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Matthew Cella

English 497: Presentation

Professor Gurr
Critical and Staging Concerns for Philaster; or Love lies a Bleeding
Basic Background
***Ian Fletcher notes that Beaumont and Fletcher were orn into gentr! at a moment of
social transition: "#he! were caught etween two worlds$ the %golden& world of the
Eli'aethan Great (ouse where secure$ )aternalist *alues and a +enaissance ideal of
%contem)lation and *alour& could e cherished$ and a more )ainfull! com)le, -acoean
world$ where the Court was disru)ting the social and cultural alance etween countr!
and town. /0412 34e )erha)s see this echoed in the )la!$ s)ecificall! with the Countr!
Fellow scene2 5lso$ 6inght of the Burning Pestle27
The Issue of Collaboration
***Ian Fletcher: "#he te,ts of 3Philaster and A King and No King7 suggests that the
dominant influence was that of Beaumont. /8912
***#he chief assum)tion seems to e that the )olitics are *er! much Beaumont&s domain$
while the lo*e:relationshi)s seem to e,tend out of Fletcher&s earlier wor;s2
Date and Theatres
***Inconclusi*e$ ut generall! regarded to ha*e een written<)erformed etween late
09=> and earl! 090=2 3It is a more recent )la! then #he Faithful ?he)herdess$ and was
owned ! the 6ing&s Men rather than the Blac;friar&s children$ which )uts it at least in
09=>2 It is referenced ! its sutitle in -ohn @a*ies& Scourge of Folly, entered on the
?tationer&s +egister in earl! Actoer of 090=72
***E,amining e,ternal e*idence$ Professor Gurr contends that it was most li;el! written
etween these two oo;end dates2 +eference to the "great )latform. /B2iii2C1 echoes
Prince (enr!&s recentl! constructed shi)$ the Prince Royal /,,*ii12 3?imilarities to
?ha;es)eare&s Cymbeline, written in or aout 09=9$ are also rather inconclusi*e$ since it
is difficult to assess which influenced which27
***?ome ha*e argued that Philaster is a )la! written for a )ri*ate theatre$ and suggest
that the influence of writing for the Blac;friar&s is res)onsile for the dramatic shift
towards romances and tragicomedies2 (owe*er$ as Professor Gurr notes in his
introduction$ of the three main features of the Blac;friarsDmore ad*anced stage
machiner!$ music$ and the use of interact )ausesDonl! the latter of these is utili'ed in
Philaster2 Furthermore$ Professor Gurr concludes$ "#he com)an! did not *ar! its
re)ertor! to match an! differences it ma! ha*e thought to ha*e e,isted in the tastes of its
two )la!house audiences. /,,,*ii:,li*12
3#e,tual note aout the two main E *ersions: E0 in 098= and E8 in 0988$ oth )ulished
! 4al;le!7
Popularity and Stage History
***#he )la! was acted ! the 6ing&s Men at oth the Blac;friars and the Gloe and at
court in 0908:090C2 It a))eared in nine Fuarto editions in the 09==s and the second folio
of Beaumont and Fletcher&s wor;s in 09792 It was ada)ted in the +estoration )eriod$
such as in Buc;ingham&s The Restauration and El;anah ?ettle&s Philaster /5she ,ii12 It
was )erformed$ though less freFuentl!$ in the 0>
centur! and )roal! saw its last
Gondon )roduction in 07992
Sources and Infuences
***#here is no one direct source for Philaster$ as it is generall! regarded that the )la! is
sha)ed more ! genre and tradition2 Most critics concur with Professor Gurr&s
assessment that "Beaumont and Fletcher were dramati'ing not a stor! ut a whole drama$
the traditional )rose romance$ and the asic reFuirement of the genre was originalit! of
)lot. /,,i,12
***Gurr: "#he asic stor!:situation in Philaster is antici)ated in 5lonso Pere'&s no*ella
in Boo;s BII and BIII of his continuation of Montema!or&s romance 3Diana7. /,,,i12
#he )attern of this )rose romance was first utili'ed in Beaumont and Fletcher&s Cupids
Re!enge, which was then ada)ted with the same "se*en chief character:t!)es. into the
"non:tragic Pere' stor!. in Philaster /,,,iiiH also 5she ,*:,*i12
***Ather chief influences are ?idne!&s Arcadia and more classical influences such as
#heocritus and A*id$ ?eneca the Elder$ and Guarini2
***-ohn Marston&s satirical )la! The "alcontent /09=41 is also suggested as an influence
on Philaster: the general similarities are in "the court settings$ aristocratic characters$
comic elements$ and stressing of se,ual )assions. and also the similar characteri'ations
with "the lustful$ *icious Megra and Pietro&s duchessH swaggering Pharamond and
Machia*ellian Mendo'aH the wronged )rince Philaster and the true du;e Gio*anniH the
faithful friends and usur)ers in oth )la!s. /5she$ )ara)hrashing Gawrence 4allis ,,i*12
***@an! also ma;es the case for the influence of<li;eness to @onne&s Anni!ersaries$
with its focuse on the h!)erole and the conceit2
The Mother of All Tragicomedies?
