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MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION









Sample Questions & Worked Out Examples
For

CE-04014
DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES







B.Tech. (Year II)





Civil Engineering















Sample Questions
For

CE-04014
DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
















1
YANGON TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Department of Civil Engineering

Sample Questions for
CE-04014 DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES (PART-I)


Chapter 1- Bond, Anchorage and Development Length
*1.1. Figure 1.1 shows the column reinforcement for a 16 in. diameter concrete
column, with f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 5000 psi. Analysis of the building frame
indicates a required A
s
=7.10 in
2
in the lower column and 5.60 in
2
in the upper
column. Spiral reinforcement consists of a
3/
8
in. diameter rod at 2 in. pitch. Column
bars are to be spliced just above the construction joint at the floor level, as shown in
the sketch. Calculate the minimum permitted length of splice.

FIGURE 1.1
*1.2. Figure1.2 shows a deep transfer girder that carries two heavy column loads at its
outer ends from a high-rise concrete building. Ground-floor columns must be offset
8 ft as shown. The loading produces an essentially constant moment (neglect self-
weight of girder) calling for a concrete section with b = 22 in. and d = 50 in., with
2
main tensile reinforcement at the top of the girder comprised of twelve No. 11 bars in
three layers of four bars each. The maximum available bar length is 60 ft, so tensile
splices must be provided. Design and detail all splices, following ACI Code
provisions. Splices will be staggered, with no more than four bars spliced at any
section. Also, investigate the need for special anchorage at the outer ends of main
reinforcement, and specify details of special anchorage if required. Material strengths
are f
y
= 60,000psi and f'
c
= 5000 psi.

FIGURE 1.2
** 1.3. The beam of Fig.1.3 is simply supported with a clear span of 24.75 ft and is to
carry a distributed dead load of 0.54 kips/ft including its own weight, and live load of
1.08 kips/ft, unfactored, in service. The reinforcement consists of three No. 10 bars at
16 in. effective depth, one of which is to be discontinued where no longer needed.
Material strengths specified are f
y
= 60,000psi and f'
c
=4000 psi. No. 3 stirrups are
used with cover of 1.5 in. at spacing less than ACI Code maximum.(a) Calculate the
point where the center bar can be discontinued.(b) Check to be sure that adequate
embedded length is provided for continued and discontinued bars.(c) Check special
requirements at the support, where M
u
=0. (d) If No. 3 bars are used for lateral
reinforcement, specify special reinforcing details in the vicinity where the No. 10 bar
is cut off.
3


FIGURE 1.3
** 1.4. The short cantilever shown in Fig.1.4 carries a heavy concentrated load 6 in.
from its outer end. Flexural analysis indicates that three No. 8 bars are required,
suitably anchored in the supporting wall and extending to a point no closer than 2 in.
from the free end. The bars will be fully stressed to f
y
at the fixed support. Investigate
the need for hooks and lateral confinement steel at the right end of the member.
Material strengths are f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 4000 psi. If hooks and lateral steel are
required, show details in a sketch.

FIGURE 1.4

**1.5. The continuous beam shown in Fig.1.5 has been designed to carry a service
dead load of 2 kips/ft including self-weight, and service live load of 3 kips/ft. Flexural
design has been based on ACI moment coefficients of
1
/
11
and
1
/
16
at the face of
support and midspan respectively, resulting in a concrete section with b=14 in. and
d = 22 in. Negative reinforcement at the support face is provided by four No. 10 bars,
which will be cut off in pairs where no longer required by the ACI Code. Positive bars
4
consist of four No. 8 bars, which will also be cut off in pairs. Specify the exact point
of cutoff for all negative and positive steel. Specify also any supplementary web
reinforcement that may be required. Check for satisfaction of ACI Code requirements
at the point of inflection and suggest modifications of reinforcement if appropriate.
Material strengths are f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 4000 psi.


