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Mentum Planet 5.

7
LTE
Mentum Planet Public Training
MP502
Copyright 2014
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Last updated January 2014 , MP502 LTE
2
Introduction to LTE
LTE The UMTS Long Term Evolution 3GPP
3
LTE Requirements
LTE was the result of a study item which finalized the requirements
in 2005, as follow:
Reduced delays
Increased user data rates
Increased cell-edge bit rates
Reduced cost per bit
Greater flexibility of spectrum usage
Simplified network architecture
Seamless mobility
Reasonable UE power consumption
4
LTE Design Targets
Higher Data Rates
Enables true mobile broadband connectivity
Shorter Delays
Enables latency-sensitive services such as voice & gaming
Better Spectral Efficiency
Helps operator with the explosion of the mobile data traffic
Mobility Support
Support for high mobility devices
Coverage
Optimized for small cells but capable of large coverage footprints
5
User Throughput Target
LTE release 8 targets a substantial increase in end-user data
throughput compared to previous radio standards
Theoretical peak data rates
Downlink: > 100mbps in a 20 MHz channel compared to 14mbps for HSPA
release 6
Uplink: > 50mbps in a 20 MHz channel compared to 5.7mbps for HSPA
release 6
Practical cell throughput
Downlink: 3-4x spectrum efficiency over release 6
Uplink: 2-3x spectrum efficiency over release 6
6
Basic Principles - Capacity
Achieved Data Rate is a function of the bandwidth and spectral
efficiency


N
S
B C 1 log
2
Where
C is the data rate in bits per second
S is the signal power level
N is the noise power level
B is the bandwidth
Power Limited
Region
Bandwidth
Limited Region
7
LTE Technologies to Increase User
Throughput
Higher order modulation schemes
Enable increased payload in areas
of high CINR
Wider bandwidth
Maximum 20 MHz channel
MIMO
Spatial multiplexing increases user
throughput by exploiting the non
correlated transmission paths of
several antenna pairs
8
Latency Target
User plan latency
Current 3G networks have latency of 50-100ms
Target for LTE is a reduction of latency by a factor of 5, which means a target of 10ms.
Connection setup latency
< 100 ms
9
Spectrum Efficiency Target
LTE objective in terms of spectrum
efficiency is to increase it 3-4 times
(downlink) and 2-3 times (uplink)
over HSPA release 6
Spectrum efficiency of LTE Release 8
is superior to HSPA release 8 with
the same MIMO configuration
Improvement is more modest but
still significant
LTE broadcast mode (MBMS) to offer
1 bps/Hz spectrum efficiency
LTE peak spectral efficiency is > 5
bps/Hz
Technology Downlink Spectral
Efficiency (bits/Hz)
Uplink Spectral
Efficiency (bits/Hz)
HSPA Rel. 6 0.5 (0.4-0.7) 0.3 (0.2-0.4)
HSPA Rel. 7
(MIMO 2x2)
1.2 0.5
HSPA Rel. 8
(MIMO 2x2)
1.4 0.5
LTE
(MIMO 2x2)
1.7 (1.52.1) 0.7 (0.6 1.0)
10
Comparison of Spectrum Efficiency
Source: 3G Americas
Downlink spectrum efficiency of wireless standards Uplink spectrum efficiency of wireless standards
11
SNR The Main Driver to Spectral
Efficiency
12
Mobility Support Target
In order to be a suitable replacement for all existing wireless technologies, LTE
must offer a level of mobility support similar to (or better than) to existing
technologies
Objective for LTE is to support high level of mobility (350km/h) while delivering
optimal performance for low speed devices as most of the data users are non
mobile devices (typically indoor)
Mobility defined as handover between cells which are imperceptible in terms of
delays or loss of data
13
Coverage Target
LTE is optimized for small cells but capable of operating with ranges up to 100 km
to enable wide, rural area coverage
Cell edge performance target of LTE is to achieve 0.02 0.03 bps/Hz/user
This is 2-3 times what is offered by HSPA release 6!
