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1.

2.

(i)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

3.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f) D EFINITIONS
A ND
R ESULTS

LIMITS

#

1

Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as , x a when , Left hand limit = Right hand limit

Limit

h 0

f (a h)

=

Limit

h 0

f (a + h) = some finite value M .

Note that we are not interested in knowing about what happens at x = a . Also note that if L.H.L. & R.H.L. are both tending towards ' ' then it is said to be infinite limit .

Remember , Limit  x a

xa

Fundamental Theorems On Limits :

Let

Limit

xa

f (x) = l

&

Limit

xa

g (x) = m

Limit

xa

f (x) ± g (x) = l ± m

(ii)

.

If

l & m exists

then :

Limit

xa

f(x) . g(x) = l . m

Limit

xa

Limit

xa

Limit

xa

f , provided m 0

(

x

)

l

=

g

(

x

)

m

k f(x) = k Limit

xa

f(x)

;

where

k

is

a

constant .

f [g(x)] = f

Limit g x

(

x a

)= f (m) ; provided f is continuous at g (x) = m .

For example let us assume that g (x) = sgn (x) & f (x) = c . Then

even if ' g ' is discontinuous at x = 0 .

Standard Limits :

Limit

x 0

f [ g (x) ] = c

Limit

x0

sinx

x

= 1 =

Limit

x0

tanx

x

= Limit

x0

[ Where x is measured in radians ]

Limit

x0

(1 + x) 1/x

=

e

=

Limit

x

1

1

x

tan 1 x

x

= Limit

x0

sin 1 x

x

x

note however that Limit

n 

(1 h) n = 0

&

Limit

n 

(1 + h) n ,

If

Limit

xa

f(x) =

1

&

If

Limit

xa

Limit

xa

f(x) =

A > 0

[f(x)] (x) = e z

where

h >

0 .

Limit

xa

(x) = , then ; Limit

xa

f

(

x

)

( )

x

e

Limit

x

a

&

Limit

xa

(x) = B (a finite quantity) then ;

where z =

Limit

xa

(x) . ln[f(x)] = e BlnA = A B

Limit

x0

Limit

xa

x 1 = 1n a (a > 0). In particular Limit

a

x

x0

x

n

a

n

x

a

na

n 1 .

e x 1

x

= 1

(

x

)[

f

(

x

)

1

]

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LIMITS

#

2

General Note :

All the above standard limits can be generalized if ' x ' is replaced by f (x) .

e.g.

Limit

x a

sin

f

(

x

)

f

(

x

)

= 1 provided

Limit

x a

f (x) = 0

& so

&

so on .

4. Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Play Theorem :

If f(x) g(x) h(x)  x & Limit

xa

f(x) =

l

=

Limit

xa

h(x)

then

Limit

xa

g(x) = l

.

5. Indeterminant Forms

:

0

0 ,

,

0

x

,

0

 

,

,

  

and

1

.

Note :

(i) Note here that ' 0 ' doesn't means exact zero but represent a value approaching towards zero similary fo ' 1 ' and infinity .

(ii) + =

(iii)  x =

 (iv) (a/) = 0 if a is finite and a & b are finite .

(v)

(vi) a b

6. To evaluate a limit, we must always put the value where ' x ' is approaching to in the function . If we get a deterninate form, than that value becomes the limit otherwise if an indeterminant form comes . This apply one of the following methods :

(a)

(c)

(e) Expansions of functions . The following expansions must be remembered :

a

0

 is not defined for any a  R . = 0 , if & only if a = 0 or b = 0
 Factorisation (b) Rationalisation or double rationalisation Substitution (d) Using standard limits

(i)

(iii)

(v)

(vii)

(ix)

 2 1 2 3 3 x 1 na x n a x 1 n a a x 1   1 ! 2! 3 ! 2 3 4 x x x ln (1+x) = x     2 3 4 2 4 6 cos x 1 x  x  x  2! 4 ! 6 ! 3 5 7 tan -1 x = x  x  x  x  3 5 7 sec -1 x = 1  x 2  5 x 4  61 x 6  2! 4 ! 6 !

 a  0 (ii) for  1  x  1 (iv) (vi) (viii) sin -1 x = x 

1

2

3 !

x

 2 3 e x 1 x  x  x  1 ! 2! 3 ! 3 5 7 x x x sin x x      3 ! 5! 7! tan x = x  3 x  2 5 x  3 15 3  1 2 . 3 2 x 5  1 2 . 3 2 . 5 2 x 7 

5!

