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PREFACE

If you know the laws of buoyancy it doesnt mean that you know
how to swim. It is only through jumping in the water that you get
the feel of the depth. This is applicable to every aspect of life.
Therefore practical training is of utmost importance.
The object of undergoing this training was to get familiar with
the weary waters of the industry and to learn how to put theory
into practice. I have been greatly privileged to have undergone
training at PTL.
This report contains the extract of things I learned during my
training period.
HARPREET SINGH

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ny endeavor cannot lead to success unless and until a proper platform is provided
for the same. This is the reason I find myself very fortunate to have undergone
my industrial training of four weeks at PUNJAB TRACTORS LIMITED. The
persons of my department and all other departments have extended a warm and
helping hand.
I am very fortunate to have had a chance to feel the gravity of what role !echanical
"ngineering plays in the industry. It was a golden opportunity for me to get a chance
to experience what it feels to be in a company where discipline# $uality and hard work
are the motto. This training helped me a lot in bridging the gap between the
theoretical and the practical aspects of my knowledge.
%irst of all I would like to thank Mr. K.K Sharma for his valuable guidance &
encouragement as a teacher and a friend throughout my training period.
I am also thankful to MR. J. SINGH for giving me an opportunity to undergo
training in such a renowned company.
!y heartily thanks to Mr.H.S.Baweja who was my project manager & my guide
through the project works. They always went out of their way to help me at all times.
Their experience & knowledge motivated me to bring out the best in times.
I am sure that the knowledge & information that I have gained during this period
would be of immense value for my growth in the field of !echanical "ngineering.
'(P(""T )I*+'
CONTENTS
1. I*,I* T(-T.( I*,/)T(0.
2. 1"+I**I*+ .% I*,I* T(-T.( I*,/)T(0.
3. !T/(I*+ 0"() .% I*,I* T(-T.( I*,/)T(0.
2. I*,/)T(0 )T(/-T/(".
3. %/T/(" P.T"*TIL.
4. -.!P*05) ./TL..6.
7. I*T(.,/-TI.* T. -.!P*0
8. )L") )-"*(I. .% 9(I./) T(-T.( -.!P*I")
:. P(.,/-T) !*/%-T/(",
;<. /*IT) .% )=(> +(./P
;;. !*/%-T/(I*+ )0)T"!
;?. @/LIT0 -.*T(.L I*)P"-TI.*
;A. !I*T"**-" ,"PTT.
;2. 1I1LI.+'(P'0
INDIAN TRACTOR INDUSTRY
I!r"#$%!&" '
India being a predominantly agricultural country# where agriculture is the
life and blood of the economy# has been a traditional manufacturer of
different types of farm machinery and implements. 'owever# the use of
advanced agricultural techni$ues in India started only in early sixties.
!oderniBation and tractorCiBation in Indian agriculture is only post
independence phenomenon. .ne of the achievements of green revolution has
been that the farmers increasingly realiBed the advantage of tractorCiBation
for obtaining the timeliness of operations. This would happen only because of
awareness of new farm technology among the farmers# rise in the level of
their income and education.
The biological source of energy especially bullocks# could not cope with the
re$uirements of the changed situation. Therefore# introduction of tractors
got accelerated in several agriculturally advanced states of country like
Punjab# 'aryana# !aharashtra# etc. Tractors were introduced to Indian
agriculture in early twenties. )h. >oginder )ingh was the first farmer to
$(e a tractor# called a steam plough then# on the ;?<<< acres estate he had
inherited in the remote 6heri district of /ttar Pradesh. The demand of
tractors rose sharply in last two decades. 'owever# the rate of adaptation
of tractors is different in different parts of the country. Punjab occupies
number one rank in this regard. Punjab possesses only ;.3D of the
geographical area of the countryE the density of 83 tractors per hectare in
Punjab is the highest as compared to national average of ;<.3 tractors per
hectare.
India is primarily an agrarian nation# with more than 3< per cent of our +,P
being contributed directly or indirectly by agriculture. *o wonder# India is
considered the largest tractor market in the world. If that sounds great# let
us face hard facts. In terms of total tractors in use in the country# we are
ranked a distant eighth. In terms of penetration# India has a tractor density
of ;<.3 tractors per thousand hectares of +ross -ropped rea F+-G as
compared to the international average of close to A< tractors per thousand
+-.
%iguratively speaking# Indias large gross cropped area F+-G is next only to
the big two H /) and (ussia. That and the highly fragmented land holdings
in India have helped our country to become the largest tractor market in
the world. Thus the Indian tractor market# per )e# has to be viewed only
after considering its position in the world.
,espite a phenomenal increase in tractor population in the country# the
tractor density is very low at about ;<.3 tractors per thousand hectares of
+- in comparison to the international average of about ?8 tractors. lso#
the small siBe of land holding in India# have led to low average power of
tractors at A3 'orse Power F'PG# which is far lower than the global average
of above 8< 'P.
The Be)&&) "* I#&a Tra%!"r I#$(!r+
The decade of 4<s India saw green revolution resulting in increase in both
production and productivity. =ith the parallel emphasis on industrialiBation#
the birth of Indian Tractor Industry took place in ;:3:C4< when the
imports were restricted and 3 tractor manufacturing units set up in the
private sector# all with foreign collaboration. ,ate of commencement of
commercial production and collaboration are given in following table. Total
indigenous production of tractors by ;:43 was just 4<<<.
