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Block 2 Laplace Transforms

2. Laplace transforms
Contents
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Laplace transform
3.2.1 Definitions and notation
3.2.2 Laplace transform of some simple functions
3.2.3 Properties of the Laplace transform
3.2.4 Table of Laplace transforms
3.3 The inverse Laplace transform
3.3.1 Using partial fractions
3.3.2 inding inverses using the first shift theorem
3.3.3 !ompleting the s"uare
3.4 #olution of differential e"uations 1
3.4.1 Laplace transforms of derivatives
3.4.2 #olution of 1
st
order differential e"uations
3.4.3 #olution of 2
nd
order differential e"uations
3.$ #olution of differential e"uations
3.$.1 Differential e"uations and Dirac functions
3.$.2 %onlinear differential e"uations
3.& #'stems of differential e"uations
3.( #ummar'
)ppendi* )1 + Partial fractions
)ppendi* )2 + !ompleting the s"uare
1
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Prerequisite knowledge
1
st
Year Math Modules or A-level mathematics/ H!"
An understandin# of improper inte#rals $ould %e useful
Learning objectives
B& the end of this %lock' &ou should %e a%le to(
)valuate Laplace transforms
)valuate inverse Laplace transforms
*olve linear constant coefficient differential e+uations
Appl& Laplace transforms to pro%lems in vi%ration' control s&stems and oscillations in
electrical circuits"
*olve s&stems of differential e+uations
2
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3.1 Introduction
Laplace transforms are an interestin# field of mathematics that can %e used to solve pro%lems
involvin# differential e+uations and inte#ro-differential e+uations" The techni+ue is +uite
a%stract in nature %ut it allo$s the solution of differential e+uations' $ithout the need to do
an& inte#ration or differentiation" The processes of inte#ration and differentiation are
replaced %& al#e%raic manipulation' $hich is often considered easier to appl& than concepts
taken from calculus" A further advanta#e of the ,Laplace transform method- for solvin#
initial value pro%lems is the initial conditions are incorporated in an entirel& natural $a& that
does not re+uire the solution of simultaneous e+uations"
The main reason for considerin# Laplace transforms at this sta#e is all en#ineerin# disciplines
.e/cept civil en#ineerin#0 en#a#e in a su%1ect called control engineering' $here Laplace
transforms are used to anal&se the response of en#ineerin# s&stems to chan#es in inputs to the
s&stem' $hether it %e a chemical reactor vessel or an auto-pilot in a plane"
Before $e can attempt to solve differential e+uations usin# the Laplace transform' $e need to
introduce it and consider the Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform for a num%er
of simple functions and differential operators"
3.2 !e Laplace transform
3.2.1 Definitions and notation
The Laplace transform of a function'
( ) t f
is denoted as'
( ) { } ( )

2
dt t f e t f L
st
.3.10
Alternative s&m%ols used for the Laplace transform are #iven %elo$'
( ) { } ( ) ( ) s f or s F t f L
3rom .3.10 $e see that the Laplace transform consists of an improper integral .one of the
inte#ration %ounds is infinite0" 4n the first instance $ith an improper inte#ral &ou have to
focus on $hether the inte#ral has a solution or not" 3or e/ample the Laplace transform of the
function'
( )
at
e t f
onl& e/ists if
5
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
2 < s a
other$ise the Laplace transform is
( )

2 2
dt e dt t f e
bt st
and b=a-s is positive" This inte#ral is un%ounded" 6eturnin# to the terminolo#& used to
descri%e the Laplace transform .3.10
st
e

is called the kernel of the inte#ral" 4n the ori#inal function'


( ) t f
The independent varia%le is t' $hich can %e considered a time varia%le" The function f.t0 is
considered to e/ist in the time domain" The Laplace transform F.s0 e/ists in a frequency
domain" s is the independent varia%le of the Laplace transform and strictl& speakin# is a
comple/ varia%le althou#h $e $ill for the most part onl& consider its real part"
3.2.2 Laplace transforms of some simple functions
7onsider the function'
( ) c t f
.3.20
$here c is a constant" The Laplace transform of .3.20 is #iven %elo$"
( ) { }

2
dt e c t f L
st
As this is an improper inte#ral it should %e considered in the limit of the upper %ound %ein#
finite and the limit to infinit& taken once the inte#ral is evaluated"
( ) { }


b
st
b
st
dt ce dt e c t f L
2 2
lim

,
_

,
_


1
]
1

2
2
2
e
s
c
e
s
c
e
s
c
dt ce
sb
b
st
b
st
( )
sb
e
s
c

1
8e can no$ let b tend to infinit&'
( )
s
c
e
s
c
sb
b



1 lim
9
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
To summarise'
{ }
s
c
c L
This can %e considered as a Laplace transform pair'
( ) ( )

,
_


s
c
s F c t f '
Worked Examples (Evaluating Laplace transforms by direct integration
Let us consider another e/ample in detail'
( ) t t f
!olution
7onsider the Laplace transform of t'
{ }


2 2
lim
b
st
b
st
dt te dt e t t L
This can %e inte#rated %& parts'

