a cone at a smali? angle oj atiack to
a super80nti stream.
The boundary l ayer establ i shed i n the fl ow .of a sl i ghtl y
vi scous fl ui d about n body i s normal l y consi dered an i sol ated
regi on wherei n the effects of vi scosi @ predomi nate and
outsjdo of whi ch the moti on of the fl ui d i s governed by the
l aws of nonvi scous moti on. I ?or l arge Reynol ds numbem,
the boundary l ayer i s assumed to be so thi n that the non-
vi scous porti on of the fl ow occurs as though there were no
boundary l ayer. Thi s assumpti on i s str i ctl y correct i n the
l i mi t of i nfi ni te Reynol ds number. For l arge but fi ni te
Reynol ds numbers, the growth of the boundary l ayer causea
the stream to be defl ected away horn the body surface.
Thi s di spl acement effect of the boundary l ayer on the
nonvi scous fl ow may properl y be determi ned bm the behav-
i or of the boundary l ayer i tsel f, w establ i shed ei ther by
experi ment or by sol uti on of the Prandtl boundary-l ayer
I equati ons for kni nar fl ow.
I t does not fol l ow, however, that thi s revi sed outer fl ow
may properl y be used i n conjuncti on wi th the Prandtl
equati ons to yi el d an i mprovement i n the boundary-l ayer
cal cul ati on. Such an i mprovement may be obtai ned onl y
by use of a new set of equati ons that take i nto account the
vari ati on of pressure across the boundaxy l ayer. Thi s vari a-
ti on i s negl ected i n the l ?randtl equati ons. (See Al dens
i terati ve sol uti on for i ncompressi bl e fl at-pl ate fl ow, ref. 1.)
: En-es NAOA T.N %22, ~Lr@ocmnmt Eti Ofa T bree-DhnemIoneJBoundary
The customary defi ni ti on of di spl acement thi ckness (ref. 2)
i s appl i cabl e to two-di mensi onal fl ow and i s expressed i n the
fol l owi ng equati on:
b@L dy=plu(h-&) (1)
where h is some l ocati on wel l outsi de the boundary l ayer
(fi g. 1) at whi ch pu=p,w and beyond whi ch the fl ow maybe
consi dered nonvi scous. (A l i st of symbol s i s provi ded i n the
appendi x.) Under the assumpti on of m extremel y thi n
boundary l ayer, hi s so smal l that MWmaybe taken as the
eval uati on at the body surface (y= O)of the nonvi scous fl ow
obtai ned by negl ecti ng the presence of the boundary l ayei .
Equati on (1) equates the actuaJ mass fl ow near the surface
wi th the mass fl ow whi ch -woul d be associ ated wi th a non-
vi scous fl ow that termi nate at 6* rather than e.ktendi ng to
the wal l . . Thus, the nonvi scous porti on of the fl ow behaves
as i f i t occurred i n the presence of a sol i d boundary gi ven
by the di spl acement thi ckness 6*(z). Equati on (1) maybe
sol ved for 6*:
Ordi nmi l y, theoreti cal boundary-l ayer sol uti ons for pu/ piul
asymptoti cal l y approach 1 for l arge val ues of Reynol ds
number based on y. Therefore, di spl acement thi ckness i s
often defi ned as fol l ows:
,-- Body surface
X4 -
FIGURE 1.Plane boundary-l ayer fl ow.
by~, by Fran?dlaK. Nw% K&2.
Surface yQhLr,z)--
FIGURE 2.T kuee-&nensi onal bounda@ayer fl ow (Cartesi an
coordi nates).
For three-di mensi onal boundary-l ayer fl ows, two l ength
characteri zi ng mass-fl ow defects may be dei i ned i n ter ms of
the proti es ~f the two vel oci ~ components tangenti al to the
surface (fi g. 2), .
Yl x-%)dy : (,,
/ Yl l b(-%l )d
and i t i s not cl ear whi ch, i f ei ther, defi nes a di spl acement
surface that properl y descri bw the extent to whi ch the non-
vi scous fl ow i s defl ected by the boundary l ayer.
