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ENGINEERING PRACTICES LABORATORY


MANUAL


SUBJECT CODE : GE1X03




















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INDEX

S.No. NAME OF EXPERIMENT
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE
PREPARATION OF WIRING DIAGARAM
1 HOUSE HOLD WIRING USING SWITCHES AND INDICATOR-
LAMP.
2 FLUORESCENT LAMP WIRING
3 STAIRCASE WIRING
4 POWER MEASUREMENT IN 3 CIRCUITS
5 CALIBRATION OF AMMETERS AND VOLTMETERS

6 MEASUREMENT OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY





















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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
PRACTICE



While working with electricity, it is necessary that we take all basic safety
precautions. A little loss of concentration or a little carelessness can lead to serve
shocks and fatal accidents. Some of the precautions are given below:

1. In case a person gets into contact with a live conductor, the mains is to be put
off immediately
2. Before attempting to disengage a person in contact with a live wire, one must
insulate one self by standing on a dry rubber mat or wooden boards.
3. While working on a circuit, the corresponding fuse carrier should be taken
away.
4. In the case of a fire, water should not be thrown on the live conductor.
5. The earthing has to be maintained well
6. The switch is always to be connected on the live conductor.
7. In the case of an electric shock, after giving first aid, call a doctor. Continue
first aid till the doctor takes over.
8. Use wooden or PVC insulated handle screws drivers when working on
electrical circuits.













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PREPARATION OF WIRING DIAGARAM

Wiring is the method of drawing or laying wires or cables and connecting
accessories and fitting s for the purpose of distributing electrical power to the
various points or equipment from the mains.
Durability Any wiring system must be able to withstand wear and tear
due to weather. The atmospheric action should not affect the wiring
system.
Safety Safety is the most important point to be considered in the
selection of any wiring system. The wiring should be perfectly leak proof.
Selection of the wire should be according to the ISI standard and the wire
sheet be of such a capacity that it can withstand the total load of the whole
installation.
Mechanical Protection The wiring should be mechanically sound. It
should be properly protected from damages of physical nature
Appearance The appearance of the wiring has an important bearing on
the architectural beauty of an edifice from the aesthetic point of view.
Normally conduct wiring embedded under plaster is the proper choice for
improving the appearance of a wiring system.
Environmental Conditions In places where corrosive acids and alkalis
are to come in contact with wiring systems have to be protected against
fumes and dampness.
Accessibility Facility for extension and renewal should be provided. The
wiring system adopted should be economical and should suit the
individual. Consumer initial cost be minimized





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Expt No:1 HOUSE HOLD WIRING USING SWITCHES AND
INDICATOR-LAMP.

Aim:
1. To control the given lamp using a single switch.
2. To control two lamps connected in series using a switch.
3. To control two lamps connected in parallel using a switch.

Material required :

S.No Components Quality
1 Switch 1 No
2 Test Lamp 2 No
3 3 pin socket(5A) 1 no
4 Connecting wires As required

Tools Required:
Wire mans tool Kit - 1 No

RULES FOR WIRING

1. The total lighting load in a sub circuit, should not be more than 800W or ten
points whichever is less. The maximum power load in a sub circuit is not to
exceed 2000W or two points whichever is less.
2. Every appliance must be controlled by a switch
3. The switch should be on the live conductor
4. Every socket output must also be controlled by a switch
5. All incandescent lamps are to be atleast 2.5m above and ceiling fans 2.75 m
above floor level.
6. All the metal covering (covers of the main switch, paper, brackets fans etc.,)
should be earthed.
7. The light and power wiring should be separate.
8. Every sub- circuit must have a separate distribution fuse.
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9. The switch and starters of the motor should be easily accessible.
Theory:
Series Circuit: The series circuit provides a single, continuous path through
which current flows. In this the devices are connected one after another and the
current flows through them until it returns to the power source.
Parallel Circuit: In parallel circuit the device are connected side-by-side so that,
current flows in a number of parallel path.

Status



Switch Lamp
0 OFF
1 ON
N
P
230V,50Hz,
Ac mains
A LAMP CONTROLLED BY A SWITCH
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STATUS
Switch L1(Lamp) L2(Lamp)
0 OFF OFF
1 ON ON
N
P
230V,50Hz,
Ac mains
TWO LAMPS CONNECTED IN SERIES
L1 L2
Switch
8












TWO LAMPS CONNECTED IN PARALLEL


STATUS
Switch L1 L2
0 OFF OFF
1 ON ON
N
P
230V,50Hz,
Ac mains
L1
L2
Switch
9


















Result:
Thus the lamps are connected in series and parallel by using a switch.




P
N
Earth
Switch2 Switch1
L1 L2
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Expt No: 2 FLUORESCENT LAMP



Aim :
To make connections of a fluorescent tube and to study the accessories of
the same.

