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G L O S S A R Y

absolute temperature scale temperature scale in which the zero is absolute zero, and which has divisions equal to those of the Celsius scale absolute zero lowest possible temperature (0 K or –273.16 °C); molecules have minimum kinetic energy at this temperature acid substance that can donate a proton to a base addition polymer polymer that is formed by an addition polymerisation reaction between monomers that contain at least one carbon–carbon double bond addition polymerisation process in which monomers containing at least one carbon–carbon double bond are joined together by addition reactions to form a polymer addition reaction chemical reaction in which two or more molecules join together to form a product that contains all of the original atoms; unsaturated hydrocarbons typically undergo this type of reaction adhesive force electrostatic force of attraction between unlike particles, such as the force of attraction between the water molecules in contact with the surface of a glass container and the particles present in the surface of the glass aerobic process that occurs in living organisms which requires oxygen, such as the process of cellular respiration in humans alchemy forerunner of the science of chemistry, in which practitioners sought to assist nature reach a more perfect state by transforming metals such as lead into gold and by seeking immortality aliquot volume of liquid delivered by a pipette alkane family set of saturated hydrocarbons of general molecular formula

C n H 2n + 2

alkene family set of hydrocarbons in which two of the carbon atoms are joined by a double covalent bond and all other carbon atoms are joined by single covalent bonds; these are unsaturated hydrocarbons of general formula C n H 2n alkyl group group of atoms derived from an alkane that is attached to the main chain of a molecule of an organic compound. It contains one less hydrogen atom than its parent alkane and has the general formula C n H 2n + 1 allotropes different crystalline or molecular forms of an element alpha-particle (α-particle) positively charged particle that is emitted by many radioactive substances; consists of a helium nucleus amorphous region region within a solid in which the particles are in a disordered arrangement; non-crystalline amphiprotic (amphoteric) substance that can donate or accept protons; it acts as a base when a strong acid is added and as an acid when a strong base is added anaerobic process that occurs in living organisms which does not require oxygen, such as the process of fermentation carried out by yeast organisms anhydrous ionic compound from which any water of hydration has been removed anion negatively charged atom or group of atoms anode positive electrode in a gas discharge tube; in a galvanic cell, it is the electrode at which oxidation occurs, which is the negative electrode since it is the source of electrons for the circuit aqueous solution mixture in which substances are dissolved in water aromatic compound compound containing at least one benzene ring association process in which oppositely charged ions dissolved in a solvent draw together to form a solid lattice atmospheric pressure pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere. At sea level it has a mean value of one atmosphere (which is equivalent to 770 mmHg or 101.325 kPa), but it decreases with increasing altitude

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atom fundamental particle of all matter; atoms are principally composed of three types of subatomic particles—electrons, which have a negative charge; protons, which have a positive charge; and neutrons, which have no charge atom economy measure of the percentage of atoms in the starting materials of a chemical process that end up in the final desired product atomic mass constant (unified atomic mass unit), u or amu units assigned to the relative atomic mass scale atomic number, Z the number of protons in an atomic nucleus; this is unique for each element and is used to identify the element atomic orbitals regions of space surrounding the nucleus of an atom, each of which can be occupied by up to two electrons; their existence was proposed in the quantum mechanical model of the atom and they can have a range of shapes atomic weight (relative atomic mass) weighted mean of the weights (masses) of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element on a scale in which the carbon-12 isotope is assigned an exact value of 12 Aufbau Principle principle of building up the electron configuration of the atoms of an element by progressively adding the electrons into subshells in order of increasing energy auxiliary substance substance used to help carry out a reaction but which is not a starting substance or a reagent, e.g. a solvent Avogadro constant, N A total number of particles present in 1 mole of a substance; N A = 6.02 × 10 23 mol 1 correct to 3 significant figures base substance that can accept a proton from an acid binary compound compound composed of only two elements bioaccumulation accumulation of a toxic chemical in, for example, fatty tissues of a living organism, which then can be passed along the food chain biocatalyst biological agent (enzyme or microorganism) that can facilitate and speed up a particular reaction biodegradable able to break down naturally due to the action of microorganisms biodiesel fuel made from natural renewable sources, such as new and used vegetable oils, for use in diesel engines biomagnification progressive increase of the concentration of a toxic substance in the tissues of species as it passes up through the food chain biopolymer polymer produced from natural renewable resources instead of petrochemicals; can be produced by living organisms or synthesised chemically from biological starting materials such as starch block (of the Periodic Table) one of the three main sections of the Periodic Table; atoms of the elements in the same block have the same type of subshell partially filled or just filled Bohr model of the atom model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr in which the electrons move in circular orbits around the positively charged nucleus. The orbiting electrons can only have certain discrete values of energy; those that have the same energy are located in the same electron shell, but each electron shell can only contain a maximum number of electrons. The greater the energy of the electron, the greater is its distance from the nucleus. boiling point (boiling temperature) temperature at which a liquid changes into its vapour, or gas, forming bubbles of the vapour within the body of the liquid bonding electrostatic force of attraction that holds (binds) particles together bond length distance between a pair of nuclei that share a set of electrons within a molecule