=ith the successful introduction and acceptance of the high yielding seeds#
however# there was a sudden upsurge in the demand for tractors after ;:47
and the demand started multiplying at an annual rate of approximately 3<D
F;:47I;8#<<<E ;:7<I AA#<<<G. natural conse$uence of this sharp upsurge
and conse$uent shortage was a heavy premium on the price of tractors.
(ecogniBing the situation# import of tractors into the country was liberaliBed
and over and above the domestic production of ?<#<<<. In ;:7<# ;A#<<<
tractors were imported.
The +overnments decision to freely invite new entrepreneurs to
manufacture tractor in ;:48 and sudden upsurge in demand# with the green
revolution# led to a scramble of new entrepreneurs for new collaborators. 4
units eventually# established the actual manufacturing facilities. They were
as followsI
The Ma!$r&) Year( ,
=ith the entry of new units in ;:7< and increasing +overnment pressure
towards indigeniBation picked up substantially after ;:7< and by ;:78 almost
all the tractors manufactured were nearly indigenous. fillip to
indigeniBation was also given by the overall industrialiBation of the country#
when a large number of ancillary manufactures had also established them
and were in a position to supply a wide variety of components to the tractor
industry.
The sharp liberaliBation of imports in ;:7< had given the nascent Indian
Tractor Industry a substantial setback in ;:7<C7A# when low cost import
particularly from "ast "uropean countries had become far more attractive.
In India# the variety in land conditions makes it necessary to diversify the
availability of tractors. Today tractors with 'P ranging from ;? to 73 are
available in India. t present 22 models tractors are available in India# listed
categoryCwise as followsI
(ange of Tractors available in India H
I#$(!r+ S!r$%!$re
The tractor industry is segmented on the power J siBe of the tractor engine#
expressed in terms of horse power F'PG. The 'PCwise composition of tractor
industry sales Fas shown in the table 4 and the graph showing Indian 'P
(ange TrendsG reveals that A;C2< 'P tractors still constitute the largest
segment with 37D of the total tractor sales in %inancial 0ear F%0G ?<<? C
?<<A. It can also be seen that demand for less than the A< 'P segments#
which used to be A3D in %0 ;::<H;::; has been pushed to the back seat by
the A; H2< 'P segment.
This shows an interesting shift in tractor demand from lower 'P to higher
'P tractors in recent times. The shift could be categoriBed as two H fold.
.ne# the drastic shift from less than A< 'P to A; H 2< 'P levels and two#
the meager shift from 2; H 3< 'P to 3< 'P levels. The general change in
the farmers preference for higher 'P tractors is significant in more ways
than one. %irstly# it seems to belie the notion that as the average farm siBes
dwindle# it would render the use of tractor uneconomical. Then# there is the
running costs angle to it as well. =hile the higher 'P tractors are more
costly in terms of maintenance and running costs# still the fact of the
matter is that the sale of the higher 'P tractors are increasing.
F$!$re -"!e!&a.
=ith a total of ;2< million hectares and with the performance of around
?.;8 lac tractors in the year ?<<; C ?<<?# India today stands as the largest
manufacturer of tractors in the world. =ith the average number of tractors
in India per hectare well below the world average# the Indian market is a
market with a huge untapped potential.
India is the largest market for the below 3< 'P tractors in the world. In
international markets# the average 'P of tractors used is around 8< C;<< 'P.
s per reports# exports rose from around ;4< tractors in ;::<C:; to an
estimated 73<< tractors in ;::8C::. The export market# according to
industry players# has been projected to grow at around ;<D per annum over
the next five years.
t present the Indian tractor industry is among the select few in the world
that is growing.
C"m-a+/( O$!.""0
It has been established that there is a close relationship between the
growth rate in food grain production and intensity of tractorCiBation.
Increasing benefits of mechaniBation have resulted in an increase in the
tractor demand and thereby tractor population over the years. The density
of tractors varies from state to state with Punjab taking the lead at 43
tractors per ;<<< hectares of irrigated land. =ith the total land currently
under irrigation being a small fraction of the total irrigation potential of
;;A2 lac hectares# a steady demand for tractors in the near future can be
anticipated.
P.T.L./( B&r!h
6eeping in mind Punjabs agrarian economy it was decided by the Punjab
government to encourage the growth of industries# which complement
Punjabs agriculture growth. This task was entrusted to Punjab )tate
Industrial ,evelopment -orporation FP)I,-G# which has played a major role
in bringing Punjab to the threshold of the industrial revolution.
=ith the dual objective of industrial and agriculture growth# P/*>1
T(-T.() LI!IT", was established on ?7 >une ;:7<.
I!r"#$%!&" !" !he C"m-a+ ,
Punjab Tractors Limited# a public limited company# is Indias first largeC
scale project based company with a totally indigenous design# knowChow and
technology. Punjab )tate Industrial ,evelopment -orporation FP)I,-G# which
was a major player# prompted itE the government of India and financial
institutes like Punjab %inancial -orporation FP%-G provided significant
support. The public subscribed the remainder. The )hareholding Pattern
chart displays the shareholders in Punjab Tractors Limited and their share
proportions.
The factory is located at the )ahibBada jit )ingh *agar# which is an
important township of Punjab. 1oard of ,irectors manages the company
with the )ecretary# industrial department# Punjab being the exCofficio
chairman. The 9ice H-hairman and !anaging ,irectors manage the dayCtoC
day affairs.