2
b
u
dv
dt
dt =uv

2
b
v
du
dt
dt
u= t du/ dt =1
dv/ dt = e
st
v=
1
s
e
st


+
1
]
1


b
st
b
st
b
st
dt e
s
e
s
t
dt te
2
2
2
1


+
b
st sb
b
st
dt e
s
e
s
b
dt te
2 2
1
8e could evaluate the inte#ral on the ri#ht hand side %ut $e can let b tend to infinit& no$ and
avoid the inte#ration'
{ }
2
2 2
1
1
1 1
lim
s
L
s
dt e
s
dt te
st
b
st
b
+




*o the Laplace transform pair is'
:
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( )

,
_


2
1
'
s
s F t t f
Exercise
;se the same approach .i"e" one inte#ration %& parts0 to sho$ that'
( ) ( )

,
_


5
2
2
'
s
s F t t f
The main point of this %lock is not the inte#ration process" 4n this section $e are interested
in #ro$in# our collection of functions that $e ,kno$- the Laplace transform for althou#h $e
$ill not do this %& inte#ratin# the Laplace transform for ever& function $e come across"
<
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3or e/ample' inspectin# the three Laplace transform pairs #iven a%ove a pattern is emer#in#
for al#e%raic terms" The #eneral rule is'
"eneral #ule for Laplace transforms of algebraic terms
7onsider the function'
( )
n
t t f
4ts Laplace transform is'
( )
1
=
+

n
s
n
s F
>ne more e/ample evaluated %& direct inte#ration'
Worked Example
)valuate the Laplace transform of the function'
( )
kt
e t f
!olution
{ }
( )


2 2
lim
b
t k s
b
st kt kt
dt e dt e e e L
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
1 1
e e
k s
e
k s
dt e
b k s
b
t k s
b
t k s


1
]
1

( )
( )
k s
e e
k s
b k s
b




1 1
lim
2
provided
k s or k s > > 2
*o the Laplace transform pair is'
( ) ( )

,
_


k s
s F e t f
kt
1
'
As &ou $ill appreciate from the a%ove e/amples derivin# Laplace transforms %& direct
inte#ration is +uite a tedious process" To avoid direct inte#ration man& in#enious
mathematical tricks and theorems are often used to find Laplace transforms" 3or e/ample
consider the follo$in# $orked e/ample"
?
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Worked Example
)valuate the Laplace transform of the function'
( )
iat
e t f
8here a is some real num%er and
1 i
!olution
At first #lance this looks almost the same as the precedin# $orked e/ample and indeed the
solution is the same"
( ) ( )

,
_


ia s
s F e t f
iat
1
'
*o $h& have $e done t$o $orked e/amples that are so ver& similar@ The ans$er is the
second leads onto an additional useful result #ivin# us t$o e/tra Laplace transforms" $%ree
Laplace $ransforms for t%e price of one&
7omple/ num%ers #iven in e/ponential form can %e represented usin# Euler's formula
( ) at i at e t f
iat
sin cos +
6econsiderin# the Laplace transform of the previous e/ample
{ } { } { } { } at iL at L at i at L e L
iat
sin cos sin cos + + .3.30
The separation of the Laplace transform into an application of the Laplace transform to the
t$o terms is possi%le as the Laplace transform is a linear operator" This $ill %e discuss
further %elo$' for no$ 1ust accept it"
A#ain from the previous $orked e/ample'
{ }
2 2
1 1
a s
ia s
ia s
ia s
ia s ia s
e L
iat
+
+

+
+

*o from .3.30
{ } { }
2 2 2 2
sin cos
a s
a
i
a s
s
at iL at L
+
+
+
+
.3.(0
Therefore e+uatin# real and ima#inar& parts of .3.(0 #ives the follo$in# results"
A
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Laplace $ransforms of $rigonometric )unctions
The Laplace transform pair for sin at
( ) ( )

,
_

+

2 2
' sin
a s
a
s F at t f
The Laplace transform pair for cos at'
( ) ( )

,
_

+

2 2
' cos
a s
s
s F at t f
3.2.3 Properties of the Laplace transform
The Laplace transform is a linear operator $hich means it has the propert& that'
( ) ( ) { } ( ) { } ( ) { } t g L t f L t g t f L + +
$here and are constants and f.t0 and g.t0 are functions"
Example
!etermine'
{ } { } { }
t t
e L t L e t L
5 5
2 5 2 5 + +
!olution
;sin# the linearit& propert& of the Laplace transform'
{ } { } { }
t t
e L t L e t L
5 5
2 5 2 5 + +
8e can no$ appl& the Laplace transforms derived in the previous section'
5
2 5
2

+
s s
{ }
5
2 5
2 5
2
5

+ +
s s
e t L
t
B
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Example
!etermine'
{ }
t
e t t L
9
< 2 sin 9 5 : +
!olution
;sin# the linearit& propert& of the Laplace transform'
{ } { } { } { } { }
t t
e L t L t L L e t t L
9 9
< 2 sin 9 5 1 : < 2 sin 9 5 : + +
Appl&in# the Laplace transforms derived or presented in the previous section'
9
<
9
2
9
5 :
2 2

,
_

+
+
s s s s
{ }
9
<
9
A 5 :
< 2 sin 9 5 :
2 2
9

+
+ +
s s s s
e t t L
t

12
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Another mathematical tool that can %e used to #ro$ our collection of Laplace transforms is
called the )irst !%ift $%eorem"
)irst !%ift $%eorem
4f f.t0 is a function havin# a Laplace transform' F.s0 then the function'
( ) t f e
at
has a Laplace transform #iven %&'
( ) { } ( ) a s F t f e L
at