bonding pair pair of electrons shared between two atoms that is involved in forming a covalent bond Boyle’s Law relationship between the volume of a fixed mass of a confined ideal gas and its pressure at constant temperature; states that the volume of the gas varies inversely with its pressure (P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 ) branched-chain isomer structural isomer of an organic compound that has one or more side groups (such as a methyl group) attached to the main chain branches linear chains that are attached to the main chain of a linear polymer brittle shatters when a force is exerted by a hammer or other object; not malleable burette uniform-bore glass tube with fine gradations and a stopcock at the bottom; used for accurate dispensing and measurement of a liquid, such as in a titration

by-product substance produced in a chemical process in addition to the desired product canal rays positively charged rays produced in a gas discharge tube that move in the opposite direction to cathode rays; the observation of these rays led to the discovery of the proton capillary action ability of a liquid to rise up capillary tubes (tubes with a small internal diameter) and to enter porous materials capillary rise height limit to which a particular liquid will climb in a given capillary tube carbon cycle cycling of carbon through the biosphere via the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which makes carbon available to living things. It involves processes that absorb carbon dioxide from the air, such as photosynthesis, and processes that release carbon dioxide into the air, such as cellular respiration and combustion. carbon nanotubes nano-sized cylindrical carbon molecules with a graphite- like structure that exhibit novel properties, such as extraordinary strength, which make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications carbon neutral substance that when consumed, releases back into the atmosphere the same amount of carbon that was required to produce it catalyst substance that speeds up a chemical process without being consumed cathode negative electrode in a gas discharge tube. In a galvanic cell, it is the electrode at which reduction occurs, which is the positive electrode since electrons move in the external circuit towards it. cathode ray tube one of the names given to a gas discharge tube, a tube in which a gas is present at very low pressures; when the gas is subjected to a very high voltage a stream of cathode rays is produced cathode rays stream of electrons emitted by the cathode in gas discharge tubes, which is seen as light rays; their discovery led to the discovery of the electron cation positively charged atom or group of atoms cellular respiration chemical process occurring in living cells by which organisms obtain their energy; for example, in human cells the process involves glucose and oxygen reacting to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy charge cloud term sometimes used to describe an occupied atomic orbital Charles’s Law relationship between the pressure of a fixed amount of an ideal gas and its absolute temperature when held at constant volume, which states that the pressure is directly proportional to its absolute

temperature

T 2 chemical bonds electrostatic force of attraction between particles that binds them together chemical reactivity ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction with other substances; the more reactive a substance, the greater the energy released when it reacts colloid (colloidal suspension) mixture in which tiny clusters of particles of one substance are dispersed through another substance in which they are insoluble; the clusters do not settle under the influence of gravitational forces and cannot be removed by filtration through filter paper

(

V

1

V 2

T

1

=

)

G L O S S A R Y

combined gas equation relationship between the initial and final volume, pressure and absolute temperature of a fixed amount of an ideal gas when the gas is subjected to a change of conditions compound substance containing two or more elements combined together in definite proportions; can only be broken up into its component elements by heating it to a sufficiently high temperature or passing an electrical current through it; its properties are different from those of its component elements concentration amount of solute that is dissolved in a particular volume of solution concordant results titres obtained during a volumetric analysis that are within a given volume of one another, such as within 0.10 mL or within 0.05 mL conjugate acid (of a base) product a base forms when it has accepted a proton from an acid; its formula will contain one more H + than that of the base conjugate acid–base pair the acid and the product it forms (its conjugate base) in an acid–base reaction, or the base and the product it forms (its conjugate acid) in an acid–base reaction conjugate base (of an acid) product an acid forms when it has donated a proton (one H + ) to a base; its formula will contain one less H + than that of the base copolymer a polymer built up from two or more different monomers corroded description given to a metal or alloy that has undergone a process of corrosion; it will look tarnished or pitted or ‘eaten away’ corrosion spontaneous chemical change in which a metal is converted into one of its compounds as the result of the action of a chemical agent in its environment corrosion resistance ability of a metal or metal alloy to resist being corroded corrosive having the capacity to cause a metal to corrode; for example, acids and salt water are described as corrosive substances covalent bonding electrostatic attraction between negatively charged electrons that are shared between two adjacent atoms in a molecule (or giant covalent lattice, polymer or polyatomic ion) and their positively charged nuclei; classified as strong bonding crystalline regions (or crystallites) regions within a substance in which the particles are in an ordered array Dalton model of the atom model of the atom proposed by John Dalton in which the atom is described as the indivisible and indestructible smallest particle from which every substance is made. All the atoms of a given element are identical and unique. degradation (of polymer) deterioration, or breaking down, of a polymer due to exposure to factors such as ultraviolet light degree of branching (of polymer) measure of the frequency and lengths of the branches in a branched polymer degree of hydration number of molecules of water of hydration present for each formula unit of an ionic compound delocalised electrons electrons that are detached from their atoms and move through the whole structure density mass of a given unit volume of a substance, usually measured in grams per cubic centimetre (g cm 3 ) desalination removal of salt from a solution (especially from sea water) diatomic molecules molecules consisting of only two atoms which are covalently bonded together diffusion spreading out or migration of one substance through another dilution watering down of concentrated solutes dioxins family of highly toxic chlorinated organic compounds that have non-polar molecules; accumulate in human tissue and can affect metabolism and cause cancer dipole molecule having a permanent build-up of positive charge at one end and negative charge at the other end dipole–dipole attraction electrostatic force of attraction between polar molecules that are adjacent to one another; classified as weak and non-directional