Gr"w!h "* PTL
Punjab Tractors Limited started with an annual capacity of 3<<< tractors
and with a capital of (s. A.7 crores. It went into commercial production in
the year ;:72E its first production of ?4.4 1'P tractors was given the name
)=(>H 7?<. "ver since then P.T.L. has not looked back. In the first
twenty year of its existence its capacity has been increased to ?2<<< per
annum# which is a considerable achievement by any standards. PTL is
considered as a highly reputated and impressive company in India. It
manufactures many products and is helping in to develop India and improving
its farming techni$ues.
In all# )=(> provides with a host of varied products# which includesI
K T(-T.()
K '(9")TI*+ -.!1I*"
K %.(6 LI%T"()
K +(I-/LT/(" I!PL"!"*T)
K /T.!.TI9" -)TI*+)
K LI+'T -.!!"(-IL 9"'I-L")
K )'"LT"(
K "*+I*")
K -)TI*+)
K (./+' T"((I*
Or&)& "* !he w"r# 1SWARAJ2
The word )=(>L# in 'indi# means Mfreedom from bondageL. )ince# P.T.L.
was the first largest tractor project in India# moreover fully based upon
Indian technology. )o M)=(>L was appropriately chosen as its brand
name.
)=(> +(./P sells its product under this brand name.
P"(&!&" "* SWARAJ -r"#$%!( & mar0e!
=ith more than ? Lac tractors and harvester combines operating in Indian
farms# )=(> are now a wellCestablished brand name in country.
)=(> is also an internationally recogniBed name in the developing world.
The products of )=(> are not only restricted to Indian market but#
they had entered in international market. )=(> tractors find an
important place in developing countries like +hana# TanBania# Nambia# 6enya#
)udan# /ganda# Indonesia# !alaysia# etc. They are also sending their
'arvesting -ombines to )outh 6orea having first - cabin 'arvesting
-ombine in India. "arlier# they had also transported the machined rims to
>apan# a project worth millions of dollars.
SALES SCENARIO OF 3ARIOUS TRACTOR COMPANIES
*owadays# the markets are flooded with tractors of various companies. !ost
of the companies provide a range Fin terms of powerG of tractors to capture
the market. The data is collected for the year. %ollowing is the detailed list
of sales of leading tractorCproducing companiesI
=e see that threeCfour companies dominate total tractor production in
India and around. )=(> occupies third position in the market in terms of
sales of tractors.
LIST OF PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED
)=(> +(./P of industries manufactures a number of products.
%ollowing is the list of the components manufactured by themI
T(-T.(
'(9")T.( -.!1I*")
%.(6 LI%T(")
LI+'T -.!!"(-IL 9"'I-L")
)'"LT"()
"*+I*")
-)TI*+)
4. TRACTOR
%ollowing is the list of models of tractors that have been
manufactured by this companyI
1. )=(> 7??I a ?3 bhp tractor introduced in ?<<A
?. )=(> 7?2I a ?4.3 bhp tractor introduced in ;:72
A. )=(> 7A3I a A: bhp tractor introduced in ;:73
2. )=(> 7?<I a ;:.3 bhp tractor introduced in ;:78
3. )=(> 8A2I a 33 bhp tractor introduced in ?<<2
5. HAR3ESTER COMBINE
It was Indias first indigenous built 'arvester -ombine called ' 8;<<. Its
engine is supplied by )'.6 L"0L*, LI!IT",. It is a sixCcylinder engine
developing a power of ;<3 bhp. It was basically designed to harvest wheat
and paddy.
6. FORK LIFT TRUCKS
These are also called fork lifters. They are used for loading and unloading of
heavy e$uipment and various articles in an industry. It has very short turning
radius so that it can move easily in limited spaces. The heart of the %, is a
28 bhp engine supplied by 6I(L.)6( .IL) I*,I LI!IT",.
The fork lifter is manufactured by )=(> in collaboration with a
>apanese firm 6.!T)/. These can be either battery operated or diesel
operated.
%ollowing is the list of fork lifters manufactured
a. %,H;3 %1H;3
b. %,H?< %1H?<
c. %,H?3 %1H?3
d. %,HA< %1HA<
7.LIGHT COMMERCIAL 3EHICLES8
)=(> !N, manufactures light vehicles# which are# used as loading
vehicles# mini buses# and special order vans.
9. SHELTER
)-, manufacturers shelters on order basis# which are made for defence
purposes. )ome work of the shelter is done in P/*=I(" also.
:. ENGINES I
The engines are re$uired for various models of tractors are supplied by
)=(> "*+I*" LI!IT",.
;. CASTINGS
-astings of differential# gearbox# rear coverE trumpet )=(> %./*,(0
,I9I)I.* produces housing re$uired for the production of tractors. lso#
castings of various pulleys# reduction gearbox and gearbox of 'arvester
-ombine are also supplied by %oundry ,ivision.
U&!( "* SWARAJ Gr"$- ,
.riginally# )=(> had set up its plant for the production of tractors. 1ut
with the passage of time# to fulfill the re$uirements of Indian market# it
diversified into other fields# with the collaboration of foreign companies like
6omatsu# !aBda etc. it opened its new ,ivision near -handigarh. %ollowing
are the five divisions of )=(> +(./PI
< SWARAJ COMBINE DI3ISION
< SWARAJ FOUNDARY DI3ISION
< SWARAJ ENGINE DI3ISION
< SWARAJ TRACTOR DI3ISION
SWARAJ COMBINE DI3ISION
It was set up in ;:8< in village -happercheri# on Landran road near 6harar in
,istt. (opar. It was started with a capital layout of (s. ?.4 crores to
manufacture selfCpropelled harvester combines modeled )=(>C8;<<. It
was Indias first indigenously produced selfCpropelled harvester combine.
