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HARVERD SYSTEM OF REFERECING GUIDE

Citing References in the Text


Authors name cited in the text
When making reference to an authors work in your text, their name is followed by the
year of publication of their work:
In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make
reference to other relevant published work. his view has been supported in the work of
!ormack "#$$%&.
Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct reference to
this, a page reference should be included:
!ormack "#$$%, pp.'()''& states that *when writing for a professional readership, writers
invariably make reference to already published works*.
If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the
text then both the authors name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in
the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets:
+aking reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a
professional audience "!ormack, #$$%&.
More than one athor cite! in the text
Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to
directly, they are both cited:
,ones "#$%-& and .mith "#$%/& have both shown 0
More than one athor not cite! !irect"# in the text
1ist these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the
authors name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi)colon and
within brackets:
Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references
should be cited in chronological order "i.e. earliest first&:
2urther research in the late forties ",ones, #$%-3 .mith, #$%/& lead to ma4or
developments00
"!ollins, #$$/3 5rown, (66#3 7avies, (66/&
T$o% three or for athors for the sa&e $or'
When there are two authors for a work they should both be noted in the text:
White and 5rown "(66%& in their recent research paper found...
with regard to 89:8 and the role of libraries, !rane and ;r<uhart "#$$%& suggest...
or indirectly, using an and:
7uring the mid nineties research undertaken in 1uton ".later and ,ones, #$$-& showed
that...
or
:arlier research "White and 5rown, #$--& demonstrated that the presence of certain
chemicals would lead to...
More than for athors for a $or'
Where there are several authors "more than four&, only the first author should be used,
followed by (et a")* meaning an! others:
=reen, et al. "#$$>& found that the ma4ority 0
or indirectly:
9ecent research "=reen, et al., #$$>& has found that the ma4ority of 0
Se+era" $or's ,# one athor in !ifferent #ears
If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are
published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order
"i.e. earliest first&:
as suggested by 5loggs "#$$(, #$$%& who found that 0
or indirectly:
research in the nineties "5loggs #$$(, #$$%& found that 0
Se+era" $or's ,# one athor in the sa&e #ear
If you are <uoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they
should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the
year for each item:
:arlier research by 7unn "#$$'a& found that0but later research suggested again by 7unn
"#$$'b& that 0
If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an
author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by
using lower case letters "as above&:
5loggs "#$$'a, b& has stated on more than one occasion that 0
Cha-ter athors in e!ite! $or's
9eferences to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work,
that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the
contributory author not the editor of the whole work.
In his work on health information, .mith "#$?>& states 0
In the reference "ist at the en! of #or !oc&ent% #o sho"! inc"!e !etai"s of ,oth
the cha-ter athor an! the e!itor of the entire $or'
Co r-orate athors
If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually
cited under the body that commissioned the work. his applies to publications by
associations, companies, government departments etc. such as 7epartment of the
:nvironment or 9oyal !ollege of @ursing.
It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.g. 9!@, in your text,
providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets:
#st citation:
0 research in (66- undertaken by the 9oyal !ollege of @ursing "9!@& has shown that
(nd citation:
+ore recently the 9!@ "(66?& has issued guidelines 0
@ote that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list. .ome reports are
written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the
committee:
!ommittee on @ursing "#$?(&
.elect !ommittee on .tem !ell 9esearch "(66(&
@ote there are some exceptions to this such as
55! 8hilharmonic Archestra
55! @ews
where the abbreviations or initials form part of the official name.
No athor
If the author cannot be identified use BAnon#&os or BAnon and the title of the work
and date of publication. he title should be written in italics. :very effort should be made
to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an
academic submission:
+arketing strategy "Anon., #$$$&
No !ate
he abbreviation n)!) is used to denote this:
.mith "n.d.& has written and demonstrated00
or indirectly:
:arlier research ".mith, n.d.& demonstrated that00
:very effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this
work as supporting evidence in an academic submission
.age N&,ers
Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. his is
particularly important for <uotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the text:
1awrence "#$--, p.#(%& states Cwe should expect...C
or indirectly:
his is to be expected "1awrence #$--, p.#(%&...
8lease note page numbers: preceded with p. for a single page.and pp. for a range of
pages.
/oting -ortions of -,"ishe! text
If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence"s& must
be included within <uotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as:
the author states that D00..E
or
the author writes that D00..E
In order for a reader to trace the <uoted section it is good practice to give the number of
the page where the <uotation was found. he <uotation should also be emphasiFed
"especially if it runs to >6 words or more& by indenting it and using <uotation marks. his
clearly identifies the <uotation as the work of someone else:
An the topic of professional writing and referencing !ormack "#$$%, p.'(& states:
*When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to
already published works*.
Secon!ar# sorces 0secon!1han! references2
Gou may come across a summary of another authors work in the source you are reading,
which you would like to make reference to in your own document3 this is called
secondary referencing.
A direct reference:
9esearch recently carried out in the =reater +anchester area by 5rown "#$-- cited in
5assett, #$/-, p.#%(& found that 0
In this example, 5rown is the work, which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly
for yourself. 5assett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of 5rowns
work.