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diprotic acid acid that is able to donate two protons to a base directional bonding bonding that operates in the direct line between oppositely charged ions, or between a hydrogen attached to a highly electronegative atom in a molecule and a non-bonding electron pair on a highly electronegative atom on an adjacent molecule or on the same molecule discrete separate, distinct, not continuous discrete molecules separate molecules that have a specific, definite number of atoms of each element present dispersant substance that causes particles present in a solution to move apart (disperse) by imparting a charge to them, causing the particles to remain suspended instead of clumping together and forming a precipitate; dispersants are generally added to laundry detergents, for example, to prevent scum depositing on clothes dispersion force electrostatic force of attraction which acts between instantaneous dipoles present on adjacent molecules; a weak, non-directional intermolecular bonding also known as Van der Waal’s forces dissociation process in which the oppositely charged ions present in a solid lattice move out of the lattice through the action of a solvent and then move separately through the solvent disulfide cross-links –C–S–S–C– bond that links the carbon atoms on two adjacent polymer chains by strong covalent bonding; occur at intervals along the chains of polymers such as vulcanised rubber, and collagen molecules in hair double covalent bond covalent bond that arises when two pairs of electrons are shared by two adjacent atoms in a molecule dry corrosion corrosion of a metal caused by a component of the atmosphere such as oxygen, in which water is not a reactant ductile able to be drawn into a wire elastic able to be stretched and then return to the original shape when the stretching force is removed elastic collision collision between particles that involves no overall loss of energy, but energy may be transferred between the colliding particles, resulting in one speeding up and the other slowing down

elastomer polymer that can be stretched and then can return to its original shape when the stretching force is removed electron configuration arrangement of electrons in an atom in their energy levels electron dot formula representation of the structure of an ion or a molecule

in which the nucleus and inner electrons of the ions or atoms are represented by

the symbol of the element and the valence electrons are represented by dots electron shell region within the atom in which electrons that have the same energy or related energies may be found electronegativity measure of the electron attracting power of an atom; it is deduced from the strength of bonding present in its compounds electron elementary particle found in the atom that has a negative charge and a very small mass; electrons orbit around the nucleus and are responsible for the volume of the atom and are primarily responsible for the chemical properties of the element

electrovalence shell diagram representation of the structure of an ion or

a molecule based on the Bohr model of the atom

electrovalency charge on an ion, which allows us to determine the ratios in which the ions combine element substance composed of atoms with the same atomic number. Elements are the ‘ingredients’ from which all substances are made. By the end of 2005 there were 111 officially recognised elements, although a number of these do not occur naturally on Earth. emission spectrum set of separate coloured lines on a black background obtained when the light that is emitted by excited atoms returning to their ground state is broken up in a spectroscope. This spectrum is unique for each element and can be used to identify an element.

empirical evidence evidence based on observations and experiments empirical formula formula that shows the simplest numerical ratio in which atoms or ions are combined in a compound end point in a volumetric analysis, the experimentally determined equivalence point at which the indicator just changes colour, or the pH curve becomes almost vertical endothermic reactions chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed; reactions in which the container becomes cold or which only take place if we heat the reactants are examples of endothermic reactions enhanced greenhouse effect (global warming, climate change) increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, due to their

excessive production as result of human activity; considered to be responsible for

a rise in the mean temperature of the Earth’s surface in the past century

equivalence point point in a volumetric analysis at which the two reactants have just reacted in their correct mole proportions excited description given to an electron or an atom that has absorbed energy (from a flame or other energy source), resulting in the electron, or one or more of the electrons present in the atom, moving to a higher energy level exothermic reaction chemical reaction in which there is a net release of energy, generally in the form of heat extracting process in which a metal is obtained from its compound; for example, when copper is obtained from its ore we say it has been extracted from its ore feedstock chemical industry term for the starting materials required for a chemical process fermentation anaerobic chemical reaction used by yeast organisms to obtain their energy; sugars are broken down into carbon dioxide and ethanol (commonly known as alcohol) first ionisation energy energy required to remove one electron from an uncharged atom

first transition series first row of transition metals in the Periodic Table; in the atoms of the ten metals in this series the 3d subshell is filling or has just filled fixed (nitrogen) term used to describe atmospheric nitrogen that has been changed into a compound plants can use flocculating agent substance used to help remove colloidal particles from

a mixture; it causes them to cluster together into heavier clumps which then

will settle under the action of gravitational forces flocculation process in which colloidal particles are treated by a flocculating agent so they cluster together into heavier clumps which then will settle under the action of gravitational forces formula unit simplest unit or set of ions present in an ionic compound; shows the simplest ratio in which the ions are present in the solid lattice (as represented by its empirical formula) functional group special group of atoms present in the molecules of a number of families of organic compounds, which is attached to or inserted between the carbon atoms and which causes the molecules to exhibit particular properties; one example is the OH (hydroxyl) group present in the family of alcohols galvanic cell an arrangement in which an oxidant and a reductant, which would react spontaneously if in direct contact, are separated into two half- cells so that the electrons that transfer between them are forced to travel through an external circuit, thereby allowing the energy released in the reaction and the flow of electrons to be utilised

gas discharge tube (discharge tube) closed tube containing a gas at very

low pressure through which an electric current flows when sufficient voltage

is applied to its electrodes

gas pressure measure of the total force exerted by gas particles per unit area of the surface with which they are colliding gelatinous precipitate precipitate that is in the form of a gel (that is, jelly-like)