In ;:83# indigenous diesel fork %,C?< and %,C?3 with a lifting capacity of ?
tonnes# ?.3 tonnes respectively were brought out. Later in the year# company
also entered in collaboration with 6.!T)/ %.(6LI%T -.. of >apan for
manufacturing both diesel and electric fork lifters up to ;< tonnes capacity.
In year ;::<# the production of tractor was also started here. Presently this
division is manufacturing around 73 tractors F%"C833# %"C:A:G.
This year target has been set to A<<<< tractors annually. dditionally# )-,
is manufacturing some components for )=(> !N, ,I9I)I.*.
)=(> -.!1I*" ,I9I)I.* F).,G is also producing %I1(" ("
"*%.(-", PL)TI- F%(PG shelters for Indian army. )helters are used for
various purposes like housing electronic data# handling systems# refrigerated
vans# mobile radio stations and other similar defense applications.
SWARAJ FOUNDARY DI3ISION
This plant is located in village !ajri near 6urali in (opar ,istt. It is situated
at a distance of around ?? km from -handigarh. This plant was set up in the
year ;:8< with an initial investment of (s. ;3 crores.
This division supplies the casting to all other units of )=(> +(./P. It
includes supply of input shafts# hub# gear main drive and many other
components used in L.!.). In '.!.). shop it supply gearbox# differential
rear cover# trumpet housing. The current capacity of this plant is 8<< tonnes
of gray iron casting per annum on single shift basis.
SWARAJ ENGINE DI3ISION
This plant is located in !ohali. It was setup in technical and financial
collaboration with 6I(L.)6( .IL "*+I*" LI!IT",. It was setup in the
year ;:87 for the manufacture of diesel engines. This plant manufactures
engines for )=(> T(-T.(). It also supplies connecting rods to
)=(> !N, ,I9I)I.*.
The installed capacity of this plant was ;3<< engines per annum. "ngine
production in this company has reached level of ;3:?;# a volume growth of
?7D as compared to previous year. Total revenue of this plant has reached
up to (s.7?.4 crores. It uses about ::.2D indigenous components.
SWARAJ TRACTORS DI3ISION =MOHALI>
Introduction C
)waraj Tractor ,ivision is situated at phaseCI9# )..). *agar# an important
industrial town# 3 6m from -handigarh# in (opar ,istrict# in Punjab. It was
set up on !ay ?7# ;:7< with the dual objective of industrial and agriculture
growth. It was the first )=(> ,I9I)I.* to be set up. This was Indias
first largeCscale project totally based upon indigenous design and technology
of India itself. It manufactures different models of tractors i.e.# of
different 'Ps. Presently around :<H ;<< tractors are produced in a day in
two shifts.
(ated capacity I 2<;<< tractors per year.
"mployee strengthI round A<<<
nnual turnoverI (s. ;A<< crores
H&erar%h+ "* !he Or)a&?a!&" '
The 1oard of ,irectors with the )ecretary Industries# ,epartment# +ovt. of
Punjab as its "xCofficio -hairman# manages the company. The 9iceC-hairman
and the !anaging ,irector manage the dayCtoCday operations.
Level ; I -hairman
"xCofficio F)ecretary Industries# +ovt.
of PunjabG
Level ? I =orking ,irector
9iceC-hairman and !anaging ,irector
Level A I "xecutive ,irectors
%inance
'uman (esource and ,evelopment
International 1usiness ,ivision
!anufacturing
!aterial )ervices
)waraj utomotive Limited
)waraj !otors Limited
)enior 9ice President F!arketingG
Level 2 I 9ice President
FAC2 under each "xecutive ,irector in
level AG
Level 3 I ssistant 9ice President
Level 4 I +eneral !anager
Level 7 I -hief !anager
Level 8 I )enior !anager
Level : !anager
Level ;< ssistant !anager
Level ;; )enior "ngineer
Level ;? I "ngineer
Level ;A I ssistant "ngineer
Level ;2 I >unior "ngineer
Level ;3 .perating -lass
Ma$*a%!$r&) S+(!em
)T, operates through a series of departments# which can be broadly
classified intoI
;. Production
Light machine shop FL!)G
'eavy machine shop F'!)G
ssembly shop
'eat treatment shop
Paint shop
?. Product services
Tool room
Tool control cell FT..G
Industrial engineering
(esearch & ,evelopment
Production planning & control FPP.G
!aterial !anagement & control F)toresG
@uality "ngineering
!aintenance
-onstruction
A. )upport )ervices
!anagement systems
%inances
Purchase
LIGHT MACHINE SHOP =LMS>
I*,(.,/-TI.*I
L!) is the largest section in the factory. ll transmission components viB.
shafts and gears used in Tractors are manufactured here. It has more than
;?< machinesE %acilities of this shop include "$uipment for blank operation#
boring# drilling etc. "xcept the bevel gear generator & gear shaver# which
have been imported from =Iv;= & -hurchill of =est +ermany respectively#
all other machines are from '!T Ltd. The rupees thirty one million plant and
machinery of this shop installed in an area of AA#<<< s$. ft. and casting#
forging and high standard of $uality.
