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BEYONDSALSAFORBEGINNERS

THECUBANTIMBAREVOLUTION

ANINTRODUCTIONTOLATINMUSIC
FORDANCERSANDLISTENERS

KEVINMOORE
downloadableaudiofileproductandfreedownloadavailableat:www.timba.com/audio

CoverphotobyRichardRobinson:
DancersfromAfroCubadeMatanzasMatanzas,Cuba

REVISION1.0
2012BYKEVINMOORE
SANTACRUZ,CA
ALLRIGHTSRESERVED
Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedinwholeorinpart,orstoredinaretrieval
system,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopy,
recordingorotherwise,withoutwrittenpermissionoftheauthor.
ISBN10:1480160938
ISBN13/EAN13:9781480160934
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www.timba.com/audio
www.timba.com/percussion
www.timba.com/clave
www.timba.com/bass
www.timba.com/encyclopedia_pages/beginners

www.timba.com/piano

www.timba.com/users/7
kevin@timba.com
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TableofContents
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 12
ListeningTours ................................................................................................................................. 12
RhythmicExercises........................................................................................................................... 13
AbouttheFreeDownloadableAudioFiles ...................................................................................... 14
CollectingMusicin2012 .................................................................................................................. 15
ListeningTour1:PreRevolution(19001959) ..................................................................................... 16
HowtoUsetheListeningTours ................................................................................................... 16
Son.................................................................................................................................................... 17
Danzn ............................................................................................................................................. 19
FurtherListeningRecommendationsforDanzn ........................................................................ 21
SonMontuno ................................................................................................................................... 22
DanznMambo ............................................................................................................................... 24
MamboinCharangas ................................................................................................................... 25
Jazzbands ......................................................................................................................................... 26
MamboinJazzbands .................................................................................................................... 28
1950sCharanga................................................................................................................................ 30
Descargasofthe1950s .................................................................................................................... 33
RhythmExercises1:TheGrid............................................................................................................... 35
DemystifyingMusicNotationorFourWaystoSayNothing.......................................................... 36
TheYardstickAnalogy .................................................................................................................. 40
MeasuringthePassageofTime ................................................................................................... 40
TheMeaningofMusicalTalent.................................................................................................... 41
Exercise11:FeelingtheGrooveAudioTracks11a&11b ................................................. 42

EstablishingYourOwnGroove............................................................................................. 42
Exercise12:VisualizingtheGrooveAudioTrack12 ........................................................... 42
Exercise13:mainbeatsAudioTracks13aand13b........................................................... 44
TheAudioFileMethod..................................................................................................................... 45
Exercise14:mainbeats+32sonclaveAudioTracks14ad.............................................. 45
TrackNamingConventions .................................................................................................. 47
HowtheAudioFilesWork............................................................................................................ 47
ThePocket............................................................................................................................ 47
TheTeacherandtheTutor ............................................................................................ 47
ThePsychologicalStagesofLearning................................................................................... 48
ListeningTour2:PostRevolution(19591989) ................................................................................... 50
Politics,EconomicsandMusic ..................................................................................................... 50
Salsa ................................................................................................................................................. 52
Cubainthe1960s............................................................................................................................. 56
LosVanVan(songoera)................................................................................................................... 57
IrakereandotherModernizedJazzbands........................................................................................ 60
RitmoOrientalandotherModernizedCharangas........................................................................... 62
LaRitmosPercussionSection...................................................................................................... 63
ModernizedConjuntos..................................................................................................................... 66
ElioRevysuCharangn ................................................................................................................. 68
RhythmExercises2:TwoBeatRhythmicCells .................................................................................... 70
Exercise21:girotimekeepingpatternAudioTracks21ad............................................. 71
Exercise22:tresilloAudioTracks22ad ............................................................................. 71
Exercise23:displacedtresilloAudioTracks23ad ............................................................. 72
Exercise24:cinquilloAudioTracks24ad........................................................................... 73
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Exercise25:bombasicAudioTracks25ad ...................................................................... 73
Exercise26:bomboponcheAudioTracks26ad................................................................ 74
Exercise27:botaAudioTracks27ad ................................................................................. 76
Exercise28:bolerobassAudioTracks28ad...................................................................... 77
Exercise29:habaneraAudioTracks29ad ......................................................................... 77
Sidebar:StartingPoints.......................................................................................................... 1
Exercise210:commonbassandkickcellAudioTracks210ad ......................................... 78
Exercise211:2beatcongamarchacellAudioTracks211ad............................................ 80
ListeningTour3:Timba........................................................................................................................ 81
SongspecificAccompanimentParts............................................................................................ 82
Salsa,Timba,GearsandDancing ................................................................................................. 83
NGLaBanda ..................................................................................................................................... 85
CharangaHabanera.......................................................................................................................... 88
TheClaveInstrumentinTimba .................................................................................................... 89
Sidebar:ComparingIssacDelgadoandPaulitoFG ........................................................................ 1
IssacDelgado.................................................................................................................................... 92
PaulitoFGysulite.......................................................................................................................... 95
Manoln,elMdicodelaSalsa......................................................................................................... 99
ManolitoysuTrabuco ................................................................................................................... 102
Klmax............................................................................................................................................. 104
Bamboleo ....................................................................................................................................... 106
AzcarNegra .................................................................................................................................. 108
LosVanVan(timbaera) ................................................................................................................. 110
PupyPedrosoandLosQueSonSon............................................................................................... 113

ElitoRevysuCharangn.............................................................................................................. 115
HavanadPrimera........................................................................................................................... 117
OtherRecommendedTimbaArtists .............................................................................................. 119
RhythmExercises3:FourBeatRhythmicCells.................................................................................. 122
DancingPatterns ............................................................................................................................ 122
Exercise31:basicdancestepon1AudioTracks31ad ................................................ 123
Exercise32:basicdancestepon2AudioTracks32adand32prepad .................... 125
Exercise33:basicdancestepon3AudioTracks33ad ................................................ 126
Exercise34:basicdancestepon4AudioTracks34ad ................................................ 127
VariationonExercise31:basicdancestepNewYork2(useAudioTrack31) .............. 128
Exercise35:specialsonmontunostepAudioTracks35ad ............................................. 129
Exercise36:chachachAudioTracks36ad ..................................................................... 130
ClavePatterns ................................................................................................................................ 132
Exercise37:23sonclaveAudioTracks37ad ................................................................. 132
Exercise38:32sonclaveAudioTrack38ad................................................................... 133
Exercise39:23rumbaclaveAudioTracks39ad ............................................................ 134
Exercise310:32rumbaclaveAudioTracks310ad ........................................................ 134
Exercise311:23clavemarkersAudioTracks311ad...................................................... 136
Exercise312:32clavemarkersAudioTracks312ad...................................................... 136
BellPatterns ................................................................................................................................... 137
Exercise313:23campaneoAudioTracks313ad ........................................................... 138
Exercise314:32campaneoAudioTracks314ad ........................................................... 138
SoapboxSidebar:TerminologyGetOverIt! ....................................................................... 1
Exercise315:23contracampaneoAudioTracks315ad................................................. 141

Exercise316:32contracampaneoAudioTracks316ad................................................. 141
ExamplesoftheThreeMainTypesofmid20thCenturyInstrumentation ........................ 143
Exercise317:23contracampaneo2AudioTracks317ad.............................................. 144
Exercise318:32contracampaneo2AudioTracks318ad.............................................. 144
PatternsforTimbales ..................................................................................................................... 145
Exercise319:23cscaraAudioTracks319ad ................................................................ 145
Exercise320:32cscaraAudioTracks320ad ................................................................ 146
Exercise321:23cscaraaccentsAudioTracks321ad ................................................... 146
Exercise322:32cscaraaccentsAudioTracks322ad ................................................... 147
Exercise323:23cscaraderumbaAudioTracks323ad................................................ 147
Exercise324:32cscaraderumbaAudioTracks324ad................................................ 147
Exercise325:23baqueteoAudioTracks325ad............................................................. 148
Exercise326:32baqueteoAudioTracks326ad............................................................. 148
DrumsetPatterns ....................................................................................................................... 149
KickDrumPatterns..................................................................................................................... 150
Exercise32723commontimbamarchakickAudioTracks327ad.............................. 150
Exercise32832commontimbamarchakickAudioTracks328ad.............................. 151
Exercise32923commontimbapresinkickAudioTracks329ad.............................. 151
Exercise33032commontimbapresinkickAudioTracks330ad.............................. 151
SnareDrumPatterns.................................................................................................................. 152
Exercise33123timbakick&snareAudioTracks331ad ............................................ 152
Exercise33232timbakick&snareAudioTracks332ad ............................................. 153
Exercise33323LosQueSonSonkick&snareAudioTracks333ad ........................... 154
Exercise33432LosQueSonSonkick&snareAudioTracks334ad ........................... 154

Exercise33523LosQueSonSonghostsnareAudioTracks335ad............................ 155
Exercise33632LosQueSonSonghostsnareAudioTracks336ad............................ 155
Hihat,TomsandCymbals........................................................................................................... 155
CongaPatterns ........................................................................................................................... 156
Exercise33723clavealignedstandardcongamarchaAudioTracks337ad .............. 157
Exercise33832clavealignedstandardcongamarchaAudioTracks338ad .............. 157
Exercise339232drumcongamarchaAudioTracks339ad....................................... 158
Exercise340322drumcongamarchaAudioTracks340ad....................................... 158
RhythmExercises4:RhythmicPerspective ....................................................................................... 159
WhatisRhythmicPerspective?...................................................................................................... 159
TheProblem ............................................................................................................................... 160
MixedSignals ............................................................................................................................. 160
HowRhythmicPerspectiveAffectsOurListeningTourStrategy ............................................... 161
RhythmicPerspectiveProblem1:Changoffbeats...................................................................... 161
ExerciseRP1:mainbeats+changtresAudioTracksRP1ad......................................... 162
ExerciseRP2:changmarmbula(useAudioTracks211ad) .......................................... 162
RhythmicPerspectiveProblem2:TheAnticipatedBass ............................................................... 163
ExerciseRP3:tumbapartforguaguancAudioTracksRP3ad........................................ 163
ExerciseRP4:Parecochero+anticipatedbassAudioTracksRP4aandRP4b................ 165
RhythmicPerspectiveProblem3:4Groupsof3or3Groupsof4? .............................................. 165
ExerciseRP5:mainbeats+standard12/8bellAudioTracksRP5ad............................... 166
Whatabout6/8?............................................................................................................. 167
12/8inLatinPopularMusic ............................................................................................... 167
RhythmicPerspectiveProblem4:Wheres1in12/8? ............................................................. 169

ExerciseRP6:alternate12/8bell+mainbeatsAudioTracksRP6ad .............................. 170


