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34 A WORLD LANGUAGE

The attitude of the British towards the native populations in the


Empire was marked by a sense of superiority in their role as imperial
masters. The poem below captures this attitude wonderfully. It was
written by Rudyard Kipling, who was sometimes referred to as the
prophet of British imperialism. He was very popular in his time,
even winning a Nobel prize. Today many nd his work embarrassing
and racist. The poem below is a famous defence of imperialism.
The White Mans Burden
by Rudyard Kipling
Take up the White Mans burden
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives need;
To wait in heavy harness
On uttered folk and wild
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child.
Take up the White Mans burden
In patience to abide,
To veil the threat of terror
And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple,
An hundred times made plain.
To seek anothers prot,
And work anothers gain.
Take up the White Mans burden
The savage wars of peace
Fill full the mouth of Famine
And bid the sickness cease;
And when your goal is nearest
The end for others sought,
Watch Sloth and heathen Folly
Bring all your hope to nought.
Take up the White Mans burden
No tawdry rule of kings,
But toil of serf and sweeper
The tale of common things.
The ports ye shall not enter,
The roads ye shall not tread,
Go make them with your living,
And mark them with your dead!
burden byrde
forth fram
ye = you (pl)
breed avle, oppdra/oppsede
exile [eksal] eksil,
utlendighet/eksil, det bu i
utlandet
captive fange
wait on oppvarte, tjene/tene
harness selety
uttered udisiplinert, i
uorden
sullen treg, mutt
patience tlmodighet/tolmod
abide holde ut/halde ut
veil [vel] tilslre, gjemme/
gyme
check stoppe
gain her: nytte
savage vill
famine hungersnd
bid pby
sloth dovenskap, slvhet/
slvskap
heathen [hi:n] hedensk/
heidensk
folly dumhet, galskap/
dumskap, galskap
nought = nothing
tawdry billig, juglete/billeg,
juglete
serf livegen, slave/liveigen,
slave
sweeper en som feier/ein
som feiar
tale historie
port havn/hamn
tread tr p
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35 A WORLD LANGUAGE
Take up the White Mans burden
And reap his old reward:
The blame of those ye better,
The hate of those ye guard
The cry of hosts ye humour
(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:
Why brought ye us from bondage,
Our loved Egyptian night?
Take up the White Mans burden
Ye dare not stoop to less
Nor call too loud on Freedom
To cloak your weariness;
By all ye cry or whisper,
By all ye leave or do,
The silent, sullen peoples
Shall weigh your Gods and you.
Take up the White Mans burden
Have done with childish days
The lightly proffered laurel,
The easy, ungrudged praise.
Comes now, to search your manhood
Through all the thankless years,
Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,
The judgement of your peers!
Rajesy (1860-1926):
Colonial Life in
Madagascar, 1904
reap hste/hauste
reward belnning/lnn
host vert
humour gjre til lags/gjere til
lags
bondage [bndd] trelldom/
treldom
stoop bye seg
cloak tildekke/dekkje til
have done with vre ferdig
med/vere ferdig med
proffer tilby, rekke fram/tilby,
rekkje fram
laurel laurbr
ungrudged vel unt
cold-edged med kald egg
peer likemann
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1 UNDERSTANDING THE POEM
According to Kipling what was the
White Mans Burden?
What reward did Kipling suggest the
White Man would receive for carrying
his burden?
What attitude to the natives does Kipling
reveal in the rst stanza?
In the third stanza Kipling suggests
benets of the white mans rule for the
natives. What are these positive things he
suggests the white man can do? Why
does this fail, according to Kipling? What
does this say about the imperialists
attitude to other people in the world?
Leaving home to serve in a foreign
country might not be high on a young
mans list of things to do. Kipling appeals
to a particular male emotion in the last
stanza to encourage him to pick up the
white mans burden. What does he
appeal to? What is your opinion of this?
2 TALK ABOUT IT
What is the effect of the repetition of the
rst line of each stanza?
This poem was written in 1899 as an
appeal to the United States to assume the
task of developing the Philippines,
recently won in the Spanish-American
War. What is so provocative about this
poem today? If you were a citizen of a
colonized territory, how would you
respond to Kipling?
Relate the poem to the soap advertise-
ment below and discuss what they say
about the attitude the Western world
had when it came to less developed areas.