Of coume, i t i s expected that there does exi st a di spl ace-
ment surface for such fl ows. The amdysi s that fol l ows
shows that such a surface may be descri bed by a defi ni ng
equati on more fundamental than equati on (1).
The vel oci ty and densi ty profi l es are assumed to be known
for the three-di mensi onal fl ows under consi derati on. Cases
for whi ch thi s i s true i ncl ude: the l ami nar boundary l ayer
on yawed i nfi ni te cyl i nders, tr mted by I ?randtl (ref. 3),
R. T. Jones (ref. 4), and Seam (ref. 5); and the l ami nar
boundary l ayer on a cone at a smal l angl e of attack to a
supersoni c stream (ref. 6). The di spl acement effect of these
fl ows wi l l be treated speci i kdl y.
The i nvesti gati on was conducted at the NACA Lewi s
l aboratory i n February 1952.
The boti dary-l ayer sol uti on (assumed known) yi el ds a
certai n di stri buti on of vel oci ty vb@+ normal to the body
&n&ce at the outer edge I i(z,z) of the boundary layer, where
p,u, and w may be taken essenti al l y equal to pl ,ul , and WI
(see fi g. 2). Under the assumpti on that the nonvi scous fl ow
i s al tered onl y sl i ghtl y by di spl acement, the most di rect
way to compute thi s efFect woul d be to suppose that the
nonvi scous equati ons hol d for y >h (z,z) and to i mpose the
fol l owi ng boundary condi ti on on the normal vel oci ty Oofi n.
the outer fl ow:.
o.~obl (~j z) at Y=h (~, z) (3)
Eokeyer, si nce the boundary condi ti ons usual l y encountered
i n nonvi scous fl ow speci fy an i mpermenbl o surface, i t i s
conveni ent to recast the boundary condi ti on gi ven i n equa-
ti on (3) i n answer to the questi on: What i mpermeabl e
surface y= A(z,z) woul d defl ect a nonvi scous fl ui d i n such u
way as to produce a normal vel oci ty sati sfyi ng condi ti on (3)?
Thi s fi cti ti ous surface may be cal l ed the di spl acement surface.
Because A(z, z) i s i magi ned to be a stream surface, i t i s
necessary to speci fy that at y=A the resul tant vel oci ty
vector (u, u, w) be tangent to the surface y=A. Thus, at
y=A the rati o of u to the magni tude of g, whi ch i s defi ned ,as
the vector (u, w), must be set equal to the sl ope of the surfoce
y=A, measured i n the di recti on of the vector ~, or, equi va-
l entl y, equal to the component i n the di recti on of ~ of the
vector grad A. I n vector notati on, therefore, the normal
vel oci ty u whi ch woul d be produced k- a nonvi scous fl ui d at
an i mpermeabl e surface y=A i s ~ . grad A. The vector ~
may be obtai ned by eval uati ng the vel oci ty vector of the
unrevi sed nonvi scous fl ow at the body surface (v= O), undw
the rel ated assumpti ons that the vel oci ty vector vari es onl y
sl i ghtl y over di stancea of the order of the actual boundary-
l ayer.thi ckness and that the revi si on requi red to take account
of di spl acement i s sl i ght. Thus, at y=A (see fi g. 3),
The i ncrement i n Ow between A and. h i s nmtel y
(h-A)boti /@; agai n, a thi n boundary l ayer i s assumed and
onl y the ti t ter m i n a Tayl ors ser i es i s used.
To the order of approxi mati on contempl ated i n thi s
anal ysi s, bVO@y.may be obtai ned from the unrevi sed non-
vi scous fl ow eval uated at y= O. Tl ms, the fi cti ti ous i m-
p&meabl e surface A woul d produce, at y=h, a normal
vel oci ty (seel l g. 3)
I ntroduci ng thi s resul t i nto the boundary condi ti on gi ven i n
equati on (3) yi el ds the dei i ni ng rel ati on for A(x, z)
The boundary-l ayer sol uti on yi el ds ~bl .