14
Orthogonal Multiplexing Principles
A single high data rate stream is broken into multiple (M) parallel lower data
rate streams which are modulated individually on (M) narrowband carriers
which are orthogonal
Advantages
Increases the symbol duration by a factor M, making it much longer than the
delay spread of the channel
Very simple equalization procedure in the receiver
Easy to adapt to large bandwidths
Disadvantages
Sensitivity to frequency offsets due to the narrowband nature of the sub-carriers
High peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the resulting time-based signal
15
Frequency Illustration of OFDM
subcarriers
16
Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)
OFDM has an inherently high peak to average power ratio (i.e. peak power
compared to average power)
This leads to issues associated with amplifier non linearity and clipping, leading
to a degradation of the signal CINR
The PAPR increases with the number of subcarriers and therefore, a wider
bandwidth OFDM carrier will have a higher PAPR
Techniques exist to reduce PAPR
Clipping and filtering, typically along with oversampling in order to reduce out of
band radiation
Selected mapping (not possible in LTE)
Coding techniques (not possible in LTE)
17
Power Envelope of OFDM signal
time
Average Power
18
Sensitivity to Frequency Offsets
In OFDM, all subcarriers are orthogonal provided that their frequency spacing is
constant
Change in the frequency spacing introduces inter-carrier interference (ICI) as the
orthogonality is lost.
Frequency shifts can happen for many reasons
A moving mobile will introduce a Doppler shift or spread as the multipath
components will be shifted as a function of their angle of arrival
Frequency errors can be introduced by the local components of the UE, particularly
the oscillators
The level of ICI that can be tolerated is dependant on the modulation as ICI
introduces interference and reduces the CINR
19
Illustration of Frequency Shift
20
Timing Offsets
Inter symbol interference (ISI) is caused by the delay spread associated with the
radio channel
OFDM implements a cyclic prefix, which prevents ISI due to time dispersive
channel
When the impulse response length is greater than the duration of the cyclic
prefix, interference occurs
LTE provides 2 length options for the cyclic prefix
Choosing a longer cyclic prefix increases system overhead and reduces capacity
21
Special Consideration for broadcasting
mode (MBSFN)
LTE is designed to support a single frequency network mode (MBSFN)
In this mode, all cells transmit the same information on a subset of the resource
blocks and the UE combines these signals
This implies that the relative timing of arrival of the various signals must fall
within the cyclic prefix duration
LTE approach to this is to
Double the number of subcarriers, which doubles the length of the symbol duration
(at the expense of mobility)
The length of the cyclic prefix is therefore also doubled to 33us when using the
extended cyclic prefix (1/4 of the symbol length)
22
Summary of Cyclic Prefix Configurations
Normal Cyclic Prefix Extended Cyclic Prefix Extended Cyclic Prefix
MBSFN
Symbol duration 71.3us 83.3us 166.7
Cyclic Prefix Length 5.2us 16.7us 33.3us
Distance equivalent at
speed of light
1.560km 5km 10km
Subcarrier spacing 15kHz 15kHz 7.5kHz
Number of symbols per
resource blocks
7 6 3
Cyclic Prefix Overhead
(%)
7.3% 20% 20%
23
Time & Frequency Illustration
24
Summary of OFDM
OFDM has been used successfully for years
OFDM achieves high performance despite the low complexity of the receiver
OFDM implements a cyclic prefix (CP) in order to avoid inter symbol interference
(ISI)
OFDM parameters must be configured based on the operating environment and
particularly with regards to the mobility requirements
OFDM can be extended into an access technology (OFDMA)
25
SC-FDMA
The LTE uplink uses single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA)
Advantages of SC-FDMA compared to OFDMA
It offers a low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), in contrast with OFDMA, due to its
single carrier nature.
It has a low sensitivity to carrier offset frequency
Both of these advantages are important for the user equipment (UE) for which
cost & power consumptions are important elements
26
Flexible Bandwidth
The subcarrier spacing is the same, no
matter what the channel bandwidth is
Therefore, the number of resource
blocks is a function of the channel
bandwidth
Channel
Bandwidth (MHz)
Number of
Resource Blocks
1.4 6
3 15
5 25
10 50
15 75
20 100
27
Channel Bandwidth & Spectral
Efficiency
Spectral efficiency is linked to the
channel bandwidth of LTE
The guard bands represent a
larger proportion of the total
channel bandwidth
Frequency domain scheduling is
more efficient on channels with
large bandwidths
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
LTE Channel Bandwidth
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
p
s
/
H
z
)
1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz
10 MHz 20 MHz
28
Interference Coordination
Interference in LTE is due to the re-
use of the same resource block by 2
(or more) eNodeB
Interference scheduling uses the X2
interface to exchange information
allowing neighboring eNodeB to:
Schedule resource blocks in order to
minimize collisions
Schedule collisions when the
difference in signal level between
the serving cell is maximal
29
Network Settings
LTE Interference Coordination
Scheduling strategy to control the inter-cell interference and provide benefits for LTE
performance at the cell edge
Determines certain frequency-time domain restrictions to the UL and DL schedulers in a
cell and which power can be allocated to these resources to reduce the interference seen
in the neighborhood
F1+F2+F
3
F1+F2+F
3
F1+F2+F
3
F1
F2 F3
Cell-edge terminals cell 2 Cell-edge terminals cell 3
Cell-edge terminals cell 1
Cell-center terminals cell 1
Reduced Tx power
f
f
f
f
30
Outer cell
Inner cell Inner cell
Outer cell
Inner vs. Outer cell
Cell A:
- Few subscribers are allocated to the outer cell. As a result, the FFR usage is low, e.g. 10% (blue area).