Indirectly:
"5rown, #$-- cited in 5assett, #$/-, p.#%(&
In the example below White is the primary or original source and 5lack is the secondary
source. It is important to realise that 5lack may have taken White*s ideas forward, and
altered their original meaning. If you need to cite a secondary reference it is
recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than
rely on someone elses interpretation of a work.
White, "#$$6& as cited in 5lack "#$$%&, suggests that...
The reference "ist at the en! of #or !oc&ent sho"! on"# contain $or's that #o
ha+e rea!)
Ta,"es an! !iagra&s
When reproducing selected data from a diagram or table, or copying the entire table or
diagram, a reference must be made to the source.
A reference within the text to a table taken from e.g. a book, should include the author
and page ".mith, (66>, p.''& to enable the reader to identify the data. If the source of the
data is not the authors own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary
reference and needs to be cited as such:
";nited @ations, #$?> cited in .mith, (66>, p.''&
If the table is reproduced in its entirety place the citation as a footnote. 5e particularly
careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of the document. 2ull
details should be included in the reference list.
In the following example, a table is reproduced from page (-?, of a book written by
9obert AmaFon which is the %th edition and published by 2 8rentice Hall of Harlow,
:ngland in (66>. he title of the book is +anagement in the media: decision makers.
I If you wish to reproduce the table in your own work J replicate the table
and add a 2ootnote J at the bottom of the page in your own work acknowledging the
source of the reproduced table.
I@ational .tatistics Affice #$/> cited in AmaFon, (66>, p.(-?
I If you wish to <uote from a table in the above book in your essay:
0..historical figures demonstrate that only sixty percent of households had televisions in
5ritain by the #$?6s "@ational .tatistics Affice #$/> cited in AmaFon, (66>, p. (-?&.
I :nsure you include the book in the reference list or bibliography at the end of your
work:
AmaFon, 9., (66>. Management in the media: decision makers. %th ed. Harlow: 2
8rentice Hall.
3e,sites
When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the
website. his may be a corporate author, an organisation or a company3 a guide to this
can be found by looking at the ;91 or web address. o find the date of publication,
reference to this might be found at the bottom of a web page relating to copyright, or
from a date headline.
In this example the authorship would be 55! and the date (66$.
9ecent research on meningitis "55!, (66$& has shown
!A+8I1I@= H: 9:2:9:@!: 1I. A@7 5I51IA=9A8HG
4oo's $ith one athor
;se the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Anly include the edition
where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first
edition.
he re<uired elements for a book reference are:
Author, Initials., Gear. Title of book. :dition. "only include this if not the first edition&
8lace of publication "this must be a town or city, not a country&: 8ublisher.
9eference
where #st edition
5aron, 7. 8., (66/. Business and the organisation. !hester: 8earson.
where 'rd edition
9edman, 8., (66-. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 'rd ed. 1ondon: Apen
;niversity in assoc. with .age.
An intext reference for the above examples would read:
Arganisations have been found to differ "5aron, (66/& when there is 0
1eading social scientists such as 9edman "(66-& have noted 0
Please note where there is likely to be confusion with UK place names for U!" towns
include the !tate in abbre#iated form e.g.
4oo's $ith t$o% three or for athors
2or books with two, three or four authors of e<ual status the names should all be included
in the order they appear in the document. ;se an an! to link the last two multiple
authors.
he re<uired elements for a reference are: Author, Initials., Gear. Title of book. :dition
"only include this if not the first edition&. 8lace: 8ublisher.
9eference
5arker, 9. Kirk, ,. and +unday, 9.,., #$//. $arrati#e analysis. 'rd ed. 5loomington:
Indiana ;niversity 8ress.
An intext reference for the above examples would read
A new theory "5arker, Kirk and +unday, #$//& has challenged traditional thinking 0
4oo's $ith &ore than for athors
2or books where there are more than four authors use the first author only with surname
and initials followed by et a".
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials.an! et al, Gear. itle of book. :dition "only include this if not the first
edition&. 8lace: 8ublisher.
9eference
=race, 5. et al., #$//. " history of the world. 8rinceton, @,: 8rinceton ;niversity 8ress.
4oo's $hich are e!ite!
2or books which are edited give the editor"s& surname"s& and initials, followed by e!)% or
e!s).
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., ed., Gear. Title of book. :dition. 8lace: 8ublisher.
Keene, :. ed., #$//. $atural language. !ambridge: ;niversity of !ambridge 8ress.
.ilverman, 7.2. and 8ropp, K.K. eds., #$$6. The acti#e inter#iew. 5everly Hills, !A:
.age.
Allouche, ,ose. ed., (66-. %orporate social resposibility& 'olume (: concepts&
accountability and reporting. 5asingstoke: 8algrave +acmillan.
4oo's $hich are e!ite!
2or books which are edited give the editor"s& surname"s& and initials, followed by e!)% or
e!s).
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., ed., Gear. Title of book. :dition. 8lace: 8ublisher.
Keene, :. ed., #$//. $atural language. !ambridge: ;niversity of !ambridge 8ress.
.ilverman, 7.2. and 8ropp, K.K. eds., #$$6. The acti#e inter#iew. 5everly Hills, !A:
.age.