FIGURE 1.5
1
Chapter 2-Serviceability
* 2.1. A rectangular beam of width b = 12 in., effective depth d = 20.5 in., and total
depth h = 23 in. spans 18.5 ft between simple supports. It will carry a computed dead
load of 1.27 kips/ft including self-weight, plus a service live load of 2.44 kips/ft.
Reinforcement consists of four No. 8 bars in one row. Material strengths are
f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 4000 psi.(a) Compute the stress in the steel at full service
load, and using the Gergely-Lutz equation estimate the maximum width of crack.
(b) Assuming exterior exposure to moist air, confirm the suitability of the proposed
design.
* 2.2. For the beam of Prob. 2.1: (a) Compute the ACI z value using f
s
= 0.60f
y
as
permitted by the ACI Code.(b) Compare against ACI Code limitations to determine if
the design is satisfactory with respect to cracking. (c) Compare with indication of
Table A.8 in App. A.
**2.3. For the beam of Prob. 2.1: (a) Calculate the increment of deflection resulting
from the first application of the short-term live load. (b) Find the creep portion of the
sustained load deflection plus the immediate deflection due to live load. (c) Compare
your results with the limitations imposed by the ACI Code, as summarized in Table
2.3. Assume that the beam is a part of a floor system and supports cinder block
partitions susceptible to cracking if deflections are excessive.
**2.4. A beam having b = 12 in., d = 21.5 in., and h = 24 in. is reinforced with three
No. 11 bars. Material strengths are f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 4000 psi. It is used on a
28 ft simple span to carry a total service load of 2130 lb/ft. For this member, the
sustained loads include self-weight of the beam plus additional superimposed dead
load of 510 lb/ft, plus 400 lb/ft representing that part of the live load that acts more or
less continuously, such as furniture, equipment, and time-average occupancy load.
The remaining 1220 lb/ft live load consists of short-duration loads, such as the brief
peak load in the corridors of an office building at the end of a working day. (a) Find
the increment of deflection under sustained loads due to creep. (b) Find the additional
deflection increment due to the intermittent part of the live load. In your calculations,
you may assume that the peak load is applied almost immediately after the building is
placed in service, then reapplied intermittently. Compare with ACI Code limits from
Table 2.3. Assume that, for this long-span floor beam, construction details are
provided that will avoid damage to supported elements due to defections. If ACI Code
limitations are not met, what changes would you recommend to improve the design?
2
*** 2.5. A reinforced concrete beam is continuous over two equal 22 ft spans, simply
supported at the two exterior supports, and fully continuous at the interior support.
Concrete cross-section dimensions are b = 10 in., h = 22 in., and d = 19.5 in. for both
positive and negative bending regions. Positive reinforcement in each span consists of
one No. 10 bar and one No. 8 bar, and negative reinforcement at the interior support is
made up of three No. 10 bars. No compression steel is used. Material strengths are
f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 5000 psi. The beam will carry a service live load, applied
early in the life of the member, of 1800 lb/ft distributed uniformly over both spans;
20 percent of this load will be sustained more or less permanently, while the rest is
intermittent. The total service dead load is 1000 lb/ft including self-weight. Find:
(a) the immediate deflection when shores are removed and the full dead load is
applied, (b) the long-term deflection under sustained load, (c) the increment of
deflection when the short-term part of the live load is applied.
Compare with ACI Code deflection limits; piping and brittle conduits are
carried that would be damaged by large deflections. Note that midspan deflection may
be used as a close approximation of maximum deflection.

1
Chapter 3- Analysis and design for Torsion
***3.1 The 28 ft span beam shown in Figure (a) and (b) carries a monolithic slab
cantilevering 6ft past the beam centerline, as shown in the section. The resulting
L beam supports of live load of 900 lb/ft along the beam centerline plus 50psf
uniformly distributed over the upper slab surface. The effective depth to the flexural
steel centroid is 21.5 in., and distance from the beam surfaces to the centroid of stirrup
steel is 1.75 in. Material strength are f'
c
= 5000 psi, f
y
= 60000 psi. Design the
torsional and shear reinforcement for the beam.