general gas equation (universal gas equation, ideal gas equation) relationship between the volume of an ideal gas, its pressure, absolute temperature and the amount of gas; considered to be approximately true for real gases at normal temperatures and pressures giant covalent lattice infinite lattice of atoms that are held together by covalent bonding, such as the diamond lattice giant ionic lattice highly regular, alternating arrangement of anions and cations in a solid crystal of an ionic compound in which each cation is surrounded by anions, and vice versa; this structure continues to the edge of the crystal good conductor of electricity enables an electrical current to easily pass through it good conductor of heat will rapidly transfer heat energy from one end to the other when in contact with a material that has a different temperature grams per mole, g mol 1 unit of molar mass green chemistry approach to designing chemical processes that aims to prevent pollution wherever possible rather than cleaning it up afterwards; green chemists aim to find ways to make industrial processes and consumer products less harmful to our health and the environment and more sustainable greenhouse effect moderation of the temperature range and mean temperature at the Earth’s surface through the trapping of much of the Earth’s radiant energy by greenhouse gases; this has enabled life to exist on Earth greenhouse gas any of the atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour, that contributes to the greenhouse effect; these gases act rather like the glass of a greenhouse ground state state of lowest possible energy in an atom, which is its most stable state group (of the Periodic Table) vertical column in the Periodic Table; elements in the same group have the same number of outer shell electrons and hence similar chemical properties half-cell that part of a galvanic cell that contains the oxidant together with its conjugate, or the reductant with its conjugate; consists of an electrode immersed in an electrolyte and is connected to the other half-cell by both external wiring and a salt bridge half-equation ionic equation that shows the acceptance of electrons by an oxidant, or the donation of electrons by a reductant, and therefore includes electrons as a reactant or a product half-life time taken for half of the mass of a particular radioactive material to decay into another substance; this can vary from a fraction of a second to thousands of years, depending on the material halogen one of the set of Group 17 elements, e.g. fluorine halon family of organic compounds containing a halogen that were first developed for use in putting out fires hardness measure of resistance to being scratched hole in the ozone layer depletion of the concentration of ozone molecules in a region of the protective ozone layer surrounding the Earth homologous series series of organic compounds that have the same structural features and in which the formula of each molecule in the family differs from the previous member by the addition of CH 2 homopolymer polymer built up from identical monomers hydrated ion ion that is surrounded by water ligands, which are bonded to it by ion–dipole attraction hydrated salt ionic compound that contains a certain proportion of water molecules in its solid crystals hydrocarbon organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen hydrogen bonding electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to an atom of F, O or N, and an atom of F, O or N on another molecule or another part of the same molecule (if the molecule is sufficiently large).

G L O S S A R Y

It is classified as weak bonding, although it is a little stronger than dipole–dipole attraction but, unlike dipole–dipole attraction, is highly directional. hydrogen ion (proton) positively charged ion of hydrogen, H + , which is transferred from an acid to a base in acid–base reactions hydrogenation addition of hydrogen atoms to a double bond, for example, of an alkene hydrolysis reaction chemical reaction in which water is a reactant hydrophilic attracted to water (‘water-loving’) hydrophobic more attracted to like particles than to water molecules and so tends to be immiscible with water (‘water-hating’) hydroxonium ion H 3 O + ion formed when a water molecule accepts a proton from an acid; the strongest acid that can exist in aqueous solution; formula is often simplified to H + ideal gas gas that obeys the simple gas laws and all of the proposals of the kinetic molecular theory for gases infinite lattice regular 3D arrangement of atoms or ions that continues to the edge of the solid crystal, such as the arrangement of sodium ions and chloride ions in a sodium chloride crystal infinite network lattice infinite lattice that consists of atoms that are covalently bonded together in interconnected rings, such as diamond inorganic compound compound that is not organic instantaneous dipole molecule in which there are regions where there is

a momentary build-up of minute positive or negative charges caused by the rapid movement of electrons intermediate by-products by-products that are formed in one of the in-between stages of an industrial process

intermolecular bonding electrostatic forces of attraction between adjacent molecules that they are sufficiently close to one another; the strength of this bonding influences properties such as melting point, boiling point and hardness of the substance intramolecular bonding electrostatic force of attraction that holds the atoms together within a molecule; the strength of this bonding influences the chemical reactivity of the molecule and the amount of energy required to decompose the molecule ion charged atom or group of atoms; the net charge results from the fact that the total number of protons present is not equal to the total number of electrons present ion–dipole attraction electrostatic force of attraction between an ion and

a polar molecule, such as the attraction between an ion and a water ligand

ionic bonding electrostatic attraction between cations and anions in an ionic compound; bonding is strong and directional ionic compounds compounds for which the constituent particles are cations and anions ionic product of water, K w product of the concentration of the hydroxonium ions and the concentration of the hydroxide ions present in an aqueous solution or pure water, when the concentrations are expressed as molarities (K w = [H 3 + O][OH ]; at 25 °C this has a value of 1 × 10 14 M 2 ionisation reaction chemical reaction between uncharged molecules which results in the production of charged ions isotactic arrangement of side groups in a polymer in which all of the side groups are regularly arranged on one side of the chain isotopes different forms of the same element in which the atoms have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus joule, J the SI unit of energy, equal to the work required to move a 1 kg mass against an opposing force of 1 newton key element element that undergoes a change of oxidation number in a redox reaction