The Genre
34e ha*e alread! had Fletcher&s definition of tragicomed! from #he Faithful
?he)herdess in +eggie&s re)ort$ so now I will loo; at some more s)ecific e*idences of the
drama as it )ertains to Philaster27
***In his seminal oo; The Pattern of Tragicomedy in #eaumont and Fletcher$ Eugene
4aith notes the maIor hallmar;s of the genre$ which are all found in Philaster: "the
imitation of the manners of the familiar world$ intricac! of )lot$ im)roale h!)otheses$
and atmos)here of e*il$ Protean characters$ and emotional intensit! e,)ressed in an
artificial language of emotion. /)ara)hrased in 5she ,,12 3#ragicomedies in the
Fletcherian mode$ li;e Philaster relies on the anti:realH it deals with )roale or )ossile
worlds and a))eals more to an emotional than aesthetic res)onse2 It creates a "middle
mood$. and generall! deals with an amiguous middle ground sociall! and )oliticall!D
)erha)s a )roduct of the com)le, moment of transition that characteri'es the -acoean
)eriod2 4aith suggests that B J F tragicomed! is uniFueH a ;ind of dialectical form
where clear lines of distinction ecome oliterated27
***-ohn @an! e,)resses the *iew shared ! man! that Beaumont and Fletcher&s wor;
re)resents "the asis of what will later de*elo) into the Ca*alier mentalit!. /09012 3#he!
ada)t ?idneian concerns of courtl! eha*ior into a commercial form27
***Knsatisfied with con*entional readings of Philaster as tragicomed!$ Phli) -2
Fin;el)earl creates for the )la! the sugenre of "comed! of lood. /0L=1 to em)hasi'e
the uniFueness of the )la!2 (e$ too$ highlights the im)ortance of the intertwining of the
)olitical and romantic )lots$ ut he *iews the )la! as much more consistentl! satirical2
3#his has a lot to do with Fin;el)earl&s anal!sis of the figure of Philaster which we will
return to momentaril!2 Mote the 8> lood images in the )la!$ almost as man! as
Dramatic Situations and Character Types
***4aith: "?ensational situations aound$ each one full! de*elo)ed as the asis of an
intense emotional e,)erience 3N7 #ragicomed! tends 3N7 to nullif! the total meanings
which either comed! or traged! ma! ha*e and to sustitue for them a more rarefied
aesthetic satisfaction in )urel! formal relationshi)s. /Ftd2 in Fin;el)earl 04>12
***Ian Fletcher: "Great )ersons inhait this )la!$ ut do not act greatl!: the! mo*e at the
merc! of chance$ which dwarfs them. /8712 3#his relates to the genre<tradition of the
historical romance or e)ic$ where the characters are often t!)es that re)resent historical
forces or re)resent "t!)ical. res)onses to social and historical forces27
***Professor Gurr concludes$ "Be!ond an! dramatist of their time the collaorators were
ade)t at the theatre of situationH the e,traordinar! ingenuit! of the )lotting which ga*e
them the accom)lishment of meta)h!sical conceits of situation on stage was a s)lendidl!
right *ehicle for their design of translating the educati*e functions of ?idneian literature
into the different medium. /l,,i12
***#he genre in general$ and the )la! in )articular$ relies on a )ortrait of an anti:realist
world2 +adel suggests of Philaster$ "#he %tragic& dimension of the tragicomed! is
reali'ed onl! in the h!)othetical world of a highl! emotional rhetorical *erse that ma;es
the actual situation seem more com)le, and serious than it will finall! turn out to e.