FIGURE 3.1

*** 3.2. Architectural and clearance requirements call for the use of a transfer girder,
shown in Fig. 3.2, spanning 20 ft between supporting column faces. The girder must
carry from above a concentrated column load of 20 kips at midspan, applied with
eccentricity 2 ft from the girder centerline. (Load factors are already included, as is an
allowance for girder self-weight.) The member is to have dimensions b = 10in.,
h = 20in., x
o
= 6.5in., y
o
= 16.5 in., and d = 17 in. Supporting columns provide full
torsional rigidity; flexural rigidity at the ends of the span can be assumed to develop
40 percent of the maximum moment that would be obtained if the girder were simply
supported. Design both transverse and longitudinal steel for the beam. Material
strengths are f'
c
= 5,000 psi and f
y
= 60,000psi.




2

FIGURE 3.2
*** 3.3. The beam shown in cross section in Fig. 3.3 is a typical interior member of a
continuous building frame, with span 30 ft between support faces. At factored loads it
will carry a uniformly distributed vertical load of 3500 lb/ft, acting simultaneously
with a uniformly distributed torsion of 3000 ft-lb/ft. Transverse reinforcement for
shear and torsion will consist of No. 4 stirrup-ties, as shown, with 1.5 in. clear to all
concrete faces. The effective depth to flexural steel is taken equal to 22.5 in. for both
negative and positive bending regions. Design the transverse reinforcement for shear
and torsion, and calculate the longitudinal steel to be added to the flexural
requirements to provide for torsion. Torsional reinforcement will be provided only in
the web, not in the flanges. Material strengths are f'
c
= 4,000 psi and f
y
= 60000 psi.

FIGURE 3.3
1
Chapter 4- Short Columns
* 4.1 For 14 22 rectangular column section is subjected to axial load and bending
moment causing bending about the strong axis. It is reinforced parallel to the bending
axis with A
s
= A'
s
= 4 No. 9 bars and d' =2.5 in. Material strengths are f'
c
= 4000 psi
and f
y
= 60,000 psi. Bending will be about the strong axis. Using strain compatibility
equations determine the load capacity P
n
,

moment capacity M
n
when the eccentricity
e = 20in. Use e
b
= 15in. Do not use ACI column interaction diagram charts.
*4.2 For prob.4.2 using strain compatibility equations determine the load capacity P
n
,

moment capacity M
n
when the eccentricity e = 10 in. Use e
b
= 15 in. Do not use ACI
column interaction diagram charts.
*4.3 The 12 20 column with reinforced eight No.9 bars arranged arround the
column perimeter, with P
u
= 275 kips, e
x
= 2.5 in., e
y
= 5.5 in., f'
c
= 4000 psi,
f
y
= 60000 psi. Check the adequacy of the trial design (a) using reciprocal load method
and (b) using load counter method. Use = 1.15.
* 4.4 Determine load P
b
, moment M
b
for 16 in. diameter circular spiral column
reinforced with eight No.9 bars, cover to centroid of main bar = 2.5 in., cover to outer
edge of ties (i.e. clear cover) = 1.5 in., with f'
c
= 4000 psi, f
y
= 60000 psi. Use large
steel ratio.
** 4.5. The 2020 square column shown in Fig.4.5 is subjected to axial load and
bending moment causing bending about an axis parallel to that of the rows of bars.
A
s
= A'
s
= 8.0 in
2
. What moment would cause the column to fail if the axial load
applied simultaneously was P
n
= 500 kips? Material strengths are f'
c
= 4000 psi and
f
y
= 60 ksi. What is the strength M
n
if it were loaded in pure bending (axial force = 0)
about one principal axis?
FIGURE 4.5
2
** 4.6. A short rectangular reinforced concrete column shown in Fig.4.6 is to be a part
of a long-span rigid frame and will be subjected to high bending moments combined
with relatively low axial loads, causing bending about the strong axis. Because of the
high eccentricity, steel is placed unsymmetrically as shown, with three No. 14 bars
near the tension face and two No. 11 bars near the compression face. Material
strengths are f'
c
= 6 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Calculate P
n
, M
n
, P
n
, M
n
.