Allouche, ,ose. ed., (66-. %orporate social resposibility& 'olume (: concepts&
accountability and reporting. 5asingstoke: 8algrave +acmillan.
M"ti-"e $or's ,# the sa&e athor
Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should
be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.
Re&e&,er that this &st a"so ,e consistent $ith the citations in the text
2or multiple works the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initals., Gear. Title of book. 8lace: 8ublisher.
.oros, =., #$--a. The road to serfdom. !hicago: ;niversity of !hicago 8ress.
.oros, =., #$--b. Beyond the road to serfdom. !hicago: ;niversity of !hicago 8ress.
Works by the same author should be displayed in chronological order, earliest first "as
above&.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
".oros, #$--a&
".oros, #$--b&
his also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative
their initials can be included in the citation.
.o for example, if you have sources written by =eorge .oros and also by +anuel .oros,
you would list them in alphabetic order:
".oros, =. #$--a&
".oros, =. #$--b&
".oros, +. #$--&
4oo's $hich ha+e ,een trans"ate!
2or works which have been translated the reference should include details of the
translator, the suggested elements for such references being:
Author, Gear. Title of book. ranslated from "language& by "name of translator& 8lace of
publication: 8ublisher.
!anetti, :., (66#. The #oices of Marrakesh: a record of a #isit. ranslated from =erman
by ,.A.;nderwood. .an 2rancisco: Arion.
2or ma4or works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included
along with the date of the translation:
Kant, I., #?/>. )undamental principles of the metaphysic of morals.ranslated by .K.
Abbott., #$//. @ew Gork: 8rometheus 5ooks.
E1,oo's
2or e)books accessed through a password protected database from the ;niversity 1ibrary
the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Gear, Title of book. Ltype of mediumM 8lace of publication: 8ublisher. 2ollowed
by DAvailable through:E include e)book sourceNdatabase, web address or ;91 LAccessed
dateM.
2ishman, 9., (66>. The rise and fall of suburbia. Le)bookM !hester: !astle 8ress.
Available through: Anglia 9uskin ;niversity 1ibrary Ohttp:NNlibweb.anglia.ac.ukP
LAccessed > ,une (66>M.
!arlsen, ,. and !harters, .., eds. (66?. Global wine tourism. Le)bookM Wallingford: !A5I
8ub. Available through: Anglia 9uskin ;niversity 1ibrary website
Owww.libweb.anglia.ac.ukP LAccessed $ ,une (66/M.
For an e1,oo' free"# a+ai"a,"e o+er the internet5
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Authorship, Gear, Title of book. Ltype of mediumM 8lace of publication "if known&:
8ublisher. 2ollowed by DAvailable at:E include web address or ;91 for the e)book
LAccessed dateM.
For a -!f +ersion of a Go+ern&ent -,"ication or si&i"ar $hich is free"# a+ai"a,"e5
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Authorship, Gear, Title of book. Ltype of mediumM 8lace of publication: 8ublisher.
2ollowed by DAvailable at:E include web address or ;91 for the actual pdf, where
available LAccessed dateM.
7epartment of Health, (66/. *ealth ine+ualities: progress and ne,t steps. LpdfM 1ondon:
7epartment of Health. Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.dh.gov.ukNenN8ublicationsandstatisticsN8ublicationsN8ublications8olicyAnd
=uidanceN7HQ6/>'6?P LAccessed $ ,une (66/M.
5ank of :ngland, (66/. -nflation .eport LpdfM Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.bankofengland.co.ukNpublicationsNinflationreportNir6/nov.pdfP LAccessed
(6 April (66$M.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
9ecent evidence "5ank of :ngland, (66/, pp.'()''& show the trends ...
6orna" artic"es
2or 4ournal articles the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Gear. itle of article. )ull Title of /ournal, Rolume number "IssueN8art
number&, 8age numbers.
5oughton, ,.+., (66(. he 5retton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political !cience
0uarterly, %("-&, pp.>-%)?/.
8erry, !., (66#. What health care assistants know about clean hands. $ursing Times,
$?"((&, pp.-')-%.
!ox, !., (66(. What health care assistants know about clean hands. $ursing today,
.pring Issue, pp.-%?)/>.
6orna" artic"es a+ai"a,"e fro& a !ata,ase
2or 4ournal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected
database from the ;niversity 1ibrary the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Gear. itle of article. )ull Title of /ournal, Ltype of mediumM Rolume
number "IssueN8art number&, 8age numbers if availalble. Available through: name of
database LAccessed dateM
5oughton, ,.+., (66(. he 5retton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political !cience
0uarterly Le)4ournalM %( "-& Available through: 5lackwell .cience .ynergy database
LAccessed #( ,une (66>M.
Maga7ine or 8orna" artic"es a+ai"a,"e on the internet
2or an article from a web based magaFine or 4ournal, which is freely available over the
web, the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Authors, Initials., Gear . itle of article, )ull Title of Maga1ine& LonlineM. Available at:
web address "<uote the exact ;91 for the article& LAccessed dateM.