7!

EXERCISE

1.

Limit

x 

x 2

x 2

(A)

e 4

x 1

I

=

(B)

e 4

2. Limit

x 1

(A)

0

(1 x + [x 1] + [1 x]) =

(B)

1

(C)

e 2

(D) none

where [x] denotes greatest integer function .

(C)

1

(D) does not exist

3. If , are the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 then

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LIMITS

#

3

Limit

x 

1

cos

ax

2

bx

c

(

x

)

2

=

(A) 0

(B)

1

2

( ) 2

(C)

a 2 ( ) 2

2

2

(D) a 2 ( ) 2

4.

Limit

n 

(A) 5

5. Limit

x 

5

n

1

3

n

2

2

n

5

n

2

n

3

2

n

3

=

(B) (xa) (x b) x

(A)

(B) 3

=

a b

2 5
x
2
6. Limit
=
x
 1
2
x
1
(A) 2
cos2
 cos2 x
7. Limit
x
1
2
x
x
(A) 2 cos 2
2
x
 2
8. Limit
=
x 
3
x 
6

(A) 1/3

=

(B) 1/2

(B)

2 cos 2

(B) 1/3

 (C) 1 (D) zero (C) ab (D) none (C)  1 (D) none (C) 2 sin 2 (D)  2 sin 2 (C) 0 (D) 3

9.

If f(x) =

sin[

x

]

[

x

0

]

if

if

[

[

x

x

]

]

0

0

where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal

to x, then Limit f(x) equals :

x 0 (A) 1
(B)
0
sin x
Limit
10.
x
=
x  0
(A) 0
(B)
1
1
1
 cos
2
x
11. The value of Limit
x  0
x
2
(A) 1
(B)
 1
Limit 
5 /
2
1  tan
x =
12. x  0
(A)
e 5
(B)
e 2
2
x / 2
e
 cos
x
13. Limit
=
x  0
3
x
. sin
x
(A) 1/4
(B) 1/6
14. Limit
n /
cos
mx 
x 2 =
x  0

(A)

2

e m n

/4

(B)

2

e m n /2

 (C)  1 (D) none (C)  1 (D) none of these is : (C) 0 (D) none (C) e (D) none (C) 1/12 (D) 1/8

(C) e mn 2 /2

(D) e mn 2 /4

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LIMITS

#

4

15. If [x] denotes the greatest integer x, then Limit

n 

1

n

4

1

3

x

2

3

x

3

n x

(A) x/2

(B) x/3

 (C) x/6 (D) x/4 (C) 1 (D) none (C) 1 (D) none

(D)

2

 e tan x  e x = tan x  x 1/2 (B) 0 x 3 . sin 1 x  x  1 x 2  x  1 = 0 (B) 1/2 sin 2 x  a sin x

Limit

x 0

1

x

3

16. Limit

x 0

(A)

17. Limit

x 

(A)

18.

If

(A)

is finite, then the value of a is :

(B)

2

(C)

1

19. Limit

x 0

(A)

e

tan x

x

1 / x

2

is :

(B) e 2/3

20. Limit

x 0

2 (tan x

sin x)

x

3

x

5

=

(A)

1/4

(B) 1/2

Limit cos

1

(

1 x

)

21. x 0 x

=

(C)

e 1/3

(C) 1/3

(D) none

(D) none

(B) (

x 3

27

)

log

(

x

(A) 2
)
2

=

22. Limit

x 3

(

x

2

9

)

(A)

8

(B)

8

23. Limit

x 

x

n

e

x

= 0 (n integer) for :

 (C) 1 (D) 0 (C) 9 (D)  9

equals

 (A) no value of n (B) all values of n (C) only negative values of n (D) only positive values of n

24. Limit

x 0

sin 1 (sec x) .