FIGURE 4.6
1
Chapter 5-Edge supported Slabs
*5.1. A parking garage is to be designed using a two-way slab supported by16 x 26 in.
monolithic beams on the column lines, as shown in Fig.5.1. Live loading of 100 psf is
specified. Find the required slab thickness, using a steel ratio of approximately 0.005
maximum, and design the reinforcement for edge panel B and interior panel C. Detail
the reinforcement, showing size, spacing, and length of rebars. All straight bars will
be used. Material strengths will be f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 4000 psi.



FIGURE 5.1

2
**5.2. A footbridge is to be built, consisting of a one-way solid slab spanning 16 ft
between masonry abutments, as shown in Fig.5.2. A service live load of 100 psf must
be carried. In addition, a 2000 lb concentrated load, assumed to be uniformly
distributed across the bridge width, may act at any location on the span. A 2 in.
asphalt wearing surface will be used, weighing 20 psf. Precast concrete curbs are
attached so as to be nonstructural. Prepare a design for the slab, using material
strengths f
y
= 60,000psiand f'
c
= 4000 psi, and summarize your results in the form of a
sketch showing all concrete dimensions and reinforcement.


FIGURE 5.2

** 5.3. A reinforced concrete building floor system consists of a continuous one-way
slab built monolithically with its supporting beams, as shown in cross section in
Fig.5.3. Service live load will be 125 psf. Dead loads include a 10 psf allowance for
nonstructural lightweight concrete floor fill and surface, and a 10 psf allowance for
suspended loads, the self-weight of the floor. Using ACI coefficients, calculate the
design moments and shears and design the slab, using a maximum tensile steel ratio
of 0.006. Use all straight bar reinforcement. One-half of the positive moment bars will
be discontinued where no longer required; the other half will be continued into the
supporting beams as specified by the ACI Code. All negative steel will be
discontinued at the same distance from the support face in each case. Summarize your
design with a sketch showing concrete dimensions, and size, spacing, and cutoff
points for all rebars. Material strengths are f
y
= 60,000 psi and f'
c
= 3000 psi.
3


FIGURE 5.3

** 5.4. For the one-way slab floor of Prob.5.3, calculate the immediate and long-term
deflection due to dead loads. Assume that all dead loads are applied when the
construction shoring is removed. Also determine the deflection due to application of
the full service live load. Assuming that sensitive equipment will be installed
6 months after the shoring is removed, calculate the relevant deflection components
and compare the total with maximum values recommended in the ACI Code.
** 5.5. A two-way concrete slab roof is to be designed to cover a transformer vault.
The outside dimensions of the vault are 17 x 20 ft and supporting walls are 8 in. brick.
A service live load of 80 psf distributed uniformly over the roof surface will be
assumed, and a dead load allowance of 10 psf added to the self-weight of the slab.
Design the roof as a two-way edge-supported slab, using f'
c
= 4000 psi and
f
y
= 50,000 psi.