***@an! most closel! e,amines the im)ortance of dramatic situations in Beaumont and
Fletcher$ arguing the Philaster is essentiall! aout what ha))ens when asolutes
contradict one another2 #he )la! thus focuses more on t!)es than detailed
characteri'ations: "3#he 6ing and @ion7 seem to e emodiments$ as it were$ of the
attitudes the! *oiceDattitudes$ again$ that the romantics would accuse of ha*ing no
organic interconnection$ and etween which transition can onl! e made ! *iolent self:
gal*ani'ations of the will. /09412 3#he clashing of wills$ the testing of t!)es with in
t!)ical or re)resentati*e situations is thus a ;e! feature of the )la!2 #here is no clear line
of de*elo)ment toward a resolution$ ut alwa!s the return to the idea that one rigid set of
assum)tions must su))ress another72 In this manner$ the )la! has the "acti*e role. of
"catch3ing7 at the half:felt or unconscious and gi*3ing7 it e,)ression 3N7 3Beaumont and
Fletcher&s7 achie*ement was to ma;e dramatic situation )erform the feat of meta)h!sical
conceit. /0>=$ 0>012
***Issues of usur)ationH Philaster&s wa*ering is (amlet:li;e$ as is his lo*e for the
usur)ing 6ing&s daughter2 I2i289>:79 in Philaster echoes (amlet&s osession with his
father&s ghost2
***?imilarities in the Iealous *iolence of the two title:characters2
Twelfth ight
***#he disguised and lo!al )age motifH Pharamond&s characteri'ation is reminiscent of
the uffoonish Mal*olio2
The Beaumont and !letcher Canon
***Professor Gurr notes that Fletcher&s The Faithful Shepherdess )resents the "gamut of
lo*e:relationshi)s. in a )astoral setting$ which is retained in Philaster ut translated into
a court setting /,li,12
***5gain$ the li;eness to Cupids Re!enge2
Cymbeline and Other Shakespearean "omances
***Chief similarities to Cymbeline: a Princess who is heir to the throne denies her
father&s choice of matesH she is then slanderousl! re)orted to e se,uall!
unfaithful and is then nearl! murdered ! her husand<lo*er$ onl! for him to
disco*er her true fidelit!2 #he motif of disguise$ the transition etween court
and countr!$ and the lo!alt! of )ages are also ;e! features of oth te,ts2
Posthumous and Philaster share some Fualities as well$ including wa*ering
attitudes toward their lo*ers2
***#he sur)rise and timel! un*eiling of Bellario&s identit! also mirrors the magical re:
a))earance of (ermione at the end of The %inters Tale2 #he theme of forgi*eness and
tests of lo!alt! and )enitence is also a common feature of Philaster$ Cymbeline, The
%inters Tale and The Tempest&
***In 09=0$ #horndi;e argued that Beaumont and Fletcher hea*il! influenced
?ha;es)eare&s later writing$ while in 09C> Mc6eithan argued the o))osite2
In his 0997 o*er*iew of the Beaumont and Fletcher canon$ Ian Fletcher
suggests "it is now more reasonal! inferred that all three 3authors7 were
res)onding to a shift in their audience&s taste. /912
***Professor Gurr: "#he two )la!s grew from a common soil in the )o)ular romance
tradition$ ut e!ond this ground their interests di*erged mar;edl!. as Beaumont and
Fletcher ")re:figure the whole ca*alier ethos of the later se*enteenth centur!. /l12
The Story of Henry the !ifth
***Professor Gurr: "In )olitical terms Philaster is an id!llicall! com)lete *ersion of the
elements in the (enr! B legend: where +ichard II and (enr! IB each suffered as ;ings
3N7 (enr! B trim)hed oth as a man 3N7 and as ;ing 3N7 3and7 as lawful inheritor of
his father&s )ossession. /lii12 3Philaster adds to this )arallel with an endorsement through
marriageH also the lin;ing of two ;ingdoms in )resented in (enr! B&s marriage to
6athatrineDthus we ha*e a li;e lin;ing of the )olitical and amorous )lots27
#ing $ear :
***Both )la!s focus on the loss of )ower of language$ an,ieties aout the rea;down
etween words and meaning /signs and signified12
Key ritical Issues
The %olitical Backdrop
***Gurr and a numer of other critics suggest that the amorous )lot and the )olitical )lot
are interwo*en$ ut there are a cou)le of ;e! )arallels in the )la! to the contem)orar!