Do these attitudes still prevail?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
a)
b)
c)
36 A WORLD LANGUAGE
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3 IMPROVE YOUR LANGUAGE
Norwegian students, as you can see from the
brief text below, do not like the English
apostrophe. Fix the text below by putting
the apostrophe in the places where it be-
longs.
I picked up my books and walked towards
the door. I was tired of Joannes attitude
about political issues. She thought I should
chill out. Her idea, well her best ideas focus,
was on the next dance programmes starting
time on television. I told her that opinions
about things were important, our genera-
tions hope for and contribution to the fu-
ture. And whats yours, she asked. My what, I
asked. Your focus, she said. Its on the worlds
chances to survive, I said. The future is ours,
we have to think of our childrens future. At
rst I thought she was going to be angry
with me, you know for my not saying that
my main focus was her, but I corrected my
lifes mistake by saying the magic word chil-
dren with the magic pronoun our. Then
she looked at me, her eyes all weepy and said,
I care about our childrens future too. The
politicians talk is all nonsense, but really I
do care.
4 RESEARCH
Search the net using the title Brown Mans
Burden. Pick one of the sites you nd. It
may be an editorial, an article, information
or even a poem/parody. Prepare a group
presentation in class on the response to
Kiplings poem.
37 A WORLD LANGUAGE
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38 A WORLD LANGUAGE
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39 A WORLD LANGUAGE
The attitude of the native populations under the power of the British
Empire was often marked by feelings of rage and bitterness. This is
reected in the poem below. Born in British Guiana (now Guyana),
John Agard is a playwright, poet, short-story and childrens writer. In
1977 he moved to England, where he lecturers at schools through-
out the UK to promote Caribbean culture. He is the co-editor of A
Caribbean Dozen (1994) and From Mouth to Mouth (2004) with his
partner, the poet Grace Nichols (see Wherever I Hang, p. 103).
Pan Recipe
by John Agard
First rape a people
simmer for centuries
bring memories to boil
foil voice of drum
add pinch of pain
to rain of rage
stie drum again
then mix strains of blood
over slow re
watch fever grow
till energy burst
with rhythm thirst
cut bamboo and cure
whip well like hell
stir sound from dustbin
pound handful biscuit tin
cover down in shanty town
and leave mixture alone
when ready will explode
John Minton (1917-57): A
Street Corner in Jamaica,
1951
pan gryte
recipe oppskrift
simmer smkoke
foil hindre
stie kvele
strain art, rase, type
cure salte ned og trke
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1 UNDERSTANDING THE POEM
Choose the statements below that best
describe what the poem is about and
explain why you think so.
The poem is a recipe for Caribbean food
The poem is a metaphor for the anger of
the Caribbean people
The poem is a warning of the growing
discontent of oppressed people
The poem expresses a love of food
This is a poem of anger and rage
This is a poem about calypso steel-pan
music
This poem is about racial tensions
This poem suggests third-world anger
This is an anti-globalization poem
2 TALK ABOUT IT
The poem uses four verbs and one noun
that express anger. Find them in the
poem. Is there a progression of intensity
with these words? What is the effect of
this?
While the poet gives the sense of rage, he
also gives examples in the rst ve stanzas
of why this rage has developed. Find
these examples and discuss what you
think he means by each. For example:
The rst reason is the rape of a people.
A metaphor is a way of making some-
thing stand out by identifying it with
another thing; the poet says that A is B
(e. g. my love is a rose). The purpose of
the metaphor is to make something stand
out, or to get a point across in a more
emphatic and effective way. The whole
poem the pan recipe, is a metaphor.
Discuss the effect of this metaphor. Is this
an effective way of expressing the dis-
satisfaction of a group of people?
3 IMPROVE YOUR LANGUAGE
The imperative form of the verb gives
instructions or commands. We make the
imperative using the base form of the verb,
like the innitive. For example:
watch Watch the pan!
play Play quietly!
talk Talk to me!
put Put three eggs in a bowl!
Find the imperative verbs in this poem.
What is the effect of using the imperative
form in this poem?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
a)
b)
c)
a)
b)
40 A WORLD LANGUAGE
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4 WRITING
Write a text where you give your personal
response to this poem. What could you mix
into the recipe to stop everything from
exploding?