Kipper, 7. , (66/. ,apans new dawn, Popular !cience and Technology& LonlineM
Available at:Ohttp:NNwww.popsci.comNpopsci'?b#%%##6vgnNhtmlP LAccessed (( ,une
(66$M.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
"Kipper, (66/& ...
6orna" a,stract fro& a !ata,ase
2or a 4ournal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full
article, the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Gear. itle of article. )ull Title of /ournal, Ltype of mediumM Rolume
number "IssueN8art number&, 8age numbers if availalble, Abstract only.
Available through:.Lname of databaseM. LAccessed dateM.
5oughton, ,.+., (66(. he 5retton Woods proposal: a brief look. 8olitical .cience
Suarterly, Le)4ournalM %("-&, Abstract only. Available through: 5lackwell.cience.ynergy
database LAccessed #( ,une (66>M.
:very effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as
supporting evidence in an academic submission.
Ne$s-a-er artic"es
2or newspaper articles the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Gear. itle of article. )ull Title of $ewspaper, 7ay and month before
page numbers and column line.
.lapper, =., (66>. !orporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.
The Times, ' .ep. p.%b.
"@5. %b, this indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, and DbE
indicates this is the second column of newsprint across the page.&
On"ine ne$s-a-er artic"es
2or newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the re<uired elements for a reference
are:
Author or corporate author, Gear. itle of document or page. $ame of newspaper& Ltype
of mediumM Additional date information. Available at:.Lname of databaseM. LAccessed
dateM.
!hittenden, +., 9ogers, 1. and .mith, 7., (66'. 2ocus: Bargetitis ails @H.. Times
2nline& LonlineM# ,une. Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.timesonline.co.ukNtolNnewsNukNscotlandNarticle##'/66-.eceP LAccessed #?
+arch (66>M.
9eference
!oney, ,., (66$. Is this the start of a new home loan warT H.5! vows to lend U#billion
to homebuyers with #6V deposits. 3aily Mail& LonlineM "1ast updated $.%? A+ on 6$th
April (66$& Available at: Ohttp:NNwww.dailymail.co.ukNnewsNarticle)##-/%-#NIs)start)
new)home)loan)war)H.5!)vows)lend)#billion)homebuyers)#6)deposits.htmlP
LAccessed on (6 April (66$M.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
"!oney, (66$&
It is goo! -ractice to 'ee- in #or fi"es a co-# of the front -age of an# $e,site #o
se
AH:9 G8:. A2 7A!;+:@.
Acts of .ar"ia&ent
he re<uired elements are:
.hort title with key words capitaliFed, which includes the year followed by the chapter
number in brackets. Key words of titles are capitaliFed. 8lace of publication: 8ublisher.
*igher 4ducation "ct 5667. "c./&, 1ondon: H+.A.
2or Acts prior to #$-', the regal year and parliamentary session are included:
.oad Transport 8ighting "ct (9:;. ">W- :liF. (, c.>#&, 1ondon: H+.A.
If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph, include the section, paragraph
number and subsection.
)inance "ct 566;. s.%>"$&"b&.
Stattor# Instr&ents
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
.hort title "with key words capitaliFed&. Gear. the abbreviation *.I* followed by the year
of publication and the .I number. 8lace of publication: 8ublisher.
Public 2ffers of !ecurities .egulations (99:. .I #$$>N#>'?, 1ondon: H+.A.
Stattor# Instr&ents
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
.hort title "with key words capitaliFed&. Gear. the abbreviation *.I* followed by the year
of publication and the .I number. 8lace of publication: 8ublisher.
Public 2ffers of !ecurities .egulations (99:. .I #$$>N#>'?, 1ondon: H+.A.
9a$ re-orts
It is recommended that you follow acce-te! "ega" citation% which is not part of the
Harvard system. 2or this the re<uired elements for a reference are:
@ame of the parties involved in the law case, Gear of reporting "in s<uare brackets where
there is no volume, or round brackets as indicated by the reference you are using&
abbreviation for the law reporting series, part numberNcase numberNpage reference if
available.
/ones # 8ipman L#$-(M # W19 /'(.
!aidi # )rance "#$$%& #? :H99 (>#, p.(%>.
. # <hite =/ohn *enry> L(66>M :W!A !rim -/$, (66> W1 #6%>(/.
In the last example you should only <uote the two law reports if you have used them.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
In the recent case of 9 v White ",ohn Henry& "(66>&, the defence noted 0
Anna" re-ort
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
!orporate author, Gear of publication. )ull title of annual report, 8lace of 8ublication:
8ublisher.
+arks W .pencer, (66%. The way forward& annual report 566?@5667, 1ondon: +arks W
.pencer.
2or an e1+ersion of an annual report. he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author or corporate author, Gear. Title of document or page, Ltype of mediumM
Available at: include web site addressN;91";niform 9esource 1ocator&
LAccessed dateM
+arks W .pencer, (66%. "nnual report 566?@5667. LAnlineM
Available at: Ohttp:NNwww)marks)and)spencer.co.ukNcorporateNannual(66'NP
LAccessed % ,une (66>M.