12/8Clave .......................................................................................................................... 170
ExerciseRP7:mainbeats+12/8rumbaclaveAudioTracksRP7ad ................................ 171
ExerciseRP8:mainbeats+12/8ararsabalbellAudioTracksRP8ad ......................... 171
ExerciseRP9:mainbeats+12/8alt.sabalbellAudioTracksRP9ad............................. 172
ExerciseRP10:abakadrumcell1AudioTracksRP10ad ............................................... 172
ExerciseRP11:abakadrumcell2AudioTracksRP11ad ............................................... 173
ExerciseRP12:abakadrumcell3AudioTracksRP12ad ............................................... 173
ExerciseRP13:abakadisplacedshakerpatternAudioTracksRP13ad ......................... 174
ExerciseRP14:Tumbafrancesamasn+mainbeatsAudioTracksRP14ae................... 174
ExerciseRP15:Tumbafrancesayub+mainbeatsAudioTracksRP15ad...................... 175
ExerciseRP16:Tumbafrancesafrent+mainbeatsAudioTracksRP16ad.................... 175
ExerciseRP17:TumbafrancesayubtofrentloopAudioTrackRP17........................... 175
RhythmicPerspectiveProblem5:ClaveDirectionDancingin23versus32 ............................ 176
ExerciseRP18:basicdancestep+32sonclaveAudioTracksRP18ad .......................... 176
ExerciseRP19:basicdancestep+23sonclaveAudioTracksRP19ad .......................... 176
ListeningTour4:FolkloricMusic........................................................................................................ 177
AfroCubanFolkloricMusic............................................................................................................ 178
Yoruba ........................................................................................................................................ 181
Bat ........................................................................................................................................ 181
Giro....................................................................................................................................... 188
Iyes ....................................................................................................................................... 190
Bemb .................................................................................................................................... 191
Carabal ...................................................................................................................................... 193

Bant .......................................................................................................................................... 194


Palo......................................................................................................................................... 194
Makuta ................................................................................................................................... 195
Yuka........................................................................................................................................ 196
Dahomey .................................................................................................................................... 198
Arar....................................................................................................................................... 199
TumbaFrancesa ..................................................................................................................... 201
Vod ....................................................................................................................................... 202
FolkloricMusicofCubanOrigin ..................................................................................................... 204
Chang ...................................................................................................................................... 204
CongadeComparsa ................................................................................................................... 208
Rumba ........................................................................................................................................ 210
Guaguanc ............................................................................................................................. 211
Yamb .................................................................................................................................... 213
Rumbacolumbia .................................................................................................................... 214
Guarapachangueo .................................................................................................................. 216
LookingAheadtoTheBeyondSalsaSeries........................................................................................ 218
BeyondSalsa:TheCentralPremise................................................................................................ 218
HowtheSeriesisOrganizedandSold........................................................................................ 218
Book ....................................................................................................................................... 218
Audio ...................................................................................................................................... 219
Video ...................................................................................................................................... 219
BeyondSalsaPiano ........................................................................................................................ 220
BeyondSalsaBass .......................................................................................................................... 221

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BeyondSalsaPercussion ................................................................................................................ 221


UnderstandingClaveandClaveChanges....................................................................................... 222
BeyondSalsaforEnsemble ............................................................................................................ 222
BeyondSalsaBongandBeyondSalsaCongas ............................................................................. 223
Appendix1:Glossary.......................................................................................................................... 224
Appendix2:CommonSuffixes ........................................................................................................... 233
Appendix3:SpanishExplanationsforEnglishSpeakers .................................................................... 233
Pronunciation................................................................................................................................. 233
SpanishLetterCombinationswiththeSamePronunciation ......................................................... 234
AccentMarksinSpanish ................................................................................................................ 234
TestYourSkills ............................................................................................................................... 235
CapitalizationinSpanish ................................................................................................................ 235
Appendix4:OtherStyleConventionsinthisBook ............................................................................ 235
Italicization ..................................................................................................................................... 235
Appendix5:ForFurtherStudy ........................................................................................................... 236
SuggestedReading ......................................................................................................................... 236
SuggestedListening........................................................................................................................ 237
Acknowledgments.............................................................................................................................. 239
AbouttheAuthor ............................................................................................................................... 239
TheBeyondSalsaCatalog2012 ...................................................................................................... 241

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Introduction
Beyond Salsa for Beginners is for dancers and listeners who enjoy attending Latin music concerts
and dances and simply want to learn more about the history, discography and basic rhythms for
theirownpersonalenjoyment.Thegoalsofthebookareasfollows:

togiveyouaworkingknowledgeofthefullhistoryofthismusic

toincreaseyourappreciationwithsomebasicclapping,singingand
dancingexercisestohelpyouunderstandhowitallfitstogether

toprovidealittleinsideinformationforthosetakingdanceclasses,
attendingconcertsandtravelingtoCuba

ListeningTours
Thecourseisbuiltaroundlisteningtours,withtheideaofmakinganemotionalconnectionwith
specificclassicrecordingsbeforegoingintostudymode.Thelisteningtoursgothroughthehistory
ofLatinmusic,genrebygenre.Eachsectionconsistsof:

arecommendedlisteningtrackanalyzedsectionbysection

abriefhistoryofthegenre

alistoffurtherlisteningtracks

ThegameplanfortheListeningToursistomakeaplaylist,orburnanaudioCD,consistingofthe
recommendedtrackforeachsection(orifyouprefer,analternatetrackfromthelongerlist),andto
listentotheplaylistoverandoveruntilyoucansingalongandhavestartedtodevelopapassionfor
themusic.Theideaistobecomeafanofthegenrebeforeyougointostudentmodetostudythe
genreshistoryandlearntoclapandsingitsrhythms.
Cubanmusicianstendtohaveagreatawarenessof,andrespectfor,thehistoryoftheircountrys
musicperhapsmoresothaninmanyothercountries.Youdbeunlikelytoheararockandrolleror
a hiphop musician quoting Frank Sinatra unless for comic effect, and few would even know the
namesofsuchmidcenturygiantsasLesterYoung,BudPowell,JeromeKernandmostotherswho
haventhadarecentHollywoodmoviemadeaboutthem.Incontrast,everyyoungCubanmusician
knowsandlovesBenyMor,LilMartnez,AbelardoBarrosoandthefullrangeofrumba,chang
and AfroCuban folkloric music. Its part of their national identity their sense of being Cuban.
Theyconsciouslyandsubconsciouslyquoteandrefertoaspectsofthiscommunalmusicallegacyin
everyperformanceandarrangement.Thisisofcourseabroadculturalgeneralizationandthereare
manyexceptions.Forexample,Englishlanguagepopartistshavebeguninrecentdecadestobuild
theirtracksoversampledsnippetsofJamesBrowngrooves,butthecontinuitybetweengenerations
inCubaismoreorganicandhasbeengoingonuninterruptedforoveracentury.

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As a listener, dancer or music student who hasnt grown up in Cuba or Puerto Rico, your
appreciation of your favorite songs will grow geometrically as you start to hear them in their
broader historical context and enjoy their dozens of references to the past. I myself studied this
music in reverse chronological order, falling in love with timba and salsa before working my way
backtotheturnofthe20thCentury.AsIdidso,Ifoundmyselfinastateofcontinualamazement,
thinkingtomyself:Aha!Sothatswherethatcamefrom!,onlytolaterlearnthatitactuallycame
fromevenfartherback.Inmanycases,themusicalhookIwassoenamoredofdatedbacktorumba,
changorAfroCubanfolkloricmusic.
AchronologicalsurveyofLatinmusic,then,wouldbeginwithAfroCubanfolkloricmusicandbranch
out to secular folkloric genres like rumba and chang before arriving at the first recordings of
danzn made around 1900. Son, also originally a folkloric genre, was first recorded commercially
around1918andbecamewildlypopularinthelate1920s.Sonmontunoanddanznmamboarrived
inthe1940s,followedbymamboandchachachinthe1950s.AftertheCubanRevolutionof1958,
salsa developed in New York and Puerto Rico while the Cubans moved on to mozambique, piln,
upaupa,simal,dengue,andchang68inthe1960s;thesongoofLosVanVan,thejazzclassical
AfroCubanfusionsofIrakere,andthemodernizedcharangaofRitmoOrientalinthe1970s;andthe
modernizedsonofRumbavana,Son14andAdalbertolvarezandthecharangnofRevinthe80s.
Thetimbaera,beginningaround1989,drawsheavilyonallofthesegenres.
Because of the listen before studying philosophy of this course, I had to modify the historical
chronologyslightly.Yearsofobservationhavemadeitclearthatmusicstudentsandnewlisteners
have a strong tendency to hear AfroCuban folkloric music, chang and rumba incorrectly. If you
immerseyourselfinlisteningtotheserhythmsbeforeyoureabsolutelycertainwherethe correct
beatis,youcaneasilywindupdoingyourselfmoreharmthangood.Thevocalsandtresofchang,
forexample,arealmostentirelysyncopatedandtheresnobassorchordalinstrumenttomakeit
clearwheretherealbeatis.Theresultisthatmanynewlistenersheartheomnipresentoffbeatsof
chang as onbeats. As well discuss later on, the human brain cant be stopped from guessing
where1iswhenithearsanewpieceofmusic.Andonceitmakesitsfirstguess,itcommitsitself
strongly, and before you know what hit you, youve learned the song incorrectly and have to go
throughalongandpainfulprocessofunlearningit.
Thus, although AfroCuban music, rumba and chang are the first genres historically, well save
themforthefinallisteningtour,afterwevemasteredtherhythmictoolswellneedtolearnthem
correctly.

RhythmicExercises
Asecondarygoalofthisbookistoprovideapreparatoryheadstartcourseforpeopleconsidering
takinglessonsonaninstrumentbutwhohaventyettakentheplunge,orforpeoplewhosimplylike
toknowmoreabouttherhythmstheyrehearing.Theother20volumes(asof2012)oftheBeyond

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LookingAheadtoTheBeyondSalsaSeries
BeyondSalsa:TheCentralPremise
The explosive Havana music scene of the 1990s produced a windfall of transformational musical
breakthroughs, many of which have yet to be fully exploited: songspecific tumbaos, gears, gear
changes,controlledimprovisation,conga,pianoandbasstumbaosofdoubleorquadruplelength,
contrasting gestures,efectos,rhythmiccounterpoint,newapproachestoclaveandclavechanges,
andsoon.Workinginrelativeisolation,Cubanmusicianshavereinventedpopularmusicarranging
inmanywaysthatcryouttobeunderstood,recombined,andcarriedforwardtotheirfullpotential
acrossthefullrangeofpopularmusicfromsalsaandLatinjazz,torock,funkandpop.
ThegoaloftheBeyondSalsaprojectistostudythisCubantimbarevolution,anditshistory,from
thepointofviewofeachinstrumentintherhythmsection:BeyondSalsaPiano,BeyondSalsaBass,
Beyond Salsa Bong, and so on. In Beyond Salsa for Ensemble, we study the rhythm section as a
whole, with coordinated exercises for each instrument designed to be practiced together as a
completerhythmsection,whetherbystudentsinanensembleclasssettingorbyprofessionalsina
working band seeking to incorporate more modern Cuban rhythm section techniques into its
arsenal.InUnderstandingClaveandClaveChanges,weclarifysomeoftheconfusionandmystery
surroundingthisenigmaticmusicaltopic.
Theearlyvolumesoneachinstrumentcoverhistoryandbasicconcepts.Subsequentvolumesfocus
onthestyleofonespecificartist.BeyondSalsaforBeginnersisaspecialcoursedesignedfornon
musicians:dancers,listeners,andbeginnersandBeyondSalsaPercussion,Volume1isapreparatory
coursefornonmusiciansconsideringtakingpercussionlessons.