The di spl acement surfqce A may be rel ated to tho mrm-
fl ow defects (eqs. .(2)), whi ch characteri ze the boundary
l ayer, as fol l ows: I n a Carte9i an coordi nate system (fi g, 2),
the equati on of conti nui ~ for both ,the boundary-l ayer and
nonvi scous fl ow i s
Under the Prandti boundary-l ayer assumpti ons, the Cartesi an
equati ons of moti on, and hence equati on (5), maybe ~ppl i od
i n an orthogonri l curvi l i near coordi nate system i n whi ch the
surfaco of the body i s gi ven by y= O,provi ded the radi us of
curvature of the body i s everywhere ki rge as compared wi th
the boundary-l ayer thi ckness. I ntegrati ng equati on (5)
across the boundary l ayer yi el ds
(P vb2),_h
s [
, ~ (/m-pu)+% (wmm)]cw
or, i nasmuch as h i s outsi de the boundary l ayer where
pu=plul and PW=PIW,
where d=and & are the mass-fl ow defects defi ned i n equati ons
(2), For the nonvi scous fl ow, Vti =O at the body surface
(?/=0), and equati on (5) becomes
I ntroduci ng equati ons (6) and (7) i nto equati on
&[PIUI (AQ]+: [P@I (A%)]=0
(4) yi el ds
I n a Cartesi an coordi nate system, the di spl acement surface
i s rel ated to the mass-fl ow defects by equati on (8a). When
cases ari se for whi ch other coordi nate systems must be used,
the fol l owi ng general i zati on i n vector form of equati on (8a)
may be used:
where y i a the di stance normal to the body surfaceand where
the di vergence operator i nvol ves di i l erenti ati on onl y wi th
respect to the two coordi nates paral l el to the body s~face.
Pl ane fl ow .Equati on (8a) may be i ntegrated to. yi el d,
for pl ane fl ow (a/a2=o),
pl U1
where K i s a constant of i ntegrati on.
The appearance of thi s constant means, i n general , that
the revi sed boundary condi ti on on the nonvi scous fl ow near
the wal l may be ~ppl i ed at any surface i n the boundary-l ayer
regi on; for exampl e, al ong the wal l i tsel f. Of course, i f
there i s a stagnati on poi nt on the body Where UI vani shes,
then Kmust be taken equal to zero and the revi sed boundary
condi ti on must be i mposed at the l ocati on A= 6., at l east
near the stagnati on poi nt.
Yof Egl . gradA + (h-A)(#l ..1 _
..::, W<:::::.,.
-Body surface
FIGURE 3.Displacement surface in threedh enmonal fl ow (Cartwi an
cooml i natee).
Stagnati on poi nt of seconduy fl ow,-l h the verti cal pl ane
of symmetry of the fl ow about a body of revol uti on at an
angl e of attack, the ci rcumferenti al vel oci ty component
vani shes.i n the boundary l ayer as wel l as i n the nonvi scous
outar regi on. Such stagnati on of the secondary moti on
woul d occur i n a vari ety of cases, i n parti cukx, wherevar an
wwnti al l y three-di mensi onal fl ow has a pl ane of symmetry.
When wi i s desi gnated as the component of secondary fl ow
(ci rcumferenti al vel oci ty for a body of revol uti on) at the
outer edge of the boundary l ayer, and equati on (8a) i s
wri tten i n the form
[ la[l
o (lo) & PIuI(A6J +WI & PI(A-+z) +PI(A&) ~=
i t i s cl ear that A cannot equal 6=,i n general , even i f both W1
and the boundary-l ayer profi l e of w vani sh, unl ess bw@z
al so vani she5.
Fl ow about yawed i nfi ni te oyl i nder.-l h the fl ow about a
yawed Mni te cyl i nder, there i s a spanwi se boundary-l ayer
vel oci ty profi l e and an a,moci abd sp~wi se mass-fl ow defect.