TYPES OF MACHINES
-ylindrical grinder# internal grinder# copying lathe# gear hobber# (adial
drilling machine# drum turret lathe# turret lathe# 'oning machine# -entre
lathe# -apstan lathe# -apstan lathe# 9ertical pull broaching machine#
-huckmatic# %ay uto# -entering & facing machine# 9ertical !illing machine#
'oriBontal !illing !achine. ,eburring machine# ,J" boring machine +ear
)haver +T( machine# 1evel +ear +enerator# +ear shaper# -*- machine#
Power 'acksaw )pecial purpose drilling machine# twin chucker# -entre 'ole
grinding machine.
F$%!&" "* !he #e-ar!me!
+ear manufacture and grinding# machining of bull gears# bevel gear cutting of
all rounds on power hacksaws# facing and centering# all type of grinding inner
and outer gears# hobbing and broaching machine. +ear shaving gear deburring
machine# drilling of all gears reporting system# number of workmen shifts
operations
I!er re.a!&"( w&!h "!her #e-ar!me!(
Tool room I jigs# fixtures and cutting tools
!aintenanceI attending breakdowns and carrying out preventive
maintenance of machine tools etc.
Industrial engineeringI provision of process charts for machining
operations.
ssemblyI ensuring proper fitment of components.
Production planning and coCordinationI !icro loading of components on
a daily basis.
@uality control and inspection# storage and inspection ( & ,
'eat treatmentC shot blasting operations lab testing# inspection etc.
D&**ere! Ma$*a%!$r&) O-era!&"( I LMS
%acingI It is the operations of finishing the ends of the work# to make the
ends flat and smooth& to make the piece of re$uired length.
/nder -uttingI It is similar to grooving operation but is performed inside a
hole.
-hamferingI It is the operation of beveling the extreme end of the work
piece. -hamfer is provided for better lookJto rough turningI in this
operations max. !etal is removed &very little oversiBe dimensions is left for
further machining.
%inish TurningI 'ere min. metal is removed &very fine finish is obtained on
the work surface.
+roovingI It is the operation of turning the groove or neck in order to
terminate a thread or to provide ade$uate clearance enable nut to pass
freely on threaded work piece# to remove burs &to protect the work piece
from being damaged.
6nurlingI It is a proc of embossing a diamond shaped regular pattern on the
surface of the work piece using a special knurling tool.
1roachingI It is a method of metal removal by a tool that has successively
higher cutting edges in a fixed path. "ach tooth removes a fixed amount of
material.
,rillingI It is a process of making hole in an object by forcing a rotating tool
called drill.
1oringI It is a process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled.
+rindingI To grind means to Oabrade to wear away by friction or to
Osharpen .In grinding# the material is removed by a means of a rotating
abrasive wheel. It is generally used for sharpening the cutting tool# for
grinding threads# better surface finish etc.
'obbingI It is the process of cutting teeth on gear &shafts & is performed
by a rotating tool called hob on the hobbing machine.
)hapingI The process of cutting gears on the shaper is known as shaping. The
tool used in shaping for teeth cutting is a multipoint cutting tool.
HEA3Y MACHINE SHOP
I*T(.,/-TI.*I
ll heavy castings of tractors are machined in this shop with the help of
variety of special machines F)P!G.
These machines are tailor made by '!T to suit component re$uirements.
bout ?< )P! and A< +P! are installed in a covered area of 27#<<< s$. ft.
at a cost of ?< million# ?4<< tonnes of castings are machined every year on a
twoCshift basis. In addition to the machining of castings for the tractor#
some jobs are also performed for )waraj !aBda Limited.
COMPONENTS MACHINED IN THE SHOP8
K +earbox housing F!aterialH(CAA# -asting# ;8<C?A< 1'*# 74Ckg wt.G
K ,ifferential 'ousing
K (ear -over
K Trumpet 'ousing
FUNCTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT
!achining of heavy castings like differential housing# gear box housing# rear
cover# trumpet housing# steering housing of tractors# machining of tractors
parts# machining of some components for !aBda.
ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
'ierarchy# reporting system# no. of workmen# shift operations.
INTER,RELATION WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS
Tool room C (e$uirement of jigs# fixtures and cutting tools.
!aintenance C ttending breakdown and carrying out preventive
maintenance of machine tools.
Industrial engineering C Provide process charts for machining
operations.
ssembly C "nsuring proper fitment of components# production
planning and control# micro loading of components on dayCtoCday basis.
@uality control & inspection H )torage and inspection.
(&,
Paint shop
TYPES OF MACHINES
(adial drilling machine
9ertical milling
'oriBontal milling
)implex milling
,uplex milling
Lathe
,ouble end
TJ= boring
utomatic lathe
)P! Fspecial purpose !JcG
ASSEMBLY SHOP
%unctionI
ssembly of all finished components and bought out components for )warajC
7??# 7?2# 7AA# 7A3# 722# 8A2
)ections in ssembly
;. -age ssembly
?. PT. )haft ssembly
A. 1P) LJ( ssembly.
2. ,ifferential ssembly and Testing
3. Trumpet 'sg. and ssembly.
4. ,ifferential 'sg. and Trumpet 'sg. ssembly.
7. +ear 1ox ssembly. and testing
8. (ear -over ssembly and testing
:. )teering ssembly.
;<. 1rake 'sg. ssembly.
;;. -oupling +ear 1ox ssembly with ,ifferential 'sg. ssembly.