)olitical situation: the stage 6ing and 6ing -ames I oth )ossess two ;ingdomsH 6ing
-ames had attem)ted to negotiate two marriage alliances after the )eace of 09=4H finall!$
the use of the mo as a ;ind of deus e' machina and @ion&s reellious attitude toward the
6ing echo clash in 09=> etween 6ing -ames and ?ir Edward Co;e$ wherein Co;e
Fuestioned -ames& ro!al )rerogati*e /li*:l*12 34hile this ;ee)s in line with Beaumont&s
)olitics$ it is im)ortant to rememer that Fletcher would not ha*e shared in his friends
criticism of the ;ing$ and therefore the message is somewhat tem)ered27
***Ather critics argue that the )olitics are central to the drama$ that the ultimate concern
of the )la! is a critiFue of monarchical asolutism2 In her feminist reading of Bellario&s
cross:dressing$ Maire Goughlin asserts that in the )la! "cross:dressing encodes issues of
inheritance and monarchical legitimac! in se,ual and *estimentar! terms. /8712
***M2 G2 M2 5d;ins and Peter @a*ison )ro*ide a more detailed account of the )otential
a))lication issues concerning 6ing -ames I2 @a*ison loo;s closel! at the )arallels in the
)la! etween the usur)ing 6ing&s claims to ro!al )rerogati*e and -ames I&s The Tre(
)a( of Free "onarchies$ )articularl! its echoes in the ;ing&s s)eech to @ion in the
woodland scene2 @a*ison adds$ "B! ma;ing the 6ing a usur)er Beaumont and Fletcher
are tactfull! /or e,)edientl!1 mas;ing the true state from the Master of the +e*els and of
course the usur)ing ;ing fits admiral! into the con*entions of romantic tragicomed!.
/>12 3?ettles down into a deate aout how im)ortant we are to ta;e the )olitical
***?usan Collier in*estigates *arious references to -ames&s re)eated reading tro)e of the
trans)arent cr!stal reast found throughout his %or*s2 In the )la!$ Collier suggests$ the
image of or demand for trans)arenc! reflects an,ieties aout female o)acit! and reflects
a desire for a ")ulic te,t of se,ual fidelit!. and )urit! /L0$ L412 34hich all relates ac;
to issues of d!nastic unions and their authorit!72
The Issue of $anguage and ames
***In his 09>9 article$ Micholas F2 +adel contends that Philaster "mo*es !ond satire to
e,)lore a )rolem with language itself. as Beaumont and Fletcher "create a world of
Petrarchan rhetoric in which the meta)hor of lo*e&s wounds ecomes real$ and 3N7
e,)ose3s7 as ridiculous and hollow that world of courtl! con*ention. /08912 3Essentiall!$
he argues that the )la! highlights the failures and misuse of language on the )art of the
6ing and Philaster$ so that the! are ruled ! language rather than the re*erse2 ?ome
)rime e,am)les are the 6ing&s failure to command the Gods to find his daughter$ and
Philaster&s earl! cowardl! language and tentati*enessDall word and no action$ ma;ing us
sus)icious of the )rince&s rhetoric2 (is ineffecti*eness is ca)tured in the hiding:in:the:
ush scene where he s!molicall! ecomes east:li;e27
***#he em)hasis on words a))ears throughout the )la!$ and is largel! connected to
concerns aout re*ealing the truth and commanding action2 5rathusa$ of course$ is the
one who is most full! *ictimi'ed ! slander2
***Mar! Mo;ris also notes this trend in the )la!: "For the ;ing$ an im)ortant as)ect of
societ! which re*eals a stead! deca! is the loss of the )ower of language2 #he )olitical
)ower of the ;ing has a direct correlation to the loss of )ower in language and to his
status as usur)er. /7L12
***#he names of the characters seem to highlight the )astoral and Petrarchan themes of
the drama: oth 5rethusa and Gallatea are in #heocritus )astorals$ Bellario is also
connected to )astoral romances$ and Megra is the name of the Fur! of Bengeance2
3Mar! Mo;ris )ro*ides an interesting$ if not full! )lausile$ inter)retation of the names
that com)ares the maIor characters to a *ariet! of )lants: Philaster and 5sterH lo*e lies a:
leeding$ and arethusa as a og orchid /a female counter)art to lo*e lies a:leeding1H
Eu)hrasia is a )lant ;nown for its healing )owers27
Blood and Body Imagery
***Goughlin on the 6ing&s )raise of his daughter to Pharamond: "#he ;ing&s ailit! to
staili'e the fractured )olitical landsca)e of ?icil! and legitimi'e his monarchical claims
de)ends on 5rathusa&s status as chaste and *irginal commodit! 3N7 #he ;ing couches his
entire descri)tion of his daughter&s *irginit! in terms which underline the uncertaint!