The inner cell captures 90% of cell As traffic.
- In the outer cell, only a portion of the resource elements are allocated. For example, 25%.
Cell B:
- More subscribers are allocated to the outer cell. As a result, the FFR usage is higher, e.g. 50% (red area).
The inner cell captures the rest of the traffic, i.e. 50%.
- In the outer cell, only a portion of the resource elements are allocated. For example, 25%.
31
Outer cell
Inner cell
Inner cell
Outer cell
Inner vs. Outer cell
A subscriber located in the inner cell (green) experiences full interference (minus the loading).
A subscriber located in the outer cell (blue) experiences a reduced interference (thanks to
interference coordination).
32
Interference Coordination (1/2)
Lets look at a subscriber allocated to the A cells outer cell
(blue)
Obviously, it will experience interference fromthe B cell.
Since the FFR usage of the A cell (10%) is lower than the FFR
usage of the B cell (50%), the eNodeB can make sure that the
received interference corresponds to the resource elements of
the B cells outer cell.
Consequently, this subscriber will only ever experience
interference from the B cells outer cell and the interference
coordination gain is optimal.
Outer cell
Inner cell
Inner cell
Outer cell
33
Interference Coordination (2/2)
Lets now look at a subscriber allocated to the B cells outer cell
(blue)
Obviously, it will experience interference fromthe A cell.
Since the FFR usage of the B cell (50%) is greater than the FFR
usage of the A cell (10%), it will receive interference from both
the outer cell and the inner cell.
In our example, out of the total received interference from the
A cell, only 1/5 (10% vs. 50%) comes from the outer cell, and
hence the interference coordination gain is reduced.
Outer cell
Inner cell
Inner cell
Outer cell
34
Interference Coordination Gain (Basic)
The basic scheduler assumes a random distribution of the resource elements allocated to
the outer cells.
This option is slightly pessimistic.
In our example, the interference would be reduced by 75%, since only 25% of the resource
elements are used in the outer cells.
Outer cell
Inner cell
Inner cell
Outer cell
35
Interference Coordination Gain (Advanced)
The advanced scheduler assumes advanced communication between eNodeBs on the X2
interface.
This option is slightly optimistic.
The algorithmcancels out the interference fromthe most interfering sectors.
If all sectors use 25% of the resource elements in the outer cell, the outer cell interference
of the 3 most interfering sectors will be entirely eliminated.
Outer cell
Inner cell
Inner cell
Outer cell
36
Time Domain Structure
An LTE radio frame is 10ms in duration and is composed of 10 sub-frames of 1ms each
Each sub-frame consists of 2 slots of 0.5 ms each
Each slot is composed of 7 OFDM symbols (only 6 when using extended cyclic prefix)
Therefore, each radio frame (10ms) is made of 140 OFDM symbols of 71.3us in duration
each
37
Frequency Domain Structure
In the frequency domain, the carrier spacing of the sub-carriers is 15kHz
At the center of the OFDM carrier, there is a DC subcarrier
Each resource block is made of 12 consecutive sub-carriers, which represents 180kHz
The number of resource blocks is a function of the channel bandwidth
38
LTE Downlink Resource Elements
A resource element corresponds to one symbol of one sub-carrier
It is the smallest unit of information on the downlink
The raw maximum payload of each resource element is 6 bits (64 QAM)
39
Downlink Resource Blocks
A resource block corresponds to 12 consecutive sub-carriers during one slot (0.5ms)
Therefore, each resource block is made of 84 resource elements
A resource block is the smallest unit that can be allocated by the scheduler
The raw maximum payload of a resource block is 504 bits (64 QAM)
40
Reference Symbols
LTE employs coherent detection, which means that it employs channel
knowledge
Accurate estimation of the propagation channel is achieved by means of transmission
of known signals which do not carry data
This impacts the spectral efficiency as this introduces overhead
Reference signals are mapped into resource elements in the frequency / time
lattice offered by OFDM
Interpolation in the time and frequency domain is used for the data resource
elements which do not have reference signals
41
Reference Symbols
In the frequency domain, there is 1 reference symbol per 6 subcarriers
In the time domain, there are 2 reference symbols per slot
The reference signals are staggered such that there is a reference signal every 3
subcarriers in each slot
42
Reference Signal Transmission
Reference signals are modulated using a QPSK in order to keep the PAPR low
The reference signal can be boosted compared to the data resource elements, up