5 RESEARCH
Look up this poet or his partner, Grace
Nichols, on the net and choose another
poem you would like to present in class or
in a smaller group.
A WORLD LANGUAGE 41
Kaaria Muchera
(contemporary artist):
Be Free Three
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There is almost no nook or cranny of the world where you cannot nd
International English these days as the following article makes clear.
For Mongolians, E is for English,
F is for Future
By James Brook, New York Times, February 15, 2005
Ten year old Urantsetseg doesnt look like the representative of an im-
portant government policy. Shes just a little girl trying to nd words to
describe the picture on her T-shirt, a picture of three sh with big teeth
swimming after a frightened looking smaller sh. Father shark, mother
shark, sister shark. She stops, frowning, looking at the little frightened
sh. Then she cries out LUNCH!
Even out in this Mongolian village with dirt roads and wooden huts, the
sounds of English can be heard from the youngest students. This is part
of a nationwide campaign to make English the most important foreign
language of this country, found deep in the middle of Asia, surrounded
by Russia and China.
We are looking at Singapore as a model, said Mongolias Prime Minister,
Tsakhia Elbegdorj, in clear American English learned at Harvard gra-
duate school. We see English not only as a way of communication, but
as a way of opening windows on the world. Mongolias camel herders
may not be calling each other dude yet, but Mongolia is an example of
the steady march of English as a world language. Just as it has in many
European countries, English is taking hold in Asia, encouraged by the
inuence of American culture through the internet and globalization.
The rush to learn English in Mongolia has had its problems. After being
elected in June 2004, Prime Minister Elbegdorj shocked Mongolians by
promptly declaring that the nation would become bilingual, with Eng-
lish as the second language. That was too much, too fast for this nation
of 2.8 million. Later the Prime Minister lowered his sights and developed
a national curriculum in which English would begin to replace Russian
as the most important foreign language taught here.
A WORLD LANGUAGE 42
policy politikk
frown rynke pannen/rynke
panna
herder gjeter/gjetar
encourage oppmuntre, drive
fram
elect velge/velje
prompt hurtig, raskt
bilingual [balgwl]
tosprklig/tosprkleg
curriculum [krkjlm]
pensum
001-219_AccessToIntl.indd 42 25-02-07 13:10:39
The government is merely catching up with private businesses. This
building is three times the size of our old building, says Dollnjin Orgil-
maa, director of Santis Educational Services, as she shows us around her
three-story English school. Started in 1999 as the rst private English
school, it now faces competition on all sides. At Mongolian International
University, all classes are now held in English. In the capital, Ulan Bator,
electronic communication is also spreading the inuence of English.
There are bilingual Mongolian websites and bilingual SMS messages on
mobile phones. Cable television offers English news and movie chan-
nels. And there are radio stations broadcasting the Voice of America and
the BBC. There are also two English-language newspapers and a growing
number of bilingual store signs and restaurant menus. English is so
popular that Mormon missionaries here offer free lessons to attract
potential converts!
Growing tourism explains some of these developments. At the start of
2004, the number of foreign tourists increased by 54%, including some
nine thousand Americans double the number of the year before. Only
the number of Russians declined, reecting the weakening position of
Russia and the Russian language in the country. Russian is going down-
hill very fast, says Tom Dyer, an Australian teacher. Within a decade
Mongolia is expected to switch from the Cyrillic alphabet used in Rus-
sian to the Roman alphabet used in English. This is seen by some as yet
another step away from the past, conrming Mongolias independence
and identity.
A WORLD LANGUAGE 43
broadcast kringkaste
convert en som har
konvertert til en annen
religion/ein som har
konvertert til ein annan
religion
conrm bekrefte/stadfeste,
bekrefte
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A WORLD LANGUAGE 44
Mongolias other great neighbor, China, has adopted a wait-and-see
policy towards Mongolias sudden passion for English. It can afford to.
Chinese-language studies are also booming. Mongolians have a long
history of learning many languages, a history that goes all the way back
to the old Silk Road that passed through its territory. But for many of
Mongolias young people today, it is English that is viewed as hip and
universal. Chinese is boring, says one of Urantsetsegs ten-year-old
classmates as she talks with her interactive English computer program.