*ometimes'
( ) a s F
is denoted'
( ) [ ]
a s s
s F

Here are a couple of $orked e/amples usin# the first shift theorem to derive Laplace
transforms"
Worked Example
!etermine'
{ }
t
e t L
2
!olution
{ } ( ) s F
s
t L
2
1
B& the first shift theorem'
{ } ( ) [ ]
( )
2 2
2
2
1
+

+

s
s F e t L
s s
t
Worked Example
!etermine'
{ } t e L
t
2 sin
5
11
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
!olution
{ } ( ) s F
s
t L
+

9
2
2 sin
2
B& the first shift theorem'
{ } ( ) [ ]
( ) 9 5
2
2 sin
2 5
5
+ +

+

s
s F t e L
s s
t
3.2.4 Table of Laplace transforms
!erivin# a Laplace transform ever& time a function crops up is a time consumin# process"
6emem%erin# the Laplace transforms for all of the functions #iven a%ove is also not a
realistic proposition for most students"
$%erefore in t%e exam t%e table of Laplace transforms presented
belo* is %anded out"
The ta%le to#ether $ith the first *hift theorem and the linearit& propert& of the Laplace
transform allo$s &ou to determine the Laplace transform of man& functions"
12
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) t f ( ) s F
c
s
c
t
2
1
s
n
t
1
=
+ n
s
n
kt
e
k s
1
at sin
2 2
a s
a
+
at cos
2 2
a s
s
+
at t sin
( )
2
2 2
2
a s
s a
+
at t cos
( )
2
2 2
2 2
a s
a s
+

( ) ( ) t bg t af + ( ) ( ) s bG s aF +
( ) t f ( ) ( ) 2 f s sF
( ) t f
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2
2
f sf s F s
( ) a t
sa
e

( )
( )

'

<

a t
a t a t g
t f
2
( ) s G e
sa
$able of Laplace transforms.
The ta%le a%ove summarises the results presented in the previous t$o sections" 4n addition
there are Laplace transforms for derivatives and somethin# called the +irac delta
function" These are useful for the solution of differential e+uations and $ill %e considered in
detail in the comin# sections"
15
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
,%allenge Exercise
7onfirm %& appl&in# the first shift theorem to the Laplace transform of
{ }
iat
e t L
that
{ }
( )
2
2 2
2 2
cos
a s
a s
at t L
+

and
{ }
( )
2
2 2
2
sin
a s
as
at t L
+

3.3 !e inverse Laplace transform


4f'
( ) { } ( ) s F t f L
Then the inverse Laplace transform is denoted' L
-1
and'
( ) { } ( ) t f s F L
1
Examples
a0 As
{ }
k s
e L
kt

1
kt
e
k s
L

'

1
1
%0 As
{ }
2 2
sin
a s
a
at L
+

at
a s
a
L sin
2 2
1

'

19
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3.3.1 Using partial fractions
The most o%vious $a& to find an inverse transformation is to use the ta%le of Laplace
transforms' ho$ever some manipulation of rational pol&nomials of the form'
( )
( ) s q
s p
.3.-0
is often re+uired" 3or e/ample the& mi#ht %e represented as partial fractions' see .ppendix
.1 on partial fractions if &ou need &our memor& 1o##in#"
*imilar to the Laplace transformation the inverse Laplace transform is a linear operator' so
( ) ( ) { } ( ) { } ( ) { } s G L s F L s G s F L
1 1 1
+ +
;sin# partial fractions and the linear propert& #iven a%ove $e can calculate our first inverse
Laplace transforms that do not appear in the Laplace transform ta%le on pa#e 11" *ee the
$orked e/ample %elo$"
Worked Example
3ind
( )( )

'

2 5
1
1
s s
L
!olution
8e are ultimatel& #oin# to use the first shift theorem and the ta%le of Laplace transforms' %ut
the first thin# to do is represent the Laplace transform usin# partial fractions'
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) 2 5
5 2
2 5 2 5
1
+
+ +

+
+

+ s s
s B s A
s
B
s
A
s s
( )
( )( ) 2 5
5 2
+
+ +

s s
B A s B A
)+uatin# terms'

2 ( +B A s
1 5 2 ( 1 + B A
These e+uations can %e solved to #ive'
:
1
A
:
1
B
1:
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( )( )

;

'

'

'

+

2
1
:
1
5
1
:
1
2 5
1
1 1 1
s
L
s
L
s s
L
B& inspection of the ta%le of Laplace transforms the inverse Laplace transform is'
( )( )
t t
e e
s s
L
2 5 1
:
1
:
1
2 5
1
+

'

+

Worked Example
3ind
( )

'

+
+

B
1
2 2
1
s s
s
L
!olution
The first thin# to do is represent the Laplace transform usin# partial fractions'
( )
( ) ( )
( ) B
B B
B B
1
2 2
2 5 2 2
2 2 2 2
+
+ + + + +

+
+
+ +
+
+
s s
Ds Cs s B s As
s
D Cs
s
B
s
A
s s
s
( ) ( )
( ) B
B B
2 2
2 5
+
+ + + + +

s s
B As s D B s C A
)+uatin# terms'
2 (
5
+C A s
2 (
2
+ D B s
1 B ( A s
1 B ( 1 B
These e+uations can %e solved to #ive'
B
1
A
B
1
B
B
1
C
B
1
D
( )