HowtheSeriesisOrganizedandSold
With the exception of the Understanding Clave and Clave Changes book and audio package, each
volumeoftheBeyondSalsaseriesconsistsoftwoorthreeseparatelysoldproducts:
1) abooklikethisonewithtextandmusicalnotation(hardcopyoreBook)
2) downloadable MP3 audio files demonstrating the musical examples, accompanied by a
clave click track, at fullspeed and in slow motion, panning certain elements hard left and
rightformoreflexiblestudy
3) when available, downloadable computer video files and physical DVDs showing a Cuban
musicianperformingeachmusicalexampleatfullspeed,inslowmotion,andwithvariations

Book
Thebookyourereadingnowcanbepurchasedat www.createspace.com/4035244asahardcopy,
bound paperback book. Alternatively, it can be viewed online and/or printed on your computers
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printer from the website www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/433. All volumes show music


notationforeachexerciseinboth8thnotes(Americanstyle)and16thnotes(Cubanstyle),aswellas
explanatory text and historical information. If you dont read music and arent interested in the
explanationsandhistory,youcanchoosetobuyonlytheaudioand/orvideoproductsandusethem
tolearnthepartsbyear.
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Audio
Theaudiofilesdonotcomewiththebooks.Theyreavailableasseparate,downloadableproducts
from www.timba.com/audio (or,inthecasesofUnderstandingClave,andpartsofBeyondSalsafor
Beginners and Beyond Salsa Percussion, Vol. 1, theyre available as free downloads at
clave.latinpulsemusic.com and timba.com/audio). For each notation example, there are two ultra
highqualityMP3filesmadedirectlyfrom24bitwavefiles.Dependingonthesubject,someaudio
filesaregeneratedfromMIDIfiles(oftenplayedbythemusician)andsomeareactualliveaudio.In
each case, we provide a slow motion version. The Alain Prez books, for example, are about 90%
live audio and 10% MIDI audio. The audio files can be burned to audio CDs or played on an MP3
player. If you have audio on your computer, I highly recommend taking advantage of the new
generation of computer programs that will allow you to change the tempo and/or key of any of
these audio files and to loop them to fit your style of practice. Particularly useful are: Amazing
Slowdowner,Transcribe!andEmulatorX,allofwhichcanbedownloadedfromtheirrespective
websites.Audiosamplesforallbookscanbeauditionedattimba.com/audio.
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Video
Liketheaudioproducts,thevideosaresoldasseparatedownloadsfromtimba.com/audio.Sofar,
wehavevideofortheAlainPrezvolumesBeyondSalsaBasstheMelnLewisvolumesofBeyond
Salsa Piano, and the Calixto Oviedo volumes of Beyond Salsa Percussion. There are video files for
eachexercise,inwhichthemusicianwillplayslowly,thenatfullspeed,andfinallywithvariations
such as might be used in a live performance. In the cases of Meln and Alain, there are three
separatevideosforeachperformance:cameraangle1,cameraangle2,andasplitscreenversion
showing both angles. Samples of each as well as some free performance videos of Meln can be
foundatwww.timba.com/pianoandwww.timba.com/bass.SamplesarealsoonYouTube.
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The video products for Volume 2 and Volume 3 of Beyond Salsa Percussion, featuring
drummer/timbaleroCalixtoOviedo,areavailableatwww.timba.com/percussion,asareseveralfree
previews. The two volumes Calixto volumes are combined on a hardcopy DVD available at
www.createspace.com/324911.AllhardcopyDVDsaresoldfor$25andincludethecontentsoftwo
volumes,whilethedownloadablevideosaresoldseparatelyat$10pervolume.HardcopyDVDsfor
AlainandMelnmayalsobereleased.
AttheendofthisbookistheBeyondSalsaCatalogandpricelistforallproductsreleasedtodate,
withpictures,linksandcontentdescriptions.

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BeyondSalsaPiano

BeyondSalsaPiano,with11volumesasof2012,isahistoryandanthologyoftheroleofthepiano
intheLatinrhythmsectionfromitsfirstappearancetothepresent.Inabroadersense,itsastudy
oftheartofcreatingmusicfromlayersofrepeatingrhythmicandmelodicphrases.Whetherthese
syncopatedfiguresarecalledtumbaos,guajeos,montunos,riffsorvamps,thisAfroCubanconcept
liesattheheartofnearlyeverypopularmusicgenrefromsalsatorock,funk,R&B,hiphopandjazz.
While presented as a set of method books, the series doubles as a history course and record
collectingguideforlisteners,dancers,andmusicianswhoplayinstrumentsotherthanpiano.
Perhapsthemostimportantgoalofthepianoseriesistoprovideacomprehensiveunderstandingof
how tumbaos are constructed, their central role in the texture of Latin music of all eras, and the
endlesspossibilitiestheyprovideforcreativecomposingandarranging.
Volumes1to5Rangingfrombeginningtoadvanced,thesefivevolumescoverthefullhistoryof
Cuban tumbao playing, from the tres and violin guajeos that were the predecessors of the piano
tumbaotoathoroughanalysisofthemoderntimbastyle.
Volume6onwardEachbookconcentratesonthestyleofoneCubanpianist,withnotefornote
transcriptions,oftenbasedonMIDIfilesperformedbythevolumesfeaturedpianist.Forexample,
thesubjectofVolumes6through9isIvnMelnLewis,thephenomenallyinnovativepianistwho
played with The Issac Delgado group from 1995 to 1998. Volumes 10 and 11 begin our study of
CsarPupyPedrosoofLosVanVanandLosQueSonSon.Volume12willcompleteoursurveyof
PupysworkwithLosVanVan,andVolume13willcoverhisfirstfouralbumswithLosQueSonSon.
Beginning with Volume 14, we hope to move on to Juan Carlos Gonzlez and Tirso Duarte of
Charanga Habanera, Rodolfo Peruchn Argudn of NG La Banda, Chaka Npoles of Manoln (El
MdicodelaSalsa),RolandoLunaofPaulitoFGandTheIssacDelgadogroup,andmanyothers.For
beginners and intermediate players, well also be adding a special volume featuring Gustavo
Ramrez,exploringthehistoryofandthemanypossiblebassandpianovariationsthatcanbeused
withtheubiquitousguajiraprogression,IIVVIV,sofundamentaltosalsaandson.

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BeyondSalsaBass

Beyond Salsa Bass also begins with five introductory volumes of increasing difficulty (planned for
2013), covering the history of the bass tumbao chronologically. The subject of Volumes 69, Alain
Prez,playedsidebysideintheIssacDelgadogroupwithMelnLewis,thesubjectofVolumes69
ofBeyondSalsaPiano,sothetwoseriescoverthesamematerialinthesameorder.Eachisarguably
theleadingfigureofthetimbaeraonhisrespectiveinstrument,butevenmoreimportantwastheir
creative chemistry they shared with each other and with Delgado himself, producing a musical
result that far exceeded the sum of its parts. The opportunity to study the same historical music
fromthesetwovantagepointshasbeenoneofthemostexcitingpartsofwritingthisseries.

BeyondSalsaPercussion

After an introductory volume for beginners and prebeginners, the rest of the Beyond Salsa
Percussionseriesfocusesonindividualtimbalerosanddrummersandanalyzestherhythmsection
practices of various bands from various eras of Cuban music. Volumes 2 and 3, on the inimitable
Calixto Oviedo, of NG La Banda and Adalberto lvarez fame, were released in 2011. There are
extensivevideoproductsforthesebooks,includingspecialfilesfortheTranscribeprogramwith
prestoredvideolooppointsthatcanbeplayedbackatanyspeed.

221

UnderstandingClaveandClaveChanges

Andidealcompanionforthebookyourereadingnow,UnderstandingClaveandClaveChangesisa
specialsupplementaryvolumeinspiredbythearrangingofPupyPedrosoandJuanFormellduring
theperiodcoveredbyBeyondSalsaPiano,Volume11.Itbeganasashortappendix,butthemoreI
wrote, the more I thought about my years of discussions with other musicians, long nights spent
withheadphones,readingofendlessclavethreadsoninternetgroups,andthemanylecturesand
master classes Ive attended. There seems to be an endless fascination with clave, clave direction
andclavechanges,aswellasendlessfrustration,confusionandmisinformation.
With UnderstandingClaveIwasdeterminedtoendtheconfusiononceand forall,andtokeepit
frombeingonemoreloseweight,quitsmokingandmakeextracashinyoursparetimeselfhelp
book.Idesignedamethodthatrequiresyoutosing,clapanddanceyourwaythroughmemorized
musical examples before even attempting to understand the terminology of concepts. In order to
reach as large an audience as possible, the clave volume is sold at a reduced price, and with free
downloadableaudiofiles.

BeyondSalsaforEnsemble

At368pages,with464audiofiles,BeyondSalsaforEnsemble,Volume1isbyfarthelongestbookof
the series. Its designed for college and high school Latin ensembles and/or working salsa bands
seekingtoaddCubanrhythmsectiontechniquestotheirrepertoire.
222

Volume1,Part1takesastandardchordprogressionandshowshowitcanbeconvertedfromsalsa
totimbaonaninstrumentbyinstrumentbasis.
Volume1,Part2,usingthesameprogression,presents16rhythmicbreaks,orefectosandshows
howtheycanbeexecutedin32and23clavebyeachinstrument,withleadsheetsforexperienced
playersanddetailedtranscriptionsforstudentswhoneedorwanttolearnanexactandauthentic
waytoorchestrateeachbreakontheirspecificinstruments.
Volume 1, Part 3 is a meticulously complete arrangement of Pupy Pedrosos timba standard El
buenagente, with full lyrics, vocal harmony parts, horns, piano and bass, the latter two provided
bothasleadsheetsandnotefornotetranscriptions.Theresalsoaconductorsscore.
BeyondSalsaforEnsemble,Volume2,scheduledfor2013,willextendthesameapproachtotimba
gears.

BeyondSalsaBongandBeyondSalsaCongas
BeyondSalsaBong,featuringCarlosCaroofOpus13andPaulitoFG,andstartingwithavolume
forcompletebeginners,willbereleasedinlate2012orearly2013.
BeyondSalsaCongasiscomingin2013.

223

Appendix1:Glossary
Abaku

1.a12/8rhythmbroughttoCubafromtheCalabarRiverareaofWestAfrica
2.amysterious,allmale,mutualaidsociety

abanico

1.aspecialtimbalfigureusedtointroduceanewsection;originatedindanzn
2.Spanishforfan,femaledanzndancerswouldfanthemselvesduringtheAsections
ofdanzonesandthencollapsetheirfansontheirpartnersbacksjustastheBsection
began,perhapstheoriginalreasonforapplyingthetermtotimbales

aberkula

unconsecratedbatdrumsforuseinnonreligioussettings

ahnam

slangforahnadams(keepittherenomore),shoutedbysingersafterapassageor
attheendofasongthemeaningismorelikethatsperfectjustlikethat;sometimes
asnmissubstituted(likethat,nothingmoreisneeded)

akpn

theleadsingeranddirectorinatraditionalAfroCubanreligiousceremony

apodo

nicknamemanyCubanmusicianshavethemandthenicknameisoftenagoodnatured
jababoutsomephysicalattribute,e.g.,bombnforsomeonewhoisshortanddark
skinned,gordoorflacoforthefatandskinny,melnforsomeonewithabigroundhead
andsoon.Onlyrarelyisanapodocomplimentary,e.g.Changuito(asmallerversionof
therevereddeity,Chang).Otherapodosrefertoracialappearanceorskincolor,e.g.,El
Indio,Chino,Niche(darkblack),Chocolate,orpersonalitytraits,e.g.Tosco(roughand
crude).