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kilogram, kg SI base unit of mass kinetic energy energy possessed by object because of its motion kinetic molecular theory (of gases) theory proposed to explain the behaviour of gases in terms of the motion of their particles; it states that the mean kinetic energy of the particles is directly proportional to their absolute temperature and that there are no forces of attraction between gas particles kinetics the study of movement (from the Greek kinetikos, meaning ‘moving’) Law of Conservation of Mass one of the fundamental laws of modern chemistry that states that in a chemical reaction mass is conserved. This is because in a chemical reaction atoms are not created or destroyed but simply rearranged. Law of Constant Proportions one of the fundamental laws of modern chemistry that states that, in a pure compound, the elements combine in definite proportions to each other by mass; this was considered to be strong empirical evidence for the existence of atoms Law of Octaves proposal of John Newlands that when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight, about every eigth element has similar chemical properties; an early version of the periodic law layer lattice infinite lattice in which the particles are bonded within flat layers that are then held together in a stacked arrangement, such as in graphite lignin polymer made up of aromatic molecules that holds the cellulose molecules together in wood Lowry–Brønsted theory theory of acids and bases in which an acid is defined as a substance that donates a proton and a base is defined as a substance that accepts the proton main chain longest chain of carbon atoms present in an organic molecule main group metal metal that is located in the s-block or p-block of the Periodic Table malleable can be beaten into another shape by a hammer or other object without breaking mass, m measure of how much matter is in an object relative to the amount of matter in the standard kilogram mass number, A total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atoms of a particular isotope of an element; is approximately equal to the relative isotopic mass of the isotope mass spectrometer analytical instrument that provides data on the relative isotopic masses of the different isotopes of an element, as well as their abundances; also used in chemical analysis mass spectrum the output of a mass spectrometer, which shows a peak for each isotope present; the height of the peak for a particular isotope relative to that of the other peaks gives its relative abundance mean titre mean volume of liquid delivered by a burette when the end point has just been reached during a volumetric analysis melting point (melting temperature) temperature at which a solid liquefies, or melts metal displacement reaction chemical reaction in which a metal displaces (takes the place of) a less reactive metal from a solution of its salt metal fatigue progressive, localised and permanent structural damage such as tiny fractures, which occurs when a metal is repeatedly subjected to stress metallic bonding electrostatic force of attraction that holds a metal together; acts between positively charged metal cations and the negatively charged delocalised valence electrons that move among them metallic lattice infinite lattice of a metal, which consists of an ordered arrangement of metal cations among which delocalised electrons move metallic lustre mirror-like shininess exhibited by a metal that has not corroded, particularly if its surface has been smoothed by polishing metalloids (semi-metals) non-metallic element (e.g. arsenic) that has some of the chemical properties of a metal

metals chemical elements characterised by their metallic lustre, capacity to lose electrons and form positive ions, and ability to conduct heat and electricity micelle small spherical clusters of surfactant in the body of the liquid; act as reservoirs to replace surfactant as it is consumed millimetres of mercury (mmHg) unit of pressure that is measured by the length of a column of mercury; the mean pressure of the atmosphere at sea level is 760 mmHg mineral naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, colour and hardness mineral oils any of various light hydrocarbon oils, especially a distillate of petroleum mineral salt inorganic ionic compound occurring naturally in the Earth’s crust consisting of metal ions and ions of non-metals mixture composition of two or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other and are capable of being separated by means such as filtration or distillation Mohs scale of hardness scale that characterises the hardness of various minerals; on this scale, the hardest mineral, diamond, is given a value of 10, and the softest mineral, talc, is given a value of 1. Each substance can only be scratched by those higher on the scale. mol unit for the amount of substance; one mole of a particular substance is the amount of the substance that contains Avogadro’s number of those particles molar enthalpy of vaporisation amount of energy required to evaporate 1 mole of a liquid molar mass, M mass of one mole of a substance, measured in grams per mole (g mol 1 ) molar volume volume occupied by one mole of any gas at a particular temperature and pressure molarity concentration of a solute measured in moles per litre (mol L 1 ) mole amount of substance containing 6.02 × 10 23 particles molecular formula formula that gives the actual total number and kinds of atoms of each element in each molecule of the substance molecular substance substance composed of discrete molecules molecule discrete group of atoms bound together by covalent bonding monatomic ion ion consisting of a single atom monomer small molecules that link together to form a long chain of repeating units (a polymer); must have at least one double bond or at least two reactive functional groups monoprotic acid acid that can only donate one proton to a base nanometre (nm) billionth of a metre (10 9 m) nanoscience study of materials and events at the nanoscale, which is about the size of atoms and molecules nanotechnology creation, use or manipulation of objects at the nanoscale, usually in the 0.01–100 nm range neutralisation reaction chemical reaction in which just the right amount of base is added to an acid so that it is completely reacted neutron elementary particle without an electrical charge present in the nucleus of an atom; has about the same mass as a proton newton, N SI unit of force; it is the force required to accelerate a mass of 1 kilogram by 1 metre per second nitrogen cycle set of complex processes in which nitrogen gas undergoes cycles of being produced and consumed, which enable the cycling of nitrogen atoms through living organisms nitrogen fixation conversion of nitrogen from its elemental form into compounds that can be used by plants to synthesise nitrogen-containing compounds essential for life