;

'

'

'

'

'

+
+

B
1
B
1
B B
1 1
B
1 1
B
1
B
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2 2
1
s
L
s
s
L
s
L
s
L
s s
s
L
1<
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
The first three terms are eas& to evaluate usin# the ta%le of Laplace transforms'
t t
s
s
L
s
L
s
L 5 cos
B
1
B
1
B
1
B B
1 1
B
1 1
B
1
2
1
2
1 1
+

'

'

'


The fourth term re+uires a little more $ork'
t
s
L
s
L
s
L 5 sin
2?
1
B
5
2?
1
B
1
B 5
5
B
1
B
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

'

'

'

+

the ke& point %ein# multipl&in# the rational function %& 5 and dividin# %& 5 to #ive a Laplace
transform that has the same form as one of the ,standard- transforms"
$%is is a common operation in t%e business of finding inverse Laplace transforms
Cuttin# this all to#ether'
( )
t t t
s s
s
L 5 sin
2?
1
5 cos
B
1
B
1
B
1
B
1
2 2
1
+

'

+
+

3.3.2 Finding inverses using the 1


st
shift theorem
The first shift theorem applied to the inverse Laplace transform'
( ) { } ( ) t f e a s F L
at

1
*ometimes the alternative notation is simpler to appl&'
( ) [ ] { } ( ) t f e s F L
at
a s s


1
8e $ill onl& do one e/ample in this section' ho$ever &ou $ill have ample opportunit& to see
this techni+ue throu#hout the rest of these notes"
Worked Example
)valuate
( )

;

'

2
1
2
1
s
L
1?
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
!olution
( )
t
s s
te
s
L
s
L
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1

+

'

1
]
1

'

+
3.3.3 ompleting the s!uare
*ometimes a +uotient of the form'
( )
( ) s q
s p
cannot %e simplified usin# partial fractions" 3or e/ample consider the +uotient'
15 <
2
2
+ + s s
The +uadratic term'
2 15 <
2
+ + s s
has comple/ roots so cannot %e factorised and therefore partial fractions does not offer a $a&
for$ard in the ne/t $orked e/ample" The alternative approach is to complete the s+uare' see
Appendi/ A2 if &ou have for#otten ho$ to do this"
Worked Example
)valuate

'

+ +

15 <
2
2
1
s s
L
!olution
As stated a%ove the +uotient cannot %e represented as the sum of t$o partial fractions as the
+uadratic
2 15 <
2
+ + s s
has no real roots" $%e ans*er is to complete t%e square.
( ) 9 5 B 15 0 5 . 15 <
2 2 2
+ + + + + + s s s s
*o'
1A
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( )

;

'

+ +

'

+ +

9 5
2
15 <
2
2
1
2
1
s
L
s s
L
t e
s
L
t
s s
2 sin
9
2
5
5
2
1
+

'

1
]
1

Worked Example
)valuate

'

+ +
+

: 2
?
2
1
s s
s
L
!olution
7ompletin# the s+uare on the denominator'
( ) 9 1 1 : 0 1 . : 2
2 2 2
+ + + + + + s s s s
*o'
( )

;

'

+ +
+

'

+ +
+

9 1
?
: 2
?
2
1
2
1
s
s
L
s s
s
L
( )

;

'

+ +
+ +


9 1
< 1
2
1
s
s
L

'

1
]
1

+
+

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

+
+

1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
9
<
9 9
<
s s s s s s
s
L
s
s
L
s
s
L
The first term is read& for inversion'
t e
s
s
L
t
s s
2 cos
9
1
2
1
+

'

1
]
1

+
The second term re+uires a little more manipulation to see the inverse"
t e
s
L
s
L
t
s s s s
2 sin 5
9
2
5
9
<
1
2
1
1
2
1
+

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

+
Cuttin# the t$o terms to#ether'
1B
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
t e t e
s s
s
L
t t
2 sin 5 2 cos
: 2
?
2
1
+

'

+ +
+
Let us consider one more e/ample' appl&in# the same ideas to %ed this in"
Worked Example
3ind the inverse Laplace transform of
12 <
1 2
2
+ +

s s
s
!olution
A#ain $e complete the s+uare on the +uadratic term'
( ) 1 5 B 12 0 5 . 12 <
2 2 2
+ + + + + + s s s s
( )
( )
( )

'

1
]
1

+ +
+

'

1
]
1

+ +

'

+ +


1 5
? 5 2
1 5
1 2
12 <
1 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
s
s
L
s
s
L
s s
s
L
( ) ( )

'

1
]
1

+ +

'

1
]
1

+ +
+


1 5
1
?
1 5
5
2
2
1
2
1
s
L
s
s
L

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

5
2
1
5
2
1
1
1
?
1
2
s s s s
s
L
s
s
L
t e t e
t t
sin ? cos 2
5 5

$%is process at least initially %as to be done step by step in a slo* and met%odical *ay
ot%er*ise silly mistakes *ill creep into t%e solution.
22
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3." #olution of differential equations 1
This to some de#ree is the end point of this %lock on Laplace transforms as $e are stud&in#
Laplace transforms as another techni+ue for solvin# differential e+uations"
3.4.1 Laplace transforms of derivatives
7onsider the Laplace transform of the derivative of a function'