Arar

1.anAfroCubanethnicgroupfromDahomeywhosemusic,drumsandreligionhave
beencarriedoninWesternCuba
2.aspecialbatrhythmadaptedfromtheararrepertoireforusewithspecifictypesof
songs

Bant

anAfroCubanethnicgroupofCongoleseorigin;moreslaveswerebroughtfromthis
regionthananyother;principalmusicalgenresarepalo,makutaandyuka

BPM

BeatsPerMinutetheunitofmeasurementfortempo(thespeedofthemainbeats)

backbeat

subdivision5;thesecondmainbeatofeachsideoftheclave;thesubdivisioncommonly
playedbythesnaredruminNorthAmericanmusic;asopposedtofrontbeatthefirst
mainbeatofeachsideoftheclave

baqueteo

1.theprincipaltimbalandgirorhythmofdanzn
2.(general)arhythmplayedbyastickorbaqueta

basicstep

asixstepdancemovementlastingoneclaveinduration

bat

1.oneofthreesizesofhourglassshaped,doublesidedrumsusedinYorubanmusic
2.themostextensivelypracticedandstudiedAfroCubanreligiousgenre

batera

Spanishfordrumset

bemb

1.afamilyofYorubandrumsinCuba
2.oneofthefourmainYorubanmusicgenresofAfroCubanfolkloricmusic

bloque

alongerrhythmicbreakplayedbytwoormorerhythmsectionmusicians(asopposedto
efecto,ashorterrhythmicbreak)

bolero

1.atypeofslowsongwithromanticlyrics,verypopularthroughoutthe20thCentury
2.aspecificrhythmicpatternoften,butnotalways,usedtoaccompanybolerosongs

224

bomba

1.alargefamilyofPuertoRicanfolkloricrhythms,includingbombasic,studiedin
Exercise25.
2.anultrahighenergytimbagearinwhichthebassplaysthumpsandslidesanddancers
danceapartfromeachother,withshouldersandhips,andwithrecklessabandon

bombo

1.subdivision4;themiddlestrokeofthe3sideofclave
2.Spanishtermforbassdrum

bong

apairofsingleheaded,openendeddrums,attachedtoeachother,heldbetweenthe
kneesandplayedwiththehands;thebongoriginatedinCuba

bongosero

amusicianwhoplaysbong(andalsothehandbellinmostgenres)

bongbell

asynonymforhandbellorcampana

bongdelmonte

averylarge,lowbongusedinchang

bota

1.amemberofthesongofamilyofrhythmsthatstressessubdivision6and8ofeach
sideoftheclave;createdbyJosLuisChanguitoQuintana
2.Spanishtermforboot(asinkickinguptheenergyoftheband)

botijaor
botijuela

alargejugusedasabasswindinstrument;replacedbythemarmbulainchangand
earlyson,andlaterreplacedbythecontrabassinson

cabildos

culturalpreservationsocieties,somestillinexistenceinCuba,datingbackhundredsof
yearswhentheywerepermittedbythegovernmenttoallowAfricanslavestopreserve
theirculture

caja

1.thelowestdruminmanyfolkloricensembles,oftenusedforimprovisation
2.Spanishforsnaredrum

cajn

1.oneofafamilyofdrumsservingasimilarroletoacongaortumbadorabutwithboth
thebodyofthedrumandtheplayingsurfacemadeofwood
2.Spanishtermforbox

campana

1.Spanishtermforbell(anybell)
2.aspecificbell,thehandbellorbongbell;thelowestofthethreecommonbellsof
salsaandtimba

campaneo

1.Spanishtermforapatternplayedonanybell
2.aspecificandextremelycommonpatternplayedonthehandbell(Exercise313)

cscara

1.acommonrhythmiccellplayedwithsticksonthesidesofthetimbalesalsocalled
cascareo(Exercise319)
2.Spanishforshell

cscarapulse

aterminventedforthesebookstoprovideadescriptivenameforsubdivision6,whichis
heavilyaccentedonbothsidesoftheclaveinthecscaraorcascareorhythm
alsoknownasCubanstylesalsainthedancesense;atermforthetypicalwaythat
Cubansdancetosalsaandtimba.IntheUnitedStatescasinoisoftendistinguishedfrom
LAandNYstyleSalsaasbeingmorecircularandlesslinear.
anyofavarietyoffolkloricinstrumentsusedfortimekeepingandconsistingof
hardwoodstruckwithsticks;alsocallguagua

casino

cat
cencerro

Spanishtermforacowbell;synonymforcampana

chach

thesmallerheadofabatdrum(thelargerheadiscalledtheen)

225

chachach

aCubangenrecreatedinthe1950s,originallyplayedbycharangagroups,withaspecial
characteristicdancestep

chabell

asmallhigherpitchedbell,usuallymountedonthetimbalerosstand(campanade
chachach)

Chang

oneofthemostcelebratedSanteradeities,theorichaofthunderandlightning;
associatedwiththecolorred;dancedbyasinglemaledancerwithanax(seep.204)

chang

aseminalCubangenrefromtheeasternregionofCuba

charangafrancesa

agroupthatincludesviolins,flutes,giro,andtimbales,butnotbongorhorns;now
calledsimplycharanga;itsoriginalprimarygenrewasdanzn,thendanznmambo,
thenchachach,butthetermreferstotheinstrumentation;examples:Orquestas
Aragn,Sublime,Sensacin,Amrica,Rev,RitmoOriental,Melodasdel40,Arcao,
Fajardo,etc.

chkere

apitchedgourdwithbeadsnettedaroundtheoutside,playedwiththehands
(sometimesspelledshkere);aprimaryinstrumentintheYorubangirogenre

cinquillo

1.animportant5strokecellbuiltaroundthe3sideofclavenotequallyspaced
2.literally,aquintuplet,agroupoffiveequallyspacedstrokes

clave

1.oneoftwosticksplayedtogether(claves)
2.oneofseveral5strokerhythms,regularlyalternatingbetweentwosides,onemore
syncopatedthantheother,andaroundwhichmostCubangenresarebuilt

clavealigned

arhythmiccellofatleast4beats,withadifferentrhythmforeachofitsinternal2beat
halves,suchthatone2beatcellismeanttobeplayedagainstthe2sideofclaveandthe
otheragainstthe3side.Ifthelistenerhasexperienceinthegenreandstyletheclave
alignedcellshouldestablishtheclavedirectioneveniftheactualclaveisnotpresent.

columbia

thefastestofthethreeoriginalrumbagenres;in12/8;featuringavirtuosicsinglemale
danceraggressivelydancingwithknifesandotherimplementsandinteractingwiththe
quintoorleaddrum

comparsa

acarnavalparadecelebration,withfloats,commonalloverCuba,featuringavarietyof
fast,densecongarhythmsandsexydancinginelaboratecostumes

conga

1.atall,rounded,singleheadedCubandrum,playedwiththehands,alsocalled
tumbadora
2.aspecificsizeddrumofthecongafamily,largerthanthequintoandsmallerthanthe
tresdosandtumba
3.afastCubancarnavalrhythmplayedbycomparsagroups

conjunto

agroupwithtrumpets,tres(optional),andbongbutnottimbales;itsoriginalprimary
genrewassonmontunobutthetermreferstotheinstrumentation;e.g.Arsenio
Rodrguez,Chappottn,RobertoFaz,ConjuntoCasino,Rumbavana,Son14,etc.

contracampana

alongflatbellmountedonthetimbalerosstand,alsocalledtimbalbell,ormambobell

contracampaneo

aspecificpatternplayedonthecontracampanabell

contratiempo

literallyagainstthebeatusedtorefertodancingon2

cornetachina

adoublereedwindinstrumentusedincomparsa,especiallyinEasternCuba

coro

1.arepeatingcallandresponsevocalriffsungduringthemontunosection
2.thewholesectionwherearepeatingcoroandleadvocalguasorpregonesaresung

226

cubanismo

theessentialqualityofbeingCuban

cuerpo

1.thelowervolumesong,orverse,sungbytheleadvocalistaloneatthebeginningof
mostLatinarrangements;thebodyofthesong
2.Spanishtermforbody

Dahomey

1.anAfricankingdominandaroundpresentdayBenin;someDahomeyanswere
broughtdirectlytoMatanzasandHavana(calledArar);otherscametoEasternCubavia
Haiti
2.aseculargenrefromtheVodfamily,broughttoEasternCubafromHaitibypeopleof
Dahomeyandescent

danzn

seminalCubangenredatingfromthelate19thCenturythatcombinedclavebased
rhythmswithEuropeanorchestralinstrumentsandtheEuropeancontradanza;thefirst
danznwasLasalturasdeSimpsonbyMiguelFaldein1879

despelote

anoncouplestyleofsexy,undulatingdance,performedtotimbagears;literally,tostrip
offorthrowdown;fromdespelotar

danzonete

a1930smodificationofthedanzn,addingvocalstocompetewiththepopularityofson;
thefirstdanzonetewasRompiendolarutinabyAnisetoDazin1929

descarga

ajamsessionfromtheverbdescargartodischarge,tounload,ordescargarseto
unburdenoneself

diablo

ArsenioRodrguezstermfortheconcludingsectionsofhissonmontunoarrangements,
withrepeatinghornriffsjuxtaposedagainstcorosandsometimessolos;adirect
predecessorofthemambo

diana

afreeformvocalsungbytheleadsinger,withnonverbalsyllablesinsteadofwords,at
thebeginningofaguaguanc.Thedianasetsthemoodandkeybeforethecuerpo
begins.

duplepulse
structure

musicinwhicheachmainbeatisfeltasbeingsubdividedintotwoorfourparts;most
Cubanpopularmusicisinduplepulsestructure

efecto

arhythmicbreakplayedbytwoormoremembersoftherhythmsection

en

thelargerheadofabatdrum(thesmallerheadiscalledthechach)

estribillo

ingeneral,arepeatedvocalchorus;usedspecificallyasapartofadanznarrangement

frontbeat

subdivision1,thefirstmainbeatoneachsideoftheclave,asopposedtobackbeat,the
secondmainbeatoneachsideoftheclave

gear
(gearchanges)

atermcoinedbytheauthortodescribeanyspecificrhythmsectionorchestrationthat
themembersoftherhythmsectionhaverehearsedandcanswitchinanoutofoncue.
Allgenreshavegears,buttimbahasauniquegroupofgearsinvolvingtheabsenceofthe
basstumbaoandoftenaccompaniedbychangesinthedancemoves.

guagua

1.apieceofhardwoodorcane,playedwithsticks,creatingawoodblocklikesound,used
inrumbaandotherfolkloricgenres;alsocalledcat
2.Cubanslangforbus

guaguanc

oneofthethreegenresoftheseminalCubanfolkloricrumbacomplex;characterizedby
aspecificmatingritualdance;incrediblyinfluentialonallCubanpopularmusicgenres

guajeo

asyncopated,loopedfigureusedforaccompaniment;guajeoisprimarilyusedforviolins
andtresbutalsosometimesusedforpiano;synonymsaretumbaoandmontuno

227

guajiro/guajira

1.apersonfromthecountry(alsocampesino/campesina)
2.guajiraatypeofvocal/guitarfolkmusicwithminimalpercussion,fromthesame
familythatincludestrova,cancin,boleroandpuntoguajiro.
3.guajiraaspecialmediumslowtypeofarrangementpopularinNuyoricansalsa

guaracha

originallyatypeofCubansongusedinoperettas,featuringcomicalwordsandfast
tempos,lateradoptedbysonandcharangagroups

guarapachangueo

amoderntypeofguaguancaddingcajonesandsometimesbatstotherumba
ensemble;thetermwascoinedbyafriendofLosChinitos,who,uponfirsthearing,and
notimmediatelycomprehending,theirrhythmicinnovations,famouslyandpejoratively
questioned:whatsallthisguarapachangueo?