;?. )teering assembly. to be assembled with ;;
;A. 1rake 'sg. ssembly. to be assembled with ;?
;2. %ront xle 1eam ssembly.
;3. 6ing Pin ssembly.
;4. "ngine assembly.
;7. -oupling "ngine ssembly with ;A
;8. ssembly. ;A# ;2 with ;4
;:. Tie (od assembly. with ;7
?<. ssembly other main link items like Levelling (od# Trailor 'ook# %ront
and (ear %rame# 1attery !tg. %rame# )tay 1ars# 1rake Pedal# -lutch Pedal
ssembly.# %oot 1oard ssembly.
?;. +reasing all points
??. Invasion into painting chamber
?A. !ounting of front and rear tire
?2. %ender ssembly. with lights and other electrical fitments
?3. (adiator ssembly.
?4. ,ash 1oard ssembly and )eat assembly.
?7. %uel Tank ssembly.
?8. )ide panel# 1onnet# %ront )hield# (ear )hield# %ront +rill etc ssembly.
?:. ir -leaner and "xhaust ssembly.
A<. 1attery fitment
A;. .il %illing# 1attery filling etc.
A?. Testing
The ssembly )hop is the production shop where assembly and subCassembly
I of all the parts take place.
The final processed parts from the various parts of production shop such as
'!)# L!) and 'eat Treatment reach the assembly )hop. The various parts
reach the assembly. shop only after being washed# cleansed and dried# which
takes place when the different parts are on their way to assembly shop. The
above washing process takes place automatically i.e. the machinist has to
drop the final Part on the roller conveyor# and the parts reach the assembly
shop after being automatically washed and dried.
The assembly shop can be divided into various groups depending upon subC
parts being assembled. These groups areI
;. ,ifferential assembly and subCassembly.
?. ,ifferential -over assembly.
A. +ear 1ox assembly and subCassembly.
2. )teering +ear 1ox ssembly. P +ear )hifting !echanism ssembly. P
1rake assembly.
3. ssembly of various links# %oot 1oard and other accessories.
4. ssembly. of engine with -lutch mechanism.
7. ssembly. of 3 and 4 assemblies.
D&**ere!&a. A((em@.+8
1efore the various differential parts such as 1P shaft# differential cage etc.
are assembled# the various subCassembly. of parts listed above are
performed in the sub units. In the first unit# both the 1P shafts are fitted
with various components such as circular clips# needle bearings etc. to be
able to be assembled to the differential -age. This constitutes the assembly
of -ross 1ar# Planetary +ear# Planetary +ear -over# and -rown =heel etc.
The various bolts re$uired making the assembly. of about parts and integral
one are bolted using a pneumatic bolter gun.
fter this# the differential cage is collected from the conveyor firstly
fitted with the necessary bearing races. Then the differential -age unit and
the 1P shaft are assembled# making up a complete one unit. The Trumpet
'sg. and the xles are assembled in a different assembly shop and there on
the whole unit along with the 1ull +ears is assembled to the differential
-age. The ssembly of ,ifferential 'sg. is complete with the assembly of
lay shaft ext.# the oil filter and the brake mechanism
D&**ere!&a. C"Aer A((em@.+
The second stage of ssembly shop is the differential cover assembly shop
which incorporates the gear pump assembly. nd the direction control valve.
The ,I cover is collected from the conveyor and the various attachments
such as Power -ylinder# Piston ssembly.# .il Pump# ,-9 9alve etc. is made#
and the cover is tested for its efficiency on the testing jig. fter which it is
sent to the first stage where the whole unit is assembled to the ,c
assembly. nd further sent to the 3 stages of the assembly.
Gear B"B A((em@.+
The +ear 1ox ssembly is the third stage of the assembly unit in which the
gear box is assembled. %irstly# the gearbox cage is collected from the
conveyor roller and successively parts such as the counter shafts# clutch
shafts# main shaft along with the ball bearings are assembled to the unit.
There is separate sub unit assembling the planetary cage and gears# which is
then attached to the +ear 1ox output shaft to obtain the duplex speed
ratios of the tractor. The box after being tested for its efficiency is sent
to the 3 stages.
S!eer&) Gear B"B C Gear Sh&*!&) C Bra0e A((em@.+8
This unit consists of 2 stages of the assembly unit. In this unit the sub
assembly of the steering gear box# gear shift mechanism on gear cover P the
brake mechanism is assembled of these mentioned sub assemblies# the brake
assembly is sent to the ; stage of assembly and the steering gear box and
gear box cover assembly is sent to the A stage of assembly. part from
these sub assembly unit also produces the 6P) assembly.
A((em@.+ "* Gear B"B D&**ere!&a. H( a# "!her a%%e(("r&e(
In the 3 stage of assembly# the +ear 1ox is mantled to the differential
part from thisE various other accessories such as %oot 1oard# 1attery
-lamp and other links such as ccelerator Pedal Link# -lutch link# 1rake Link
etc are mantled in this section.
A((em@.+ "* E)&e C C.$!%h Me%ha&(m
This unit is separate 4 stage of assembly in which the engines are received
from the stores and fitted with the clutch mechanism and lay beam along
with the counter weights.
A((em@.+ "* E)&e w&!h !he re(! !ra(m&((&" (e%!&"
The assembly of the engine and rest of the transmission is done within the
7 stage. In this stage the whole of the chassis is formed as an integral unit.