'

2
dt e
dt
df
dt
df
L
st
Appl&in# inte#ration %& parts'

df
dt
e
st
dt=

u
dv
dt
dt =uv

v
du
dt
dt
st
e u

dt
dt
df
dv
dt se du
st

f v
( ) [ ] ( )

+
2
2
2
dt e t f s t f e dt e
dt
df
st st st
( ) ( ) ( ) { } t f sL f dt e
dt
df
st
+

2 2
2
Laplace transformation of t%e first derivative of a function f(t.
( ) ( ) 2 f s F s
dt
df
L

'

*imilarl& the Laplace transformation of a functions second derivative can %e found %&
inte#ration %& parts'
Laplace transformation of t%e second derivative of a function f(t.
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2
2
2
2
f sf s F s
dt
f d
L

'

21
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
4t has to %e said that in the anal&sis a%ove it is assumed that the function f.t0 and its
derivatives are sufficientl& smooth for the inte#rals to e/ist"
/ote t%e Laplace transforms of derivatives are included in t%e table of
Laplace transforms.
3.4.2 "olution of first order differential e!uations
o$ $e have the Laplace transforms of derivatives and $e can find the inverse Laplace
transform $e can no$ solve differential e+uations $ithout havin# to inte#rate or differentiate
an&thin#=
7onsider the follo$in# initial value pro%lem'
t
e y
dt
dy
5
2 2
.3.00
( ) 2 2 y
Take the Laplace transform of %oth sides of the differential e+uation'
{ }
t
e L y
dt
dy
L
5
2 2

'

{ } { }
t
e L y L
dt
dy
L
5
2 2

'

( ) ( ) ( )
5
2
2 2


s
s Y y s Y s
.3.10
$here Y.s0 denotes the Laplace transform of the function' y.t0"
8e can no$ reor#anise the a%ove e+uation .3.10 to make the Laplace transform of y.t0 the
su%1ect of the e+uation"
( ) ( ) 2
5
2
2 +


s
s Y s
( )
( )( ) 2
2
5 2
2

s s s
s Y
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 5
2
5 2
9 2
5 2
5 2 2

s s s
s
s s
s
s Y
o$ all $e have to do is find the inverse Laplace transform" 4n this case the inverse Laplace
transform can %e found directl& from the ta%le of Laplace transforms'
22
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) { } ( )
t
e
s
L t y s Y L
5 1 1
2
5
2

'



This is the solution to the initial value problem .3.00"
We %ave solved our first differential equation using t%e Laplace transform.
4f &ou revie$ the e/ample #iven a%ove &ou $ill see the Laplace transform method for solvin#
differential e+uations can %e separated into three steps'
$%e Laplace $ransform 2et%od
!tep 1
Take the Laplace Transform of the #iven differential e+uation
!tep 2
Make the transformed varia%le .Y.s0 a%ove0 the su%1ect of the transformed e+uation"
!tep 3
Appl& the inverse Laplace transform to find y.t0"
As &ou can see from the e/ample #iven a%ove the initial value is included in the solution
$ithout havin# to introduce a constant A and then use the initial value to find the value of A"
The Laplace transform method of solvin# differential e+uations comes into its o$n $hen
considerin# second order differential e+uations"
3.4.3 "olution of 2
nd
order differential e!uations
The nonhomo#eneous second order constant coefficient differential e+uation reads'
( ) t f cy
dt
dy
b
dt
y d
a + +
2
2
ote usin# Laplace transforms $e can solve this e+uation $ithout the need to separate the
solution into the complementary function .solution to the homo#eneous pro%lem .f.t0D20
and a particular integral to e/tend the solution to the nonhomo#eneous differential e+uation"
The solution of second order differential e+uations follo$s a similar line to the solution of
first order differential e+uations usin# the Laplace transform method"
25
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Example
*olve the second order differential e+uation'
2 < :
2
2
+ + y
dt
dy
dt
y d
*u%1ect to the initial values'
( ) ( ) 2 2 ' 1 2
dt
dy
y
!olution
Appl& the Laplace transform to %oth sides of the differential e+uation'
{ } 2 < :
2
2
+

'

'

y L
dt
dy
L
dt
y d
L
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 < 2 : 2 2
2
+ + s Y y s sY
dt
dy
sy s Y s
*u%stitute the initial values into the transformed e+uation'
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 < 1 :
2
+ + s Y s sY s s Y s
6eor#anise the transformed e+uation such that Y.s0 is the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) ( ) : < :
2
+ + + s s Y s s
( )
< :
:
2
+ +
+

s s
s
s Y
8e can no$ take the inverse Laplace transform of %oth sides'
( ) { }

'

+ +
+


< :
:
2
1 1
s s
s
L s Y L
.3.30
( ) { } ( ) t y s Y L
1
.3.40
7onsiderin# the ri#ht hand side of .3.30'
( )( ) 5 2 5 2
:
< :
:
2
+
+
+

+ +
+

+ +
+
s
B
s
A
s s
s
s s
s
29
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )( ) 5 2
2 5
5 2
2 5
+ +
+ + +

+ +
+ + +

s s
B A s B A
s s
s B s A
)+uatin# terms
1 ( +B A s
: 2 5 ( 1 + B A
These can %e solved to #ive'
2 ' 5 B A
5 2
1
2
1
1
2
1
5
5
2
2
5
< :
:
+ +