noble gas element located in Group 18 of the Periodic Table; exists in nature as individual atoms which are very unreactive non-bonding pair (lone pair) electron pair around an atom in a molecule that is not shared by any other atoms; although not involved in bonding, non- bonding pairs around any central atom influence the shape of the molecule non-metal element in the Periodic Table that is not a metal; not all non- metals form compounds but those that do can achieve a more stable electron configuration by either accepting electrons or by sharing electrons non-polar molecule molecule that has no permanent build-up of charge in any region, due to the fact it is symmetrical or else is composed of atoms of identical or almost the same electronegativity; these molecules are not affected by an electric field non-renewable resource natural resource that cannot be replenished within a reasonable time, such as fossil fuels nucleon particle present in the nucleus of an atom (proton or neutron) nucleus region in an atom containing its protons and neutrons; occupies only an extremely small fraction of the volume of the atom but is responsible for almost all of its mass number of mol, n measure of the amount of a particular substance present in a sample orbit path followed by an electron when it moves around the nucleus of an atom; this term is used in the Bohr model of the atom ore rock containing minerals or a naturally occurring metal such as gold ore body ore deposit that contains enough metal for it to be profitable to mine and process the ore to extract the metal organic compound compound containing carbon, with the exception of compounds such as carbonates, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide; hydrogen also is present and sometimes one or more other elements organochlorine insecticides organic compounds containing chlorine that are used to kill insects osmosis spontaneous flow of a solvent into a solution through a semipermeable membrane; the direction of flow is from a region in which the concentration of the solute(s) is low to a region in which the concentration of the solute(s) is high oxidant substance that oxidises a reductant; that is, one that accepts electrons from the reductant (sometimes known as an oxidiser or oxidising agent) oxidation number artificial device assigned by a set of rules, determined from the charges that would develop on the individual atoms if electrons had been completely transferred to the more electronegative element. If a substance is oxidised then the oxidation number of the key element present increases; if the substance is reduced its oxidation number decreases. oxidation state refers to the atoms of an element exhibiting a particular oxidation number oxide binary compound of an element and oxygen pascal (Pa) SI unit of pressure; the mean pressure of the atmosphere at sea level is 101 325 Pa Pauli Exclusion Principle principle that states an atomic orbital cannot contain more than two electrons Pauling scale of electronegativities electronegativity scale devised in 1932 by Linus Pauling to show the relative electron-attracting power of the atoms of the elements; determined from the measured bond energies of their compounds period horizontal row of the Periodic Table; the atoms of the elements in the same period have the same number of occupied electron shells Periodic Law principle stated by chemists such as Dmitri Mendeleev that properties of the elements vary periodically (in repeating patterns) when they are listed in order of increasing atomic weight Periodic Table chart of the elements arranged across rows in order of increasing atomic number so that they are listed in the same vertical column as elements that have similar properties

G L O S S A R Y

periodic variation the repeating of properties of the elements, e.g. electron configuration, as you move sequentially through the Periodic Table permanent dipole non-symmetrical molecule in which there is a permanent build-up of negative charge on one end of the molecule and a permanent build-up of positive charge on the other end of the molecule, due to the difference in electronegativity of atoms present permeable can be permeated or penetrated, especially by liquids or gases, due to the presence of spaces or pores in the structure pesticides substances or mixture of substances that will prevent, destroy, repel or weaken any pest; includes insecticides, herbicides and fungicides pH a measure of the concentration of H 3 O + ions (usually referred to as H + ions) in aqueous solution; defined as the logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen ion concentration (pH = –log[H 3 O + ]) philosopher’s stone the stone or material that alchemists believed capable of changing other metals into gold photochemical smog complex mixture of secondary pollutants produced by the action of sunlight on unburnt hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and other primary pollutants emitted by internal combustion engines such as engines of most motor vehicles; has a brownish colour and reduces visibility in many cities photons quantum or ‘parcel’ of light energy emitted by excited atoms when they return to the ground state photosynthesis process occurring in plants and certain other organisms containing chlorophyll by which glucose is synthesised from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source; most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a by-product pipette narrow, usually calibrated glass tube into which small amounts of liquid are suctioned for transfer or measurement, such as when delivering a volume of liquid into a reaction flask ready for a titration plasticisers small molecules added to polymers to make or keep them soft or pliable polar molecule molecule that is a permanent dipole; will be affected by an electric field polyatomic ion ion containing more than one atom; in the ion the atoms are bound together by strong covalent bonding polymer (giant molecule) natural or synthetic compound of high molecular mass consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units, each formed from a relatively light and simple molecule known as a monomer; the structure is held together by covalent bonding polyprotic acid acid that is able to donate more than one proton to a base polysaccharide carbohydrate consisting of a number of monosaccharides (simple sugar monomers) joined by condensation polymerisation reactions precipitate solid powder or gel formed in a reaction which settles to the bottom of a container; it is produced as a result of the association of ions precipitation reaction reaction in which an insoluble precipitate is produced when an aqueous solution of one ionic compound is mixed with an aqueous solution of another ionic compound primary pollutant pollutant that is formed in an internal combustion engine, such as in the combustion chamber of a petrol-driven car, which may react with substances present in the air when emitted into the air principal quantum number, n number assigned to the electron shell in which an electron is located in an atom. It is the first in a set of four quantum numbers that are assigned to electrons; each electron in an atom has a unique set of numbers. proton elementary particle with a positive charge found in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons present determines which element it is quantum (of energy) ‘packet’ or discrete amount or quantity of energy quantum numbers set of numbers used to define the location and spin of each electron in an atom; no two electrons in the same atom possess the same set of quantum numbers