1
YANGON TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Department of Civil Engineering

Sample Questions for
CE- 04014 DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES (PART-II)


Chapter 1- Slender Columns
**1.1 Figure shows an elevation view of multistory concrete frame building, with
48 in. wide 12 in. deep beams on all column lines, carrying two-way slab floors and
roof. The clear height of the column is 13ft. Interior columns are tentatively
dimensioned at 1818 in. and exterior columns at 1616 in. The frame is effectively
braced against sway by stair and elevator shafts having concrete walls that are
monolithic with the floors, located in the building corners (not shown in figure). The
structure will be subjected to vertical dead and live loads. Trial calculations by first-
order analysis indicate that the pattern of live loading shown in Fig.1.1, with full load
distribution on roof and upper floors and checker board pattern adjacent to Column
C3, produces maximum moments with single curvature in that column, at nearly
maximum axial load. Dead loads on act all spans. Service load values of dead and live
load axial force and moments for the typical interior column C3 are as follows:
Dead load Live load
P = 230 kips P = 173 kips
M
2
= 2 ft-kips M
2
= 108 ft-kips
M
1
= -2 ft-kips M
1
= 100 ft-kips
The column is subjected to double curvature under dead load alone and single
curvature under live load.
Design column C3, using the ACI moment magnifier method. Use f'
c
= 4000 psi,
f
y
= 60000psi.
2

FIGURE1.1

** 1.2. The structure shown in Fig.1.2a requires tall slender columns at the left side. It
is fully braced by shear walls on the right. All columns are 16 16 in., as in Fig.1.2b,
and all beams are 24 18 in. with 6 in. monolithic floor slab, as in Fig.1.2c. Trial
calculations call for column reinforcement as shown. Alternate load analysis indicates
the critical condition with column AB bent in single curvature, and service load thrust
and moments as follows: from dead loads, P = 139 kips, M
top
= 61 ft-kips, M
bot
= 41
ft-kips; from live load, P =93 kips, M
top
= 41 ft-kips, M
bot
= 27 ft-kips. Material
strengths are f'
c
= 4000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi. Is the proposed column, reinforced as
shown, satisfactory for this load condition? Use Eq.(1.16) to calculate EI for the
column.

FIGURE 1.2
3
** 1.3. Refine the calculations of Problem1.2, using Eq.(1.15) to calculate EI for the
column. Assume reinforcement will be approximately as given in Problem 1.2.
** 1.4. The first three floors of a multistory building are shown in Fig. 1.4. The lateral
load resisting frame consists of 2020 in. exterior columns, 2424 in. interior
columns, and 36 in. wide 24 in. deep girders. The center-to-center column height is
16 ft. For the second story columns, the service gravity dead and live loads and the
horizontal wind loads based on an elastic first-order analysis of the frame are:

Cols. A2 and E2 Cols. B2 and D2 Col. C2
P
dead
348 kips 757 kips 688 kips
P
live
137 kips 307 kips 295 kips
P
wind
19 kips 9 kips 0 kips
V
wind
6.5 kips 13.5 kips 13.5 kips
M
2,dead
31 ft-kips
M
2,live
161 ft-kips
M
2,wind
105 ft-kips
M
1,dead
-34 ft-kips
M
1,live
108 ft-kips
M
1,wind
-98 ft-kips
A matrix analysis for the total unfactored wind shear of 53.5 kips, using values of E
and I specified in Sec. 1.5, indicates that the relative lateral deflection of the second
story is 0.24 in. Design columns B2 and D2 using Eq.(1.19) to calculate 8sMs.
Material strengths are f'
c
= 4000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi.

FIGURE 1.4
4
** 1.5 Repeat prob.1.5 using Eq.(1.20) to calculate
s
M
s
. Material strengths are
f'
c
= 4000 psi, and f
y
= 60,000 psi.