guataca

ametalhoebladeusedasabellinmanyfolkloricgenressuchaspaloandgiro

guayo

atypeofgiro(serratedgourdtimekeepinginstrument);usedinchang

gira

ametalgirolikeanopenendedmetalthermoswithahandle;usedprimarilyin
Dominicanmerengueandbachata,butsometimesinCubanmusic;wasplayedby
musicaldirectorJoaqunBetancourtinIssacDelgadosmid90sband

giro

1.aserratedgourdplayedwithastick(likeawashboard);oneoftheprincipaltime
keepersinLatinmusic;sometimescalledguayo
2.anAfroCubanfolkloricgenre(Yorubancategory)usingmultiplechkeres

habanera

1.ahistoricallyimportantrhythmiccell;sometimescalledtango
2.aSpanishadjectivemeaningHavanan,orofHavana(habaneroformasculine)
3.afemalepersonfromHavana(theSpanishtermforHavanaisLaHabana)

hembra

thelargerbong,conga,ortimbalinagroupoftwo(thesmallerbeingcalledmacho);
literally,hembrameansfemaleandmachomeansmale
twosmallcymbals,facingeachother,thatcanbeopenedandclosedwithafootpedal,
and/orplayedwithsticks

hihat
hook

ashortmusicalideathatdrawsalistenertoanewpieceofmusic,thatsticksinthemind
suchthatthelistenerwantstohearthesongagain.Ahookcanberhythmic,melodic,
harmonic,accompanimental,orlyricalusuallyacombination.

ittole

themiddlesizeddrumofthethreebats

iy

thelargestofthethreebats,playedbytheleader,whocuestherhythmicchanges

iyes

1.oneoffourmaingenresofYorubanmusicwithitsowntypeofdrums
2.aspecificrhythmadaptedforuseinbatmusic

jamblock

originallythebrandnameforarectangularinstrumentofredorblueplastic,producinga
veryloudclavelikesound,usedprimarilytoplaytheclaverhythmandmountedona
drumortimbalessetnowthetermisusedgenericallyforanysuchinstrument

jazzband

(pron:yahzbahng);agroupwiththeinstrumentationofaNorthAmericanbigband,or
asubsetthereof,thatlateraddedLatinpercussion,e.g.OrquestasRiverside;Casinodela
Playa,ChepnChovn,BenyMorsBandaGigante,TitoPuente,Machito,etc.

jimagua

1.the2sideofclave
2.Spanishfortwin

kickorkickdrum

abassdrumplayedwithafootpedalinCubanmusicsometimesplayedfroma
standingpositionbyatimbalero

228

kirib(orquirib)

asimplefolkloricgenrefromthemountainsofEasternCuba;alongwithnengn,oneof
theprecursorsofchang,andbyextension,son

Lucum

1.atermforCubansofYorubanancestry
2.thelanguageandreligioninheritedbyCubansofYorubandescent

macho

thesmallerbong,conga,ortimbalinagroupoftwo(thelargerbeingcalledhembra)

mainbeats

Thefourequallyspacedbeatsofonecycleofclave.Thesearethebeatsonwhichyoutap
yourfoottothemusic.Theirspeedisthetempoofthesong.Thefirstandthirdmain
beatsarecalledfrontbeatsinthisbookandthesecondandfourtharecalledbackbeats.

makuta

oneofthethreemainBantgenres,withitsowntypeofdrums(similartocongas),anda
fertilityritedanceconsideredaprecursorofguaguanc

mambito

Ashortrhythmicfiguresharedbythefluteandpercussionincharangamusic

mambo

1.asectionofaLatinarrangementfeaturingrepeatinghornriffs,oftenwith
contrapuntalrepeatingvocalriffs,orcoros
2.aCubangenre,withacharacteristicdancestep,createdinthe1950s

mambobell

synonymforcontracampana,thelargeflatmountedbellplayedbythetimbalero

manoteo

thelessaccentedstrokesofacongamarchaorbongmartillo,usedtofillinthe
subdivisionsfortimekeepingpurposes;alsocalledrelleno

maracas
Maraca

1.apairasmallgourdswithhandles,filledwithbeads;oneoftheprincipaltimekeeping
instrumentsinLatinmusic
2.thenickname(apodo)ofOrlandoValle,flutistandbandleader,whoasayoungman
wasverythinandhadahugeafro,thusresemblingthemusicalinstrument

marcha

1.arepeatingcongapatternusedforaccompaniment
2.afamilyofrhythmsectiongearsthatalwaysincludesasteadybasstumbaoandconga
marchaandhasdifferentpercussioncombinationsdependingonthepartofthe
arrangementitsusedfor

marchaabajo

atermusedinthesebooks(andtosomeextentelsewhere)tomeanthetypeofmarcha
gearusedforcuerpos;usescscaraandusuallybong,butwithnobells.

marchaarriba

atermusedinthesebooks(andtosomeextentelsewhere)tomeanthetypeofmarcha
gearusedforcoros,withtwointerlockingbellparts

marchade
mambo

atermusedinthesebooks(andtosomeextentelsewhere)tomeanthetypeofmarcha
gearusedforhornmambos,withbells,cymbalsandlotsofpercussionfills

marmbula

alargewoodenboxwithpitchedstripsofmetal,likealargekalimbaorlamellophone;
usedasthebassinstrumentinchangandearlyson

martillo

1.theprincipaltimekeepingpatternofthebong
2.literally,Spanishforhammer

masacote

atermforatimbagearwithoutbasstumbao,butwithsomesortofcongamarcha

merengue

afastDominicangenrethatbecamepopularinCubaninthe1980s,spawningvarious
hybridssuchasChanguitosmerensongo

meter

theregulargroupingofmainbeats,e.g.,4/4,2/2,12/8etc.Thefirstnumberisthe
numberofbeatspergroupandthesecondisthedurationusedinstandardnotationfor
onebeat.12/8isacompoundmetermeaningthateachgroupof3isfeltasonebeat,
suchthat12/8hasfourmainbeats,eachfeltwiththreesubdivisionsperbeat.

229

moa

1.atypeofhornriffsimilartoamambo;sometimesinventedonthespotinlive
performance
2.CubanslangforrecentNorthAmericanR&BandCubanpopinfluencedbyit

montuno

1.asopposedtothecuerpo,thelonger,moreintensefinalsectionofaLatin
arrangement,featuringcoros,mambos,muelas,gearchanges,andsolos
2.atermusedoutsideofCubaforpianotumbao

mozambique

agenreofbriefbutextremepopularitycreatedbyPelloelAfroknintheearly1960sand
basedoncomparsa;arareexampleofpopularmusicwithnobassorchordinstruments,
althoughelectricguitarwaslateradded;notrelatedtothecountryofthesamename;
inspiredadifferentgenreofthesamenameinNewYork,ofwhichtheprincipal
proponentwasEddiePalmieri

muela

1.alowintensitybreakdownduringaliveperformancewherethebandplaysmore
softlyandthesingerengageswiththeaudience
2.Spanishtermfortooth(asinchewingthefatwiththecrowd)

nengn

asimplefolkloricgenrefromthemountainsofEasternCuba;alongwithkirib,oneof
theprecursorsofchangandbyextension,son

note

apitchedsoundcreatedbyamusicalinstrument(asopposedtostroke,asound,of
optionalpitchornopitch,usedinapercussionpattern)

nuevoritmo

anameusedbyArcaoandCachaotodescribethenewtypeofmontunosectionadded
tothedanznformatinthe1940s;sometimesalsocalledmambo

oknkolo

thesmallestofthethreebatdrums

on1,on2,on3

termsreferringtothedancecountonwhichthelongerstepawayfromthebodyoccurs

pachanga

amerengue/sonflavoredgenreplayedprimarilybycharangasthatbecameverypopular
inthelate1950s

pailas

synonymfortimbales;literally,Spanishforfryingpans

paseo

the5th,6thand7thbarsofadanznAsectionandthedistinctivetimbal/girofigureused
toaccompanythem;paseorepeatstherhythmofthe3sideofclave3timesinarow
andisalwaysfollowedbyabreak(aka,bloque,cierreorefecto)

pegao

popular,orinstyle;literallystuck;ahitsongoraverypopularartistispegao;
contractionofpegado,fromtheverbpegar,tostick,ortohit

piln

1.alongpoleusedtostirroastingcoffeebeansinacircularmotion
2.agenreanddancebasedonthismotion,createdbyEnriqueBonneandPachoAlonso
intheearly1960s;thegenreisseldomplayedtodaybutelementsoftherhythm
continuetostronglyinfluencesongoandtimba

platillo

1.Spanishtermforcymbal;literallylittleplate
2.occasionallyusedtermforsubdivision8,thelastsubdivisionofeachsideofclave

ponche

1.Spanishtermforpunch
2.subdivision7,thenexttolastsubdivisionofeachsideofclaveandthethirdstrokeof
the3sideofsonclave

pregn

animprovisedphrasesungbytheleadsingerinbetweencoros;asopposedtogua,a
similar,butnonimprovisedphrase;synonym:soneo;originallytheexclamationthata
streetvendor(pregonero)usestoadvertisehiswares

230

presin

adramatictimbabreakdowngearwherethebassdropsoutorplayspedaltonesandthe
congamarchaandbellsdropout;alsocalledpedal,whenthebassplayslongtones

quinto

theleaddruminrumba(alsothesmallestandhighestpitchedofthecongafamily)

quintopulse

atermforsubdivision2,thesecondsubdivisionofeachsideofclave

rezo

literally,aprayerwhenusedinAfroCubanfolkloricmusic,thedrumsusuallyplayin
timewhilethesungprayerfloatsabove,outoftime

ride

apercussivefigureplayedoverandovertocreateagroove(alsousedinridecymbal,
thecymbalusedtoplayanimportantrideinjazz)

rueda(orrueda
decasino)

"wheel"inSpanish;acircleofcouplesdancingcasinoinwhichallcouplesperformthe
samemovementssimultaneouslyasdirectedbyacallerwhocuesthegroupverballyand
withhandsignalsoriginallydevelopedinthelate1950sorearly1960s.

rumba

acriticallyimportantCubanfolkloriccomplex,thegenresofwhichincludeyamb,
guaguancandcolumbia

rumbaclave

aformofclaveusedinguaguanc,songoandveryoftenintimba;alsocalledclavede
guaguanc(Exercise39)

segundo

literallysecond;themiddledruminrumba,orinmanyfolkloricensembles

sello

literallysealorstamp;thetrademarkstyleofaband

slap

1.anaccentedspeakingtonestrokeoncongaorbong;unpitched,loudandsharp
2.anoccasionallyusedtermforsubdivision3,asubdivisiononwhichtheconguerooften
playsaslap;tapadoinSpanishdobletapadowhenamarchausestwoinsuccession

snaredrum

(orsnare)ashallowdrumwithmetalwiresonthebottomhead,usedinNorth
Americandrumsetplayingtoplaythebackbeat;cajainSpanish

sobadoorsobao

literallymassaged;referstothelefthandorstickplayingasoftaccompanimentonthe
timbaleswhiletherightstickplaysalouderbell,cscaraorwoodblockpart.

solar

anurbanCubanhousingproject,orlargeapartmentcomplex,withacentralcourtyard
whererumbasandothercommunalactivitiesoccur;plural:solares

son

aseminalCubangenredevelopedinthe1920s

sonclave

aformofclaveusedinson,salsa,sometimbaandmanyotherLatingenres(Exercise37)

sonmontuno

1.agenrerepresentedbyanaugmentationoftheinstrumentationandarranging
possibilitiesofson;pioneeredbyArsenioRodrguez;playedbyaconjunto(asonsepteto
withaddedcongas,trumpetsandpiano)
2.anarrangementinthestyleofArsenioRodrguezandhisfollowers;mediumslowin
tempowithaconcludingdiablo(aka,mambo)sectionandahigherdegree(thanson)of
AfroCubaninfluenceinthelyricsandrhythms.

songo

1.theselfdescribedstyleofLosVanVan
2.afast,syncopatedrhythmicstyletypicalofLosVanVans1970sstyle
3.alargeandvariedfamilyofrhythmsdevelopedbyJosLuisChanguitoQuintana,
andincludingslower,R&Brelatedpatternsaswellasthebetterknownfastsongoabove

songspecific

anaccompanimentpart(basstumbao,pianotumbao,congamarcha,efectoetc.)
composedtofitoneparticularsong.Forexample,TomasitoCruzscongamarchaon
PaulitoFGsDelaHabana.Thepatternisuniquetothatsongandadiscerninglistener
willbeabletoidentifythesongfromthecongapartalone.Oftensuchapartisahook.