to a maximum of 6 dB (3 dB being typical)
The reference signal carries the cell identification (Cell ID)
43
Reference Symbols & Multiple Antenna
Ports
In a MIMO configuration, there are multiple antenna ports and each will have its own
propagation channel
Estimation must therefore be performed independently for the multiple ports
LTE supports up to 4 antenna ports (4x4 MIMO)
Overlapping resource elements are set to zero power to minimize intra-cell
interference between the multiple antenna ports
44
Uplink Transmission
Sub-carrier spacing in the uplink is the same as the downlink (15 kHz)
Unlike the downlink, there is no DC sub-carrier in the uplink
Time/Frequency assigned to a user are consecutive
Inter-slot Frequency hopping provides additional frequency diversity & interference
averaging
45
Uplink Reference Signal
2 types of reference signals
Channels sounding reference signals
Demodulation reference signals
Reference signals are time multiplexed with data
Channel sounding reference signals are wide-band and used for channel
estimation
Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) estimated by the eNodeB and reported by the DL
46
Connection Setup
UE acquires time & frequency of a cell and detect identification during cell search
LTE eNodeB transmits primary and secondary synchronization signal to assist cell search
procedure
Synchronization signals are inserted in specific OFDM symbols
The initial cell search is performed in 2 steps
Step 1 finds the cell identity group and frame timing
Step 2 resolves the pseudo-random sequence used to generate the reference signal
and resolves frame timing
Initial cell search has relaxed timing requirements to allow for resolution of all the
unknowns such as bandwidth and carrier frequency
47
Paging
Like with any prior technologies, paging is used for network-initiated connection
Discontinuous transmission is used and UE can only be paged at specific point in
time, allowing the UE to sleep most of the time, reducing idle-mode battery
consumption
Paging message includes the UE identity
UE will discard any information unless it finds its identity
48
Resource Scheduling
Frequency and time domain scheduling
with OFDMA
Allows an optimal allocation of radio
resources to users for all channel types
Interference can also be scheduled in
order to maximize resource re-use while
maintaining cell edge coverage
49
Network and site settings for LTE
Defining Frame Editor Parameters
3GPP LTE frame definition for
downlink (OFDMA) and uplink (SC-
FDMA)
50
Network Settings
Slow Fading
51
Network Settings
Hard Handover
52
Network Settings
MBSFN Areas
53
Site Editor
Defining Sector Link Parameters
54
Site Editor
Defining Link Configurations
Cable (Feeder) length
is set at the sector
level
55
Link Configurations
Creating
56
Multiple Antenna Techniques
Multiple Antenna Techniques can be broken into 3 sub-categories
Space-time coding, where diversity gain against fading is achieved through the use of
the multiple Tx-Rx links to exploit the independent fading characteristics on the links
for the transmission of a single data stream
Spatial Multiplexing, where multiple data streams are transmitted in multiple Tx-Rx
links that are sufficiently different in terms of spatial signature such that receiver can
separate the streams
Beamforming, where the phase & gain is applied to several antennas in order to
maximize the received power and minimize the level of interference provided that
there is sufficient knowledge of the channel between the Tx and the Rx
57
Advantages of MIMO
When the CINR is low, use of diversity
coding improves performance against
fading (i.e. coverage)
When the CINR is high, spatial
multiplexing can increase system
throughput
Beamforming can increase CINR and
hence both coverage and throughput
58
MIMO Experimentation
MIMO 2x2 requires high CINR to offer
any advantage over SIMO
MIMO 4x4 always provides substantial
advantage
MIMO gain in the field is impaired by the
antenna correlation
Source: NTT Docomo
59
DL reference signal (3GPP 36.211)
Normal CP, # Tx antenna = 1
Normal CP, # Tx antenna = 2
Normal CP, # Tx antenna = 4
60
Antenna Algorithms
Applying
Beam-forming
Increase power
Smart Antenna
Diversity
Mitigate fading
Space-time coding
Spatial Multiplexing
Multiple data rate
Space-time coding
61
Antenna Algorithms
Enabling MIMO in a Sector
1
Enable the check box next to those ports you
want to use with the antennas.
2
Setup Antenna Algorithms with Antenna
Algorithm Editor
3
Select MIMO method for sector in Link Tab
4
Set TX power in Power Tab based on TX PA
count e.g. 2x 43dBm = 46dBm.
5
Planet Automatically adjusts analysis outputs
based on assigned MIMO algorithm.