It is goo! -ractice to 'ee- in #or fi"es a co-# of the front -age of an# $e,site #o
se containing reference !etai"s
Archi+e &ateria"
If you have used material from Archives or .pecial collections, the re<uired elements for
a reference are:
Author, Initials., Gear.Title of document. Ltype of mediumM. !ollection, 7ocument
number. =eographical ownN8lace: @ame of 1ibraryNArchiveN9epository.
5rown, 8..., #$#>. "n address to the )armer. LmanuscriptM Holdbury !ollection. -66.
1ondon. Holdbury 1ibrary.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
"5rown, #$#>&
4ritish Stan!ar! an! Internationa" Stan!ar!s
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
!orporate author, Gear of 8ublication. -dentifying letters and numbers and full title of B!,
8lace of publication: 8ublisher.
5ritish .tandards Institution, #$$6. B! :::::(996 .ecommendations for wiring
identification. +ilton Keynes: 5.I.
International .tandards Affice, #$$/. I.A -$6 ) ( -nformation and documentation:
Bibliographical references: 4lectronic documents. =eneva: I.A.
.atent
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Inventor name, Initial"s&., Assignee.,Gear.Title. 8lace. 8atent number "status, if an
application&.
4,ample:
=raham, !.8., 2onti, 1. and +artineF, A.+., #$?(. "merican !ugar %o. Tableting sugar
and compositions containing it. ;... 8at. ',-%(,>'>. 1eonard, G., .uper .ports 1imited.
(66/. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. !anada. 8at. #(,?/$,-?>.
Conference re-ort
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
AuthorshipNauthor, editor or organisation, Gear. )ull title of conference report. 1ocation,
7ate, 8lace of publication: 8ublisher.
;@7:.A ";nited @ations 7epartment of :conomic and .ocial Affairs&, (66>. Ath
Global forum on rein#enting go#ernment: towards participatory and transparent
go#ernance. .eoul, 9epublic of Korea (%)(? +ay (66>. @ew Gork: ;nited @ations.
Conference -a-er
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Authorship, Gear. 2ull title of conference paper. In: followed by editor or name of
organisation, )ull title of conference. 1ocation, 7ate, 8lace of publication: 8ublisher.
5rown, ,., (66>. :valuating surveys of transparent governance. In: ;@7:.A ";nited
@ations 7epartment of :conomic and .ocial Affairs&, Ath Global forum on rein#enting
go#ernment: towards participatory and transparent go#ernance. .eoul, 9epublic of
Korea (%)(? +ay (66>. @ew Gork: ;nited @ations.
Dissertation
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Gear of publication. Title of dissertation. 1evel. Afficial name of ;niversity.
9ichmond, ,., (66>. %ustomer e,pectations in the world of electronic banking: a case
study of the Bank of Britain. 8h. 7. Anglia 9uskin ;niversity.
DVD% +i!eo or fi"&
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
)ull title of 3'3 or #ideo. Gear of release. Ltype of mediumM 7irector. "if relevant&
!ountry of origin: 2ilm studio or maker. "Ather relevant details&.
Great films from the B6s: a selection of clips from <arner Brothers top films from the
(9B6s. (66> L7R7M @ew Gork: Warner 5rothers.
*ealth for all children ?: the #ideo., (66%. LvideoM 1ondon: !hild =rowth 2oundation.
"@arrated by 7.5.+. Hall&.
2or a film the suggested elements should include:
Title. Gear of release. L+ediumM 7irector. !ountry of origin: 2ilm studio.
Macbeth, #$%/. L2ilmM 7irected by Arson Wells. ;.A: 9epublic 8ictures
4roa!casts
2or a broadcast the suggested elements should include:
!eries title and episode name and number if rele#ant, Gear of broadcast. Ltype of
mediumM 5roadcasting organisation and !hannel, date and time of transmission.
8ittle Britain, (66-. LR programmeM 55!, 55!(, '6 ,anuary (66- (6.66.
EU !oc&ents
2ollowing :; conventions, examples of various :; documents are given below:
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
he name of the Institution where the document originates "e.g. !ommission& 2orm "eg
7irective or 7ecision& GearN1egislation numberN Initials of Institution followed by the
date it was passed if known, followed by the title, all in italics.
%ouncil 3irecti#e 566(C59 C4% of 55 May 566( on the harmonisation of certain aspects
of copyright and related rights in the information society.
%ommission 3ecision 9?C75C44% of 5( 3ecember (995 concerning additional
guarantees relating to infectious bo#ine rhinotracheitis for bo#ines destined for
3enmark.
4U .egulation (76BC;(
.4GU8"T-2$ =44%> $o (76BC;( 2) T*4 %2U$%-8 of (7 /une (9;( on the
application of social security schemes to employed persons and their families mo#ing
within the %ommunity.
%ouncil .egulation =44%> (A(5CABD:E of (: 2ctober (9AB on freedom of mo#ement for
workers within the %ommunity.
Corse &ateria"
It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in
agreement with course material being included in any 9eference 1ist. If they are in
agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy
in the Appendix of your work. he citation to the course material in your 9eference 1ist
should then also refer to the Appendix.
It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read
these for yourself.
Corse &ateria" : "ectre notes ; -rint +ersion
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
1ecturerNAuthor, initial. Gear. Bitle of item, Module %ode Module title. H: Institution,
unpublished.