(A) is equal to /2

25. Limit

x 5

x

2 9 20

x

x

[

x

]

(A) is equal to 1

(B) is equal to 1

(C) is equal to zero

(D) none of these

where [x] is the greatest integer not greater than x :

(C)

(B)

0

4

(D) none

26. Limit

If

x 0

(1 + a x + b x 2 ) 2/x = e 3 , then :

(A)

a = 3 , b = 0

(B)

a = 3/2 ,

b = 1

27.

Limit

x 0

(A)

0

sin

1

x

tan

1

x

x

3

=

(B) 1/2

(C)

(C)

1

a = 3/2 ,

b = 4

(D)

a = 2 ,

(D) none

b = 3

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LIMITS

#

5

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

Limit

x 

(A)

1

x

x

2

2 x

1  

2

2

4

x

x

=

(B)

2

If

Limit

x a

(

x

2

)

5 3

/

(

a

2

)

5 3

/

(

x

a

)

=

(A)

3

5

(a

+ 2) 2/3

(B)

5

3

(a + 2) 3/2

(C)

(C)

e 2

5

3

(a + 2) 2/3

(D)

(D)

e

3

5

(a

+ 2) 3/2

The limiting value of (cos x) 1/sin x as x 0 is :

(A) 1

(B)

e

(C)

0

(D) none of these

The value of

(A) 1/10

Limit

x /2

The value of Limit

(A) 1/5

x 0

tan 2 x  2

sin

2

x

3

sin x

4

sin

2

x

6

sin x

2 is equal to :

(B) 1/11

(C) 1/12

(D) 1/8

cos (sin x)

cosx

4

x

(B) 1/6

is equal to :

(C) 1/4

(D) 1/2

Limit

n 

(A) 0

( n

2

) !

(

n

1

) !

( n 3

) !

(B)

,

1

n N =

(C)

2 Limit
  
n cos
n 
 
4 n 
(A) /3
x 
Limit
:
x 
sin x
(A) is equal to  1
x
x
3
 5
Limit
=
x 
x
x
7
 11

sin

  

4 n

has the value equal to :

(B) /4

(C) /6

(B)

is equal to 1

(C)

is equal to

(A) 1

Limit

x 0

cot

(A) e 1

 

4

 

x

(B)

cos ec x

(B)

0

=

e 2

(C)

(C)

1

e 2

Limit

x 0

(

4

x

1

)

3

sin

x

p

log

1

2

3

x

=

(A) 9 p (log 4)

(B)

3 p (log 4) 3

(C)

12 p (log 4) 3

(D)

1

(D) none

(D)

does not exist

(D) none of these

(D)

(D)

e 1

27 p (log 4) 2

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LIMITS

#

6

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

    Limit exp   x     n  1  a y x        exp   x   n    1  by x             x  y    = (B) a  b (C) b  a (D)  (a + b) 1  sin x 2 =   4 x (B)  2 (C) 0 (D) does not exist x  sin x x  cos 2 x (B)  (C) 1 (D) none of these  100      k  1 x k   100   = x  1 (B) 5050 (C) 4550 (D)  5050 log (2  x)  log 0.5 = x (B)  1/2 (C) 2 (D)  2 sin  e x  2  1  = log ( x  1 ) (B)  1 (C) 2 (D) 1   2  3 sin   6  x   cos   6  x    =    x 3  3 cos x  sin x     (B) 2/3 (C) 4/3 (D)  4/3

a + b

Limit

y 0

(A)

Limit

x /4

(A) 2

Limit

x 

(A) 0

Limit

x 1

(A) 0

Limit

x 0

(A) 1/2

Limit

x 2

(A) 0

Limit

x 0

(A) 1/3

EXERCISE Level I

Evaluate the following limits :

II

1.

Limit

x

3

7

x

2

15

x

9

x

3

x

4

5

x

3

27

x

27

3.

5.

Limit

(x

y) sec (x

y)

x secx

y

0

Limit

10

x

2

x

5

y

x

1

x

0

x

tan

x

2.

4.

6.

Limit

x

a

Limit

x



Limit

x

 a
2
x
3
x
3
a
x
2
x
 x  
1
 
1
x
tan 
 x  
4
4
x 
x 
x
x

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LIMITS

#

7

7.