LTE MIMO type layer
62
Site Editor
Defining Implementation Settings
63
Site Editor
Defining Configuration Settings
64
Site Editor
Defining Configuration Settings
65
Site Editor
Defining Coordination Settings
66
Site Editor
Defining Power Settings
67
Introduction
Defining a LTE Workflow (cont)
12
Optionally, generate traffic maps.
13
Define subscriber settings.
14
Define environment settings.
15
Generate an analysis or simulation.
16
Generate and view layer statistics.
17
Optionally, generate interference matrices.
18
Optionally, generate neighbor lists.
19
Optionally, create coverage maps.
20
Create reports.
21
Visualize in Virtual Google Earth
68
Network Overlay Tool
Simplifies the creation of an
LTE overlay on an existing
2G or 3G network
Supports initial creation on
ongoing updates of the
overlay from the underlying
2G/3G network
Supports all technologies
including CDMA/EV-DO,
GSM, WCDMA/HSPA,
WiMAX, and LTE
2G/3G network
LTE network
69
Traffic Map Management
Provides detailed modeling of
how and where subscribers
utilize the network
A critical input for accurate
network performance modeling
Traffic map generation
distributes measured or
modeled traffic
Support for multiple traffic
maps for various traffic
scenarios & services
Detailed subscriber modeling
Defines how subscribers access
the network (services, priorities,
user equipment)
Detailed traffic map & Monte-Carlo simulations
70
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
71
Traffic Maps
Sector Display Schemes for Network Data
72
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
Instant Graphical Statistics
based on imported network
data:
Top Ten Drop Call Sectors Bar
Graph and Top 30 Sectors
Carried Traffic Line graph
Any two columns can be defined
for running statistics in Bar, Line
or Point formats
73
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
Using Network Data allows us to import and create traffic data based on Switch
or Network Statistics for use in Mentum Planet
74
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
Using Network Data as traffic data input and apply clutter weight for the traffic
map generation.
75
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
Use pre-bound network data and traffic spreading algorithm.
76
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
Based on Sector Service Probabilities algorithm:
77
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
Apply the clutter weighting to the traffic map
78
Traffic Maps
Creating from Network Data
Traffic Map with Clutter Weighting
79
Traffic Maps
Social Media and Geolocalization
80
Ability to leverage social media
information in traffic map
generation
Ability to leverage geolocated
measurements in traffic map
generation
Geolocated by Mentum Planet
geolocation engine
Or geolocated by 3
rd
-party
geolocation engine
Very accurate traffic map
generation process
Traffic Map Generator
Traffic Maps
Social Media and Geolocalization
81
Example of a Traffic Map from Twitter Feeds, in Washington DC
Environments
Defining
82
For each environment, you define the:
Slow Fading Standard Deviation
Outdoor Fast Fading Margin
Outdoor Penetration Loss
Vehicular Fast Fading Margin
Vehicular Penetration Loss
Indoor Fast Fading Margin
Indoor Penetration Loss
Deep Indoor Fast Fading Margin
Deep Indoor Penetration Loss
Subscribers
Defining
83
Different types of subscribers using different services
and equipment require different subscriber definitions.
Subscribers Editor
The characteristics of
subscribers are defined
using the nodes in the
Subscriber Settings dialog
box.
Possibility to create a
diverse mix of subscribers
by defining different
services, quality types,
and user equipment types
and assigning them to
subscriber types.
84
Subscribers
Services
85
Subscribers
Voice Over LTE Services
86
Subscribers
Voice Over LTE Services: Semi-Persistent Scheduling
87
The goal of Semi-Persistent Scheduling is to reduce PDCCH overhead. Typically,
access grant provided by PDCCH Channel every 20ms. With semi-persistent
scheduling, pre-allocated resources
No need to grant every single voice packet, which means less PDCCH
resources
However, no Frequency Selective Scheduling gain
Semi-Persistent Scheduling
Subscribers
Voice Over LTE Services: TTI Bundling
88
The goal of TTI bundling is to improve uplink cell edge coverage.
HARQ interlace time is 8 milliseconds: Latency and higher overhead issues
for users in poor radio conditions.
Bundle of four TTIs: four consecutive repetitions of the same UL data. Lower
required C/(N+I) and better latency.