Williams, 5., (66/. =uide to pro4ect management, B37:66(! Management. Anglia
9uskin ;niversity, unpublished.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
"Williams, (66/&
Corse &ateria" ; e"ectronic
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
1ecturerNAuthor name, initial. Gear. Bitle of item, Module %ode Module Title Lonline
via internal R1:M, H: Institution. Available at: web address if available over the internet,
otherwise indicate if available through Web!, .hare8oint or other virtual learning
environment address.
LAccessed dateM.
Williams, 5., (66/. =uide to pro4ect management, 57%>66#. +anagement. Lonline via
internal R1:M Anglia 9uskin ;niversity Available at:O ,:XAI5.XAI5.
AdminXA..:..+:@ +A:9IA1XA..:..+:@ +A:9IA1 (66$)#6XI5. W
+A9K:I@= W +A A9.XI5. .em ( (66$)#6 Approved +aterialX.em (P LAccessed
7ate #' ,une (66/M.
An intext reference for the above examples would read:
"Williams, (66/& ...
Ma-
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
+ap maker, Gear of issue. itle of map. Map series, .heet number, scale, 8lace of
publication: 8ublisher.
Ardnance .urvey, (66-. !hester and @orth Wales. 8andranger series,.heet #6-,
#:>6666, .outhampton: Ardnance .urvey
/otations fro& $ritten -"a#s
When reviewing a number of different plays it is essential to cite the title of the plays. If
reviewing one play "for example welfth @ight& it is not necessary to repeat the title in
your citations.
8ublished plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as
.hakespeare. If they exist it is good practice to include the line number, but Act and
.cene numbers must always be included.
!lassic plays are available in edited editions and the editors name should be included
with your reference.
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Gear "of the edition&. Title of play. :ditors, :dition. "only include this if
not the first edition& 8lace of publication: "this must be a town or city, not a country&
8ublisher.
.hakespeare, W. #$$>. Twelfth $ight& "Worlds !lassics series& Warren, 9 and Wells, .
eds. Axford: Axford ;niversity 8ress
An intext reference for the above examples would read:
+uch speculation has occurred when +alvolio imagines he might marry Alivia, Fthere is
e,ample forGt the 8ady of the !trachy married the yeoman of the wardrobeH
".hakeapeare, welfth @ight Act ( .cene > 1ine no '-)?&.
.ictres% I&ages an! .hotogra-hs
he suggested elements for a reference are:
ArtistN8hotographers name "if known&, Gear of production. Title of image. Ltype of
mediumM !ollection 7etails as available "!ollection, 7ocument number, =eographical
ownN8lace: @ame of 1ibraryNArchiveN9epository&.
5eaton,!., #$>-. Marilyn Monroe. LphotographM "+arilyn +onroes own private
collection&.
5eaton,!., #$%%. !hina #$%%: " mother resting her head on her sick childIs pillow in the
%anadian Mission *ospital in %hengtu. LphotographM "Imperial War +useum
!ollection&.
2or an electronic reference the suggested elements are:
ArtistN8hotographers name, Gear of production. Title of image. Ltype of mediumM
Available at: include web site addressN;91";niform 9esource 1ocator& and additional
details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source.LAccessed dateM.
7ean, 9, (66/ Tales from Topographic 2ceans. Lelectronic printM Available at:
Ohttp:NNrogerdean.comNstoreNproductQinfo.phpTc8athY%WproductsQidY//P LAccessed #/
,une (66/M.
Inter+ie$s
Where you have conducted an interview ) from a primary sourceI
I Gou are recommended to check with your 2aculty Affice for detailed guidance on what you may include.
Where you are conducting the interview, it is important to check with the person being
interviewed that they will be in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made
available. .ince this will not be a publicly available document, it may be included as a
transcript within an Appendix in your piece of work.
he citation for this interview should refer to the Appendix.
In an interview "Appendix A& the findings of the report were reviewed and White agreed
with 0
In the Appendix you should include details such as:
Interviewees name. Gear of interview. Title of inter#iew.. Interviewed by 0name. Ltype
of mediumNformatM 1ocation and exact date of interview . ogether with the transcript.
3here #o are sing an inter+ie$ fro& a sorce sch as a te"e+ision -rogra&&e
he suggested elements for a reference are:
Interviewee name, and initial"s&., Gear of Interview. Title of -nter#iew =or -nter#iew
on ..name of programme>
Interviewed by 0name. Ltype of mediumNformatM @ame of !hannel, 7ate of
transmission, time of transmission.
Ahern, 5., #$$$. -nter#iew on Morning -reland Interviewed by0 ,ohn 5oyd LradioM 9:
9adio #, #> 2ebruary #$$$, 6/:'6.
An intext reference for the above examples would read:
"Ahern, #$$$&
.ress re"ease
hese may be paper or electronic.
2or a paper resource:
!orporate author of press release, Gear. Title. 8ress release and date.
9!@, (66$. .%$ praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. 8ress release, #/
,une (66$.
:lectronic:
!orporate author of press release, Gear. Title. Lpress releaseM, date, Available at: web
address
LAccessed dateM.