9.

10.

Limit

x /2

Limit

x 0

2

cosx

1

x

x

2 1

x

sin

x cos

2

x

tan

2

x

2

If

Limit

x 

 

x

2

1

x 1

a x

 

b

= 2 ,

8.

find values of

Limit

x 

a & b .

cos x  1

cos 
x

Level II Evaluate the following limits :
3
1 
x
2 4
1
2
x
Limit
11.
x  0
2
x
 x
3
1
3
 1
1 3
tan
x
1
sin
3
x
Limit
13.
x  0
1
1
1 2
sin
x
1
tan
2
x
Limit
2
x
e
 cos
x
15.
x  0
2
x
Limit
2
4
17.
x 3
x
1 
x
x
2
x 
Limit
n  n 2
1
 
1 
19.
(n
1 )
n
n
n 
2
 
 
2 2
2
2
2
8
Limit
x
x
x
20.
1 
cos
cos
cos
x  0
8
x
2
4
2
 
Limit
x
21.
cos x 2
cos
cos x 8
cos
n 
4

22.

Limit

x 

x

   3

1

  x

2

5 tan

x

2

7

x

3

7

x

8 1 / x
e
 ( 
1
x
)
Limit
12.
x  0
tan x
x
3 
x
Limit
2
2
6
14.
x  2
x
1 
x
2
 2
x
x
x
27
 9
3
1
Limit
16.
x  0
5
 4
 cos x
x  1
Limit
(
1
n
(
1
x
)
1
n
2
)( .
3 4
3
x
)
18.
x1
1
1
[(
7
x
)
3
(
1
3
x
) ].sin(
2
x
1
)
n
1
 
n 
2 n 
1
 
2
x
cos
4
 

x

2 n

23.

Limit

x 0

log

sec(

x /

2 )

cos x

log

sec x

cos (

x /

2 )

24.

Limit

x 0

cos

2

1

cos

2

1

cos

2

cos

2

(

x

)

sin

  x 
4
2

x

25.

Limit

n 

[x]

[

2

2

. x]

[

3

2

. x]

[n

2

. x]

n

3

function .

,

where [ ] denotes greatest integer

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LIMITS

#

8

26.

27.

Show that

Limit

h0

Evaluate

Limit

x 0

(x

h)

x

h

x

x

h

= x x . (1 + l n x) .

Limit

n 

[1

2

(sin

x

)

x

]

[2

2

(sin

x

)

x

]

[

n

2

(sin

x

)

x

]

  

 

n

3

,

where [ . ] denotes the greatest integer function .

28.

Limit

n

x

n

f x

(

)

g x

(

)

x

n

1

x R

29.

Limit

x

log

x

1

(

x

).log (

x

x

1

).log

x

1

(

x

2

).log

x

2

(

x

3

)

log

k

(

x

5

)

;

where k = x 5 1 .

Limit

n 

1

2

tan x

2

+

1 2 tan

2

x

2

2

+

1

2

3

tan

30.

31. Find the values of a & b so that :

x

2 3

+

+

1 n tan

2

x

2

n

.

(i)

(ii)

Limit

x 0

Limit

x  (1
)
(
)
 a x
sin
x
b
cos
x
may find to a definite limit .
4
x
x
2 
x
 1 
a x
b
= 0 .
 

Evaluate the following limits :

32.

Limit

x 0

sin x

x

sin x

x

sin

x

33.

Limit

x

2 x

x

2 x

34.

36.

Limit

x 7/2

Limit

x 0

2

x

2

9

x

8

1

x

cos

x

x

cot (

1 / x

2

x

7

)

35. Limit

x 1

37. Limit

x 0

1 x

2

1

log (

1

x)

x m (log x) n

m , n N

38.

Limit

x

3

2

6

4

x

3

x

2

9

x

2

4

39.

Limit

x

2

(sec x) cot x

40.

42.

44.

46.

Limit

x 0

Limit

x 0

Limit

x 1

Limit

x a

1

1

/ x

x

e

1 / x

(1 + tan 2 x) cot 3 x

tan

2

 

4

log x  