1
]
1

1
]
1

'

'

+ +
+
s s s s
s s s s
L
s s
s
L

t t
e e
5 2
2 5


Cuttin# the a%ove to#ether $ith .3.40'
( )
t t
e e t y
5 2
2 5


Let us do another $orked e/ample that includes a non%omogeneous degeneracy=
Worked Example
*olve the second order differential e+uation'
t
e y
dt
dy
dt
y d
2
2
2
< :

+ +
*u%1ect to the initial values'
( ) ( ) 1 2 ' 1 2
dt
dy
y
!olution
Appl& the Laplace transform to %oth sides of the differential e+uation'
{ } { }
t
e L y L
dt
dy
L
dt
y d
L
2
2
2
< :

+

'

'

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
< 2 : 2 2
2
+
+ +
s
s Y y s sY
dt
dy
sy s Y s
*u%stitute the initial values into the transformed e+uation'
2:
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
< 1 : 1
2
+
+ + +
s
s Y s sY s s Y s
6eor#anise the transformed e+uation such that Y.s0 is the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) ( ) 9
2
1
< :
2
+ +
+
+ + s
s
s Y s s
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 5 2
9
5 2
1
< :
9
2
1
2 2
+ +
+
+
+ +

+ +
+ +
+

s s
s
s s s s
s
s
s Y
8e can no$ take the inverse Laplace transform of %oth sides'
( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )( )

'

+ +
+
+
+ +


5 2
9
5 2
1
2
1 1
s s
s
s s
L s Y L
.3.150
( ) { } ( ) t y s Y L
1
7onsiderin# the ri#ht hand side of the a%ove e+uation $e have t$o sets of partial fractions to
calculate'
( ) ( ) ( ) 5 2 2 5 2
1
2 2
+
+
+
+
+

+ + s
C
s
B
s
A
s s
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 5 2
2 5 5 2
2
2
+ +
+ + + + + +

s s
s C s B s s A
.3.110
This can %e solved in the same $a& as the first $orked e/ample for 2
nd
order differential
e+uations"
Alternativel& &ou can initiall& set s=-2 and e+uatin# the LH* and 6H*'
( ) 1 5 2 1 + B B
*ettin# s=-3'
( ) 1 2 5 1
2
+ C C
A can no$ %e found %& e+uatin# the s
2
terms on the 6H* of .3.110'
1 2 + A C A
*imilarl& .the details have %een omitted0'
2<
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( )( ) 5
1
2
2
5 2
9
+

+ +
+
s s s s
s
Cuttin# the partial fractions to#ether'
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 5
1
2
2
5
1
2
1
2
1
5 2
9
5 2
1
2 2
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+ +
+
+
+ + s s s s s s s
s
s s
( )
2
2
1
2
1
+
+
+

s s
8e can no$ take the inverse Laplace transform of the 6H* of .3.150"
( )
t t
s s s s
te e
s s s s
L
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1

+ +

+
1
]
1

+
1
]
1

'

+
+
+
( ) ( ) t e t y
t
+

1
2
*o $e see that in principle solvin# homo#eneous and nonhomo#eneous second order
differential e+uations can %e treated in the same $a& usin# the Laplace transform method"
>ne last e/ample %efore $e move on"
Example
*olve the second order differential e+uation'
2 B
2
2
+ y
dt
y d
*u%1ect to the initial values'
( ) ( ) 1 2 ' 2 2
dt
dy
y
!olution
Appl& the Laplace transform to %oth sides of the differential e+uation'
{ } 2 B
2
2
+

'

y L
dt
y d
L
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 B 2 2
2
+ s Y
dt
dy
sy s Y s
*u%stitute the initial values into the transformed e+uation'
2?
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( ) 2 B 1
2
+ s Y s Y s
6eor#anise the transformed e+uation such that Y.s0 is the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) ( ) 1 B
2
+ s Y s
( )
B
1
2
+

s
s Y
8e can no$ take the inverse Laplace transform of %oth sides'
( ) { }

'


B
1
2
1 1
s
L s Y L
( ) { } ( ) t y s Y L
1
7onsiderin#
t
s
L
s
L 5 sin
5
1
B
5
5
1
B
1
2
1
2
1

'

'

+

#ivin# the solution'
( ) t t y 5 sin
5
1

2A
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3.".3.1 $n LC% circuit e&ample
Before $e move on let us consider one last $orked e/ample" This is an initial value pro%lem
&ou have seen %efore' %ut solved usin# techni+ues considered in )C* Maths 5"
The $orked e/ample is a model for an L76 circuit' see the fi#ure %elo$" An L76 circuit is
one that includes a resistor' a capacitor and an inductor' connected in series $ith a volta#e
source e.t0"
)igure 3.1 6 .n L,# circuit.
Before closin# the s$itch at time tD2 the char#e on the capacitor' q and the resultin# current
in the circuit are Eero" Appl&in# Firchhoff-s second la$ to the circuit #ives a second order
nonhomo#eneous differential e+uation for the char#e on the capacitor'
( ) t e q
C dt
dq

dt
q d
L + +
1
2
2
( ) ( ) 2 2 2
dt
dq
q
4n the circuit #iven a%ove the different components have the follo$in# values'
( ) !o"ts t e Farad C #enry L $%&s 22 12 ' 1 ' 1<2
9