1
Chapter 2- Footings and Foundations
* 2.1. A continuous strip footing is to be located concentrically under a 12 in. wall
that delivers service loads D = 25,000 lb/ft and L = 15,000 lb/ft to the top of the
footing. The bottom of the footing will be 4 ft below the final ground surface. The soil
has a density of 120 pcf and allowable bearing capacity of 8000 psf Material strengths
are f'
c
= 3000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi. Find (a) the required width of the footing, (b)
the required effective and total depths, based on shear, and (c) the required flexural
steel area.
**2.2 A 1218 in. column with f'
c
= 3000 psi, reinforced with six No.8 bars of
f
y
= 40000 psi, supports dead load of 100 kips and live load of 100 kips. The
allowable soil pressure at bottom of the footing, which is 5 ft below grade, is 3 ksf.
The surcharge load is 100 psf, f'
c
= 3000 psi., f
y
= 40000 psi. Design a rectangular
footing whose side ratio is the same as that of the column section, the longer side of
the footing being parallel to the longer side of the column. Assume average unit
weight of the concrete and earth fill to be 125 pcf. Round up the theoretically compute
values of width and length to next higher quarter-foot values. Try first with d =15 in.
in the longer direction and 14 in. for punching shear checking. Check shear, moment,
bearing and development length length. Find the total thickness using clear cover of
3 in. No.8, No.7 and No.5 bars are available.
** 2.3. An interior column for a tall concrete structure carries total service loads
D = 500 kips and L = 514 kips. The column is 22 22 in. in cross section and is
reinforced with twelve No. 11 bars centered 3 in. from the column faces (equal
number of bars each face). For the column, f'
c
= 4000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi. The
column will be supported on a square footing, with the bottom of the footing 6 ft
below grade. Design the footing, determining all concrete dimensions and amount and
placement of all reinforcement, including length and placement of dowel steel. No
shear reinforcement is permitted. The allowable soil-bearing pressure is 8000 psf.
Material strengths for the footing are f'
c
= 3000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi.
** 2.4. Two interior columns for a high-rise concrete structure are spaced 15 ft apart,
and each carries service loads D = 500 kips and L = 514 kips. The columns are to be
22 in. square in cross section, and will each be reinforced with twelve No. 11 bars
centered 3 in. from the column faces, with an equal number of bars at each face. For
the column, f'
c
= 4000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi. The columns will be supported on a
rectangular combined footing with a long-side dimension twice that of the short side.
2
The allowable soil-bearing pressure is 8000 psf. The bottom of the footing will be 6 ft
below grade. Design the footing for these columns, using f'
c
= 3000 psi and f
y
= 60,000
psi. Specify all reinforcement, including length and placement of footing, bars and
dowel steel.













Worked Out Examples
For

CE-04014
DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
















1
YANGON TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Department of Civil Engineering
Worked out Examples

CE04014-DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES


*1. ( 2,7 ). A rectangular beam of width b = 12 in., effective depth d = 20.5 in., and
total depth h = 23 in. spans 18.5 ft between simple supports. It will carry a computed
dead load of 1.27 kips/ft including self-weight, plus a service live load of 2.44 kips/ft.
Reinforcement consists of four No. 8 bars in one row. Material strengths are f
y
=
60,000 psi and f'
c
= 4000 psi.(a) Compute the stress in the steel at full service load,
and using the Gergely-Lutz equation estimate the maximum width of crack. (b)
Assuming exterior exposure to moist air, confirm the suitability of the proposed
design.

Solution:
Using Gergerly - Lutz Eqn:
w = 1.27 + 2.44 = 3.71 k/ft
M =
8
5 . 18 71 . 3
2

= 1904.62 k-in
A
s
= 4 N0.8 = 3.14 in
2
, d
c
= 2.5 in.
=
5 . 20 12
14 . 3

= 0.0128
E
c
= 57000 4000 = 3.605 10
6
psi
n =
c
s
E
E
=
6
6
10 605 . 3
10 29

= 8.04 8.0
from table A-7, j = 0.879
f
s
=
d j A
M
s
=
5 . 20 879 . 0 14 . 3
62 . 1904

= 33.66 ksi < f
y
= 60 ksi
effective conc. area = 12 2.5 2 = 60 in
2
.
A =
4
60
= 15 in
2
.

2
w = 0.075 f
s

3
c
A d
= 0.076 1.2 33.66
3
15 5 . 2
= 10.27 thousand in. = 0.0103 in.

z = f
s

3
c
A d = 112.66 < 145 for exteroir exposure.