Amarsanaa Bazargarid, a 20-year-old student at Mongolian Technical
University, is optimistic. Id like English to be our ofcial second lan-
guage. Mongolians would be comfortable in any country.
It is about more than comfort. Munh-Orgil Tsend, Mongolias foreign
minister, said in an interview, If there is a shortcut to development, it is
English; parents understand that, kids understand that. After trying to
retrain about half of Mongolias 1400 Russian-language teachers to
teach English, Mongolia has now started a program to attract English
teachers from outside the country. I need 2000 English teachers, said
Puntsag Tsagaan, Mongolias minister of
education, culture and science. He explai-
ned that he hopes to attract English teac-
hers, not only from Britain and North
America, but from India, Singapore and
Malaysia as well. He sees a bright future for
a bilingual Mongolia, If we combine our
academic knowledge with the English lan-
guage, we can do out sourcing here, just
like Bangalore (India). (See page 182,
The Impact of Globalization).
Expanding English
In South Korea, six private
English villages are being
established for students who
pay to be taught by native
English speakers from all
over the world. The biggest
one, costing over $85
million is near the capital,
Seoul. It will have Western
buildings, signs and a
population of resident
English speakers.
Movie stars Audrey Hepburn
and Humphrey Bogart on
the Genghis Khan hotel,
Ulan Bator
retrain omskolere
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1 UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT
a) What picture is on Urantsetsegs T-shirt?
b) Why does Mongolia use Singapore as a
model?
c) What did the prime minister declare
when he was elected in 2004?
d) What kinds of media now provide
English in Ulan Bator?
e) Why has the number of Russian tourists
declined?
f) What does China think of the growth of
English in Mongolia?
g) From where does Mongolia hope to
attract English teachers?
2 TALK ABOUT IT
a) The reporter clearly thinks that it is
surprising that pupils are learning
English in Mongolia. Why? Did you nd
it surprising?
b) English is taking hold in Asia, encour aged
by the inuence of American culture
through the internet and globalization.
Can you guess some of the inuences the
author is talking about? Are these also
active in Norway? Is Norway subject to
more inuences?
c) Chinese is the most widely spoken rst
language in the world. Do you think
more Mongolians will learn Chinese or
English in the future? Do you think
Chinese will ever rival English as an
international language? Why, or why
not?
d) English schools in which all classes are
held in English are popular in Asia. Do
you think this would be a good way to
learn English? Would you like to attend
such a school in Norway? Give reasons
for your answer.
3 IMPROVE YOUR LANGUAGE
Fill in the words in their correct places
below. Note: there are more words in the
list than correct places for them in the
text:
thousands, feeling, employers, latter,
collect, classes, move, speakers, business,
instructors, cater, sufcient, torn, inter-
net, living, private, second, different,
resourceful, personnel, maximize
The teaching of English is becoming a
big . All over the world you can nd
rms that to the needs of the local
population. The difculty is often
nding teachers with skills to do the
teaching. There are some who prefer
to use native and others who are
willing to use teachers who have English
as a language. Among some of the
are teachers from India, Singapore or the
Philippines. In the future it may not be
necessary to the teachers to the pupils.
The use of the may make it possible
a)
45 A WORLD LANGUAGE
001-219_AccessToIntl.indd 45 25-02-07 13:10:48
46 A WORLD LANGUAGE
about English as a world language.
You are an English teacher. Write a letter
to the Ministry of Education in Mongo-
lia asking about working conditions in
the schools there. Ask about what you
think you would need to know before
accepting a job there. For example, what
will you get paid? Where will you live?
Vacations? And so on.
5 RESEARCH
Try to nd out how successful the
program has been to make English into
Mongolias second language since 2004.
Use the internet (go to access.cappelen.
no) to nd government programs and
other sources that give information
about this and that reect the use of
English there. Prepare a short report to
your class or make a wall poster sum-
ming up what you nd.
Contact Santis Educational Services or
another English-speaking school in
Mongolia and exchange e-mails with
pupils there. Find out where they come
from, how old they are, what they study,
what they want to use their English for,
what they do for fun and so on.
Try to nd information about one of the
six English villages in Korea mentioned
under Expanding English. See side-
bar p. 44. How big is it? What does it cost
to attend? Can you nd pictures of it?