!olution
*u%stitutin# the values of the electrical properties into the differential e+uation'
22 12 1<2
9
2
2
+ + q
dt
dq
dt
q d
Takin# Laplace transforms of %oth sides of the differential e+uation'
tD2

L
C q't(
e't( i't(
q
2B
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
{ } { } 22 12 1<2
9
2
2
L q L
dt
dq
L
dt
q d
L +

'

'

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s
s ) q s s)
dt
dq
sq s ) s
22
12 2 1<2 2 2
9 2
+ +
*u%stitutin# in the initial values'
( ) ( )
s
s ) s s
22
12 1<2
9 2
+ +
Makin# the Laplace transform of the solution of the differential e+uation the su%1ect of the
e+uation'
( )
( )
9 2
12 1<2
22
+ +

s s s
s )
To take the inverse Laplace transform of the 6H* it needs to %e represented usin# partial
fractions'
( )
( )
( )
9 2
2 9 2
9 2 9 2
12 1<2
12 1<2
12 1<2 12 1<2
22
+ +
+ + + +

+ +
+
+
+ + s s s
Cs Bs s s A
s s
C Bs
s
A
s s s
)+uatin# terms'
B A s + 2 (
2
C A s + 1<2 2 (
A
9
12 22 ( 1
These e+uations have the solution'
:22
1<2
'
:22
1
'
:22
1
C B A
( )

,
_

+ +
+

+ +
9 2 9 2
12 1<2
1<2 1
:22
1
12 1<2
22
s s
s
s s s s
The +uadratic term in the e+uation a%ove has comple/ roots so the approach to take to find
the inverse Laplace transform is to complete the s+uare'
( ) ( ) ( )

,
_

+ +

+ +
+

,
_

+ +
+

2 2 2 2 2 2
<2 A2
A2
<2 A2
A2 1
:22
1
<2 A2
1<2 1
:22
1
s s
s
s s
s
s
The first t$o terms are no$ in a form that the inverse Laplace transform can %e taken" The
final term re+uires further manipulation'
52
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( )

,
_

,
_

+ +

+ +
+

2 2 2 2
<2 A2
<2
5
9
<2 A2
A2 1
:22
1
s s
s
s
Therefore'
( )

;

'

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

'

+ +
+ +

A2
2 2
A2
2 2 9 2
1
<2
<2
5
9
<2
1
:22
1
12 1<2
22
s s s s
s s
s
s s s s
L
( )

,
_

'

+ +

t e t e
s s s
L
t t
<2 sin
5
9
<2 cos 1
:22
1
12 1<2
22
A2 A2
9 2
1
*o the solution reads'
( )

,
_



t e t e t q
t t
<2 sin
5
9
<2 cos 1
:22
1
A2 A2
3.' #olution of (ifferential )quations 2
*o far $e have solved differential e+uations usin# the Laplace transform method $ithout the
direct application of techni+ues taken from calculus" 4t has offered a num%er of advanta#es
compared to other techni+ues" 8e $ill consider the application of the Laplace transform
method to a class of differential e+uations that are not easil& solved an& other $a&"
3.#.1 Differential e!uations and Dirac functions
Laplace transforms can %e used to solve pro%lems involvin# an impulsive force or current'
$here the impulse is delivered over a time interval' .t
*
' t
1
0
( ) ( )

1
2
t
t
dt t f t +
+.t0 is the total momentum input to the s&stem" 3or an electrical circuit the e+uivalent
propert& is the applied volta#e' !.t0"
Dirac delta function
*uppose the applied force is #iven %& the function"
( )

'

+ < <

ot%er,ise
t t t
t f
2
1
2 2


The a%ove function should %e interpreted as a constant force .1/0 applied over a time interval
of len#th " B& construction'
51
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( ) 1
1 2
2
2


+

t
t
dt dt t f t +
+

.t0 is the area under the curve f

.t0 and it is independent of " Takin# the limit'


( ) ( )
2
2 t t t f

8here .t-t
*
0 is called the !irac delta function" This is a peculiar name for this construct as it
does not have all of the properties of a function" 3or this reason it is a mem%er of a class
called generalised functions" The !irac delta function is Eero ever&$here e/cept at t=t
*
$here it is a sin#ularit& and therefore undefined" The important point is the !irac delta
function has the propert&'
( ) 1
2
2

dt t t
This is important as it represents an impulse of ma#nitude 1 actin# over an infinitel& short
time interval" Another important propert& of the !irac delta function is that'
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
t f dt t f t t

This means the Laplace transform of a !irac delta function can %e evaluated'
( )
sa st
e dt e a t

2

This is called the sifting property of !irac functions as it makes it possi%le to isolate a
particular value of a function" To see this more clearl&' consider'
( ) { } 1
2
e t L
and it thus follo$s that
{ } ( ) t L

1
1
$%erefore in principle any differential equation involving an impulse delivered
over a very s%ort time interval can be solved using Laplace transforms.
The last construct $e need %efore $e can start solvin# differential e+uations involvin# !irac
delta functions is the second s%ift t%eorem"
52
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
$%e !econd !%ift $%eorem
4f
( )
( )

'

