Figure 2. The topology of the threephase PWM rectifier
The threephase PWM rectifier with direct current control
can get a good current regulation and a good current tracking
speed because of the introduction of the current loop control
[3]. Figure 3 shows the block of the direct current control. It is
a double closeloop control system. The outer is voltage loop
control which is to control the output of dcbus voltage, and the
inner is current loop control. The current loop regulates the DQ
axis current by PI controller to achieve the unit power factor
which is achieved by setting the negative Q axis current
reference to zero. R is the equivalent resistance of output.
Figure 3. Direct current control
B. The phaseshift fullbridge converter
Figure 4 shows the main circuit of the phaseshift full
bridge converter.
C
2
L
2
Q1 Q3
Q2 Q4
D1 D3
D2 D4
T V
o
+

V
dc
+

Figure 4. The topology of the phaseshift fullbridge converter
In Fig. 4, V
o
is the output voltage. T is an isolated high
frequency transformer whose ratio is 1. Switches Q1~Q4
constitute the full bridge circuit. Diodes D1~D4 constitute the
rectifying circuit. L
2
is the output filter inductance and C
2
is the
output filter capacitor. The phaseshift fullbridge converter is
used to control the process of batteries charging, adopting
improved constant current method, which decreases charging
current when the voltage of the batteries reaches the reference
voltage during the period of normal charging, to optimize the
charging process.
The control diagram is shown in Fig. 5. V
B
, the voltage of
the batteries, is used to judge whether the batteries has already
been connected. J
1
is the program module which judges
whether charger meets operating condition. J
2
is the module
which judges whether the voltage of the batteries reaches the
reference voltage to reduce definite charging current. J
3
is the
module which adjusts output power of the charger or stops
charging according to the power net load.
Figure 5. Control diagram of the phaseshift fullbridge converter
The charging control system has single current closed loop.
Improved constant current charging method suits the smart grid
better than traditional constant current charging, constant
voltage charging, and twostep charging which merely meet the
characteristics of the batteries without power grid [4]. During
the period of normal charging, the charger outputs the
reference current at first. When the voltage of EV batteries
reaches the reference voltage, the charging current will be
reduced with the charging voltage reduced, so repeatedly.
When the charging current falls to the 10% preset current, it
will stop charging. The normal charging process is shown in
solid lines in Fig. 6. The dashed lines show that the charger
adjusts output power according to the smart grids. The peak
time of power grid is from t
1
to t
2
. At this time, the charger
reduces charging current to adjust power system load.
Figure 6. Improved constant current method for batteries
C. The controller
Digital signal processor is fast arithmetic operations and
high throughput to handle mathematically intensive algorithms
in real time. TMS320F2812 is accomplished by using the
following basic concepts: Harvard architecture, extensive
pipelining, dedicated hardware multiplier, special DSP
instructions and fast instruction cycle. Therefore, only one DSP
controller is used to control both the threephase PWM rectifier
and the phaseshift fullbridge converter. And one DSP
controller can decrease the communication time between the
two converters sharply to improve cooperating ability of two
converters and the dynamic response of the whole charger.
The Event Manager (EV) in the TMS320F2812 is used to
control the generation of the PWM. The two EV modules
(EVA and EVB) are identical peripherals, which control the
two converters, respectively. The CPLD chip is applied to
produce PWM signals and protect the whole circuit [5].
III. THE DESIGN OF THE PROGRAM
A. IQmath Library
Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320F28x IQmath Library is
collection of highly optimized and high precision mathematical
functions for C/C++ programmers to seamlessly port a
floatingpoint algorithm into fixed point code on TMS320F28x
devices. These routines are typically used in computationally
intensive realtime applications where optimal execution speed
and high accuracy is critical. By using these routines, execution
speed is considerable faster than equivalent code written in
standard ANSI C language. Therefore the TI IQmath library is
used in the control program.
B. The control program of the threephase PWM rectifier
Figure 7. T1 interrupt program
The control program of threephase PWM rectifier is
achieved by Timer 1 (T1) interrupt. The interrupt program
flowprocess diagram is shown in Fig. 7.The T1 interrupt
program contains AD sample, VSR safe model, calculation
model of grid voltage synchronous angle, Clarke
transformation, Park transformation, PI control model, inverse
Park transformation and calculation of switching time of
SVPWM [6].
C. The control program of the phaseshift fullbridge
converter
The process of batteries charging is achieved by the
charging program, as shown in Fig. 8. At first, the batteries are
charged by a constant current if the power grid allows it. When
the batteries voltage reaches the preset voltage, the charging
current goes down. When the current that smart grid allows (I
G
)
is less than the charging current, the charger reduces the
charging current to I
G
. The charging current rises up when the
power grid has recovered. The voltage and charging current of
EndofCharging (EOC) for the batteries is the preset voltage
(V
*
) and the 10% preset current (10%I
*
), respectively.
Figure 8. The charging program
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
Based on the analysis and design above, using DSP
TMS320F2812 as main controller, a prototype of an electric
vehicle charger module was constructed.
Figure 9. The input voltage and current
Figure 9 are the waveforms of the input voltage and current
of the charger. CH1 is the phase A voltage. CH3 is the phase A
current. CH4 is the phase B current. The experimental
waveforms show that the phase A voltage and current have
same phase and the phase A current leads phase B current by
120 degrees.
Figure 10. The EV charger under 10kW output power
Figure 11. The dynamic waveforms of the charger
Figure 10 is the waveforms of the electric vehicle charger
module under about 10kW output power. CH1 is the phase A
voltage. CH3 is the phase A current. CH2 is the output voltage
of EV charger. CH4 is the output current. The experimental
waveforms show that the phase voltage and current have same
phase and output voltage and current is steady. Thus the EV
charger implements the grid current high sinusoidal and can
reach unit power factor. By the power analyzer, power factor
can reach 1 and the grid current THD is less than 3% under
rated output power.
Figure 11 is the dynamic waveforms of the electric vehicle
charger module when charging current is changed from 15A to
5A and from 5A to 15A. CH3 is the phase A current. CH4 is
the output current. The experimental waveforms show that the
output currentrisingrate 20A/s and the output current
decreasingrate 20A/s. Thus the EV charger, which is a
cascade system that includes two modules: threephase PWM
rectifier and phaseshift fullbridge converter, has good
characteristic for dynamic state.
V. CONCLUSIONS
Nowadays, as the environmental pollution and energy crisis
is increasing seriously, EV will become more and more popular.
The operation of power grid will be more and more impacted
by charging behavior of EV. The traditional electric vehicle
charging system uses diode rectifier bridges topology cascade
with DCDC, which results in reduction of using efficiency of
power energy and severely affects voltage quality. This
requires a high power factor smart EV charger to make full use
of the grid energy and to charge the batteries fast.
The proposed the DC fast charger for electric vehicle
charging station is verified by experiment. The power factor of
this charger can reach 1 and THD is less than 3%. The charger
module has good characteristic for static and dynamic state,
which is suitable to applications of smart grids. Owing to the
digital control its work characteristic is excellent, and its
control method is easy to improve for the future. Therefore, the
DC fast charger is suitable for electric vehicle charging station.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author would like to thank the fund and support of the
National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project no
(51077122).
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