Make a presentation of your ndings to
your class.

for to be of miles away from their
and yet still see and hear them. Then
classes in Vietnam may have teachers
living in London.
Change the tense of the following
paragraph from present to past.
Paula gets up in the morning and
brushes her teeth. Then she takes off her
pajamas and puts on her clothes, being
careful to tie her shoes correctly. Break-
fast is waiting for her when she walks
downstairs. She kisses her mother and
sits down to eat. Now she gets her coat
from the cupboard and picks up her
school books from the living room. She
is ready to take the bus to school. But she
needs money for the bus rst. She asks
her brother if she can borrow the bus
fare. Ok, he says, But only if you pay it
back to me tonight. Paula agrees and
leaves for the bus stop.
4 WRITING
Write a short report for the Ministry of
Education in Mongolia about the
situation of English in the country and
about the program that the government
there has started (see Toolbox p. 371).
Conclude your report with a set of
recommendations for meeting the goals
of the program.
Write a letter to a pupil studying English
in Mongolia. Introduce yourself and
your school. Go on to explain how
English is taught at your school and the
position that English holds in Norway.
End up with your personal opinions
a)
b)
b)
a)
b)
c)
c)
001-219_AccessToIntl.indd 46 25-02-07 13:10:48
47 A WORLD LANGUAGE
When a language becomes as wide-spread as Interna-
tional English, strange things can begin to happen to
it. The following articles spotlight a few of these.
Here, There and Everywhere
Think of the many kinds of International English as a
bouquet of owers, all stemming from a common an-
cestor, but each grown from its own soil and having its
own special history, form and beauty. At the base are
found the native English-speaking countries, including
Britain and the United States, comprising about 420
million people. These are the roots of English. Above
them are ranged the countries in which English is
spoken as a second language, a much larger number.
Finally, there is the largest group of all, spreading out
above both the many countries in which English is
spoken as a foreign language. More and more coun-
tries are entering these last two groups every year. As a
result, non-native English speakers now outnumber
native speakers 3 to 1. This great variety has already
made a lasting impression on the language. It has
created new vocabulary, new views on what is correct
and incorrect English, and perhaps even completely
new Englishes (see p. 48).
Vocabulary
New English words reect local responses to different
environments. Here are a few examples of new English
vocabulary formed in different regions of the world:
New Zealand
Kiwi New Zealander
Pommies British persons
kindy kindergarden
chilly-bin cooler
The Expanding Circle
China 1,313,973,713
Egypt 78,887,007
Indonesia 245,452,739
Israel 6,352,117
Japan 127,463,611
South Korea 48,846,823
Nepal 28,287,147
Saudi Arabia 27,019,731
Taiwan 23,036,087
Russia 142,893,540
Ukraine 46,710,816
Mongolia 2,832,224
Zimbabwe 12,236,805
The Outer Circle
Bangladesh 147,365,352
Ghana 22,409,572
India 1,095,351,995
Kenya 34,707,817
Malaysia 24,385,858
Nigeria 131,859,731
Pakistan 165,803,560
Philippines 89,468,677
Singapore 4,492,150
South Africa 44,187,637
Sri Lanka 20,222,240
Tanzania 37,445,392
Zambia 11,502,010
The Inner Circle
USA 300.218.082
UK 60,609,153
Canada 33,098,932
Australia 20,264,082
New Zealand 4,076,140
bouquet [bke] bukett
stem stamme
ancestor [nsest] stamfar
soil jord
comprise innebefatte/omfatte
be ranged rangere
kindergarden barnehage
001-219_AccessToIntl.indd 47 25-02-07 13:10:48
sheilas girls
cobbers friends
India
batch-mate classmate or fellow student
head-bath washing ones hair
goonda a bad person, criminal
sit on someones neck to watch carefully
stand on someones
head to supervise carefully
Singapore
airown transported by airplane
tuition teacher private tutor
killer litter trash thrown from tall apartment
building
zap to photocopy
kiasu must-win attitude
Standards
Just as vocabulary can change from area to area within the world of In-
ternational English, so can grammar and pronunciation. For example,
the expression She look very sad may be wrong to native speakers,
who would insist on She looks very sad. But it sounds just ne to mil-
lions of people in Asia. Are they wrong? Non-native English speakers are
now a majority. Who decides what is right? Some experts believe that
the rules must make way for the users. For example, many non-native
speakers (including Norwegians) have trouble with the English sound
th (/), as in the and thing. Why should non-native speakers spend
hours practising to not say de or ting? Does correct pronunciation
really matter when, for example, a Norwegian speaks with a Japanese?