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radical highly reactive particle that has an unpaired electron reaction flask flask in which the reaction occurs in a volumetric analysis; usually a conical flask redox reaction oxidation–reduction reaction that involves the transfer of electrons from a reductant to an oxidant reduced-risk pesticide pesticide that reduces the risk to humans and non-target insects and reduces the risk of environmental contamination compared with products that are already in use reductant substance that gives electrons to an oxidant in a redox reaction; all metals act as reductants when they react relative atomic mass, A r mean mass of the naturally occurring mixture of the isotopes of an element on the relative atomic mass scale, on which the carbon-12 isotope is given a value of exactly 12 relative formula mass mean mass of a formula unit of an infinite lattice on the relative atomic mass scale relative isotopic mass mass of an individual isotope of an element on the relative atomic mass scale relative molecular mass mean mass of a molecule on the relative atomic mass scale relative or percentage abundance relative proportion, expressed as fraction or percentage, of an isotope in a sample of an element relative scale measurement scale that shows relative values, such as the relative mass scale that shows how heavy atoms are compared with one another renewable resource one that can readily be replaced, such as plant material reverse osmosis process by which a solvent such as water is purified of solutes by being forced through a semipermeable membrane from a solution of high solute concentration to a solution of very low or zero solute concentration; this is achieved by applying a pressure on the impure liquid that is greater than the natural osmotic pressure risk likelihood of injury or damage; the risk associated with any substance depends on how hazardous it is and on your likely exposure to it rust reddish-brown compound, hydrated iron(III) oxide, which is produced after the corrosion products of iron are further exposed to oxygen and water Rutherford nuclear model (planetary model) model of the atom proposed by Ernest Rutherford that states the atom is made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons that move around it like planets around the Sun. This model did not attribute any structure to the orbiting electrons but was very important because it proposed the concept of the nucleus. sacrificial corrosion strategy for protecting a metal from corrosion by attaching another more active metal to its surface; the more active metal corrodes in preference to the metal that is being protected salt bridge device used to complete the circuit in a galvanic cell; also provides a supply of mobile ions that migrate into the half-cells during the cell reactions, preventing the build-up of a positive or negative charge which would cause the cell to stop operating saturated solution contains all the solute that can normally be dissolved at the given temperature saturated compound organic compound in which all carbon–carbon bonds are single bonds scale insoluble deposit that forms on the walls of pumps, pipes, boilers and condensers, reducing the efficiency at which they can operate; this is due to the presence of ions such as calcium, barium and magnesium ions in water and can eventually block pipes completely scale inhibitors (anti-scalants) substances that reduce the amount of scale depositing on surfaces by preventing it forming or making it deposit in such a way that it is removed when fluid flows through the pipe

scattered moved off their path in a new direction Schrödinger model (quantum mechanical model) model of the atom

proposed by Erwin Schrödinger in which the electrons are said to be located

in atomic orbitals, which are grouped into subshells; electron shells consist of

a number of subshells

scientific method principles and empirical processes of discovery considered necessary for scientific investigation, generally involving the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or modifies the hypothesis, then further experimentation and so on second transition series second row of transition metals in the Periodic Table

secondary pollutants pollutants produced when primary pollutants from

sources such as motor vehicle emissions undergo complex reactions in the air

in the presence of sunlight

self-assembly process in which atoms spontaneously join up to form nanostructures with the assistance of other particles present, such as water molecules self-ionisation of water chemical reaction in which one water molecule donates a proton to another water molecule, producing a hydroxonium (H 3 O + ) and a hydroxide ion (OH ) semipermeable membrane membrane through which a solution can pass but which retains colloidal particles and certain solute particles semi-structural formula molecular formula that indicates the sequence of atoms along a carbon chain, and which also shows the atoms that are attached to them SI units international metric system of units of measurement used by scientists side group groups of atoms, such as a CH 3 group, which are attached to the main chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule significant figures digits in a number that start from the first non-zero digit in the number; zeros after the first non-zero digit are counted silicone polymer polymer which has alternating silicon and oxygen atoms

in the backbone of the structure

single covalent bond covalent bond that arises when only one pair of electrons is shared by two adjacent atoms in a molecule, polyatomic ion or giant covalent lattice

softening temperature, T g temperature at which a polymer begins to soften into the plastic state solubility number of grams of the substance that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a particular temperature

solubility curve graph of the solubility of a substance against temperature solute substance dissolved in another substance, usually the component of

a solution present in the lesser amount

solution mixture in which individual molecules or ions are dispersed through a solvent solvent substance in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution specific heat capacity amount of energy, measured in joules, required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a particular pure substance in a particular state through 1 °C (provided that it does not change state during that temperature change) spectator ions ions that are present but take no part in a reaction; they do, however, help to maintain electrical neutrality spectroscope optical instrument for breaking up the light emitted by excited atoms into its component wavelengths standard laboratory conditions (SLC) temperature of 25 °C and pressure of 1 atm standard solution solution that has a precisely known concentration standard temperature and pressure (STP) temperature of 0 °C and pressure of 1 atm standardising process of determining a precise value for the concentration of a solute in a solution