HARQ Without TTI Bundling HARQ With TTI Bundling
LTE Subscriber Equipment
Radio bearers defined in
network settings are listed in a
tabular format
All Bearers, can be individually
enabled/ disabled for different
equipment configurations
UE MIMO configurations are set
at the Equipment level
MBSFN modulation can be
enabled for a certain equipment
89
LTE Subscriber Equipment
90
Subscribers
Understanding Input Load
The input load is amount traffic contributed by one subscriber from
using a given service
The type of service and usage pattern determines input load per
subscriber
The input load and traffic map together determine the number of
active subscribers in each Monte Carlo simulation run
Input load is quantified by Erlang per subscriber and Throughput
per subscriber
For packet data call, input load may be determined according to its call profile
91
Subscribers
Understanding Activity Factors
A packet data call consists a number of packet transmissions. The
two consecutive packets are separated by the packet inter-arrival
time. Therefore, transmission of data packets is not continuous.
From the RF point view, the radio channel is active during packet
transmission, and, inactive during the packet inter-arrival time,
when no packet is transmitted (although from network point of
view, the user is still in active state until a timeout period is
reached).
The activity factor is defined as the percentage of time when radio
channel transmits on downlink/uplink.
DL and UL activity factors are used in sector throughput and
interference calculation
92
Subscribers
Defining DL/UL Activity Factor
For a circuit switched voice service, the activity factor is typically 40% to
50%
For packet switched data service, the activity factor varies with
applications and radio bearers used to support the service
The DL/UL activity factors in the Planet service settings should be defined
according to the lowest DL/UL bearer service data rates that are allowed
for the service.
The Planet analysis algorithm automatically scales activity factor when
the served by a higher data rate bearer.
The asymmetry nature of the packet data service can be modeled by
specifying different DL and UL activity factors
93
Subscribers
Understanding Usage Weightings
Subscribers in different
environment may experience
different radio signal fading and
losses
Mentum Planet defines four
environment types that can be
assigned individually to each clutter
class
The usage weightings determine
the traffic distribution in different
environment types
Different speeds can be models for
each subscriber
94
Changing the analysis area
Creating a custom area
Make your Cosmetic layer editable, so that your drawing toolbar
becomes available
95
Changing the analysis area
Creating a custom area
Use any of the polygon tools to draw a specific shape on your map
window, then use the Select tool and click on it
96
Changing the analysis area
Creating a custom area
This process will create a GRC file with a value of Downtown inside the
selected polygon and NULL elsewhere.
97
LTE Monte Carlo Simulations
Mentum Planet LTE Monte-Carlo simulation engine
makes it possible to analyse system performance
Traffic/subscribers
Service (VOIP, web)
User Equipment
Adaptive Modulation
QoS classes
RF performance
System capacity limits
Monte-Carlo simulation, subscribers & Ec/Io
98
Monte Carlo Simulations
Setup Wizard
99
Monte Carlo Simulations
Setup Wizard
100
Monte Carlo Simulations
Setup Wizard
101
Monte Carlo Simulations
Setup Wizard
102
Monte Carlo Simulations
Setup Wizard
103
Monte Carlo Simulations
Setup Wizard
104
Monte Carlo Simulations
Generating
105
Monte Carlo Simulations
Reports
Available reports for a Monte Carlo
simulation are:
Sectors/carrier
Subscribers
Per sector/carrier
Global
Throughputs
Per sector/carrier
Global
All simulation runs
(Sector/Carrier)
106
Report Preview
Viewing
Export to Excel
Create a sector
display scheme
for statistical data
Generate Statistics for columns
PDF/CDF/Graphs
107
Network Analysis
Defining a Workflow
1
Configure the Mentum Planet project including site configurations, antennas, and propagation models.
2
Optionally, generate predictions.
3
Specify and define antenna algorithms (if applicable), environments, and subscriber types.
4
Generate the network analysis.
5
Analyze results.
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LTE Network Analyses
Setup Wizard
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LTE Network Analyses
Setup Wizard
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LTE Network Analyses
Setup Wizard
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LTE Network Analyses
Setup Wizard
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LTE Network Analyses
Setup Wizard
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LTE Network Analyses
Setup Wizard
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LTE Network Analyses
Viewing Results
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Best Server Reference Signal Strength
RSRQ
LTE Network Analyses
Analysis Layers
Best Server based on
Reference signal strength
RSRQ
Reference signal received
power (RSRP), Reference Signal
Strength Indicator (RSSI) and
quality (RSRQ)
Reference signal probability
Best Channel
MIMO
Diversity gain
Spatial multiplexing gain
Interference coordination
Best available downlink modulation layer
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LTE Network Analyses
Analysis Layers
PDCCH/PDSCH/Uplink C/(N+I)
Downlink/Uplink modulation
coverage probabilities
Downlink/Uplink Peak and
Average Data Rates
Composite Coverage
Worst Interfering Sector
Per-channel and Best Server-
based layers
Common and per carrier layers
Etc...
LTE interference coordination layer
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Generating statistics for an Analysis Layer
Layer statistics
Displaying the layer on the map
is not mandatory, but it will
give you a good idea on what
to expect from the statistics.