231

stroke

asound,ofoptionalpitchornopitch,usedinapercussionpattern(asopposedtonote,a
soundofveryspecificpitchcreatedbyamusicalinstrument)

subdivision

theshortest,orquickest,unitoftimeinarhythmicgroovesometimescalledpulse

traps

drumset,baterainSpanish

trapdrummer

adrumsetplayer,bateristainSpanish(istaisusedformaleorfemale)

tres

1.aguitarlikeinstrumentwiththreepairsofstrings,usedinchangandson
2.Spanishforthenumber3

tresdos

themiddledruminrumba,alsocalledsegundo

tresillo

1.athreestrokefigurewithunequaldurationsof332subdivisions;the3sideofson
clave(Exercise22)
2.Spanishfortriplet,threeequallyspacedstrokes

triplepulse
structure

musicinwhicheachmainbeatisfeltasbeingsubdividedintothreeparts,e.g.,12/8

trova

troubadormusicwithlittleornopercussionanimportantinfluenceonson;nueva
trovawasamovementinpostRevolutionaryCubawithpoliticallyconsciouslyrics,
typifiedbyartistssuchasPabloMilansandSilvioRodrguez.
thelargest,lowestconga

tumba
tumbao

1.asyncopated,repeatingostinatofigureplayedbythepianoorbass
2.outsideCuba,aspecifictypeofcongamarchathatmarksthe3sideofclavewiththe
tumba
3.thepersonalqualityofhavingastrongsenseofrhythmormusicality,e.g.,tiene
tumbao(he/shehasagreatgroove)orIssacDelgadoslyricyayotenamitumbao
pegao(Ialreadyhadmymusicalstyleestablishedearlyinmycareer)

tumbadora

anothernameforthecongadrum;alsoappliedtotheCongoleseancestorsoftheconga

vacunao

thefamouspelvicthrustdancemoveinguaguanc

yamb

theearliest,slowest,andmostrestrainedoftherumbagenres;originallyplayedon
cajonesandusingsonclave,dancedbycouples,oftenfeigningoldage

Yoruba

oneofthefourmaincategoriesofAfroCubanfolkloricmusic;includesfourmaingenres:
bat,giro,iyesandbemb

yuka

oneofthethreemaingenresoftheBantcomplexofAfroCubanfolkloricmusic

232

Appendix2:CommonSuffixes
ao

contraction for ado, which is like ed in English, e.g., cruzao = cruzado = crossed; less
formal,likechangingplayingtoplayininEnglish

eo

therhythmicpatternplayedonacertaininstrument,orthestyleofplayingonacertain
instrument,e.g.,cascareo(patternplayedontheshellofthedrum),campaneo(pattern
playedonabell,baqueteo(patternplayedwithsticks)

ero,era

a person who has a specific job, origin or cultural identity (conguero, Guantanamera,
charanguera,bongosero,timbalero,etc.)eroismasculine,eraisfeminine

ista

likeeroandera,butusedwithdifferentroots(violinista,dentista,Sandanista,pianista,
bajista,trompetista,saxofonista,flautista);istaisnotgenderspecific

ito,ita

diminutive; a smaller version of something or someone, a person of small stature


seorita,timbalito,Manolito;canalsobeusedlikeJr.forexample,ChuchitoValds,
thesonofChuchoValds,isabout69;Cubanslovetoaddthissuffixtoalmostanyword.

abigger,bolderversionofsomething,e.g.,danzn,charangn,vaciln,rumbn,Robertn
(LosVanVansbearlikeleadvocalist)

Appendix3:SpanishExplanationsforEnglishSpeakers
IfyournativelanguageisEnglish,youllfindthatSpanishespeciallyCubanSpanishtakesabitof
gettingusedto.Somethingswilllookwrongatfirstsuchasonlycapitalizingthefirstletterinthe
titleofanalbumorsong.IfyouspendalittletimestudyingSpanish,however,youllbestunnedto
discoverhowexquisitelylogicalitisandhowobscenelyridiculousEnglishis.AftertakingSpanish
101,youllbeamazedthatanyonecouldeverlearnEnglish.

Pronunciation
WhenIsayexquisitelylogical,Imeanthis:thereisonlyonewaytopronounceanywrittenSpanish
word.Conversely,inEnglish,thesamepersonwillpronouncethesamewordinmultipleways.The
oldColePorterlyric,yousaytomaytoandIsaytomahtoisbutthetipoftheiceberg.Andthisis
oneicebergthatisnotmelting.
Tryreadingthissentencealoud:TheonlytimeIreadthenewspaperiswhenmyinternetconnection
isdown.MostNorthAmericanswillsayTheeonlytimeIreadthuhnewspaper.
In Spanish, once you know a handful of rules, you can correctly pronounce any word in the
dictionaryevenifyouveneverhearditspoken.Everyvowelmakesonlyonesound.Theresnevera
doubleconsonantunlessitchangesthepronunciation.Justasimportant,thestressofeachsyllable
isalsosetinstone.Ifthewordendswithavowel,s,orn,thestressisalwaysonthenexttolast
syllable and if it ends with any other letter, the stress is on the last syllable. If you want to
pronounceitanyotherway,youhavetouseanaccentmark.

233

Asanexample,letstakethefirstnameofthefamousCubanpianistChuchoValds.Hisfirstname
endsinavowel,whichmeansthatthenexttolastsyllableisstressed.So,usingEnglishphonetics,it
shouldbeCHOOchoh.Right?YouwouldntcallhimchooCHOHwouldyou?Now,justforfun,lets
sayChuchosmotherhadwantedtodifferentiateheryoungprodigyfromtheotherChuchosinthe
neighborhood and taught him to answer to chooCHOH. This would be fine, but shed have to
changethespellingofhisnametoChuch.Gotit?NowletsmoveontoValds.Itspronouncedval
DEHS, but it ends with an s and all words ending with s have the stress on the nexttolast
syllable unless theres an accent mark. Without the accent, Valdes would have to be pronounced
VALdehs.Now,gothroughallyourIrakererecords,andyoullfindthatsomeofthemlistChuchoas
ChuchoValdez!AndChuchoisamongthemostfamousCubanmusicians.Youcanfindthreeoreven
four different spellings of the names of many Cubans on their own albums! The reason is that
Valdez,withouttheaccentmark,ispronouncedexactlythesameasValds,becauseifawordends
withz(oranyletterotherthanavowel,sorn),itautomaticallygetsastressonthelastsyllable
soanaccentmarkwouldberedundant.
Finally,inSpanishthereisnozlikezebrasound.Zandshaveexactlythesamepronunciation
(like an English s). Most English speakers tend to pronounce the name Prez as perEZZZZZ, but
thecorrectpronunciationisPEres.

SpanishLetterCombinationswiththeSamePronunciation
option1

option2

option3

Englishpronunciation

ll

yellow(isliketheninnofollowedbytheyinyellow)

ce,ci

silver

georgi

him

hisalwayssilentinSpanish

ca,co,cu

cat

bandvaresimilarbutnotexactlylikethebinboy

So Chucho could write his last name Valds, Valdez, Balds or Baldez. Whats really interesting is
that some Cuban musicians will spell their own names differently from time to time. In English,
peopletendtobeverysnootyaboutspelling(No!no!no!ItTerriwithaninotTerrywithay!!).

AccentMarksinSpanish
Showingthestressofsyllablesaccountsformostaccentmarksbuttheyhaveafewotheruses:
Function

Example

separatingtwoconsecutivevowelsintotwosyllables

MarioversusMara

exclamations

qulocura!(whatmadness!)

questions

cundo?(when?)

sameword,differentmeanings

ms=more;mas=plus

234

Finally,wehave,whichmakesmaanasoundlikemanYAna,and,whichmakesanEnglishw
sound,likewater,asingiro(GWEErow).
Letsuseeverythingwevelearnedtounderstandthewordchang.ItspronouncedchanGWEE.
Iftheudidnthavethetwodotsoverit,itwouldbepronouncedchanGEE(likeguitar).Since
changendswithavowel,itneedsanaccentonthe,oritwouldhavetobepronouncedCHAN
gwee.
Accent marks also indication questions (cundo = when?) and exclamation (qu locura = what
madness!)anddifferentiatessimilarwords(si=if;s=yes;l=him;el=the).

TestYourSkills
ThetypicalNorthAmericanbaseballannouncerspronunciationofOscarHernndezisAHskurhur
NANdezzzz.Therearesixerrors.Howmanycanyouspot?
1&2.AHskur(asinstir)shouldbeohSKAR
3.theHshouldbesilent
4.hurshouldbeair
5.nan(likenannygoat)shouldbenahn(ornon,likenonsequitur)
6.dezzzshouldbedes

CapitalizationinSpanish
InSpanish,onlythefirstwordiscapitalizedinsongtitles,booktitles,andalbumtitles,butallmain
wordsarecapitalizedinnamesofmusicalgroups.Forexample,Irecommendthatyoulistentothe
songNotelocreas,fromthealbumConlaconcienciatranquila,bythegroupPaulitoFGysulite.
While were on the subject, capitalization isnt used in Spanish for the names of days (sbado),
months(octubre),adjectivesfornationality(lamsicacubana),orlanguages(ingls,espaol).

Appendix4:OtherStyleConventionsinthisBook
Italicization
Thisbookitalicizesallsong,bookandalbumtitles,andSpanishwordsthefirsttimetheycomeupin
asection.Forexample:
For his 1980 album, Elio Rev y su ritmo chang, Rev created new a instrumentation called
charangn.Charangncombineselementsofcharanga,conjunto,chang,rumbaandbat.
IalsouseitalicizationtostressthemeaningofEnglishwords,fornewEnglishtermsthatappearin
theglossary(e.g.,basicstep),andtoquotelyrics,whetherinEnglishorSpanish.