(See refi . 3 to 5.) I f z i s taken i n ,the chordwi ee di recti on
(fi g. 4), the enti re fl ow depends onl y on z. Thus, deri vati ves
wi th respect to the spanwi se coordi nate z vani sh; and, hence,
from equati on (8a), the pl ane-fl ow resul t (eq. (9)) appl i es.
Accordi ngl y, the spanwi se mass-fl ow defect represented by
& does not i nter i nto the determi nati on of the di spl acement
FIGUBE 4.Coordinate system for yawed fite oylinder.
v.v ; \ -
. ---
FIQURE 5.Cuordi nate system
Supersoni c fl ow about cone
When the coord.i nati system
equati on (8b) becomes
for cone at angl e of attack.
at smal l angl e of attaok.
shown i n fi gure 5 i s used,
[ 1[ 1
si n O+ PIUIZ (AU +% Pfuh (A&) =0
Because the outer flow is COtiC4 PI, UI, ~d WI W13f~cti o~
onl y of p; and equati on (11) DI ZLY be ~t~
PIU1 ski e~[Z(A-aJ]+;[PIWI(A-ap)]=O (13)
I n the case of coni cal outer fl ow, the associ ated boundary-
l ayer pr oi i l es shows i mi l ari ty of the Bl asi us type i n meri di onal
pl anes (see ref. 7 or 8).
Thus, i n a meri di onal pl ane, A, &
and 3 are proporti onal to & I &orporati on of thi s i nfor-
mati on i nto equati on (13) gi ve9
: PM sin O (H)+%
[ 1
PIW1(A8P) =0
For a cone at smal l angl e of attack ~ u, i s nearl y equal to
Z, the vel oci ty on the cone surface at zero angl e of attack.
The quanti ti es pl , A, 6., and L vw O~Y sl i f$tl Y wi th de
of attack, whereas
Wl =& si n p (15)
where JL depends onl y on the cone vertex angl e and the fl ow
Mach number and i s defi ned i n reference 6 as fol l ows:
The quanti ti es Z, Z, md Z m in the not~tion of ref~ence 9J
wherei n they are tabul ated.
To the i l r st order i n i , the substi tuti on of equati on (16)
i nto equati on (14) yi el ds the resul t
; -& A2(ti,-tiJ Cos (0 A=6z+
The anal ysi s of reference 6 yi el ds the val uea of & and 6P,
Cl earl y; A di fl ere from ~. i n the pl ane of symmetry p= 0, r,
where the ci rcumferenti al vel oci ty w vani shes. I t mi ght,
0 \
in (iiHa=O
~in~ J*
8xda a.o
m+ a
/ I
/ l I
, 1 I r i
Ill 1A
2 3 4 5 6

Mach number, Afo

FI?UEE 6.Proportionfd rate of incres+e of displacement thiokness
with angle of attack on cone.
however, be noted that i n the pl ane p=~, ~, A=&. F~e
6 shows the proporti onal rate of i ncrease of di spl acement
thi cl mess A wi th angl e of attack i n the pl ane of symmetry
q=r at zero angl e of attack. The correspondi ng rate of
i ncrease of the mass-fl ow defect 6=i s shown for compari son.
These curves are obtai ned horn equati on (16) and the
resul ts of reference 6. The si ne of the semi vertex angl e i s
i ntroduced m a factor pri mari l y to per mi t presentati on of
the case 0=0 as the l i mi t of an i ndetermi nate form. l ?or a
stream Mach number of 2, the change i n di spl acement thi ck-
ness appears to be of the order of 50 percent l arger than the
change i n the meri di onal mass-fl ow defect.