surrounding the *er! signs he is offering as )roof of this state. /8912 3Af course$ this
assessment is called into Fuestion ! the ;ing&s eas! dismissal of Pharamond&s actual and
5rathusa&s alleged infidelit!2 But Goughlin ma;es a ;e! )oint aout the lin;ing etween
the od! and truth that is a contested relationshi) in the )la!2 E,am)le of 5rathusa&s
desire for a trans)arent od! as )roof of her truth72 5lso$ Goughlin e,amines the
im)ortance of the images of dismemerment in the )la!$ loo;ing )articularl! at the scene
where the citi'ens threaten to ta;e a)art Pharamond2 ?he reads this scene as significant
for the wa! that it contrasts Pharamond&s "womanish. cowardice and effeminate od!
with Philaster&s newl! reFuired stature as ;ing with a "manl!. noilit! of soul$ a contrast
which highlights the "an,iet!:ridden and largel! unsuccessful means of )roducing odil!
certaint!. /CL12
***?usan Collier$ in com)aring the wounding motif in Philaster and Cymbeline$ notes
the ritualistic elements of the wounding scenes$ where the s)illing of *irgin lood is
lin;ed to the e*entual sal*ation of societ! /4412 In this wa!$ oth )la!s demonstrate
-ames I&s "husandl! authorit!. ! "de)ict3ing7 the di*inel! sanctioned sacrifice of
)ower to a rightful male heir ! means of a husand&s %dut!& to sta his wife. /4912
***Fin;el)earl notes a lin; etween the lood images and the )la!&s e,amination of
intem)erate )rinces: "4hat 3Philaster and Pharamond7 share is an im)ulse to shed lood
and there! do harm to *arious )arts of the od! )olitic. /09C1
%hilaster& Bargain Bin Hamlet or the %rince of Comedy'
***Mo;ris reads the )la! as generall! )ositi*e toward Philaster$ as it traces a line of
)rogress from disintegration to integration2 #he restoration of Philaster to the throne is
the chief sign of this2
***Collier reads Philaster as an o*erall more conflicted character throughout$ suggesting
that he is a s!molicall! androg!nous mi,ture of feminine and masculine Fualities2 #hat
is$ his uncertaint! aout what to do with 5rathusa throughout the )la! is re)resentati*e of
the "uneas! mi,ture. of tragic and comic$ estial and nole$ that is characteristic of the
tragicomic middle:ground2
***5 central )art of Fin;el)earl&s argument that the )la! is a "comed! of lood. is his
characteri'ation of Philaster as an "anti:)rince2. +ather than seeing his madness as
something that is integrated ! the end of the )la!$ Fin;el)earl unco*ers a "consistent
sute,t. underneath the "a))arent inconsistencies of his *olatile eha*ior. /0LC12 #his
argument rests on his anal!sis that Philaster&s actions at the end of the )la! are "sim)l! a
natural e,tension of the wea;$ erratic figure of the first two acts. /0L912 5s chief
e*idence of this$ Fin;el)earl )oints to B2*208C:4 where Philaster enacts in miniature the
Iealous! and Fuic;:to:des)air eha*iors of the earlier acts2 3#he result or im)lication of
this reading$ as Fin;el)earl draws it out$ is that the )la! is critical of all of the )rincesH
Philaster is as uffoonish as Pharamond and as indecisi*e and ineffectual as the ;ing2 5ll
this in contrast to the lo!al and faithful 5rathusa and Bellario2 5s he is thus com)letel! at
the merc! of a))earances and chance e*ents$ Fin;el)earl argues that he conforms to
Bergson&s classic descri)tion of comic figures in machine:li;e )redictailit! of his
res)onse2 #he ending is then li;ened to the ending of 5ll&s 4ell #hat Ends 4ell in its
uneasiness2 (ow we are to ta;e Philaster$ of course$ is largel! dictated ! how he comes
across$ which I&ll get to when I discuss staging27
***@an! defines the Philaster "t!)e. as follows: "In him the conflicts$ self:di*isions
and des)erate stands$ the distraction and the longing for certaint!$ the ewildered lostness
and the *iolence which will destro! what it lo*es and finall! turn on itselfD)atheticall!