9!@, (66$. .%$ praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. Lpress releaseM,
#/ ,une (66$, Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.rcn.org.ukNnewseventsNnewsNarticleNukNrcnQpraisesQhealthQcareQstaffQasQinf
ectionsQcontinueQtoQfallP LAccessed (' ,une (66$M
E9ECTRONIC SOURCES
3e,sites
2or websites found on the worldwide web the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Authorship or .ource, Gear. Title of web document or web page. Ltype of mediumM "date
of update if available& Available at: include web site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource
1ocator& LAccessed dateM.
If the ;91 appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the
reader to access the particular page via the sites homepage. Gou may be taken to a
particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another
place on a website. he resultant ;91s may include specific data about your method of
accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the
homepage "from which the reference can be found&.
Static UR9
@H. :vidence, (66'. $ational 8ibrary of Guidelines. LonlineM Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.library.nhs.ukNguidelines2inderP LAccessed #6 Actober (66$M.
D#na&ic UR9
We have highlighted the part of the ;91 that shows this is a dynamic search. If this is
not available to everyone, use the second example below:
:xample #
@ational :lectronic 1ibrary for Health, (66'. %an walking make you slimmer and
healthierJ "Hitting the headlines article& LonlineM ";pdated #- ,an (66>& Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.library.nhs.ukNrssNnewsAnd9ssArticle.aspxTuriYhttpV'AV(2
V(2www.library.nhs.ukV(2resourcesV(2V'2idV'7--#%$P LAccessed #6 April
(66>M.
:xample (
@ational :lectronic 1ibrary for Health, (66'. %an walking make you slimmer and
healthierJ "Hitting the headlines article& LonlineM ";pdated #- ,an (66>& Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.library.nhs.ukP LAccessed #6 April (66>M.
he title of a web page is normally the main heading on the page, or the title displayed on
the top of the web browser.
An intext reference for the above examples would read:
"@ational :lectronic 1ibrary for Health, (66'&
It is goo! -ractice to 'ee- a co-# of the front -age of an# $e,site #o se
.,"ications a+ai"a,"e fro& $e,sites
2or publications found on the internet the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author or corporate author, Gear. Title of document. Ltype of mediumM 8lace:
8roducerN8ublisher. Available at: include web site addressN;91";niform 9esource
1ocator&.LAccessed dateM.
.cottish Intercollegiate =uidelines, (66#. *ypertension in the elderly. ".I=@ publication
(6& LonlineM :dinburgh : .I=@ "8ublished (66#& Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.sign.ac.ukNpdfNsign%$.pdfP
LAccessed #? +arch (66>M.
5oots =roup 8lc., (66'. %orporate social responsibility. LonlineM 5oots =roup 8lc.
Available at: Ohttp:NNwww.5oots)8lc.!omNInformationNInfo.AspT1evel#idY%%?W1evel
(idY6P
LAccessed (' ,uly (66>M.
7efoe, 7., #$$$. The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll )landers. LonlineM
!hampaign, Illinois: 8ro4ect =utenberg. Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.gutenberg.orgNetextN'?6P LAccessed #/ @ovember (66>M.
-ndependent -n+uiry into "ccess to *ealthcare for People with 8earning 3isabilities. n.d.
Healthcare for all. LonlineM Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.iahpld.org.ukNHealthcareQeasyQfinal.pdfP LAccessed #6 April (66$M
It is goo! -ractice to 'ee- a co-# of the front -age of an# $e,site #o se
E"ectronic i&ages
2or images found on the internet the re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Gear "image created&. Title of work. Ltype of mediumM Available at: include web
site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource 1ocator& LAccessed dateM.
Where the author is not known, begin the reference with the title of the work.
Where none of the usual details are known, "such as author, date, or image title& try to
find the filename of the image "for example by right clicking and looking at the
properties of the file&. If none of the above is available begin the reference with the
subKect and title of the work.
Ran Rechten, !. #$'%. Man .ay. LphotographM Available at:
Ohttp:NNen.wikipedia.orgNwikiN2ile:+anQ9ayQ#$'%.4pgP LAccessed 6% Actober (66$M.
8epsi, (66$. Pepsi can designs. Limage onlineM Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.pepsi.co.ukN+axGour8epsi.aspxP LAccessed #$ ,une (66$M.
L@imbus # returned sharp cloud cover photos, plus night time infra red picturesM n.d.
Limage onlineM Available at: Ohttp:NNrammb.cira.colostate.eduNdevNhillgerN@imbus)
#Qimage.4pgP LAccessed #' @ovember (66/M.
L!hild placing gauFe over knee woundM n.d. Limage onlineM Available at: O
http:NNwww.dadpal.comN(66$N#(Nwounds)care)help)and)wound)vac)therapy.htmlP
LAccessed 6# ,une (6#6M.
An in text reference for the above examples would read:
"Ran Rechten, #$'%&
"8epsi, (66$&
"@imbus #, n.d.&
"!hild placing gauFe, n.d.&
E1&ai" corres-on!ence:!iscssion "ists
.artic"ar care nee!s to ,e ta'en if #o are <oting fro& these as the# &a# inc"!e
-ersona" e&ai" a!!resses an! ,e fro& a restricte! sorce)
.er&ission sho"! ,e soght ,efore these sorces are <ote!)