The various links and mechanism between the engine and the gear box or
diff is fastened together and the whole integral unit is checked for its
complete accessories etc. In all the above stages of assembly# the skilled
workers are used to accomplish all the stages of assembly. 1ut they are also
held by the pneumatic bolt guns and the over head automatic conveyors and
the alarm conveyor etc to make their job easy. lso the whole of the
assembly is done on the assembly jigs or stands which is kept moving at a
speed of about 7cmJmm. lso it is to be made in mind that any spill of the
sub parts such as bolts# nuts etc. by mistake is not going to spoil the working
space as all these
spills gets underneath the working space and as a result the working space
remains clean and tidy.
Hea! !rea!me!
I*T(.,/-TI.*I
'eat treatment shop plays a very important role in every industry. In
automobile industry the important components are gears# shafts etc. these
need to be heat treated to impart desired strength and increase the life of
components. The heat treatment shop at PTL is e$uipped with several gas
carburising furnaces# $uenching tanks# induction hardening machines and
shot blasting furnaces. The shop is manned by a highly skilled work force.
L&(! "* %"m-"e!( hea!,!rea!e# & !h&( (h"-
ll gears produced in L!)
ll shafts produced in L!)
L&(! "* ma%h&e( & hea! !rea!me! (h"-
%ollowing are the machines# which are used in the heat treatment shopI
+as carbursing furnace
Induction hardening machine
@uenching tank
)hot blasting machine
Tempering machine
Lapping machine
'ydraulic press
C"mm".+ $(e# !erm( a# "-era!&"(
Car@$r&(&)
Process of adding carbon to the large surface layer of the component is
called carburising. It is the process of case hardening# which is the addition
of some elements like carbon# nitrogen to the surface by diffusion from the
surrounding medium at high temperature. It can be done in three waysI C
Ga( %ar@$r&(&) L&D$&# %ar@$r&(&) Pa%0 %ar@$r&(&)
The purpose of carburising is to obtain high surface wear resistance and to
obtain a hard surface. t PTL gas carburising is carried out in muffle
furnace using isopropyl alcohol as a source of carbonaceous gas. The
hydrocarbon decomposes at a high temperature thereby releasing atomic
carbon. In this case it is necessary to maintain a continuous fresh stream of
carburising gases. The amount of carburising gases depends upon rate of
combustion of gases. Tempering generally follows a carburisation process#
which is done to avoid brittleness due to cementite network and to make the
surface ductile.
Tem-er&)
It is the generally the final operation of all the steel components after they
have been hardened. These processes consist of heating to marten site
state for a scheduled period to an indicated temperature in a range between
room temperature and critical temperature# followed by cooling. It reduces
the internal stresses and stabiliBes the internal structure of the component.
It converts hard brittle steel into metal of hardness as well as ductility by
reducing grain siBe. -ooling rate after temperature rise also affects the
residual stresses# slower the cooling rate lesser the stresses.
N"rma.&?&)
*ormaliBing is a type of heat treatment applicable to ferrous metals only..
In this process iron alloy casting is heated to about 3<C4< degrees above
the critical temperature range# holding the casting for definite time and
then letting it cool in still air. The treatment is same as annealing and it
eliminates casting from cooling stresses. The yield strength of annealed
components is more than that of unannealed one.
I#$%!&" har#e((
It is employed for increasing the surface hardness of steel. 'igh fre$uency
current is passed. 'igh voltage current# which is transformed into current of
low voltage and high ampere# is passed through induction coil surrounding the
surface to be hardened. The coil induces the current into the component#
which gradually raises the temperature of the component. It is then cooled
rapidly by spraying water from water jacket. ,epth of hardness generally
varies from ?.?C ?.7 mms.
E$e%h&)
'eat may be removed or $uenching can be done by immersing the hot
component into a bath of water or dressed oil. t PTL special type of oil is
used for $uenching purpose. It is meta$uench 2< or servo $uench ;;. =hen
the hot component is dipped in the $uench tank it is immediately surrounded
by oil vapor envelope. To avoid this a motor is run to remove the oil. The
transfer of heat slows down and hence the internal stresses also come down.
Sh"! @.a(!&)
1ombarding the component with lead fillings does it. The reason for shot
blasting is to clean the surface i.e. removes scales and material from the
component. clean uniform and in some cases final finished components is
obtained after shot blasting.
Few %"m-"e!( " wh&%h hea! !rea!me! &( #"e are8
;. 1ull gearI C
-ase carburisingI C it is electrically heated to :;< degree
-elsius for ;AC;2 hours along with li$uid feed.
@uenchingI C it is then cooled at 8;<Cdegree -elsius followed
by $uenching in meta$uench oil.
TemperingI C after $uenching bull gear is heated to ??< degree
-elsius for ?CA hours and then gradually cooled in air.
)hot blastingI C it is done to remove the carbon layer formed
on the surface of the bull gear.
+ear NC2?# input shaft# and intermediate shaft# drive shaftI C
-ase carburisingI C it is electrically heated at :;< degree -elsius for
;AC;2 hours along with li$uid feed.
@uenchingI C it is then cooled at 8;< degree -elsius followed by
$uenching in meta$uinch oil.
TemperingI C after $uenching it is heated to ;8< degree -elsius for ?C
A hours and gradually cooled in air.
)hot blastingI C it is done to remove the carbon layer from the
component surface.
PAINT SHOP
O-era!&"( -er*"rme# & -a&! (h"- are8
)urface Preparation FPre Treatment -ellGCcarried out for sheets and
rims.