235

Appendix5:ForFurtherStudy
SuggestedReading
OtherBeyondSalsaVolumes:
BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.1TheRootsofthePianoTumbao,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.2EarlyCubanPianoTumbaos:19401959,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.34CubanPianoTumbaos:19601989,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.5IntroductiontoTimba,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.69IvnMelnLewis,Pts.123,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.1013CsarPupyPedroso,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaBass,Vols.67AlainPrez,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaPercussion,Vol.13Intro(1)andCalixtoOviedo(23)byKevinMoore
UnderstandingClaveandClaveChanges,byKevinMoore
BeyondSalsaforEnsemble,Vol.1,byKevinMoore
BooksonInstrumentalTechnique:
ACollectionofBasslines,byFelicianoArangoandCherinaMastrantones,www.createspace.com/3739479
AContemporaryBassTechnique,byFelicianoArangoandCherinaMastrantones,createspace.com/3671152
Changuito:AMastersApproachtoTimbales,byChuckSilverman,ManhattanMusicPublications
YoelPezMtodo(abmusica.es)
TheNewMethodforAfroCubanDrumming,byJimmyBranly,HudsonMusic
ConversationsinClave,byHoracioElNegroHernndez,AlfredPublishing
MelodicDrumming,byRalValds
TheTomsCruzCongaMethod,byTomsCruz,KevinMoore,MikeGerald&OrlandoFiol,MelBay
Eltrescubano,CubanMasterSeries:Piano,bothbyJonGriffin,www.createspace.com
CubanMusicOverview:
CubaanditsMusic,byNedSublette,ChicagoReviewPress
TheClaveMatrix,byDavidPealosa,BembeBooks
TheSalsaGuidebookand101Montunos,byRebecaMaulenSantana,SherMusic
TexttoTuneAlignmentintheMusicofCharangaHabanera,byRyanMeadHonorsThesisatStanford
University,2007.Availableat:Hryanmead.com/Thesis.pdfH
RootsofTimbafreeonlinebookcoveringbasstumbaosofArsenioRodrguez,RitmoOriental,etc.
H
BooksandVideosonAfroCubanFolkloricMusicandRumba:
TheCongaDrummersGuidebook,byMichaelSpiro,SherMusic(alsoatHwww.latinpulsemusic.comH)
RumbaQuinto,byDavidPealosa,BembeBooks
TheAfroCubanFolkloricMusicalTradition,byRobertFernndez,LeisurePlanetMusic
AfroCubanPercussionWorkbook(andDVDproduct),byJosEladioAmatandCurtisLanoue
BataDrumming,byDonSkoog,www.contemporarymusicproject.com
Cantosafrocubanos,byLucaBrandoli,www.cdbabyn.com
H
TripstoCuba:
ChuckSilvermanwww.chucksilverman.com
PlazaCUBAwww.plazacuba.com

236

SuggestedListening
**indicatesalbumdownload(w/fullbooklet)isavailableonwww.latinpulsemusic.comasof2012.
ThislistischosenforbothoverallmusicalqualityandrelevancetoothervolumesoftheBeyondSalsaseries.
H

GROUP

ALBUM

DRUMMER/TIMBALERO

LABEL

PaulitoFGysulite

Conlaconcienciatranquila

YoelPez

NuevaFania**

PaulitoFG(Elbuenosoyyo)

YoelPez

NuevaFania**

Bamboleo

Yonomeparezcoanadie

LudwigNez

AhNam**

Yanohacefalta

LudwigNez/HerlanSarior

AhNam**

o!

LudwigNez/HerlanSarior

AhNam

CharangaHabanera

HeyYouLoca

EduardoLazaga

MagicMusic**

PaqueseentereLaHabana

EduardoLazaga

MagicMusic**

Tremendodelirio

EduardoLazaga

MagicMusic**

Charangueromayor

YulinOviedo

CiocanMusic**

LiveintheUSA

YulinOviedo

CiocanMusic**

ChanChanCharanga

YulinOviedo/PavelRodrguez

CiocanMusic**

DannyLozada

Tantoleped

RalHernndez/PepeEspinosa

Caribe**

IssacDelgado

Rarities(ExclusivoparaCuba)

GeorvisPico/AndrsCuayo

CiocanMusic**

Conganas

GiraldoPiloto/YonderPea

QBADisc

Elaoqueviene

JimmyBranly/JosMiguel

RMM

Otraidea

LuisQuintero

RMM

Laprimeranoche

GeorvisPico/YuriNoguiera

RMM,ARTEX**

Lafrmula

OscarValds/PepeEspinosa

AhNam**

Prohibido

LuisQuintero

PimientaRecords

Enprimeraplana

LuisQuintero

UnivisionLaCalle

Supercubano

LuisQuintero

PlanetRecords

Manoln

Paramigente

AlexisandngelArce

AhNam**

Debuenafe

AlexisandngelArce

BlueMetro

Jaquemate

AlexisandngelArce

Caribe

Elpuente

ReinierGuerra

CiocanMusic**

LosVanVan

DiscoAzcar

Changuito

ARTEX**

Loltimoenvivo

SamuelFormell

QBADisc

AyDis,amprame

SamuelFormell

CaribeRecords**

Estoteponelacabezamala

SamuelFormell

CaribeRecords**

LlegVanVan

SamuelFormell

PimientaRecords**

237

GROUP

ALBUM

DRUMMER/TIMBALERO

LABEL

Chapeando

SamuelFormell

UnicornioRecords**

NGLaBanda

Enlacalle

GiraldoPiloto

QBADisc

SimplementelomejordeNG

CalixtoOviedo

ARTEX(BIS)**

Klmax

Mirasitegusta

GiraldoPiloto/YonderPea

Eurotropical

Juegodemanos

GiraldoPiloto/YonderPea

Eurotropical

Oyecomova

GiraldoPiloto/YonderPea

Eurotropical

KlmaxandManolito

ConciertoEurotropicalI

YuriNoguiera

Eurotropical

ManolitoysuTrabuco

Directoalcorazn

CarlosRodrguez

BembeRecords

Contratodoslosprognsticos

CarlosRodrguez

Eurotropical

Marcandoladistancia

YuriNoguiera

Eurotropical

ParaquebaileCuba

RoicelRivern

Eurotropical

Serompieronlostermmetros RoicelRivern

Eurotropical

Hablandoenserio

RoicelRivern

EGREM

LosQueSonSon

Qucosastienelavida

BombnReyes/RenSurez

EGREM

Labuenagente

BombnReyes/RenSurez

PimientaRecords

Mitimbacerr

BombnReyes/RenSurez

EGREM

Tranquiloqueyocontrolo

BombnReyes/MiguelitoEscurriola

EGREM

SiemprePupy

BombnReyes/MiguelitoEscurriola

EGREM

RevysuCharangn

45aos

CarlosRodrguez

TumiRecords

Sesiguecomentando

JorgeBravo

BIS**

Fresquecito

AndyFornet

BIS**

DequestamosHablando

AndyFornet

BIS

AzcarNegra

AzcarNegra

PavelRodrguez/PepeEspinosa

mp3.com

Andarandando

MaikelZamora

BIS**

MichelMaza

Fieeesta

KarelPez

Envidia**

Quehablenloshabladores

KarelPez

Envidia**

AngelBonne

Circunstancias

JavierOchoa

EGREM

Bonne&BonneCo.

CarlosLeal

EGREM

HavanadPrimera

Haciendohistoria

RodneyBarreto/GillermodelToro

EGREM

Pasaporte

RodneyBarreto/GillermodelToro

EGREM

Various

GraciasFormell

GeorvisPico/AndrsCuayo
YoelPez

Ciocan**

For suggested listening within the 19601989 time period, please see the Discography and Online Book sections of the
Timbapedia section of Hwww.timba.comH. For prerevolution discographical information, please see Cristbal DazAyalas
exhaustiveonlinediscographyatwww.fiu.edu.

238

Acknowledgments
PhotoshopGurus:KrisFrster,TomKrabbe
FinaleGuru:PeterThomsen

Photography:
Tom Ehrlich, Peter Maiden, Richard Robinson, Patrick Hickey, Bob Kraft, Bohdan Kiszczuk, Tom
Bauer, Gabriel Garca, Mary Brassell, Patrick Bonnard, Michelle White, Brett Gollin, Michael Cba,
WillDouglas,ChuckSilverman,RobertFernndez,SueTaylor.

EditingandConceptualGuidance:
Orlando Fiol, Robert Fernndez, Sue Taylor, Kris Frster, David Pealosa, Osvaldo Martnez, Javier
Muiz,DaveDreyfus,RichardRobinson,TomEhrlich,JiovanniCofio,PauldeCastro,TomsCruz,
WalfredodelosReyes,Sr.,EmilianoEcheverra,AndrsEspinoza,RebecaMaulen,JrmeVaccari,
CarlosCaro,ChuckSilverman,MichelleWhite,GabrielWilder,RyanMead,SidneyWeaverling,Edgar
Hernndez,OlavoAln,GabrielGarca,CurtisLanoue,MikeRacette,VictorBarrientos,VakGreif,
BillTilford,MichaelSpiro,JosReyes,AbelRobaina,MajelaSerrano,MikeLazarusandWendyBlack.

AbouttheAuthor

MelnLewis,KevinMooreLosAngeles2009photobyTomEhrlich

KevinMoore(kevin@timba.com)isthecofounderandmusiceditorfortheworldslargestCuban
music website, www.timba.com, to which he has contributed the free online multimedia book
series,TheRootsofTimba,dozensofextensivearticles,discographies,recordanalyses,interviews
andtheCubanmusicblogLaltima,nowinpublicationforover10years.
H

In the early 2000s, Kevin cowrote The Toms Cruz Conga Method, Volumes 13, a critically
acclaimed method book series used as a text at various educational institutions. More books on
Toms Cruz (including the longpromised volume on the adaptation of folkloric rhythms to timba
congamarchas),maybeintheworksaspartoftheBeyondSalsaCongasseries.

239

Variousotherimportantcongueroswillalsobefeaturedinthatseries.

TheTomsCruzCongaMethodVolumes1,2,&3

PublishedbyMelBayPublications,Inc.

As musical director, composer, arranger and violinist of the Californiabased salsa band Orquesta
Gitano,Kevincoproducedthe1998CDSalsaGitana,songsfromwhichhavebeenusedinvarious
filmsandtelevisionshows.Inadditiontotheaudiotracks,fullsalsabandchartsforthisalbumcan
bepurchasedatLatinPulseMusic[Hwww.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/2]

Availableforpurchaseanddownloadatwww.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/2

240

TheBeyondSalsaCatalog2012
Beyond Salsa for Beginners alternates between
singing, dancing and clapping exercises and listening
tours covering the full history of Latin music. It also
containsanextensiveglossary,andalongsectionon
thespecialchallengesofAfroCubanfolkloricmusic.

www.createspace.com/4035244
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/433

This book shares several chapters with Beyond Salsa


forPercussion,Vol.1.Thelattercontainsmanymore
advanced rhythms, but not the listening tours. The
two books can be purchased together for a reduced
ratebycontactingtheauthordirectly.Eachbookhas
both a free audio download and a $10 audio
download.

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 1 begins around 1900


and covers the origins of the tumbao concept using
exercises adapted from genres such as chang,
danzn, and son that predate the use of piano as
theprimaryinstrumentfortumbaosinCubanmusic.
This material is designed to be playable by near
beginners, musicians who play other instruments,
and arrangers seeking to acquire a basic facility on
piano.

www.createspace.com/1000252022
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/353

Among the artists covered are Grupo Chang de


Guantnamo,SextetoHabanero,SextetoBoloaand
ArsenioRodrguez.