2or email correspondence or discussion lists the suggested elements for a reference are:
@ame of sender and email address, Gear. Message or subKect title from posting line. Ltype
of mediumM 9ecipient*s name and email address. 7ate sent: Including time. Available at:
;91 "e.g. details of where message is archived&. LAccessed dateM.
,ones, 8., 4onesZ4ones.com, (66>. Mobile phone de#elopments. LemailM +essage to 9 =.
.chmit "r.g.schmitZsyy.ac.uk&. .ent +onday ? ,une (66>, 6/:#'. Available at:
Ohttp:NNgog.defer.comN(66%Q6?Q6#QdeferQarchive.htmlP LAccessed ? ,uly (66>M.
Co-ies of sch corres-on!ence sho"! ,e 'e-t% as these &a# nee! to ,e s,&itte! as
an a--en!ix in an aca!e&ic s,&ission
4"ogs
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Gear. itle of individual blog entry. Blog title& LmediumM 5log posting date.
Available at: include web site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource 1ocator& LAccessed dateM.
Whitton 2elix, (66$. !onservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk
!cience blog, LblogM #/ ,une, Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.guardian.co.ukNscienceNblogN(66$N4unN#/Nconservation)extinction)open)
groundP LAccessed (' ,une (66$M.
Blog comments
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
!omment Author, Gear. itle of individual blog entry. Blog title& LmediumM !omment
posting date. Available at: include web site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource 1ocator&
LAccessed dateM.
7=eeFer, (66$. !onservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk
!cience blog& LblogM #/ ,une, Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.guardian.co.ukNscienceNblogN(66$N4unN#/Nconservation)extinction)open)
groundP LAccessed (' ,une (66$M.
An in text reference for the above examples would read:
"Whitton, (66$&
"=eeFer, (66$&
4"ogs
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
Author, Gear. itle of individual blog entry. Blog title& LmediumM 5log posting date.
Available at: include web site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource 1ocator& LAccessed dateM.
Whitton 2elix, (66$. !onservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk
!cience blog, LblogM #/ ,une, Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.guardian.co.ukNscienceNblogN(66$N4unN#/Nconservation)extinction)open)
groundP LAccessed (' ,une (66$M.
Blog comments
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
!omment Author, Gear. itle of individual blog entry. Blog title& LmediumM !omment
posting date. Available at: include web site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource 1ocator&
LAccessed dateM.
7=eeFer, (66$. !onservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk
!cience blog& LblogM #/ ,une, Available at:
Ohttp:NNwww.guardian.co.ukNscienceNblogN(66$N4unN#/Nconservation)extinction)open)
groundP LAccessed (' ,une (66$M.
An in text reference for the above examples would read:
"Whitton, (66$&
"=eeFer, (66$&
cast or archi+e! t+ -rogra&&e
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
5roadcasterNAuthor, Gear. Programme title& .eries itle. "if relevant& Ltype of mediumM
date of transmission. Available at: include web site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource
1ocator& LAccessed dateM.
@ational =allery, (66/. 4pisode !e#enteen =March 566B>& he @ational =allery +onthly
8odcast. LpodcastM +arch (66/. Available at: O
http:NNwww.nationalgallery.org.ukNpodcastsP LAccessed (' ,une (66$M.
YoT,e +i!eo
he re<uired elements for a reference are:
.creen name of contributor,Gear. 'ideo Title& .eries itle. "if relevant& Ltype of mediumM
Available at: include web site addressN;91 ";niform 9esource 1ocator& LAccessed dateM.
+rgeorged, (66$. Top Gear The !tig re#ealed )ull. Lvideo onlineM Available
at:Ohttp:NNwww.youtube.comNwatch[\vYeapK>d9aw%P LAccessed (' ,une (66$M.
Un-,"ishe! $or's
Gou may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore
not be able to provide full details:
5loggs, ,., "in press& " new book that - ha#e written. 1ondon: Ranity 8ress
Woolley, :. W +uncey, ., "in press& 7emons or diamonds: a study to ascertain the range
of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder. /ournal of
"dolescent Psychiatric $ursing. "Accepted for publication 7ecember (66(&.
Infor&a" or in1hose -,"ications
2or informal publications, such as class handouts and leaflets, provide what details you
can:
Anglia 9uskin ;niversity, (66?. Using the %ochrane 8ibrary. LleafletM August (66? ed.
!ambridge: Anglia 9uskin ;niversity
.ersona" co&&nication
Where you refer to a more informal personal communication, e.g. letter, email, phone call
or conversation, provide as much detail as possible and note the nature of the
communication:
8ermission should be sought before these sources are <uoted, and a copy retained for
reference.
Hindle, :., (666. -ntroducing %ow L Gate 2mneo %omfort: an infant milk for digesti#e
comfort. LletterM "8ersonal communication, ( ,une (666&.
A.ullivan, .., (66'. 3iscussion on citation and referencing. LletterM "8ersonal
communication, > ,une (66'&.
Ho$ to Use the Har+ar! St#"e of Referencing