and comicall! Iumled$ all the agonies and irres)onsiilities meet. /0>812
The Happy (nding and Bellario)s *n+eiling
3Certainl! the deate centers on whether we ta;e the ha))! ending as )art of a "sho):
worn theatrical. mechanism$ reading Philaster as essentiall! a %gimmic; )la!$& or whether
the ending fits into the o*erall scheme of the )la! and ser*es some essential function2 It
seems we can agree that it is in ;ee)ing with the nature of tragicomedies in general$
gi*ing us that sense of relief27
***Professor Gurr: "E*er!thing in Philaster unwa*eringl! )oints to its ha))!
conclusion. /l,ii12 Furthermore the sur)rise re*ersal of e,)ectation in Bellario&s
re*elation ma;es her "the e,em)lification of the twin ideals of ser*ice in lo*e and
go*ernment$ honest lo*e and dut! without lust or self:interest. /l,*12 #hus$ Bellario&s
un*eiling fits )erfectl! with the main thematic flow of the )la!$ ca)turing the intertwined
)olitical and amorous )lots in a single image2 3In terms of the anti:realism of the )la!$ the
ending also underscores the idealit! of the )la!$ that we ha*e een gi*en a %golden world&
***Fitting into her argument aout the )la!&s )er*asi*e an,ieties aout odil! and
*esitmentar! codes$ Goughlin suggests that the un*eiling scene ser*es to underscore
societ!&s inailit! to "read accuratel! the social signs of gender$ se,$ and se,ualit!. and
her un*eiling also "e,)resses the malleale and counterfeit nature of these *er! signs.
/C712 #hat she refuses to marr! also e,)loits the "erotic amiguities. that are recurrent
throughout the tragicomic )la!$ ma;ing Bellario something of a re)resentati*e of the
genre itself$ as she disru)ts defined categories2
***5s )art of her larger argument aout the significance of cross:dressing$ -o E2 Miller
sustains that it is essential to the dramatic effect of the )la! that Bellario&s disguise is ;e)t
a secret$ ecause it ";ee)s us from feeling sorr! for her$ at least until the end. /08912
Miller&s feminist reading )i*ots on her sense that Bellario is a transgressi*e figureH Miller
argues that Bellario&s refusal to marr! at the end of the )la! re)resents a significant
disru)tion of the e,)ected comic resolution2 Furthermore$ as one of the three main
females in the )la!$ Bellario re)resents "a ;ind of alternati*e scri)t for a female character
in earl! modern drama. /0C91$ offering a third alternati*e to the interde)endent female
t!)es of whore and *irgin re)resented ! Megra and 5rathusa /interde)endent ecause of
the wa! these categories are confused ! the actions of the )la!12 Kltimatel!$ ! den!ing
a )urel! comic ending$ Bellario lea*es the )la! "stranded on the oundar! etween
traged! and comed!$ Iust as her clothing continues to mar; her as a figure etween
masculine and feminine$ not easil! susumed into either categor!. /04L12 3#hrough
Bellario$ the theme that is highlighted is the lo!alt! and ser*ice that contradicts the
com)etiti*e and e,)loitati*e nature of the other more con*entional relationshi)s in the