Materials Required:

S.No Components Quality
1 Fluorescent tube light fitting 1 set(40 W,240 V)
2 2 way connector 1 No
3 PVC copper cables As required
4 Wood Screws 2 Nos
5 Test Lamp 1 No

Tools Required:
Wire mans tool Kit - 1 No

Procedure: Assembly of Fluorescent Tube:

I. Assemble the fluorescent tube accessories like starter holder , holder
for tube and choke in the fitting base with the help of screws.
II. Finally the tube is fixed in the tube holder to light it.





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Theory:

1. The electrode of the starter which are enclosed in a gas bulb filled with
argon gas , cause discharge in the argon gas with consequent heating.
2. Due to heating , the bimetallic strip bends and causes in the starter to
close. After this , the choke , the filaments (tube ends) to tube and starter
becomes connected in series.
3. When the current flows through the tube end filaments the heat is
produced. During the process the discharge in the starter tube disappears
and the contacts in the starter move apart.
4. When sudden break in the circuit occur due to moving apart of starter
terminals, this causes a high value of e.m.f to be induced in the choke.
5. According to Lenzs law ,the direction of induced e.m.f in the choke will
try to oppose the fall of current in the circuit.
6. The voltage thus acting across the tube ends will be high enough to cause
a discharge to occur in the gas inside the tube. Thus the tube starts
giving light.
7. The fluorescent lamp is a low pressure mercury lamp and is a long
evacuated tube. It contains a small amount of mercury and argon gas at
2.5 mm pressure. At the time of switching in the tube , mercury is in the
form of small drops. Therefore , to start the tube , filling up of argon gas is
necessary. So , in the beginning , argon gas starts burning at the ends of
the tube; the mecury is heated and controls the current and the tube starts
giving light. At each end of the tube , there is a tungsten electrode which is
coated with fast electron emitting material . inside of the tube is coated
with phosphor according to the type of light.
8. There are two types of starters. A starter helps to start the start the tube
and break the circuit. They are (i)Thermal type (ii
)glow type.
9. The choke coil is also called blast. It has a laminated core over which
enameled wire is wound. The function of the choke is to increase the
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voltage to almost 1000V at the time of switching on the tube and when the
tube starts working, it reduces the voltage across the tube and keeps the
current constant.







Choke(or)
blast
















Result:
Thus the fluorescent lamp circuit is studied and assembled
P N
230V,Ac
supply
Starter
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Expt No: 3 STAIRCASE WIRING


Aim:

To control a single lamp from two different places.

Materials Required:

S.No Components Quality
1 Incandescent Lamp 1(230 V,40W)
2 Two way switches 2
3 Lamp holder 1
4 Connecting Wires As required
5 PVC Pipes As required
6 L-Joint As required
7 Clamp and screws As required
8 Mounting block. As required

Tools Required:

Hammer, Wire mans tool Kit.

Procedure:

1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram using PVC pipes in
the wooden board.
2. Verify the connections.
3. Switch on the supply.
4. Verify the conditions.
Explanations
1. A two way switch is installed near the first step of the stairs. The
other two way switch is installed at the upper part where the stair
ends.
2. The light point is provided between first and last stair at an
adequate location and height if the light is switched on by the
lower switch. It can be switched off by the switch at the top or vice
versa.
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3. The circuit can be used at the places like bed room where the
person may not have to travel for switching off the light to the
place from where the light is switched on.
4. Two number of Two-way switches are used for the purpose. The
supply is given to the switch at the short circuited terminals.
5. The connection to the light point is taken from the similar short
circuited terminal of the second switch. Other two independent
terminals of each circuit are connected through cables.




CONDITIONS:
Position of
switches
S1 S2
Condition Of
Lamp








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RESULT:
Thus the circuit to control the single lamp from two different places is
studied and verified.
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Expt.No.4 POWER MEASUREMENT IN 3 CIRCUITS.


AIM:
To measure the power consumed by given three phase inductive load
using two wattmeter method, and also determining the power factor.

APPARATUS:


S.No Name of the
Apparatus
Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0 10)A MI 1
2 Wattmeter 600V,10A UPF 2
3 Load - Resistive 1


FORMULA USED:

1. Total power P = W1+W2 (W)
2. = Tan
-1
3[W1-W2/W1+W2]
3. P.F = Cos.




















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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
















A

440,3phase
ac supply
440,3phase
ac supply
440,3phase
ac supply
B
R
Y
10A
10A
10A
600V,10A
UPF Wm
(0-10)A MI
3 phase variable
resistive load
T
P
S
T
600V,10A
UPF Wm
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TABULAR COLUMN:

SNO I W1 W2 POWER
P
P.F
(Amps) (Watts) (Watts) Watts COS



















PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. AC supply is given by closing the TPST switch with no load included in
the circuit
3. Vary the load and note current and both the wattmeter readings.
4. Power and power factor are calculated using the given formula and
tabulated.