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 2 covers the period


from 19401959, during which the piano became a
constantanddominantpresenceinnearlyeveryLatin
rhythmsection,andduringwhichCubanmusichada
profound global influence on all forms of popular
music. The difficulty level ranges from beginning to
intermediate.

www.createspace.com/3419799
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/359

Artists covered include: Arcao y sus Maravillas,


Orquesta Aragn, Chappottn y sus Estrellas, Celia
Cruz y Sonora Matancera, Beny Mor, Prez Prado,
OrquestaSensacin,JosFajardoysusEstrellas,and
ConjuntoModelo.

241

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 3 begins our coverage


oftheeclecticperiodbetweentheCubanRevolution
andtheFalloftheBerlinWallfrom1959to1989.
Volume 3 covers mozambique, piln, chang68,
songo,andartistssuchasIrakere,RitmoOriental,Los
Van Van, Pacho Alonso, Orquesta Aragn, Opus 13,
Orquesta440,andAfroCuba.

www.createspace.com/3427343
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/361

Volume3alsocontainsanextensivesectiononAfro
Cuban folkloric rhythms and their application to
popularmusicpianoplaying.

Beyond SalsaPiano, Volume 4continues our survey


ofpostrevolution,pretimbaCubanpianostyles.
Styles covered include those of Elio Rev y su
Charangn,Rumbavana,Son14,Adalbertolvarezy
su Son, Orquesta Original de Manzanillo, Maravillas
deFlorida,OrquestaAliamn,andLosKarachi.
We also introduce the concept of controlled
improvisation,whichrunsthroughtheentireseries.

www.createspace.com/3427345
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/363

BeyondSalsaPiano,Volume5introducesthetimba
genrethatbeganinthe1990s.Volumeincludes:
ahistoryanddiscographyofthetimbaera
adetaileddescriptionofrhythmsectiongears
a list and analysis of the 10 most important
pianoinnovationsofthe1990s
32 instructional tumbaos on the same chord
progression,demonstratingtheseinnovations

www.createspace.com/3427349
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/363

a Harmony Appendix with hundreds of timba


tumbaochordprogressionsinRomannumerals

242

BeginningwithVolume6,eachbookconcentrateson
the style of one Cuban pianist, with notefornote
transcriptions, based in most cases on MIDI files
performedbythevolumesfeaturedpianist.
Volumes6through9areonIvnMelnLewis,the
phenomenally innovative pianist who played with
TheIssacDelgadogroupfrom1995to1998.

www.createspace.com/3427351
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/364

Volume 6 begins with Melns biography and


discography and continues to indepth studies of his
piano style on the extended live concert versions of
NomemiresalosojosandLavidasinesperanza.

BeyondSalsaPiano,Volume7movesontoMelns
approach to two more live classics of the Issac
Delgado group: Luz viajera (arranged by Meln) and
Porqupar.
Intheprocessofdetailingthemanytypesoftumbaos
Meln uses in these extended live arrangements we
coverthetimbagearsofmarcha,muela,bombaand
presin and delve even more deeply into Melns
approachtocontrolledimprovisation.

www.createspace.com/3427354
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/365

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 8 continues our


chronologicalsurveyofMelnsuniquetumbaosand
improvisational live style with Deja que Roberto te
toqueandtheextremelypolyrhythmicBrindandocon
elalma.
La chica del sol is then used as a vehicle to present
exercises to understand how timba relates to salsa
andLatinjazz.

www.createspace.com/3427355
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/366

243

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 9, our final volume on


Ivn Meln Lewis, is the longest of the series and
includes his unusually sophisticated approach to
cuerpos as well as tumbaos. It begins with Melns
approach to the IIVVIV progression, using his
arrangement of Catalina as a jumpingoff point. We
then cover the remaining important live staples of
theDelgadorepertoireduringMelnstenure:Conla
punta del pie, Por la naturaleza, Se te fue la mano,
Paquetesalves,andLacompetencia(HitParade).

www.createspace.com/3427357
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/367

Finally,wecoverthetumbaofromMovimiento,from
Melns latest Latin jazz album, and a tumbao from
hisrecentworkwithManoln,elMdicodelaSalsa.

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 10 begins our study of


Csar Pupy Pedroso of Los Van Van and Los Que
SonSon.

www.createspace.com/3573344
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/406

Volume 10 begins with extensive biography and


discography chapters and covers piano tumbaos for
songsfirstreleasedbetween1979(whenPupybegan
to compose for Los Van Van) and 1983, including El
batedealuminio,Fallasteasacartucuenta,Despus
quetecasasteandmanyothers.OntheclassicHoyse
cumplen seis semanas, we present a full chart of
Pupysnewarrangementwithhiscurrentgroup,Los
QueSonSon.

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 11 covers the next


phaseofPupyscareer,19841988withLosVanVan,
including songs such as Si quieres que te llegue
pronto, Ya tu campana no suena, and Ser que se
acab.

Alsoincludedarecompletepianoandbasschartsfor
ElbuenagenteandCallacalla,basedonthemodern
LosQueSonSonversions.

www.createspace.com/3573347
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/407

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Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 12 is scheduled for


release in 2013 and will cover the remainder of
PupyscareerwithLosVanVan(19892001).

www.createspace.com/3573348
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/408

Beyond Salsa Piano, Volume 13, scheduled for


releasein2013,isourfinalvolumeonPupyPedroso,
willcoverhisworkwithhisowngroup,LosQueSon
Son, founded in 2001 and one of Cubas top groups
today.

www.createspace.com/3573349
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/409

BeyondSalsaPercussion,Volume1isforpeoplewho
are considering taking drum or timbales lessons and
want to learn to clap and sing the basic rhythms to
preparethemselves.
This book shares several chapters with Beyond Salsa
for Beginners before moving on to add more
advancedrhythms.Thetwobookscanbepurchased
togetherforareducedratebycontactingtheauthor
directly.

www.createspace.com/3500612
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/430

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www.createspace.com/3500639
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/397

BeyondSalsaPercussion,Volume2:BasicRhythmsis
the first of two books on legendary
timbalero/drummerCalixtoOviedo,whoplayedwith
Pacho Alonso, Adalberto lvarez and the first timba
band, NG La Banda. The book begins with a long
biography and discography section and presents
Calixtos approaches to six classic Cuban rhythms,
ranging from traditional timbales to various
combinations of timbales and drumset. The rhythms
coveredare:danzn,chachach,mozambique,piln,
simalandupaupa.

Beyond Salsa Percussion, Volume 3: Timba Gears is


one of our longest and most adventurous books,
explaining what gears are and demonstrating the
almost endless ways that each can be orchestrated
ontimbalesanddrumset.

www.createspace.com/3500640
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/399

In addition to exhaustively detailing Calixtos styles,


the book explains how the various top Cuban bands
produce their signature rhythm section sellos by
dividing the rhythmic responsibilities creatively
between the percussionists. The gears covered are:
marcha abajo, marcha arriba, marcha de mambo,
muela,presinandbomba.
UnderstandingClaveandClaveChangesisaspecial
supplement to the Beyond Salsa series. Its divided
into four sections, and uses handson singing,
clapping and dancing exercises to become intimate
with clave and avoid the excruciating intellectual
confusion that results from trying to learn it with
onesleftbrain!

Part1:ForBeginnersWhatisClave?
Part2:DemystifyingClaveTerminology
Part3:IntermediateClaveDirection
Part4:AdvancedClaveChanges

www.createspace.com/3711464
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/414

Unlike the other books, the clave course absolutely


requires boththe audio files and book, sothe audio
filesareprovidedasafreedownloadtoanyonewho
buysthehardcopybookortheeBook.

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BeyondSalsaforEnsembleVol.1,at368pages,with
464 audio files, is our most adventurous project to
date.

www.createspace.com/37164505
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/419

Part1:ThePointofDeparture:TheHomeGear
Explainsthedifferencesbetweensalsaandtimbaand
teachesthemostcommontimbagroove,fromwhich
allotherexercisesbegin.
Part2:Efectos36rhythmsectionbreaks,or
efectos,completelynotated,in23and32clave/
Part3:CompletePerformanceChartAmeticulous
notefornotetranscriptionofallinstrumentsforEl
buenagentebyPupyPedrosoyLosQueSonSon.

BeyondSalsaBass,Volume6willcloselymirror
BeyondSalsaPiano,withintroductoryvolumes
coveringthehistoryofCubanbass,startingatthe
beginninglevel,andcontinuingwithbooksabout
specificbassists.Theintroductoryvolumeswillbe
releasedinlate2012andearly2013.Volume6,
picturedhere,wasreleasedinMarch2012.

www.createspace.com/3810546
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/421

BeyondSalsaBass,Volume7Thesecondoffour
volumesonAlainPrez,Volume7isthebass
companiontoVolume7ofthepianoseriesandwill
bereleasedinmid2012.
Volumes8and9willbereleasedinlate2012and
early2013.

www.createspace.com/3810550
www.latinpulsemusic.com/albums/show/TBD

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COMING
IN
2012

BeyondSalsaBongwillfeatureCarlosCaro,winner
oftimba.comsReadersPollforBestTimba
Bongosero.Thesebookswillbeginwithinstructionin
technique,startingfromabeginninglevelandthen
worktheirwayfromtheearlysonstylesofbong
playingtoCarostimbastylewithOpus13,PaulitoFG
andJacquelineCastellanos.

COMING
IN
2013

BeyondSalsaCongasisinthedevelopmentstages.It
willhopefullyincludevolumesonTomsCruzaswell
asothertopcongueros.

PRICELIST
TITLE

Physical
Book

eBook
(PConly)

Audio
Download

Video
Download

DVD

BeyondSalsaforBeginnersIntroductiontoLatinMusicforDancers&Listeners

$30

$15

free/$10*

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.1BeginningTheRootsofthePianoTumbao

$20

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.2IntermediateEarlyCubanPianoTumbaos194059

$20

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.3IntermediateCubanPianoTumbaos196079

$20

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.4IntermediateCubanPianoTumbaos197989

$20

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.5AdvancedIntroductiontoTimba

$20

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.6IvnMelnLewisPart1

$20

$10

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.7IvnMelnLewisPart2

$20

$10

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.8IvnMelnLewisPart3

$20

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.9IvnMelnLewisPart4

$30

$15

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.10CsarPupyPedrosoPart1

$25

$15

$10

BeyondSalsaPiano,Vol.11CsarPupyPedrosoPart2

$25

$15

$10

BeyondSalsaPercussion,Vol.1IntroductiontotheCubanRhythmSection

$30

$15

free/$10*

BeyondSalsaPercussion,Vol.2CalixtoOviedoBasicRhythms

$30

$15

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaPercussion,Vol.3CalixtoOviedoTimbaGears
*DVDincludesbothVol.2andVol.3footage

$30

$15

$10

$10

UnderstandingClaveandClaveChanges

$15

$10

FREE

BeyondSalsaforEnsemble,Vol.1Efectos

$40

$25

$10

BeyondSalsaBass,Vol.6AlainPrezPart1

$30

$15

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaBass,Vol.7AlainPrezPart2

$30

$15

$10

$10

BeyondSalsaBong,Vol.1

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

BeyondSalsaCongas,Vol.1

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

$25*

*free/$10=freefilesdownloadableattimba.com/audioadditionalfilesavailablefor$10

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thispageleftintentionallyblank

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ForcompletelyupdatedlistsofallBeyondSalsaproducts,
samplevideosandotherfreedownloads:

clave.latinpulsemusic.com
www.timba.com/audio
www.timba.com/bass
www.timba.com/bongo
www.timba.com/clave
www.timba.com/ensemble
www.timba.com/percussion
www.timba.com/piano

comments,questions,suggestions,requests:
kevin@timba.com

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