Staging oncerns
"e,uired %rops and %erformers
***?words for Philaster and the gentlemanH roadsword for the Countr! FellowH mone!
for Pharamond to offer Gallatea and to gi*e to MegraH letter from 5rathusa to
Philaster /III2i1H )otentiall! a horse$ which is referenced throughout the
woodland scenes and might a))ear with 5rathusa in IB2iH )erha)s hunting gear
Dows and arrowsH a ush for Philaster to hide ehind /IB2*i1H Philaster&s )urse
to )a! the citi'ens /B2i*1H *arious costumes are s)ecificall! mentioned:
Gallatea&s countr! dress /")oore 4ardroe.1 in II2iiH Bellario&s new clothes from
5rathusa in III2iH Bellario&s saffron roe and garland in the marriage scene B2iii2
***#here are twent! three s)ea;ing )arts with si, female roles /including
Balconies- Disco+ery Space- and *se of (ntrances
***#wo entrances are referred to in E0$ and the e,its of Pharamond and Megra in the
moments efore their cou)ling /II2i*1 would suggest the need for two entrances2
5lso$ the alcon! would e needed for the scene of their eing disco*ered ! the
6ing2 #he disco*er! s)ace would e needed for Gallatea to hide ehind the
hangings as she o*erhears Megra and Pharamond&s transactions in II2ii2 Might
these hangings also doule as the ush for Philaster to hide ehind in IB2*iO
.ounding Scenes
***+adel on the entrance of the Countr! Fellow: "(is entrance calls attention to the
artifice of the situation$ to the fact that the con*entional has ecome literal 3N7
#he rustic&s inter*ention recalls the essential di*ision etween words and actions
that characteri'es the s)eech of the court. /0C>12 Fin;el)earl su))orts this sense
of the scene$ ut reminds us that the wounds Bellario and Philaster recei*e are
serious enough to ma;e them fall down2 3General Fuestions aout the
con*entions of wounding on stageDit is certainl! a re)eated enough motifNone
could em)hasi'e the anti:realism$ meta)horical im)ortance of this scene through
the use of wooden swords27
%laying %hilaster
***5s noted ao*e$ the )resentation of Philaster is ;e! to how one ta;es the )la!: !ou
could )la! him Fuite comicall!$ )articularl! in the final sceneDas Fin;el)earl suggestsD
ut !ou could also em)hasi'e the tragic elements ! )la!ing him as a (amlet:li;e
distracted figure2
!or"s ited
5she$ @ora -ean2 "Introduction2. Philaster2 Ed2 @ora -ean 5she2 Gincoln: K of Meras;a
P$ 09742
Beaumont$ Francis and -ohn Fletcher2 Philaster+ or )o!e lies a #leeding& Ed2 +oert 62
#urner2 The Dramatic %or*s in the #eaumont and Fletcher Canon& Ed2 Fredson
Bowers2 Bol2 02 Camridge: Camridge KP$ 09992 C97:L4=2
Collier$ ?usan2 "Cutting to the (eart of the Matter: ?taing the 4oman in Philaster and
Cymbeline&. Sha*espearean Po(er and Punishment$ A ,olume of -ssays& Ed2
Gillian Murra! 6endall2 Madison$ M-: Farleigh @ic;inson KP$ 099>2 C9:L>2
@an!$ -ohn F2 -li.abethan and /acobean Poets$ Studies in Sidney, Sha*espeare,
#eaumont 0 Fletcher& Gondon: Faer and Faer$ 09L82
@a*ison$ Peter2 "#he ?eroius Concerns of Philaster2. -)1 C=20 /099C1: 0:0L2
Fin;el)earl$ Phili) -2 Court and Country Politics in the Plays of #eaumont and Fletcher&
Princeton: Princeton KP$ 099=2
Fletcher$ Ian2 #eaumont and Fletcher& Gondon: F2 Mildner J ?ons$ 09972
Gurr$ 5ndrew2 "Introduction2. Philaster+ or )o!e )ies A2#leeding& Ed2 5ndrew Gurr2
Gondon: Methuen$ 09992 ,i,:l,,,i*2
Goughlin$ Marie (2 "Cross:@ressing and the Politics of @ismemerment in Francis
Beaumont and -ohn Fletcher&s Philaster2. Renaissance and Reformation 8028
/09971: 8C:442
Miller$ -o E2 "%5nd 5ll #his Passion for a Bo!O&: Cross:dressing and the ?e,ual
Econom! of Beaumont and Fletcher&s Philaster2. -nglish )iterary Renaissance
87 /09971: 089:L=2
Mo;ris$ Mar! P2 "From @isintegration to Integration: Identit! in Beaumont and
Fletcher&s Philaster2 Proceedings of the Third Da*otas Conference on -arlier
#ritish )iterature2 Ed2 Bruce E2 Brandt2 Broo;ings$ ?@: ?outh @a;ota ?tate
Kni*ersit! English @e)artment$ 099L2 70:>82
+adel$ Micholas F2 "%#hen thus I turne m! language to !ou&: #he #ransformation of
#heatrical Ganguage in Philaster2. "edie!al and Renaissance Drama C /09>91: