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FOREWORD

The PalmGHG Calculator has been developed by the Greenhouse Gas Working Group 2 of the
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), with funding from RSPO. It has been developed so that
palm oil producers can estimate the net greenhouse gas emissions produced during the production
chain. This Beta version is being made freely available to interested users, on the understanding that it
is acknowledged in all forms of publication resulting from its use. We would appreciate if reprints of
articles citing the use of the Calculator be sent to the Secretary-General of RSPO at:
RSPO Secretariat Sdn Bhd, Unit A-33A-2, Level 33A, Tower A, Menara UOA Bangsar, No. 5, Jalan
Bangsar Utama 1, 59000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
RSPO would also appreciate being informed of any problems with using the Calculator, and would
welcome these and any other comments so that they may be considered for subsequent versions of the
Calculator. Comments should be sent to rspo@rspo.org.
Tim Killeen and Jeremy Goon
Co-chairs, Greenhouse Gas Working Group 2, RSPO
Warranty disclaimer (Copyright (c) 2012, [RSPO])
Recommended Citation:
Chase, L.D.C., Henson, I.E., Abdul-Manan, A.F.N., Agus, F., Bessou, C., Mila i Canals, L., and Sharma,
M. (2012) The PalmGHG Calculator: The RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products,
Beta-version. The Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil - RSPO: Kuala Lumpur.
This Software is provided by [Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil] (RSPO) in good faith on an as is basis. Neither RSPO nor any of the authors make
any representations or warranties, express or implied, about the Software or the material contained or referred to therein, and will not be held liable in any
way for your use of the Software. Except to the extent provided by the applicable law, RSPO and the other authors disclaim all warranties, express or
implied, including implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. RSPO and all affiliated companies and individuals, and the other
authors, exclude to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability in contract or tort (including negligence) or otherwise for any direct, indirect, incidental,
special and consequential damages, losses and expenses whatsoever including loss of business, anticipated savings revenues, profits, goodwill or
reputation arising out of or in any way connected with the use of the Software or as a result of reliance upon the results or any output created as a result of
the use of the Software.
Furthermore RSPO and the other authors make no representations or warranties, express or implied, that (i) the operation of the Software will meet your
requirements; (ii) access to Software will be uninterrupted, timely, secure, free of viruses, worms, trojan horses or other harmful components, or that the
Software will be free of defects or errors; (iii) the results or any outputs that may be obtained from the use of the Software will be accurate or reliable; or (iv)
defects will be corrected. You (and not RSPO or any of the other authors) assume the entire cost of all servicing, repair, or correction that may be
necessary for your computer equipment and software as a result of any viruses, errors or any other problems whatsoever you may have as a result of
downloading the Software. Accordingly you are strongly recommended to take all appropriate safeguards before using or downloading the Software.
This Software is provided by [Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil] (RSPO) in good faith on an as is basis. Neither RSPO nor any of the authors make
any representations or warranties, express or implied, about the Software or the material contained or referred to therein, and will not be held liable in any
way for your use of the Software. Except to the extent provided by the applicable law, RSPO and the other authors disclaim all warranties, express or
implied, including implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. RSPO and all affiliated companies and individuals, and the other
authors, exclude to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability in contract or tort (including negligence) or otherwise for any direct, indirect, incidental,
special and consequential damages, losses and expenses whatsoever including loss of business, anticipated savings revenues, profits, goodwill or
reputation arising out of or in any way connected with the use of the Software or as a result of reliance upon the results or any output created as a result of
the use of the Software.
Furthermore RSPO and the other authors make no representations or warranties, express or implied, that (i) the operation of the Software will meet your
requirements; (ii) access to Software will be uninterrupted, timely, secure, free of viruses, worms, trojan horses or other harmful components, or that the
Software will be free of defects or errors; (iii) the results or any outputs that may be obtained from the use of the Software will be accurate or reliable; or (iv)
defects will be corrected. You (and not RSPO or any of the other authors) assume the entire cost of all servicing, repair, or correction that may be
necessary for your computer equipment and software as a result of any viruses, errors or any other problems whatsoever you may have as a result of
downloading the Software. Accordingly you are strongly recommended to take all appropriate safeguards before using or downloading the Software.
PalmGHG
The RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products
Beta version 1.0
Notes on structure and sources of data for PalmGHG
PalmGHG
The RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products
Beta version 1.0
This calculator has been developed by the Greenhouse Gas Working Group 2 of the Roundtable on Sustainable
Introduction to PalmGHG
The PalmGHG calculator provides an estimate of the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced during the palm oil
production chain. It does this by adding the emissions released during land clearing, crop production and crop processing,
and subtracting from these emissions the sequestration of carbon in the standing crop. Provision is made for credits to be
given for the export of surplus biomass energy outside the system boundary eg to housing and the electrical grid, and for
the sequestration of carbon in conserved forest.
The emission sources that are included in the calculator are:
i) land clearing,
ii) manufacture, transport and use of fertilisers,
iii) nitrous oxide resulting from the field application of fertilisers and mill by-products,
iv) fossil fuel used in the field, mainly for harvesting and collection of fresh fruit bunches (FFB),
v) fossil fuel used at the mill ,
vi) methane produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME), and
vii) carbon dioxide resulting from the cultivation of peat soils.
These seven sources account for virtually all of the GHG emissions produced over the oil palm crop cycle.
Emissions from the biomass cleared at the beginning of the crop cycle are averaged over the cycle. Emissions from the other
sources are averaged over the three years up to the reporting date, simplifying data collection and smoothing out annual
fluctuations.
Sequestration of carbon in the standing crop, including ground cover and palm litter such as frond piles is, in the absence of
direct measurements, estimated from models.
Items that are not included in the budget include the sequestration of carbon in palm products and byproducts, as it is short-
lived; changes in soil organic matter over the crop cycle, as data are usually not available; fuel used for land clearing, and
emissions of nitrous oxide resulting from inputs of biomass other than mill by-products, as again data are often not available
and emissions are generally small when annualised over the crop cycle.
Provision is made for separate budgets for a mill's own crop (usually produced on estates) and outgrower crop (such as
Notes on structure and sources of data for PalmGHG
1 The PalmGHG calculator is a significant development of the previously published GWAPP model (ref 1) which,
while straightforward to use, had a number of limitations: palms were assumed to have an even age distribution,
no allowance was made for variations in inputs and outputs within the palm area, and several aspects involved
elaborate modelling rather than being based on real data. These limitations have been addressed by assessing
the main sources of emissions and sequestration only, and by using as much real data as possible, resulting in a
smaller, more flexible and more site-specific calculator.
2 The approach used to evaluate the contribution of land clearing to GHG emissions in PalmGHG is to consider
the full crop cycle, and to estimate the average emissions in any one year of this cycle. The calculator estimates
the total emissions occurring each year (thus allocating all emissions from land clearing to the year when they
3 Data for carbon sequestration in the crop can be obtained from a number of different sources. The preferred
option is to base them on direct measurements, but where the resources for obtaining these measurements are
not available, modelled data may be used instead. Examples include the OPRODSIM and OPCABSIM models (refs
11 and 15), which can use climate and soil data to generate an appropriate growth curve. Data from these
models are used as examples in this spreadsheet, although other methodologies for calculating carbon
sequestration will be incorporated as and when they become available. OPRODSIM and OPCABSIM produce
annual values of standing biomass for the oil palms (above and below-ground), ground cover , frond piles and
other litter ( shed frond bases and male inflorescences). The total biomass is converted to carbon using
measured carbon contents, or in their absence an assumed carbon content of 45%. Sequestration is then
calculated as the difference between successive years in the total standing carbon, the sequestration in the first
year being taken as equal to the total carbon in that year (this ignores the biomass at planting but that is small.)
The sequestered carbon is converted to CO
2
eq. by multiplying by 44/12. The amount of carbon sequestered in
The authors of the spreadsheet are Laurence Chase, Ian Henson and Amir Abdul-Manan, with significant
contributions from Fahmuddin Agus, Cecile Bessou, Llorenc Mila i Canals, and Mukesh Sharma.
Introduction to PalmGHG
The PalmGHG calculator provides an estimate of the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced during the palm oil
production chain. It does this by adding the emissions released during land clearing, crop production and crop processing,
and subtracting from these emissions the sequestration of carbon in the standing crop. Provision is made for credits to be
given for the export of surplus biomass energy outside the system boundary eg to housing and the electrical grid, and for
the sequestration of carbon in conserved forest.
The emission sources that are included in the calculator are:
i) land clearing,
ii) manufacture, transport and use of fertilisers,
iii) nitrous oxide resulting from the field application of fertilisers and mill by-products,
iv) fossil fuel used in the field, mainly for harvesting and collection of fresh fruit bunches (FFB),
v) fossil fuel used at the mill ,
vi) methane produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME), and
vii) carbon dioxide resulting from the cultivation of peat soils.
These seven sources account for virtually all of the GHG emissions produced over the oil palm crop cycle.
Emissions from the biomass cleared at the beginning of the crop cycle are averaged over the cycle. Emissions from the other
sources are averaged over the three years up to the reporting date, simplifying data collection and smoothing out annual
fluctuations.
Sequestration of carbon in the standing crop, including ground cover and palm litter such as frond piles is, in the absence of
direct measurements, estimated from models.
Items that are not included in the budget include the sequestration of carbon in palm products and byproducts, as it is short-
lived; changes in soil organic matter over the crop cycle, as data are usually not available; fuel used for land clearing, and
emissions of nitrous oxide resulting from inputs of biomass other than mill by-products, as again data are often not available
and emissions are generally small when annualised over the crop cycle.
Provision is made for separate budgets for a mill's own crop (usually produced on estates) and outgrower crop (such as
Note: The contents of the cells in the spreadsheets are colour coded as follows:
Data inputs - user defined
Data inputs - default values
Links
Calculations
Some worksheets and individual cells are locked to prevent users from accidentally overwriting their contents.
The sheets and cells highlighted in yellow contain data for a fictitious mill. The data in the highlighted cells should be changed as follows, changing the fill colour of cells where
changes have been made from yellow to light blue:
1 Start with the 'Mill' sheet, and enter the name of the mill and the year of the GHG evaluation (the audit year).
2 Go to the 'Land clearing' sheet, and start with the mineral soils for the mill's own crop. Enter the length of the oil palm cycle. Add additional rows for any extra estates
(provision is made for four), and update the formulae for the totals. Repeat for the peat soils for the mill's own crop, and then for the mineral and peat soils for the
outgrowers (provision is again made for four areas). Now enter the total area of palms planted each year (planted area), and the previous land use for the area cleared each
year (cleared area), separately for mineral and peat soils for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers.
3 Go to the 'Fertilisers and N2O' sheet, add additional rows for any extra areas, update the formulae in the summary table, then enter the transport distances and quantities of
fertilisers applied (over 3yrs), separately for mineral and peat soils for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers. Check that the EFB and POME calculations are appropriate i.e.
conventional land application, and amend if necessary.
4 Go to the 'Field fuel use' sheet, add additional rows for any extra areas, update the formulae for the totals, then enter the total fuel used in the field (over 3yrs), for the mill's
own crop and its outgrowers.
5 Go to the Conservation Block seq sheet and enter the area of forest under protection, and the amount of carbon that is being sequestered in this area each year.
6 Go to the Peat emissions sheet, state whether the water table is actively managed, and give the depth of water table if known.
7 Go back to the 'Mill' sheet and enter the FFB throughput for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers; and the oer, ker and mill diesel use (over 3yrs). Enter the planted area
for the two years prior to the audit year. Define the type of POME digestion used for each of the 3yrs. Where appropriate, add data for the kernel crusher; for the export of
shell for use as a coal substitute; and for the export of electricity from the mill's steam turbines and methane gas engines outside the palm oil boundary eg to housing and the
electrical grid. The impact of the introduction of emission reduction strategies such as methane capture on the GHG budget can be speeded up, when required, by using the
value of the year of introduction instead of the 3yr average value.
8 Go to the 'Default data' sheet and check that the data are appropriate for the mill being evaluated. Changes can be made, but must be identified and justified in the 'User
comments' sheet.
9 Go to the 'Crop sequestration' sheet and check that the data are appropriate for the estate and outgrower areas. The included data are taken from OPRODSIM/OPCABSIM,
but should be changed if more suitable data are available. Any changes must be identified and justified in the 'User comments' sheet.
10 Go to the 'Synthesis' sheet for the results.
Instructions for the use of the Calculator
Some worksheets and individual cells are locked to prevent users from accidentally overwriting their contents.
The sheets and cells highlighted in yellow contain data for a fictitious mill. The data in the highlighted cells should be changed as follows, changing the fill colour of cells where
changes have been made from yellow to light blue:
1 Start with the 'Mill' sheet, and enter the name of the mill and the year of the GHG evaluation (the audit year).
2 Go to the 'Land clearing' sheet, and start with the mineral soils for the mill's own crop. Enter the length of the oil palm cycle. Add additional rows for any extra estates
(provision is made for four), and update the formulae for the totals. Repeat for the peat soils for the mill's own crop, and then for the mineral and peat soils for the
outgrowers (provision is again made for four areas). Now enter the total area of palms planted each year (planted area), and the previous land use for the area cleared each
year (cleared area), separately for mineral and peat soils for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers.
3 Go to the 'Fertilisers and N2O' sheet, add additional rows for any extra areas, update the formulae in the summary table, then enter the transport distances and quantities of
fertilisers applied (over 3yrs), separately for mineral and peat soils for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers. Check that the EFB and POME calculations are appropriate i.e.
conventional land application, and amend if necessary.
4 Go to the 'Field fuel use' sheet, add additional rows for any extra areas, update the formulae for the totals, then enter the total fuel used in the field (over 3yrs), for the mill's
own crop and its outgrowers.
5 Go to the Conservation Block seq sheet and enter the area of forest under protection, and the amount of carbon that is being sequestered in this area each year.
6 Go to the Peat emissions sheet, state whether the water table is actively managed, and give the depth of water table if known.
7 Go back to the 'Mill' sheet and enter the FFB throughput for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers; and the oer, ker and mill diesel use (over 3yrs). Enter the planted area
for the two years prior to the audit year. Define the type of POME digestion used for each of the 3yrs. Where appropriate, add data for the kernel crusher; for the export of
shell for use as a coal substitute; and for the export of electricity from the mill's steam turbines and methane gas engines outside the palm oil boundary eg to housing and the
electrical grid. The impact of the introduction of emission reduction strategies such as methane capture on the GHG budget can be speeded up, when required, by using the
value of the year of introduction instead of the 3yr average value.
8 Go to the 'Default data' sheet and check that the data are appropriate for the mill being evaluated. Changes can be made, but must be identified and justified in the 'User
comments' sheet.
9 Go to the 'Crop sequestration' sheet and check that the data are appropriate for the estate and outgrower areas. The included data are taken from OPRODSIM/OPCABSIM,
but should be changed if more suitable data are available. Any changes must be identified and justified in the 'User comments' sheet.
10 Go to the 'Synthesis' sheet for the results.
Instructions for the use of the Calculator
Synthesis
Name of mill: Mill X
Year of evaluation: 2010
Field emissions
t CO2e t CO2e/ha t CO2e/t FFB t CO2e t CO2e/ha
Land clearing 76,145 8.58 0.39 42,438 8.94
Crop sequestration -79,001 -8.91 -0.40 -39,703 -8.37
Fertilisers 7,278 0.82 0.04 2,079 0.44
N2O 9,655 1.09 0.05 3,698 0.78
Fuel 3,534 0.40 0.02 2,163 0.46
Peat 12,012 1.35 0.06 0 0.00
Conservation credit 0 0.00 0.00
Total 29,623 3.34 0.15 10,675 2.25
Total field emissions carried
forwards 40,297
Mill emissions tCO2e tCO2e/tFFB
POME 36,828 0.14
Diesel fuel 702 0.00
Mill electricity credit -191 0.00
POME electricity credit 0 0.00
Shell credit -2,153 -0.01
Total mill 35,186 0.13
Total t CO2e in field and mill
carried forwards 75,484 0.28
Allocation:
t CO2e/t CPO 1.09
t CO2e/t PK 1.09
Kernel crusher emissions
t CO2e in PK from mill carried
forwards 14,610
Crusher diesel fuel 120
Total t CO2e from crusher
carried forwards 14,729
Allocation:
t CO2e/t PKO 1.18
t CO2e/t PKE 1.18
Own crop Outgrowers
This sheet takes the emissions from the seven sources that have been summarised elsewhere in the workbook, adds them together, then deducts
the sequestration of C in the standing crop. Provision is made in the budget for credits to be given for any sequestration of C in conserved forest,
and for the export of biomass energy. The resulting net emissions are allocated to CPO and PK, and reported as t CO
2
e per ha and per t of palm
product, for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers.
Summary
Product
tCO2e/t
product
CPO 1.09
PK 1.09
t CO2e/t FFB PKO 1.18
0.59 PKE 1.18
-0.55
0.03
0.05
0.03 t CO2e
0.00 Land clearing 118,583
Crop sequestration -118,704
0.15 Fertilisers 9,357
N2O 13,353
Field fuel 5,697
Peat 12,012
Conservation credit 0
POME 36,828
Mill fuel 702
Mill credit -2,344
Net emissions 75,484
Outgrowers
This sheet takes the emissions from the seven sources that have been summarised elsewhere in the workbook, adds them together, then deducts
the sequestration of C in the standing crop. Provision is made in the budget for credits to be given for any sequestration of C in conserved forest,
and for the export of biomass energy. The resulting net emissions are allocated to CPO and PK, and reported as t CO
2
e per ha and per t of palm
product, for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers.
-5,000
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
POME Diesel fuel Mill
electricity
credit
POME
electricity
credit
Shell credit Total mill
t
C
O
2
e

Mill emissions
-150,000
-100,000
-50,000
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
t
C
O
2
e

Emission sources/sinks
electricity
credit
electricity
credit
-100,000
-80,000
-60,000
-40,000
-20,000
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
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Field emissions
Own crop
Outgrower
Total mill
Field emission (own crop) 29,623
Field emission (outgrower) 10,675
Mill emission 35,186
Field emission
(own crop)
39.2%
Field emission
(outgrower)
14.1%
Mill emission
46.6%
Overall emissions
Mill
Name of mill: Mill X
Year of evaluation: 2010
Mill assumptions
tPOME/tFFB 0.5
kgCH4/tPOME 12.36
GWP of CH
4
kgCO
2
e/kg CH
4
22.25
tEFB/tFFB 0.22
Mill data 2008 2009 2010 mean
Own crop tFFB/yr 198,000 191,000 197,000 195,333
Outgrower tFFB/yr 74,000 72,500 71,000 72,500
Throughput tFFB/yr 272,000 263,500 268,000 267,833
Own crop planted area ha 8,600 8,800 9,210 8,870
Outgrower planted area ha 4,600 4,700 4,935 4,745
oer% 21.0 20.5 21.0 20.8
ker% 4.9 5.1 5.0 5.0
Mill diesel l/yr 243,000 198,000 234,000 225,000
Mill diesel t CO
2
e/yr (total) 702.0
Mill diesel t CO
2
e/ha.yr (own crop) 0.06
Mill diesel t CO
2
e/ha.yr (outgrower) 0.04
POME t/yr 136,000 131,750 134,000 133,917
CH
4
t/yr (total) 1,681.0 1,628.4 1,656.2 1,655.2
CH
4
t/ha.yr (own crop) 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.14
CH
4
t/ha.yr (outgrower) 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09
EFB t/yr 59,840 57,970 58,960 58,923
PK shell export as coal substitute t 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Shell transport by road km 150 150 150
Shell transport by sea km 0 0 0
Shell credit t CO2e/yr (total) 2,153 2,153 2,153 2,153.2
Shell credit tCO2e/ha.yr (own crop) 0.18
Shell credit tCO2e/ha.yr (outgrower) 0.12
Export of mill electricty to housing and grid
kwh/yr 300,000 300,000 300,000
Electricty credit tCO2e/yr 191 191 191 191.2
Electricty credit tCO2e/ha.yr (own crop) 0.02
Electricity credit tCO2e/ha.yr (outgrower) 0.01
This sheet contains mill data (3yrs), calculates CPO and PK production (t/yr), and estimates methane production from POME and fuel use in the mill as
tCO
2
e/ha/yr. Provision is made for a kernel crushing plant, for the capture of methane for flaring or the generation of electricity, for the export of surplus shell as
a source of energy, and for the export of surplus electricity produced from biomass in the mill boiler and from methane.
Methane assumptions
D=conventional Digestion, E=diverted to Electricity, F=Flared
Treatment %ges 2008 2009 2010
D 100 100 100
E 0 0 0
F 0 0 0
Conversion of methane to electricity
CH
4
lost from digestion % 7.8
CH
4
from digestion diverted to flare % 15
CH
4
lost in flare % 12
CH
4
diverted to energy % 78.4
CH
4
lost in gas motor % 1.2
Total CH4 lost to atmosphere % 10.4
Gas motor efficiency % 40
CH
4
converted to electricity % 31.3
Lower Heating Value LHV MJ/kg CH
4
45.1
Electricity emission co-efficient kg CO
2
e/MJ 0.177
% electricity generated from methane
exported to housing and the electrical grid 100 100 100
Flaring of methane
CH
4
lost from digestion % 7.8
CH
4
lost in flare % 12
CH
4
lost to atmosphere % 18.9
Methane emissions tCO2e 2008 2009 2010 mean
D 37401.4 36232.6 36851.3 36828.4
E 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total CH
4
emissions tCO
2
e 37401.4 36232.6 36851.3 36828.4
Methane electricity credit tCO
2
e 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Are kernel crusher calculations required? (Y or
N) Y
Kernel Crusher 2008 2009 2010 mean
PK processed t/yr 13,328.0 13,438.5 13,400.0 13,388.8
PKO% 41.2 41.6 41.5 41.4
PKE% 51.3 52.1 51.8 51.7
Crusher fuel l/yr 40,000 38,000 37,000 38,333.3
PKOt 5,491 5,590 5,561 5,547.5
PKEt 6,837 7,001 6,941 6,926.6
Embedded emissions tCO2e/yr 14,606.6
Fuel emissions tCO2e/yr 119.6
Total emissions tCO2e/yr 14,726.2
tFFB/ha tCPO/ha tCPO/yr tPK/ha tPK/yr
22.0 4.59 40,694 1.10 9,767
15.3 3.18 15,104 0.76 3,625
55,799 13,392
This sheet contains mill data (3yrs), calculates CPO and PK production (t/yr), and estimates methane production from POME and fuel use in the mill as
tCO
2
e/ha/yr. Provision is made for a kernel crushing plant, for the capture of methane for flaring or the generation of electricity, for the export of surplus shell as
a source of energy, and for the export of surplus electricity produced from biomass in the mill boiler and from methane.
Land clearing
Own crop (mineral soils)
Planted area
Crop rotation length yrs 25
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Calendar year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Estate 1 200 150 150 170 120 160 140
Estate 2 180 120 160 175 110 130 0
Estate 3 75 95 120 95 165 160 150
Estate 4
ha planted 455 365 430 440 395 450 290
Own crop emissions
Previous land use
Standing crop tCO
2
e/ha:
Oil palm 211
Primary forest 825
Logged forest 319
Grassland 18
Rubber 227
Cocoa 257
Coconut 275
Food crops 31
Secondary regrowth 175
Previous land use ha (mineral soils) - cleared area
Estate 1
Oil Palm 200 150 150 170 120 160 140
Primary forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Logged forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grassland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rubber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Coconut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 2
Oil Palm 180 120 160 175 110 130 0
Primary forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
This sheet contains the planted areas, and areas of the different forms of land use cleared each year of the crop cycle, separately recorded for
mineral and peat soils. (Peat is defined as soil with a surface layer of organic material at least 50 cm deep, and an oil palm block is classified as a
peat block if it contains at least 50% peat by area.) The sheet calculates the total CO
2
emissions from the cleared biomass as tCO
2
/ha/yr, averaged
over the crop cycle.
Logged forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grassland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rubber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Coconut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 3
Oil Palm 75 95 120 95 165 160 150
Primary forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Logged forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grassland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rubber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Coconut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 4
Oil Palm
Primary forest
Logged forest
Grassland
Rubber
Cocoa
Coconut
Arable crops
Secondary regrowth
Total estates
Oil Palm 455 365 430 440 395 450 290
Primary forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Logged forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grassland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rubber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cocoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Coconut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sum 455 365 430 440 395 450 290
Emissions from cleared biomass
at beginning of crop cycle
tCO
2
e/planting year 95,843 76,885 90,577 92,683 83,204 94,790 61,087
Own crop (peat soils)
Planted area
Crop rotation length yrs 20
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Calendar year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Estate 1 0 10 15 0 0 0 0
Estate 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 4
ha planted 0 10 15 0 0 0 0
Estate emissions
Previous land use
Standing crop tCO
2
e/ha:
Oil palm 194
Peat forest 319
Food crops 31
Secondary regrowth 175
Previous land use ha (peat soils) - cleared area
Estate 1
Oil Palm 0 10 15 0 0 0 0
Peat forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 2
Oil Palm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Peat forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 3
Oil Palm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Peat forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Estate 4
Oil Palm
Peat forest
Arable crops
Secondary regrowth
Total estates
Oil Palm 0 10 15 0 0 0 0
Peat forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sum 0 10 15 0 0 0 0
Emissions from cleared biomass
at beginning of crop cycle
tCO
2
e/planting year 0 1,941 2,911 0 0 0 0
Outgrowers (mineral soils)
Planted area
Crop rotation length yrs 27
Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Calendar year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Area 1 100 75 75 120 100 85 135
Area 2 75 125 150 125 125 140 135
Area 3
Area 4
ha planted 175 200 225 245 225 225 270
Outgrower emissions
Previous land use
Standing crop tCO
2
e/ha:
Oil Palm 198
Logged forest 319
Grassland 18
Rubber 227
Cocoa 257
Food crops 31
Secondary regrowth 175
Previous land use ha (mineral soils) - cleared area
Area 1
Oil Palm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Primary forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Logged forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grassland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rubber 100 75 75 120 100 85 135
Cocoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Area 2
Oil Palm 75 125 150 125 0 0 0
Primary forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Logged forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grassland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rubber 0 0 0 0 125 140 135
Cocoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Area 3
Oil Palm
Primary forest
Logged forest
Grassland
Rubber
Cocoa
Arable crops
Secondary regrowth
Area 4
Oil Palm
Primary forest
Logged forest
Grassland
Rubber
Cocoa
Arable crops
Secondary regrowth
Total outgrower areas
Oil Palm 75 125 150 125 0 0 0
Primary forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Logged forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grassland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rubber 100 75 75 120 225 225 270
Cocoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sum 175 200 225 245 225 225 270
Emissions from cleared biomass
at beginning of crop cycle
tCO
2
e/planting year 37,568 41,774 46,719 52,004 51,150 51,150 61,380
Outgrowers (peat soils)
Planted area
Crop rotation length yrs 22
Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Calendar year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Area 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Area 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Area 3
Area 4
ha planted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outgrower emissions
Previous land use
Standing crop tCO
2
e/ha:
Oil Palm 188
Peat forest 319
Food crops 31
Secondary regrowth 175
Previous land use ha (peat soils) - cleared area
Area 1
Oil Palm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Peat forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Area 2
Oil Palm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Peat forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Area 3
Oil Palm
Peat forest
Arable crops
Secondary regrowth
Area 4
Oil Palm
Peat forest
Arable crops
Secondary regrowth
Total outgrower areas
Oil Palm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Peat forest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arable crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secondary regrowth 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emissions from cleared biomass
at beginning of crop cycle
tCO
2
e/planting year 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991
0 200 135 140 120 75 95 25 55 100 100 120 130
65 175 165 120 0 175 130 50 80 75 120 160 110
55 210 210 165 100 95 170 125 90 85 75 120 95
120 585 510 425 220 345 395 200 225 260 295 400 335
0 200 135 140 120 75 95 25 55 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 120 130
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 50 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
65 175 165 120 0 175 130 50 80 75 120 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
This sheet contains the planted areas, and areas of the different forms of land use cleared each year of the crop cycle, separately recorded for
mineral and peat soils. (Peat is defined as soil with a surface layer of organic material at least 50 cm deep, and an oil palm block is classified as a
peat block if it contains at least 50% peat by area.) The sheet calculates the total CO
2
emissions from the cleared biomass as tCO
2
/ha/yr, averaged
over the crop cycle.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 160 110
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
55 210 210 165 100 95 170 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 125 90 85 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 75 120 95
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
120 585 510 425 220 345 395 75 135 75 120 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 125 90 85 50 120 130
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 125 120 95
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 160 110
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
120 585 510 425 220 345 395 200 225 260 295 400 335
25,277 123,227 107,429 89,524 46,342 72,672 83,204 55,673 57,147 44,747 43,519 76,853 68,218
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991
0 0 0 15 30 0 0 50 45 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 15 30 0 0 50 45 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 15 30 0 0 50 45 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 15 30 0 0 50 45 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 15 30 0 0 50 45 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 4,785 9,570 0 0 15,950 14,355 0 0 0 0
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991
140 150 140 95 115 140 125 165 145 0 0 0 0
75 110 155 95 110 75 110 85 140 135 80 95 100
215 260 295 190 225 215 235 250 285 135 80 95 100
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
140 150 140 95 115 140 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 125 165 145 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
75 110 155 95 110 75 110 85 140 135 80 95 100
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
215 260 295 190 225 215 110 85 140 135 80 95 100
0 0 0 0 0 0 125 165 145 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
215 260 295 190 225 215 235 250 285 135 80 95 100
48,877 59,107 67,063 43,193 51,150 48,877 57,090 61,673 69,043 30,690 18,187 21,597 22,733
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sum
1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981
100 100 100 125 125 130 0 0 0 0 3,065
75 40 135 120 110 110 75 0 0 0 2,965
85 95 75 100 110 95 0 0 0 0 3,015
0
260 235 310 345 345 335 75 0 0 0 9,045
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 50 50 50 50 130 0 0 0 0
50 50 50 75 75 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 110 110 75 0 0 0
0 40 135 120 0 0 0 0 0 0
75 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
85 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 95 75 100 110 95 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 50 50 50 160 240 75 0 0 0
135 90 185 195 75 0 0 0 0 0
75 95 75 100 110 95 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
260 235 310 345 345 335 75 0 0 0 total tCO
2
e
35,475 39,197 36,392 42,258 77,422 98,157 23,925 0 0 0 1,841,727
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sum
1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 165
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 165
Total own crop area ha: 9,210
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 total tCO
2
e
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 49,512
Total own crop land clearing emissions mineral + peat tCO2e/ha.yr:
t CO2e/yr:
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sum
1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,905
110 140 120 70 75 80 95 100 0 0 3,030
110 140 120 70 75 80 95 100 0 0 4,935
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 80 95 100 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
110 140 120 70 75 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 80 95 100 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
110 140 120 70 75 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
110 140 120 70 75 80 95 100 0 0 total tCO
2
e
25,007 31,827 27,280 15,913 17,050 25,520 30,305 31,900 0 0 1,145,826
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sum
1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total outgrower area ha: 4,935
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 total tCO
2
e
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total outgrower land clearing emissions mineral + peat tCO2e/ha.yr:
t CO2e/yr:
tCO
2
e/yr
73,669
tCO
2
e/yr
2,476
8.27
76,145
tCO
2
e/yr
42,438
tCO
2
e/yr
0.00
8.60
42,438
Fertilisers and N
2
O
Local port to mill km 50
Fertilisers
Road
transport Material Total
Source to
local port
km
kgCO
2
e/t kgCO
2
e/t kgCO
2
e/t kgCO
2
e/t
AN 4,000 71.1 31.2 2,380 2,482.3
SOA 4,000 71.1 31.2 340 442.3
DAP 4,000 71.1 31.2 460 562.3
Urea 4,000 71.1 31.2 1,340 1,442.3
AC 4,000 71.1 31.2 1,040 1,142.3
Kieserite 4,000 71.1 31.2 200 302.3
MOP 4,000 71.1 31.2 200 302.3
GRP 4,000 71.1 31.2 44 146.3
TSP 4,000 71.1 31.2 170 272.3
GML 4,000 71.1 31.2 547 649.3
Fertiliser programmes
Own crop (mineral soil) Fertiliser t
Year 2008 2009 2010
Estate 1
AN 650 450 520
SOA 840 800 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 450
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 495 430 510
MOP 1,300 1,350 1,400
GRP 475 425 480
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Estate 2
AN 625 500 500
SOA 800 850 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 425
AC 0 0 0
Sea transport
This sheet contains fertiliser data for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers (3yrs), and estimates the total CO
2
e produced from the manufacture,
transport and use of this fertiliser as tCO
2
e/ha/yr. It also estimates the N
2
O produced from the field application of fertilisers, using fertiliser data
(3yrs) and IPCC defaults for direct and indirect production of N
2
O; and from the field application of EFB and POME. The N
2
O from the three sources is
added together as tCO
2
e/ha/yr.
Kieserite 500 450 500
MOP 1,200 1,400 1,350
GRP 400 435 460
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Estate 3
AN 700 480 450
SOA 750 825 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 480
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 470 490 520
MOP 1,230 1,350 1,200
GRP 420 450 435
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Estate 4
AN
SOA
DAP
Urea
AC
Kieserite
MOP
GRP
TSP
GML
Mean
Own crop (mineral soils) summary 2008 2009 2010 t/yr tCO
2
e/yr
AN 1,975 1,430 1,470 1,625.0 4,033.7
SOA 2,390 2,475 0 1,621.7 717.2
DAP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Urea 0 0 1,355 451.7 651.4
AC 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Kieserite 1,465 1,370 1,530 1,455.0 439.8
MOP 3,730 4,100 3,950 3,926.7 1,187.0
GRP 1,295 1,310 1,375 1,326.7 194.1
TSP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
GML 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
tCO
2
e/yr
Mineral soil total 7,223.2
Own crop (peat soils) Fertiliser t
Year 2008 2009 2010
Estate 1
AN 0 0 0
SOA 60 65 65
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 0
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 0 0 0
MOP 85 90 90
GRP 0 0 0
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Estate 2
AN 0 0 0
SOA 0 0 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 0
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 0 0 0
MOP 0 0 0
GRP 0 0 0
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Estate 3
AN 0 0 0
SOA 0 0 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 0
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 0 0 0
MOP 0 0 0
GRP 0 0 0
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Estate 4
AN
SOA
DAP
Urea
AC
Kieserite
MOP
GRP
TSP
GML
Mean
Own crop (peat soils) summary 2008 2009 2010 t/yr tCO
2
e/yr
AN 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
SOA 60 65 65 63.3 28.0
DAP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Urea 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
AC 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Kieserite 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
MOP 85 90 90 88.3 26.7
GRP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
TSP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
GML 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
tCO
2
e/yr
Peat soil total 54.7
Mineral + peat total 7,277.9
Outgrowers (mineral soils) Fertiliser t
Year 2008 2009 2010
Area 1
AN 0 0 0
SOA 0 0 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 400 460 430
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 0 0 0
MOP 275 300 250
GRP 0 0 0
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Area 2
AN 0 0 0
SOA 0 0 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 715 740 750
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 0 0 0
MOP 820 850 840
GRP 410 450 420
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Area 3
AN
SOA
DAP
Urea
AC
Kieserite
MOP
GRP
TSP
GML
Area 4
AN
SOA
DAP
Urea
AC
Kieserite
MOP
GRP
TSP
GML
Mean
Outgrowers (mineral soils) summary 2008 2009 2010 t/yr tCO
2
e/yr
AN 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
SOA 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
DAP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Urea 1,115 1,200 1,180 1,165.0 1,680.3
AC 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Kieserite 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
MOP 1,095 1,150 1,090 1,111.7 336.0
GRP 410 450 420 426.7 62.4
TSP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
GML 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
tCO
2
e/yr
Mineral soil total: 2,078.7
Outgrowers (peat soils) Fertiliser t
Year 2008 2009 2010
Area 1
AN 0 0 0
SOA 0 0 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 0
AC 0 0 0
Kieserite 0 0 0
MOP 0 0 0
GRP 0 0 0
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Area 2
AN 0 0 0
SOA 0 0 0
DAP 0 0 0
Urea 0 0 0
Kieserite 0 0 0
AC 0 0 0
MOP 0 0 0
GRP 0 0 0
TSP 0 0 0
GML 0 0 0
Area 3
AN
SOA
DAP
Urea
AC
Kieserite
MOP
GRP
TSP
GML
Area 4
AN
SOA
DAP
Urea
AC
Kieserite
MOP
GRP
TSP
GML
Mean
Outgrowers (peat soils) summary 2008 2009 2010 t/yr tCO
2
e/yr
AN 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
SOA 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
DAP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Urea 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
AC 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
Kieserite 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
MOP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
GRP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
TSP 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
GML 0 0 0 0.0 0.0
tCO
2
e/yr
Peat soil total: 0.0
Mineral + peat total: 2,078.7
POME 2008 2009 2010 mean
Mill POME t 136,000 131,750 134,000 133,917
Mill estate area ha 8,600 8,800 9,210 8,870
POME t/estate ha 15.1
app'd N in POME kg/estate ha 6.8
Direct N
2
O loss kg/estate ha 0.11
Indirect N
2
O loss kg/estate ha 0.05
total N
2
O kg/ha from POME 0.15
total N
2
O tCO2e/ha from POME 0.05
EFB
Year 2008 2009 2010 mean
Annual production of EFB, t 59,840 57,970 58,960 58,923
Own crop area ha 8,600 8,800 9,210 8,870
EFB t/own crop area ha 6.6
app'd N in EFB kg/own crop area ha 21.3
Direct N
2
O loss kg/own crop area ha 0.33
Indirect N
2
O loss kg/own crop area ha 0.14
total N
2
O kg/ha from EFB 0.48
total N2O tCO
2
e/ha from EFB 0.14
N
2
O summary
Own crop 2008 2009 2010 mean
Fertiliser tCO
2
e/ha 0.90
EFB tCO
2
e/ha 0.14
POME tCO
2
e/ha 0.05
Total N
2
O tCO2e/ha 1.09
Total N
2
O tCO2e/yr 9,655.0
Outgrowers 2008 2009 2010 mean
Fertiliser tCO
2
e/ha 0.78
EFB tCO
2
e/ha 0 0 0 0.00
POME tCO
2
e/ha 0 0 0 0.00
Total N
2
O tCO2e/ha 0.78
Total N
2
O tCO2e/yr 3,698.2
This sheet contains fertiliser data for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers (3yrs), and estimates the total CO
2
e produced from the manufacture,
transport and use of this fertiliser as tCO
2
e/ha/yr. It also estimates the N
2
O produced from the field application of fertilisers, using fertiliser data
(3yrs) and IPCC defaults for direct and indirect production of N
2
O; and from the field application of EFB and POME. The N
2
O from the three sources is
added together as tCO
2
e/ha/yr.
N
2
O
tCO
2
e/yr
3,295.8
2,031.5
0.0
1,433.8
0.0
tCO
2
e/yr
6,761.0
N
2
O
tCO
2
e/yr
tCO
2
e/ha tCO
2
e/yr tCO
2
e/ha
1,235.2
0.82 7,996.2 0.90
N
2
O
tCO
2
e/yr
0.0
0.0
0.0
3,698.2
0.0
tCO
2
e/yr
3,698.2
N
2
O
tCO
2
e/yr
tCO
2
e/ha tCO
2
e/yr tCO
2
e/ha
0.0
0.44 3,698.2 0.78
Field fuel use
CO
2
e assumptions
Diesel kg CO
2
e/l
3.12
Own crop fuel consumption l/yr 2008 2009 2010 mean
Estate 1 375,000 390,000 400,000
Estate 2 340,000 356,000 390,000
Estate 3 400,000 360,000 387,000
Estate 4
Total fuel l/yr 1,115,000 1,106,000 1,177,000 1,132,667
Total own crop fuel l/ha 129.7 125.7 127.8 127.71
Total tCO
2
e/ha 0.40 0.39 0.40 0.40
Total tCO
2
e/yr 3,533.9
Outgrower fuel consumption l/yr 2008 2009 2010 mean
Area 1 360,000 345,000 390,000
Area 2 340,000 320,000 325,000
Area 3
Area 4
Total outgrower fuel l/yr 700,000 665,000 715,000 693,333
Total outgrower fuel l/ha 152.2 141.5 144.9 146.18
Total tCO
2
e/ha 0.47 0.44 0.45 0.46
Total tCO
2
e/yr 2,163.2
This sheet contains the fuel (diesel and petrol) used in the field (3yrs), including the transport of the crop from the growing areas to
the mill, transport of workers and materials, operation of machinery such as fertiliser spreaders and pumps, and maintenance of
infrastructure such as roads and drains, for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers. Fuel used by contractors must also be included.
Emissions are calculated as CO
2
e/ha/yr.
This sheet contains the fuel (diesel and petrol) used in the field (3yrs), including the transport of the crop from the growing areas to
the mill, transport of workers and materials, operation of machinery such as fertiliser spreaders and pumps, and maintenance of
infrastructure such as roads and drains, for the mill's own crop and its outgrowers. Fuel used by contractors must also be included.
Emissions are calculated as CO
2
e/ha/yr.
Crop sequestration
Own crop
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Area planted ha 455 375 445 440 395 450 290
Own crop sequestration
Crop sequestration tCO
2
e/ha 26.31 5.20 14.22 11.21 9.88 9.56 8.94
Cumulative sequestration tCO
2
e/ha 26.31 31.51 45.73 56.94 66.82 76.39 85.33
tCO
2
e/planting year 11,971 1,949 6,330 4,934 3,902 4,303 2,592
Outgrowers
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Area planted ha 175 200 225 245 225 225 270
Outgrower sequestration
Crop sequestration tCO
2
e/ha 24.80 6.82 12.13 9.60 8.58 8.51 8.05
Cumulative sequestration tCO
2
e/ha 24.80 31.62 43.76 53.36 61.93 70.45 78.50
tCO
2
e/planting year 4,341 1,364 2,730 2,351 1,930 1,915 2,175
Source data for crop sequestration
Vigorous growth
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Biomass t/ha:
Palms, including roots 4.83 9.46 15.99 22.70 29.05 35.05 40.98
Ground cover 11.12 9.62 7.60 6.16 5.27 4.76 4.28
Frond piles 0.00 0.00 4.08 5.57 6.07 6.35 6.30
Palm litter (male inflorences and frond
bases) 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.16
Total biomass t/ha 15.95 19.10 27.72 34.51 40.50 46.29 51.71
Crop sequestration t biomass/ha.yr 15.95 3.15 8.62 6.80 5.99 5.80 5.42
Crop sequestration tCO
2
e/ha.yr 26.31 5.20 14.22 11.21 9.88 9.56 8.94
Average growth
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Biomass t/ha:
Palms, including roots 4.46 8.28 13.80 19.72 25.48 31.06 36.63
This sheet takes palm areas from 'Land clearing', and yearly sequestration data from direct measurements (the preferred option) or from growth models (such as described in
refs 11 and 15). It then estimates sequestered carbon as an average figure for the crop cycle in t CO
2
e/ha/yr. Data from the models described in refs 11 and 15 are used as
examples in this sheet. Other methodologies and data will be included as and when they become available. Data should always be taken from the best available source.
Ground cover 10.57 10.87 9.69 8.50 7.57 6.93 6.25
Frond piles 0.00 0.00 2.98 4.04 4.38 4.57 4.52
Palm litter (male inflorences and frond
bases) 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.17
Total biomass t/ha 15.03 19.17 26.52 32.34 37.54 42.69 47.58
Crop sequestration t biomass/ha.yr 15.03 4.13 7.35 5.82 5.20 5.16 4.88
Crop sequestration tCO
2
e/ha.yr 24.80 6.82 12.13 9.60 8.58 8.51 8.05
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
120 585 510 440 250 345 395 250 270 260 295 400 335
10.04 10.25 9.87 9.65 9.40 9.12 8.74 8.32 7.84 7.32 6.69 6.07 5.43
95.36 105.61 115.49 125.14 134.53 143.66 152.39 160.71 168.56 175.88 182.57 188.64 194.07
1,204 5,997 5,035 4,246 2,350 3,147 3,450 2,080 2,118 1,904 1,974 2,426 1,819
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
215 260 295 190 225 215 235 250 285 135 80 95 100
8.96 9.18 8.98 8.84 8.69 8.46 8.15 7.81 7.38 6.92 6.38 5.82 5.21
87.46 96.64 105.62 114.46 123.15 131.61 139.76 147.58 154.96 161.88 168.27 174.08 179.29
1,926 2,387 2,649 1,680 1,955 1,819 1,916 1,953 2,104 934 511 553 521
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
47.00 52.92 58.69 64.32 69.76 75.00 79.98 84.69 89.10 93.19 96.90 100.24 103.21
3.93 3.66 3.46 3.30 3.17 3.07 2.98 2.91 2.85 2.80 2.76 2.73 2.71
6.42 6.58 6.73 6.89 7.05 7.22 7.39 7.56 7.74 7.90 8.06 8.21 8.33
0.45 0.84 1.10 1.33 1.55 1.78 2.01 2.24 2.47 2.70 2.92 3.15 3.36
57.79 64.01 69.99 75.84 81.54 87.06 92.36 97.40 102.16 106.59 110.65 114.33 117.62
6.08 6.21 5.98 5.85 5.70 5.53 5.29 5.04 4.75 4.44 4.06 3.68 3.29
10.04 10.25 9.87 9.65 9.40 9.12 8.74 8.32 7.84 7.32 6.69 6.07 5.43
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
42.30 47.90 53.40 58.78 64.01 69.05 73.86 78.43 82.71 86.69 90.33 93.62 96.54
This sheet takes palm areas from 'Land clearing', and yearly sequestration data from direct measurements (the preferred option) or from growth models (such as described in
refs 11 and 15). It then estimates sequestered carbon as an average figure for the crop cycle in t CO
2
e/ha/yr. Data from the models described in refs 11 and 15 are used as
examples in this sheet. Other methodologies and data will be included as and when they become available. Data should always be taken from the best available source.
5.70 5.24 4.86 4.54 4.27 4.03 3.83 3.66 3.51 3.39 3.28 3.19 3.12
4.61 4.74 4.86 4.99 5.12 5.26 5.41 5.56 5.71 5.86 6.01 6.15 6.27
0.39 0.69 0.89 1.07 1.24 1.42 1.61 1.79 1.98 2.17 2.36 2.55 2.73
53.01 58.57 64.01 69.37 74.64 79.76 84.70 89.44 93.92 98.11 101.98 105.50 108.66
5.43 5.56 5.44 5.36 5.27 5.13 4.94 4.74 4.48 4.20 3.87 3.53 3.16
8.96 9.18 8.98 8.84 8.69 8.46 8.15 7.81 7.38 6.92 6.38 5.82 5.21
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 sum
260 235 310 345 345 335 75 0 0 0 9210
4.72 3.96 3.33 2.63 1.94 1.33 0.75 0.29 -0.13 -0.46
198.79 202.75 206.08 208.71 210.64 211.98 212.72 213.01 212.88 212.42 sum tCO
2
e/ha.yr
1,228 930 1,031 907 668 447 56 0 0 0 79,001 8.58
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 sum
110 140 120 70 75 80 95 100 0 0 4935
4.59 3.92 3.27 2.60 1.98 1.36 0.79 0.30 -0.19 -0.53
183.88 187.80 191.07 193.67 195.64 197.01 197.79 198.09 197.90 197.37 sum tCO
2
e/ha.yr
505 548 392 182 148 109 75 30 0 0 39,703 8.05
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
105.77 107.89 109.65 111.01 111.97 112.58 112.84 112.82 112.53 112.01
2.69 2.68 2.67 2.67 2.66 2.66 2.65 2.63 2.61 2.57
8.44 8.54 8.61 8.67 8.72 8.77 8.81 8.87 8.95 9.07
3.57 3.77 3.96 4.14 4.31 4.47 4.62 4.78 4.93 5.09
120.48 122.88 124.90 126.49 127.66 128.47 128.92 129.10 129.02 128.74
2.86 2.40 2.02 1.59 1.17 0.81 0.45 0.17 -0.08 -0.28
4.72 3.96 3.33 2.63 1.94 1.33 0.75 0.29 -0.13 -0.46
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
99.09 101.24 103.01 104.39 105.40 106.05 106.35 106.35 106.06 105.53
3.06 3.00 2.96 2.92 2.89 2.85 2.82 2.78 2.73 2.67
6.39 6.49 6.58 6.65 6.72 6.79 6.85 6.93 7.01 7.13
2.91 3.08 3.25 3.41 3.56 3.71 3.85 3.99 4.14 4.29
111.44 113.82 115.80 117.38 118.57 119.40 119.87 120.05 119.94 119.62
2.78 2.37 1.98 1.58 1.20 0.82 0.48 0.18 -0.12 -0.32
4.59 3.92 3.27 2.60 1.98 1.36 0.79 0.30 -0.19 -0.53
Conservation Block sequestration
0
0
0
0
Area of Conservation
Blocks ha:
Mean Cseq in
Conservation Blocks
tCO
2
e/ha.yr
Cseq in Conservation
Blocks allocated to palm
area tCO
2
e/ha.yr
Cseq in Conservation
Blocks allocated to palm
area tCO
2
e/yr
The oil palm concession that serves the Mill may have areas that are suitable for oil palm, but have been specifically protected
from clearing as Conservation Blocks. These areas (but excluding legally required protected areas such as riparian zones), could be
used as a source of carbon sequestration in the palm oil GHG budget. This sheet estimates the carbon being sequestered in these
Blocks as t CO
2
e/ha/yr, and allocates it to the oil palm area. It is not appropriate to provide default values as the amount will
depend on local circumstances, so field measurements will probably be necessary.
The oil palm concession that serves the Mill may have areas that are suitable for oil palm, but have been specifically protected
from clearing as Conservation Blocks. These areas (but excluding legally required protected areas such as riparian zones), could be
used as a source of carbon sequestration in the palm oil GHG budget. This sheet estimates the carbon being sequestered in these
Blocks as t CO
2
e/ha/yr, and allocates it to the oil palm area. It is not appropriate to provide default values as the amount will
depend on local circumstances, so field measurements will probably be necessary.
Soil CO
2
emissions
Mineral soils
Soil organic carbon levels in mineral soils are assumed to remain constant over the crop cycle
Peat soils
Is water table actively
managed (Y or N)?
Default depth of water
table if not actively
managed cm: 80
Actual depth of water
table if not actively
managed cm:
Active link for calculation 80
Default depth of water
table if actively managed
cm: 60
Actual depth of water
table if actively managed
cm:
Active link for calculation 0
CO
2
emissions from peat
tCO
2
/ha.yr 72.8
Own crop
Crop rotation length yrs 25
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Calendar year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999
ha peat 0 10 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 30
Emissions from peat
tCO
2
/planting year
0 728 1092 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1092 2184
Outgrowers
Crop rotation length yrs 27
This sheet picks up the areas of peat planted each year of the crop cycle from the 'Land clearing' sheet, and estimates the CO2 emissions from these soils as t
CO2e/ha/yr, averaged over the whole area. There is uncertainty due to methodological differences in determining the emission factors for CO2 emissions due to peat
cultivation (Peat CO2 Emissions) as discussed by the RSPO PLWG (in press, p. 22-23)[23] and Agus et al. (in press)[25]. In PalmGHG, emissions due to peat cultivation are
presently calculated using the following equation based on a review mostly of CO2 flux measurement (Hooijer et al., 2010)[10]:
Peat CO2 emission (t CO2/ha/year) = 0.91 x cm drainage depth
It needs to be noted, though, that IPCC is currently reviewing the emission factors from tropical peat, so this factor will be updated with the IPCC value once this happens
(expected in 2013).
Planting year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Calendar year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999
ha peat 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emissions from peat
tCO
2
/planting year
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983
0 0 50 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 3640 3276 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
This sheet picks up the areas of peat planted each year of the crop cycle from the 'Land clearing' sheet, and estimates the CO2 emissions from these soils as t
CO2e/ha/yr, averaged over the whole area. There is uncertainty due to methodological differences in determining the emission factors for CO2 emissions due to peat
cultivation (Peat CO2 Emissions) as discussed by the RSPO PLWG (in press, p. 22-23)[23] and Agus et al. (in press)[25]. In PalmGHG, emissions due to peat cultivation are
presently calculated using the following equation based on a review mostly of CO2 flux measurement (Hooijer et al., 2010)[10]:
Peat CO2 emission (t CO2/ha/year) = 0.91 x cm drainage depth
It needs to be noted, though, that IPCC is currently reviewing the emission factors from tropical peat, so this factor will be updated with the IPCC value once this happens
(expected in 2013).
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
29 30
1982 1981
0 0 Total tCO
2
tCO
2
/ha
0 0 12,012 1.30
29 30
1982 1981
0 0 Total tCO
2
tCO
2
/ha
0 0 0 0.00
Default data
CO
2
e
Sea transport kg CO
2
e/km.t
0.01777
Diesel kg CO
2
e/l
3.12
GWP of N
2
O kgCO
2
e/kgN
2
O
298
Direct N
2
O production kgN
2
O-N/kg applied
N 0.010
Indirect N2O production kgN
2
O-N/kg N lost
through runoff and leaching
0.0075
Indirect N2O production kgN
2
O-N/kg N lost
through volatilisation 0.010
Direct and indirect N2O production from
peat soils kgN
2
O-N/ha.yr
16.0
Fertiliser transport kgCO
2
e/km.t
0.31
Mill
tPOME/tFFB 0.5
kgCH
4
/tPOME 12.36
GWP of CH
4
kgCO
2
e/kg CH
4
22.25
tEFB/tFFB 0.22
CH
4
lost from digestion % 7.8
CH
4
from digestion diverted to flare % 15
CH
4
lost in flare % 12
CH
4
lost in gas motor % 1.2
Gas motor efficiency % 40
Lower Heating Value MJ/kg CH
4
45.1
Credit for export of PK shell as substitute
for coal kg CO
2
e/t shell 2,200
Electricity emission co-efficient kg CO
2
e/MJ 0.177
Fertilisers
%N %MgO %K2O %P2O5
N volatilisation
loss %
AN 34 5
This sheet contains standard conversion factors, and the data that are needed for the calculator but are
typically not available from palm oil growers. The values for carbon stocks in land uses will be updated with
the values provided by GHGWG2 (WS3) once these are peer reviewed and published (Agus et al. in press [25]).
SOA 21 5
DAP 18 5
Urea 46 25
AC 26 5
Kieserite 27
MOP 60
GRP 34
TSP 45
GML 15
EFB 0.32 20
POME 0.045 20
N lost through runoff and leaching % 30
Previous land use C t/ha CO
2
t/ha
Primary forest 225 825
Logged forest 87 319
Grassland 5 18
Rubber 62 227
Coconut 75 275
Cocoa under shade 70 257
Food crops 9 31
Secondary regrowth 48 175
This worksheet is locked to prevent users from accidentally overwriting the contents. The password to unlock this worksheet is "default"
Material
kgCO
2
e/t
Direct
emissions
kgN
2
O/t
fertiliser
Indirect
emissions
kgN
2
O/t
fertiliser
Total
emissions
kgN
2
O/t
fertiliser
kgCO
2
e/t
fertiliser
2,380 5.3 1.5 6.8 2,028
340 3.3 0.9 4.2 1,253
460 2.8 0.8 3.6 1,074
1,340 7.2 3.4 10.7 3,174
1,040 4.1 1.1 5.2 1,551
200
200
44
170
547
This worksheet is locked to prevent users from accidentally overwriting the contents. The password to unlock this worksheet is "default"
Allocation of net emissions to crop products
FFB
oer% 20.8
ker% 5.0
% of FFB emissions
attributable to CPO 80.6
% of FFB emissions
attributable to PK 19.4
PK
pko% 41.4
pke% 51.7
% of PK emissions
attributable to PKO 44.5
% of PK emissions
attributable to PKE 55.5
This sheet allocates FFB and PK
emissions to crop products, by
mass.