FORMULA USED:

1. Total power P = W1+W2 (W)
2. = Tan
-1
3[W1-W2/W1+W2]
3. P.F = Cos.

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RESULT:

Thus the Power and Power factors for the given resistive load are
measured and tabulated.
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Ex.No. CALIBRATION OF AMMETERS AND VOLTMETERS
Date:

Aim
To calibrate the given ac and dc ammeters and voltmeters.

Apparatus required

S.No Name of the
Apparatus
Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0 10)A MI 2
2 Ammeter (0 10)A MC 2
3 Voltmeter (0 300)V MI 2
4 Voltmeter (0 300)V MC 2
5 Load - Rheostat 1
6 Single Phase
autotransformer
300V,5A - 1



Formula:

a) Percentage Error = (At As) * 100 / At
b) Percentage Error = (At As) * 100 / At
c) Percentage Error = (Vt Vs) * 100 / Vt
d) Percentage Error = (Vt Vs) * 100 / Vt
















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Circuit Diagram
a) DC AMMETER


b) AC AMMETER




10 A
Tested
Ammeter
Standard
Ammeter
Loading
Rheostat
(0-10)A
MI
(0 10)A
MI
230V AC
Supply
P
N
SPST
At

As


10A
10 A
Tested
Ammeter

Standard
Ammeter

Loading
Rheostat
(0-10)A
MC
(0 10)A
MC
220V DC
Supply
+
-
D
P
S
T
At As
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c) DC VOLTMETER






d) AC VOLTMETER




5 A

(0 300)V
MI

(0 300)V
MI

230V AC
Supply
P
N
SPST
Single phase
Autotransformer
Vt

Vs


5A
5 A

(0 300)V
MC
400
ohms/
1.5A
(0300)V
MC
220V DC
Supply
+
-
D
P
S
T
+
- -
+
Vt Vs
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Procedure

a) i)Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
ii) Close the DPST switch
iii) Vary the load, take the readings of both the ammeters and
tabulate them.
iv) Calculate the error and plot the graph between Percentage error
vs Current

b) i) Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
ii) Close the SPST switch
iii) Vary the load, take the readings of both the ammeters and
tabulate them.
iv) Calculate the error and plot the graph between Percentage error
vs Current

c) i) Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
ii) Close the DPST switch
iii) Vary the rheostat, take the readings of both the voltmeters and
tabulate them.
iv) Calculate the error and plot the graph between Percentage error
vs Voltage.
d) i) Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
ii) Close the SPST switch
iii) Vary the autotransformer, take the readings of both the
ammeters and tabulate them.
iv) Calculate the error and plot the graph between Percentage error
vs Voltage




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Model Graph





















Result

Thus the given ac and dc voltmeters and ammeters are calibrated.

Percent
Error
Voltage or
Current
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Expt. No.6 MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY

AIM:
To measure the energy consumed in a single phase circuit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No Name of the
Apparatus
Range Type Quantity
1 Ammeter (0 10)A MI 1
2 Voltmeter (0 300)V MI 1
3 Load - Rheostat 1
4 Energymeter 300V,10A,
single phase
UPF 1

NAME PLATE DETAILS:


































RATED CURRENT


RATED VOLTAGE


FREQUENCY


REVOLUTIONS/KWH

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
























V

P
N
SPST 10A
(0-300)V MI
(0-10)A MI
Single phase Energymeter
230V,single
phase ac
supply
Loading
Rheostat
27



























PROCEDURE:

1.Connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram.
2.Supply is switched ON and load is increased in steps, each time noting the readings of
ammeter and wattmeter. Also the actual time taken for 1 revolution of the disc is
measured using stop watch.
3.Step 2 is repeated till rated current of the energymeter is reached.
4. % Error is calculated and calibration curve is drawn.

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.NO LOAD
CURRENT
I
(Amps)
WATTMETER
READING t
(Sec)
INDICATED
POWER
W1
(watts)
%
ERROR








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CALCULATION:

Let x revolution / kwh be the rating.
Now x revolution = 1 kwh
= 1* 3600*1000* watt-sec.

Constant k of energymeter = 3600 * 10
3
/x watt-sec

For each load indicated power Wi is given as Wi = k/t watts


Where k energymeter constant (watt-sec)
t time for 1 revolution(sec).


Actual power is indicated by the wattmeter reading.

% error = Wi-Wa/Wi* 100.

It can be zero +ve or ve.


MODEL GRAPH:















COCLUSION AND REMARKS:
From the calibration curve it is possible to predict the error
in recording the energy. So the correction can be applied to the energymeter reading
so that correct energy reading can be obtained and used.