stoichiometric reagents substances that take part in a reaction and are consumed. Often one or more reagent must be added in excess amounts to increase the amount of product; the remaining amount then needs to be separated from the product and may become waste. stoichiometry study of the amount of reactants and products in a chemical reaction that are implied by the equation straight-chain isomer structural isomer of an organic compound that has no side groups strong acid acid with a strong ability to donate protons to a base; when added to water all the particles of the acid will donate a proton to water molecules strong reductant reductant with a strong ability to donate electrons to an oxidant structural formula representation of the structure of a molecule that is the same as its valence structure, except that all non-bonding pairs are deleted so that the shape of the molecule is clear structural isomers molecules that have the same molecular formula but a different spatial arrangement of the atoms and hence different properties subshell collection of atomic orbitals of the same energy that forms part of an electron shell substitution reaction reaction in which one or more atoms of a molecule are replaced with different atoms superabsorbent polymer polymer that can absorb an enormous amount of liquid and yet remain dry to the touch, such as the polymer used in disposable nappies supercritical fluid any substance that exhibits properties between those of a gas and a liquid at certain temperature and pressures; has the unique ability to diffuse through solids like a gas, and to dissolve materials like a liquid supersaturated solution unstable solution in which more than the maximum possible amount of solute for that temperature is dissolved in the given amount of solvent surface area to volume ratio ratio of the total surface area of a solid to its total volume. This increases enormously when a solid is divided into smaller and smaller pieces or a liquid is broken into smaller and smaller drops. The greater the ratio, the greater the proportion of particles that are on or just under the surface. surface energy energy required, in joules, to increase the area of the surface of a particular material by 1 square metre surface tension net sideways and downwards pull on particles in a surface, measured in newtons per metre length of surface, for a particular material surfactant substance that will concentrate at the surface of a liquid and which lowers its surface tension; consists of a small hydrophilic head and a long non-polar hydrophobic tail suspension substance present in a liquid mixture that consists of large clumps of particles that will settle under the action of gravitational forces and can be removed by filtration systematic nomenclature systematic naming system for naming the different structural isomers or members of different organic families theoretical percentage composition by mass statement of the percentage of a compound’s mass contributed by each element, determined from their contribution to its molar mass or relative molecular mass and not by experiment thermoplastic (polymer) polymer that softens when heated thermosetting (polymer) polymer that does not soften when heated but eventually may char Thomson ‘plum pudding’ model model of the atom proposed by JJ Thomson in which the atom consists of positively charged material in which electrons are embedded. The electrons were thought to be positioned uniformly throughout the atom due to the electrostatic repulsion that would occur between them.

G L O S S A R Y

titration process in which a pipette is used to deliver one reactant into a reaction vessel, and a burette to deliver the other, until they have exactly reacted; this is used in volumetric analysis to determine the concentration of one of the reactants titre volume of liquid delivered by the burette total surface energy total amount of energy stored in the surface of a material transition metals elements of the d-bock of the Periodic Table except the lanthanoids and actinoids; they exhibit closely similar chemical properties transuranium elements radioactive elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium triads groups of three elements identified by Johann Döbereiner, which had similar properties; also the atomic weight of one element was approximately the arithmetic mean of the atomic weights of the other two triprotic acid acid that is able to donate three protons to a base Tyndall effect light-scattering property of colloids and suspensions, which enables the path of a light beam to be visible when shone through them unsaturated solution one in which less than the maximum possible amount of solute for that temperature is dissolved in the given amount of solvent valence electron electron in the outermost occupied shell of an atom; can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms valence shell outermost occupied shell of an atom valence structure representation of a molecule in which each bonding pair is represented by a stroke, and all the electron pairs around any central atoms are shown at their correct orientation; non-bonding pairs are shown using pairs of dots viscosity ability of a fluid to resist flowing viscous describes a liquid that flows very slowly volatile organic compound (VOC) organic chemical compound that evaporates easily and enters the atmosphere, such as low molecular mass alcohols; have wide variety of uses because of this ability, for example, in cleaning and paints volumetric analysis quantitative analysis using accurately measured volumes of chemical solutions in order to determine the unknown concentration of a solution volumetric flask piece of laboratory glassware used in volumetric analysis to prepare a standard solution for a titration or to dilute a solution by a precise factor prior to determining its concentration vulcanisation industrial process that strengthens natural rubber by the addition of a small amount of sulfur, which forms occasional disulfide cross- links between rubber molecules, improving the elasticity of the rubber and helping to protect it from deteriorating vulcanised rubber rubber that has been heated with a small percentage of sulfur, which forms disulfide cross-links between the chains at various intervals, improving its elasticity and durability wastes substances left over from a process for which no use has been found water ligands water molecules that form a sheath around an ion, held by ion–dipole attraction, and which move with the ion through the solution weak acid acid with a weak tendency to donate protons to a base; when reacted with water only a proportion of the acid particles will donate a proton to the water molecules weight, W measure of the gravitational force acting on a mass, which therefore depends on the location weighted mean arithmetic mean that takes into account the proportion of objects with each size or mass wet corrosion corrosion caused by a component of an aqueous solution in which water is a reactant

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