The foregoi ng anal ysi s deal s onl y wi th the di spl acement
effect of a I ui own boundary l ayer on the nonvi scous outer
fl ow, and hence can be appl i ed onl y i f the boundary-l ayer .
behavi or has been determi ned ei ther theoreti cal l y or experi -
mental l y. The l atter approach mi ght possi bl y fi nd appl i -
cati on i n the correcti on of nozzl e contxmrsfor boundary-l ayer
devel opment. I n thi s connecti on, perhaps, i t shoul d be
noted that the anal ysi s i s not r estr i cted to l ami nar fl ows.
CLI WI WND, OHI O, i kta~Ch6, 1962
The fol l owi ng symbol s are used i n thi s report:
A2 functi on of cone angl e and Mach number
(eq. (15))
lb hei ght above body surface at whi ch p, u,
w= PI, UI, wI, and beyond whi ch nonvi scous
equati ons appl y (eq. (3))
Al . abeam Mach number
vel oci ty vector composed of components paral -
l el to body surface u, w
u vel oci ty component i n x4recti on
E meri di onal vel oci ty component at
cone at zero angl e of attack
v vel oci ty component i n y-di recti on
surface of
Vbl boundazyl ayer sol uti on for vel oci ty n,ormal to
surface, eval uated at outer edge of boundary
l ayer
Vof nonvi scous sol uti on for vel oci ty normal to
surface, eval uated near the surface
w vel oci ty component i n z-di recti on
coordi nates i n body surface
coordi nate normal to surface
a angl e of attack
A ,hei ght above body of di spl acement surface -
6* di spl acement thi cl mem i n pl ane fl ow
8= l ength characteri zi ng maw-fl ow defect of
u-profi l e (eqs. (2) and 02))
8. l eng& cha&&&i ng rna&fl ow defect of
w-prefl e (eq. (12)) .
6P l ength characteri zi ng ma.wfl ow defect of
w-profi l e (eq. (12))
8 semi vertex angl e of cone
densi ~
angul ar coordi nate (@g. 5)
Subscri pt 1 denotes eval uati on of nonvi scous fl ow at body
surface, taken equi val ent to condi ti ons at outer edge of
boundary l ayer of i nfi ni tesi mal thi ckness:
1. Al den, Henry Leonard: i %cond Approxi mati on to the Lami nar
Boundary Layer Fl ow over a Fl at Pl ate. Jour. Math. and Phys.,
vol . XXVI I , no. 2, Jul y 1948, pp. 91104.
2. Prandtl , L.: The Mechani es of Vi scoue Fl ui ds. Vol . I I I of Aer o-
dynami c Theory, di v. G, see. l % W. F. Durand, ad., Jul i us
Spri nger (Berl fn), 1943, pp. 80-82.
3. Prandtl , L.: On Boundary Layer e i n Thr ee Di mensi onal Fl ovJ.
I bp. & Trans. No. 64, Bri ti sh R. A. E., May 1,1946.
4. Joxq Rober t T.: Effects of %wepbaok on Boundary Layer and
Separati on. NACA Rep. 884, 1947. (Supemwdes NACA TN
5. Seam, W. R,: The Boundary Layer of Yawed Cyl i ndem. Jour.
Aer o. Sci .,vol . 15, no. 1, Jan. 1948, pp. 49-52.
6. Moor e, Frankl i n K.: Lami gar Boundary Layer on a Ci roul ar C!ene
i n Supertmni a Fl ow at a Smal l Angl e of Atta&. NACA TN
7. Moor e, FranMi n K.: .Three-Di mensi onal Compressi bl e Lami nar
Boundary-Layer Fl ow. NACA TN 2279,1951.
8. Hayes, Wal l ace D.: The Three-Di mensi onal Boundary Layer.
NAVORD Rep. 1313, NOTS 384, U. S. Naval Ordnance Test
Stati on (I nyokern), May 9, 1951. @.ur. Ordnance Task As-
si gnment NOT&36-Re3d-441-3.)
9. Anon.: Tabl es of Supersoni c Fl ovJ Around Yawi ng Cones. Teoh
Rep. No. 3, Dept. El ec: Eng., M. I . T., 1947.