Painting
Inspection
(ejection F(eprocessingGCfor sheets and rims.
Pre Treatment -ell
3ar&"$( -r"%e#$re( *".."we# here are8
,egreasing
=ater (insing Fpart which is degreased is alkaline in nature so rinsed
with water due to its being good solventG.
,e (usting
)urface oxidation
Phosphating Fdone so as to form a thin layer of coating on part so that
no surface remains unpaintedG.
Passination Fdone so as to avoid paint penetrating through certain
section of part bodys surfaceG.
Pa&!&)
Cha((&( Pa&! L&e8 O-era!&"( %arr&e# "$! here are8
=ashingI 'ere chassis is first washed with a chemical cleaner#
concentration of which is 3D and auto sprayed in a chamber.
,ryingI The chassis is then dried by hot air whose temperature is up
to 4< to 7<Q-.
Primer PaintingI thin layer of primer paint is sprayed on the chassis
so that the final paint is strongly fixed on.
%lash .ffI This is the distance given so as to allow paint to dry.
%inal Painting
%lash off.
1akingI -hassis is allowed to bake for around A< minutes.
)heet and rims PaintingI fter surface preparation in PT-# sheets and
rims are first of all cleaned with ordinary cloth.
There a*!er *".."w&) "-era!&"( are %arr&e# "$!8
Primer painting Ffull primer in addition to single coating of paintG
%lash off.
1aking Fat temperature of around ;?<C;A<Q-G
=et (ubbing and cleaning with tack rag.
E$a.&!+ C"!r". I(-e%!&"
If painting in both sheets and rims is satisfactory the piece is selected
otherwise rejected.
3ar&"$( -arame!er( %he%0e# are,8
,epth of penetration of paint.
Thickness of paint coating
)moothness
/niformity
Reje%!&"
If piece is rejected it is either again processed whereby is again send to
PT- or discarded.
A MORE ABOUT SWARAJ TRACTOR DI3ISION IN 3ERY BRIEF
LAYOUT8
Layout in the plant is the combination of the line and the batch layouts.
MATERIAL HANDLING EEUIPMENTS8
Trucks of different types
Trolleys
-ranes of different types
1elt conveyors# overhead conveyors
(oller conveyorsC most common in use
-hain conveyors
'oists
MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT
I*T(.,/-TI.*
!any changes have taken place in the maintenance system and practice used
in the industries with the progress made by technology. long with
production# maintenance plays vital role. In fact production and maintenance
go side by side If a machine is under breakdown# it can not be subjected to
the production process with the advent of new and modern technology# the
entire concept of maintenance has changed. "arlier maintenance practices
were only confined to the breakdown maintenance# but now different types
of maintenance practices are followed likeI
;. )cheduled maintenance
?. 1reak down maintenance
A. Preventive maintenance
2. Predictive maintenance
The following are the main objectives of maintenanceI
To achieve the minimum break down level and to achieve the
production target at low cost.
To keep the plant in proper working condition.
!achine and other facilities should be arranged so that they can be
used to their max. capacity.
The !aintenance division of the factory ensures the availability of all
the facilities necessary for the performance of functions at optimum
return of investment.
IMPORTANCE OF MAINTENANCE
;. "$uipment breakdown leads to inevitable loss of production time# which is
prevented by maintenance department.
?. Plant maintenance plays an important role in production management by
preventing breakdowns which caves inevitable shortfall of target# needs of
subCcontracting work# rescheduling of production# need of over time etc.
A. (outine checkCup of facilities ensure safe and efficient operation of
machinery.
2. !aintains optimum production efficiency of machinery
3. 'elps in maintaining the operational accuracy and reduces the work
content.
4. (educe breakdowns and concerned downtimes thus achieving the target of
max. production at min.cost.
7. "nsure safety of life and limbs of workers and machine operators.
=ith rise in the technology# not only predictive and preventive action bus
the concept of cost cutting# proper utiliBation of resources #better spare
parts planning# training have also become important now.
This can be made possible to cent percent by systematic maintenance. In
Punjab tractors limited systematic maintenance operations are practiced to
improve the plant availability and to achieve the goal at a reasonable cost.
i.e. to achieve availability performance at the lowest cost and within the
safety constants.
t present the maintenance deptt. of PTL have five subsections.
;. "lectrical maintenance cell
?. "ngineering machine maintenance cell
A. !aterial handling e$uipment maintenance cell.
2. )pare part planning and control cell.
3. "ngineering utility maintenance
6elley defines maintenance as the operation of a pool of resources like men#
spares and tools directed towards controlling the level of availability and the
condition of the plant. The function of maintenance is to use these reA
sources to repair# replace and adjust or modify the parts of plant to be
enabling it to operate the specified availability and performance over a
specified time for the specified life.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
!y training was the most versatile experience. I had the pleasure to do the
work with one of the most reputed factory in their fieldC 1PUNJAB
TRACTORS LTD.2 I received the blend of experience in Private as well as in
+ovt. sector. It was a good learning time during my training as we were
fortunate to be placed in the department related to manufacturing. I feel
training has give me exposure to undergo projects in the !anufacturing field
as well help me a lot to understand the company work culture# working with
teams and much more. In the end I will like to thank all persons who helped
me through out my training to enhance my experience. I also pay my regards
to my Lecturers for their guidance during my training and my cademics
helped me to do a lot during my training.
'(P(""T )I*+'