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Layer Statistics
Generating
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Changing the analysis area
Choosing your area of interest
Statistics will be calculated only within the region chosen in the Analysis Area drop-
down menu.
New areas can be created by using the Areas function under the Project Data
category in Project Explorer.
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Ignoring invalid bins
Excluding null values
Depending on the type of statistics that want to be generated, it may be
interesting not to include points where the layer being analyzed has no
values populated.
In that case, the Exclude null values checkbox can be checked.
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Applying filters to ignore unwanted bins
Selecting a grid to filter
The grid you query can be an existing analysis layer or a any other grid you
have created/generated before.
Remember you can use the Areas function in Mentum Planet to create grids
based on existing polygons.
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Applying filters to ignore unwanted bins
Selecting a grid to filter
Enable the Apply area filter checkbox and browse for the grid (numeric or
classified) on which you will be applying the filter.
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Applying filters to ignore unwanted bins
Operators
Operator Meaning
v Reserved character to stand for "value"
== Equal
!= Not equal
> Greater than
>= Greater than or equal to
< Less than
<= Less than or equal to
&& And
|| Or
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Applying filters to ignore unwanted bins
Selecting a grid to query
The output file will exclude results for any bins where the value of the
grid is Buildings, so that your stats reflect outdoor points only.
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Viewing the stats
Sorting and exporting
In the Report Preview, results will be shown in absolute (km) and relative
(%) numbers, and can be sorted in ascending or descending order.
This report can be exported to Excel or CSV format.
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Creating graphs
PDF/CDF
Highlight one of the columns in the report and click the Generate Statistics
button to create a PDF or CDF of the results in that column.
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Creating graphs
X vs. Y
You can also select multiple columns in the Report Previewer and click on the Show Graph
button to display a graph that will compare the multiple columns chosen.
When choosing the best server, it can be used to see the ranking of all sectors on a particular
metric.
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Visualizing your results
Creating Sector Display Schemes and Labels
By using the Sector Display Scheme button , you can color-code each
sector based on its stats.
There is also a Label button to help you display the per-sector values on
the map.
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Interactive Analysis Tool
User-friendly and Interactive
Analysis tool for LTE in order to
visualize information for any Bin
on the map
Automatic updates to reflect
network configuration changes
Visualization of coverage,
interference, and capacity
metrics
Ability to select receiver height
Interactive Analysis Tool for LTE
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Point-to-Point Analysis
Performing
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Automated Analyses Generation
Setup
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Interference Matrices
Creating
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Interference Matrices
Viewing Results
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Neighbor Lists
Generation, editing &
management of multiple
neighbor lists
Comparison & merging
of several neighbor lists
Single or multi-
technology neighbor
lists
neighbor list in urban Paris
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Neighbor Lists
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Neighbor Lists
Generating Neighbor Plans
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Neighbor Lists
Generating Neighbor Plans
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Neighbor list
Example
Site C0429
No Neighbor relations
Apply Neighbor Plan
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Neighbor list
Example
Neighbor Plan applied
Site list contains Neighbor relations from Neighbor Plan
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LTE Automatic Frequency & PCID Planning
Frequency Planning
Frequency planning parameters
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LTE Automatic Frequency & PCID Planning
LTE Cell Identification (Physical Cell ID)
504 reference signal sequences
Allows for 504 different cell identities
Reference-signal sequence is the product of a two-dimensional pseudo-random
sequence and a two-dimensional orthogonal sequence
168 pseudo-random sequences corresponding to one out of 168 cell-identity groups
3 orthogonal sequences corresponding to a specific cell identity within each cell-
identity group
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LTE Automatic Frequency Planning
Physical Cell ID Planning
Physical Cell ID planning for LTE
Incremental or new plan generation
Management of multiple plans
Management of hard & soft
constraints
Physical Cell ID planning parameters
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PRACH Root Sequence Planning
The LTE physical layer encompasses the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH),
which carries random access requests from the user equipment in the network.
The preamble signal sent to the site is selected from available Zadoff-Chu sequences.
Which sequences are selected is determined by the PRACH parameters assigned to the
sector. This ensures that neighboring sites do not use overlapping sequences.
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PRACH Root Sequence Planning
View the assignments in the
Site Editor and export them
for further manipulation.
PRACH Root Sequence can
be assigned manually or
planned automatically
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Automatic PRACH Root Sequence Planning
Each LTE cell needs 64 Preambles
Preambles are generated from Zadoff-Chu sequences
Each sequence can generate X Preambles, X being defined by the cells
Cyclic Shift (Ncs)
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PRACH Root Sequence Display
Visualize the sequences assigned to
sectors using the PRACH Root
Sequence Display tool.