References
1
Chase L.D.C and Henson I.E. (2010) A detailed greenhouse gas budget for palm oil production. International Journal for Agricultural Sustainability 8 (3) 199-214.
2 JEC (2011). Well-to-wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context. Well-to-tank Report Version 3c, Appendix 1 and 2. CONCAWE, EUCAR and JRC. http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/WTW.
3 IPCC (2007). Fourth Assessment Report. Climate Change 2007 - Synthesis Report. WMO/UNEP. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-syr.htm.
4 IPCC (2006). Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Vol 4 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. WMO/UNEP. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html.
5 Yacob S., Mohd. Hassan A., Shirai Y., Wakisaka M. and Subash S. (2006). Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment. Science of the Total Environment, 366, 187-196
6 Gurmit S. (1995). Management and utilisation of oil palm by-products. The Planter, 71, 361-386.
7 Jensson T.K. and Kongshaug G. (2003). Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in fertiliser production. Proceedings No 509, International Fertiliser Society, York, UK 28pp.
8 Caliman J.P., Carcasses R., Girardin P., Pujianto, Dubos B., and Liwang T. (2005) Development of agro-environmental indicators for sustainable management of oil palm growing: general concept and example of nitrogen. In: Proceedings of PIPOC 2005 International Palm Oil Congress, Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainability Conference, 413-432. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Palm Oil Board.
9 Henson I.E. (2009). Modelling carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions associated with oil palm cultivation and land-use change in Malaysia. A re-evaluation and a computer model. MPOB Technology, 31, 116 pp.
10 Hooijer A., S. Page, J. G. Canadell, M. Silvius, J. Kwadijk, H. Wosten, J. Jauhiainen (2010) Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences Discuss., 7,1505-1514
11 Henson I.E. (2005a) OPRODSIM, a versatile, mechanistic simulation model of oil palm dry matter production and yield. In: Proceedings of PIPOC 2005 International Palm Oil Congress, Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainability Conference, 801-832. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Palm Oil Board.
12 Schmidt J.H. (2007) Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil and palm oil Part 3 275 pp. PhD Thesis. Denmark: Aalborg University.
13 Environment Agency (2002) Guidance on Landfill Gas Flaring. Bristol: Environment Agency.
14 RFA (2008) Carbon and Sustainability Reporting Within the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation. Technical Guidance Part 2 Carbon Reporting Default Values and Fuel Chains. London: Renewable Fuels Agency. http://www.renewablefuelsagency.org/_db/_documents/RFA_C&S_Technical_Guidance_Part_2_v1_200809194658.pdf
15 http://www.biograce.net/
16 MacDicken K.G.(1997) A Guide to monitoring carbon storage in Forestry and Agroforestry projects. Winrock International Institute for International Development.
17 European Union Commission (2009). Directive 2009/28/EC Draft Annex V. Draft Commission Decision (of 31 December 2009) on guidelines for the calculation of land carbon stocks for the purpose of Annex V of Directive 2009/28/EC. European Commission, Brussels. 26 p.
18 Lasco R D, Sales R F, Estrella R, Saplaco S R, Castillo L S A, Cruz R V O and Pulhin F B. (2001). Carbon stocks assessment of two agroforestry systems in the Makiling Forest Reserve, Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 84, 401-407.
19 http://www.searates.com
20 Mila i Canals L (2011) pers comm
21 Winrock (2010). N Harris, pers com. MODIS data 2000 to 2007
22 Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories (2010). Ecoinvent 2.2
23
24 Page S.E, Morrison R, Malins C, Hooijer A, Rieley J.O., Jauhiainen J (2011) . Review of peat surface greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia (ICCT white paper 15). Washington: International Council on Clean Transportation.
25 Agus F., Harris N, Parish F, van Noordwijk M. (in press). Assessment of C02 Emissions from Land Use Changes
26 Mokany, K., Raison, R.J., Prokushkin, A.S. (2005), Critical analysis of root:shoot ratios in terrestrial biomes. Global Change Biology 12: 84-96.
27 Henson I. E. (2005b). An assessment of changes in biomass carbon stocks in tree crops and forests in Malaysia. J. Tropical Forest Science, 17 : 279-296.
28 Yew F K (2000). Impact of zero burning on biomass and nutrient turnover in rubber replanting. Paper presented at International Symposium on Sustainable Land Management. Sri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia.
29 Yew F K and Mohd Nasaruddin (2002). Biomass and carbon sequestration determinations in rubber. Methodologies and case studies. Seminar on Climate Change and Carbon Accounting. Department of Standards, Malaysia and SIRIM Sdn Bhd, Shah Alam, Malaysia. 13 pp.
Abbreviations
AC Ammonium chloride
AN Ammonium nitrate
CPO Crude palm oil
DAP Diammonium phosphate
EFB Empty fruit bunches
FFB Fresh fruit bunches
GHG Greenhouse gases
GML Ground magnesium limestone
GRP Ground rock phosphate
GWP Global warming potential
H&C Harvesting and collection
ker Kernel extraction rate
RSPO PLWG (in press). Environmental and social impacts of oil palm cultivation on tropical peat a scientific review. Final Version, May 2012.
MOP Muriate of potash
oer Oil extraction rate
PK Palm kernel
PKO Palm kernel oil
PKE Palm kernel expeller
POME Palm oil mill effluent
RSPO Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil
SOA Sulphate of ammonia
seq Sequestration
TSP Triple superphosphate
Chase L.D.C and Henson I.E. (2010) A detailed greenhouse gas budget for palm oil production. International Journal for Agricultural Sustainability 8 (3) 199-214.
JEC (2011). Well-to-wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context. Well-to-tank Report Version 3c, Appendix 1 and 2. CONCAWE, EUCAR and JRC. http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/WTW.
IPCC (2007). Fourth Assessment Report. Climate Change 2007 - Synthesis Report. WMO/UNEP. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-syr.htm.
IPCC (2006). Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Vol 4 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. WMO/UNEP. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html.
Yacob S., Mohd. Hassan A., Shirai Y., Wakisaka M. and Subash S. (2006). Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment. Science of the Total Environment, 366, 187-196
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Lasco R D, Sales R F, Estrella R, Saplaco S R, Castillo L S A, Cruz R V O and Pulhin F B. (2001). Carbon stocks assessment of two agroforestry systems in the Makiling Forest Reserve, Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 84, 401-407.
Page S.E, Morrison R, Malins C, Hooijer A, Rieley J.O., Jauhiainen J (2011) . Review of peat surface greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia (ICCT white paper 15). Washington: International Council on Clean Transportation.
Yew F K (2000). Impact of zero burning on biomass and nutrient turnover in rubber replanting. Paper presented at International Symposium on Sustainable Land Management. Sri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia.
Yew F K and Mohd Nasaruddin (2002). Biomass and carbon sequestration determinations in rubber. Methodologies and case studies. Seminar on Climate Change and Carbon Accounting. Department of Standards, Malaysia and SIRIM Sdn Bhd, Shah Alam, Malaysia. 13 pp.
RSPO PLWG (in press). Environmental and social impacts of oil palm cultivation on tropical peat a scientific review. Final Version, May 2012.
Caliman J.P., Carcasses R., Girardin P., Pujianto, Dubos B., and Liwang T. (2005) Development of agro-environmental indicators for sustainable management of oil palm growing: general concept and example of nitrogen. In: Proceedings of PIPOC 2005 International Palm Oil Congress, Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainability Conference, 413-432. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Palm Oil Board.
RFA (2008) Carbon and Sustainability Reporting Within the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation. Technical Guidance Part 2 Carbon Reporting Default Values and Fuel Chains. London: Renewable Fuels Agency. http://www.renewablefuelsagency.org/_db/_documents/RFA_C&S_Technical_Guidance_Part_2_v1_200809194658.pdf
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