After all, international pilots have been allowed to say tree for three
for decades to avoid confusion on the radio. Why not avoid confusion
on the ground, too?
Englishes
According to some observers things have gone so far that entirely new
Englishes have been created. Among these are Englog (English and
Tagalog) in the Philippines, Hinglish (Hindi and English) in India,
48 A WORLD LANGUAGE
Examples of Englishes:
Englog
Make kwento to me what
happened
(Tell me the story about
what happened)
Hinglish
Dad, time kya hua hai?
(Dad, what time is it right
now?)
Spanglish
Hola, good morning, cmo
ests?
(Hello, good morning, how
are you?)
Well, y t?
(Well, and you?)
Japlish
Japlish candy wrapper:
Your health and loveliness is
our best wish. Give us a
chance to realize it.
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Spanglish (Spanish and English) along the US-Mexican border and
Japlish (Japanese and English) in Japan.

The future
Professor David Crystal, one of the worlds leading experts on language,
no longer believes that one form of English ought to be able to tell
another what is right. He believes that in the future people will have
three forms of English; one they speak locally as their dialect, a national
variety for education and business, and then a standard International
English for communicating with foreigners. All this will come, of course,
in addition to the mother tongue of most of these English speakers who
(like you) will be non-native. Make way for the multi-lingual speakers!
International English has only just begun to grow. The best is yet to
come.
49 A WORLD LANGUAGE
multilingual ersprklig/
eirsprkleg
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1 UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT
Tick off the correct answer among the
sentences below.
There are more native speakers than
non-native speakers of English
There are fewer native speakers than
non-native speakers of English
There are fewer non-native speakers
than native speakers of English
New words are made by committees
New words are made by speakers
New words are made by dictionaries
Kindy means chocolate egg
Kindy means small child
Kindy means kindergarden
Cobbers are shoe makers
Cobbers are mates
Cobbers are police
Englog is from Indonesia
Englog is from Equador
Englog is from the Philippines
2 TALK ABOUT IT
Should grammar rules be decided by a
majority or should there be standards
that everyone follows? Write a list of
pros and cons on this issue and then
discuss with your classmates.
David Crystal believes that all non-
native speakers will one day have a local
dialect of English. Do you think that
Norway has such an English dialect; that
is, a characteristic way of speaking
English? Do you think Norway will
develop one in the future? What
characteristics might it have?
If you could change one rule in English
grammar or phonetics, what would it
be? Why that rule? Compare your choice
with others in your class.
3 IMPROVE YOUR LANGUAGE
Try to re-write the following lines using
standard rules of English grammar and
spelling:
Yesterday I is going to the mall. Is bying me
wife a new handclock for the birthing date.
Her no like de ting. Trow it inna de garbage
an change de locks on the at. Me much
sad. Her much sad. Maybe me by she
owers and kissy-kissy?
a)
b)
c)
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4 WRITING
Write ten sentences using some of the
new words listed under Vocabulary on
pp. 47-48. For example:
I hid some cans of beer in the chilly-bin,
but my mother was sitting on my neck
so I couldnt take one out.
Write an essay in which you argue either
for or against relaxing the rules of
English grammar to include other
Englishes (see Toolbox p. 369).
5 RESEARCH
Go to access.cappelen.no. See if you can
nd other new Englishes on the net.
Where do they come from? What are they
a mixture of? How large are the popula-
tions that use them? Then make a short
report to your class entitled:
Englishes of the World
Some people would say that gangsta rap
music from the black communities of the
United States, has created its own form of
English. See if you can nd the lyrics of
some gangsta rap songs and then com-
pare them to standard English taught in
school. How do they differ? Can you re-
write them in standard English? Make a
presentation of your ndings in class.
There are many websites dedicated to
Japlish and the special way in which
English is employed in Japan. Visit some
of these sites and make a collection of
some of the more interesting Japlish
expressions. Put your collection on a
poster for your class.
a)
b)
a)
b)
c)
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