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LTE MBSFN
MBSFN = Multicast-Broadcast
Single Frequency Network
Also known as e-MBMS
(enhanced Multimedia
Broadcast Multicast Services)
Communication channel that
can deliver services such as
mobile TV
Transmission of the same
data from multiple cells
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MBSFN Service Areas
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LTE MBSFN Service Areas Visualization
Combining
Area
Reserved Area
MBSFN Area
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LTE MBSFN Analyses
Detailed MBSFN analyses
Best Servers
Signal Time arrivals
MBSFN C/(N+I)
Maximum data rate
Worst interfering sector
Co-existence of MBSFN and
unicast traffic
Interference from unicast traffic
onto MBSFN
Interference from MBSFN onto
unicast traffic
Capacity reduction for unicast
traffic
MBSFN C/(N+I) Analysis Layer
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Why Offloading to Small Cells?
Capacity increase
Improved customer experience
Reduced Cost
New dedicated tool in Mentum
Planet for LTE to plan optimize
small cells efficiently
Where, and how many?
Macro cellular traffic offloading
and capacity improvements
Advanced algorithms
Easy to use
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Small Cell Planning Tool
Small Cells Mounted on Lamp Post and Building
Small Cell Planning Workflow
1
Add vector files to roads to project
2
Create a traffic map in kbps.
3
Create a small cell site template
4
Create an area grid covering where small cells are
needed
5
Gnerate predictions for existing sites
6
Create a small cell plan.
7
Review small cell plan reports.
8
Create small cell sites.
9
Optimize all sites .
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Small Cell Planning Wizard
154
Create an area
grid that covers
the area of small
cell planning.
Create a traffic
map in Kbps/km
2
for this same
area.
Create a small cell
site template for a
single technology.
Small Cell Planning Wizard
On the Sector
Selection page,
select all sectors
to include in the
planning process.
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Small Cell Planning Wizard
On the Small Cell Placement
page, do the following:
Use candidate sites within
the area grid that you have
defined as points in a
MapInfo table.
Enable the Generate
Candidate Locations on the
Roads check box next to the
files you want to include in
the planning process, and
then for each vector file,
select the location, and
specify the distance
between the sites.
To use a site template, click
Add, and select the
template to use.
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Small Cell Planning Wizard
On the Exceptions page,
enable the check box next
to those clutter classes that
you do not want to include
in the planning process and,
if required, define the
specify the range outside of
which candidate locations
will be discarded.
To consider only locations
within a specific percentile,
enable the check box and
define the percentage of
captured traffic you want to
consider in small cell
planning.
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Small Cell Planning Wizard
Choose the equipment
type to use in small cell
planning.
Define cell load.
Choose proper indoor
option.
Chose to generate
interactive cell planning
data
Specify how initial
sector loads are
determined.
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Step by Step Analysis
Interactive Cell Planning
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LTE Small Cell Selection 200 Hotspots
Small Cell Planning Results
Display small cell planning reports
Optimize the small cell plan
Create optimized small cells
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Network Performance Inspector
161
To have interactive display and
analysis of Key Performance
Indicators.
It is possible to
View 1 or 2 Key Performance
Indicators at a time
View the information for a
group of cells
Time interval selection:
Select a particular day
View aggregated data for a
period of time
Visualization of DL Cell Load (%)
Network Performance Inspector
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Easy access and visualization of
network performance data
Graphical and statistical
visualization of Key
Performance Indicators (e.g.,
cell throughput, call drop rate,
Handover success rate)
Ability to identify issues in the
network and cells that need to
be optimized
Visualization of DL and UL Cell Load (%)
Raster Analysis
Grid Manager
Fully integrated Vertical
Mapper Raster GIS
platform
Standard open raster file
format
Flexible raster map display
capabilities
Ability to edit any input
(clutter, heights)
Advanced raster data
manipulation such as
queries, calculations, etc Interference problem identification using raster
query
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Grids
Modifying
Trimming a grid brings the focus of
network analysis onto the area of
interest and can reduce the time it
takes to generate analyses
164
Grid Analysis
Understanding Results
165
Spatial Analysis
Performing
For example, you can use the:
Region Inspection tool
Point Inspection tool
Line Inspection tool
166
Coverage Maps
Producing
In the Layout window, you can:
Add text by clicking the Text
button on the Main toolbar.
Move and resize frames using
the Select tool.
Align objects by choosing
Layout Align Objects.
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Layered PDFs
Printing
When you print a layered PDF, you can disable/enable layers as you want them
displayed on your window
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