<

a t
a t a t g
t f
2
then
( ) ( ) s G e s F
sa

$here
( ) ( ) { } t g L s G
This is prett& dr& stuff" 4t $ill %ecome a little clearer $hen &ou see an application of the
second shift theorem"
Worked Example
3ind the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
5
1
s
e s F
s

!olution
B& inspection of the second shift theorem in this e/ample'
5 a
and
( )
2
1
s
s G
hence'
( ) { } t
s
L s G L

'


2
1 1
1
then the 2
nd
shift theorem implies'

'

<

'


5 2
5 5
1
2
5 1
t
t t
s
e L
s
>ne more $orked e/ample to see ho$ the second shift theorem can %e used"
55
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Worked Example
3ind the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
?
1
2
+


s
e s F
s
!olution
( )
?
1
+

s
s G
hence'
( ) { }
t
s s
e
s s
L s G L
?
?
1 1
1
?
1

+

1
]
1

'

Appl&in# the 2
nd
shift theorem'
( )

'

<

'

+


2 2
2
?
1
2 ?
2 1
t
t e
s
e L
t
s
8e no$ have all of the tools in place to solve pro%lems involvin# instantaneous impulses"
7onsider a freel& vi%ratin# s&stem $ithout dampin#" The d&namics of the s&stem is
#overned %& a differential e+uation of the form'
2
2
2
2
+ y
dt
y d

*ee section 1"5"1 in the first semester of material" 4f the s&stem is su%1ected to an
instantaneous impulse of ma#nitude' a at a time' t=b' the second order differential e+uation is
modified to'
( ) b t a y
dt
y d
+
2
2
2
Worked Example
;se Laplace transforms to solve the initial value pro%lem'
( ) 5 9
2
2
+ t y
dt
y d

( ) ( ) 2 2 ' 1 2
dt
dy
y
59
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
!olution
8e follo$ the same solution strate#& as previous e/amples lookin# at solvin# differential
e+uations usin# the Laplace transform method"
!tep 1
Take the Laplace transform of the differential e+uation'
{ } ( ) { } 5 9
2
2
+

'

t L y L
dt
y d
L
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s
e s Y
dt
dy
sy s Y s
5 2
9 2 2

+
.*ee the ta%le of Laplace transforms for the Laplace transform of a !irac function0
!tep 2
*u%stitute the initial values into the e+uation'
( ) ( )
s
e s Y s s Y s
5 2
9

+
!tep 3
Make Y.s0 the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) ( ) s e s Y s
s
+ +
5 2
9
( )
9 9
1
2 2
5
+
+
+


s
s
s
e s Y
s
!tep (
3ind the inverse Laplace transform for Y.s0"
( ) { }

'

+
+

'


9 9
1
2
1
2
5 1 1
s
s
L
s
e L s Y L
s
t
s
s
L 2 cos
9
2
1

'

To find the inverse Laplace transform'

'

+

9
1
2
5 1
s
e L
s
5:
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
$e use the 2
nd
shift theorem" 7onsider'
t
s
L
s
L 2 sin
2
1
9
2
2
1
9
1
2
1
2
1

'

'

+

Therefore the 2
nd
shift theorem sa&s'
( ) ( )

'

<

'

+

5 2
5 5 2 sin
2
1
9
1
2
5 1
t
t t
s
e L
s
Cuttin# these results to#ether #ives the solution'
( )
( )

'

+
<

5 < 2 sin
2
1
2 cos
5 2 cos
t t t
t t
t y
*ee the fi#ure %elo$ for a plot of y.t0"
,2
,1.$
,1
,-.$
-
-.$
1
1.$
2
- 2 4 & . 1-
&
*
)igure 3.2 6 $%e displacement of a vibrating body sub7ected to an impulse
(t83.
Let-s look at one last e/ample %efore $e move on"
5<
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Example
;se Laplace transforms to solve the initial value pro%lem'
( ) ? 2 A <
2
2
+ + t y
dt
dy
dt
y d

.3.120
( ) ( ) < 2 ' 2 2
dt
dy
y
!olution
8e follo$ the same solution strate#& as in the previous e/ample"
!tep 1
Take the Laplace transform of the differential e+uation'
{ } ( ) { } ? 2 A <
2
2
+

,
_

'

t L y L
dt
dy
L
dt
y d
L
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s
e s Y y s sY
dt
dy
sy s Y s
? 2
2 A 2 < 2 2

+ +
!tep 2
*u%stitute the initial values into the e+uation'
( ) ( ) ( )
s
e s Y s sY s Y s
? 2
2 A < <

+ +
!tep 3
Make Y.s0 the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) ( ) < A <
? 2
+ + +
s
e s Y s s
( )
A <
<
A <
2
2 2
?
+ +
+
+ +


s s s s
e s Y
s
!tep (
3ind the inverse Laplace transform for Y.s0" This is a lon# process in this e/ample %ut
provided &ou take &our time &ou $ill see the approach is the same as the previous e/ample"
( ) { }

'

+ +
+

'

+ +


A <
<
A <
2
2
1
2
? 1 1
s s
L
s s
e L s Y L
s
5?
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
To find the inverses $e have to represent the +uotients usin# partial fractions as'
( )( ) 9 2 A <
2
+ + + + s s s s
*o'
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 9 2
2 9
9 2 9 2
2
+ +
+ + +

+
+
+

+ + s s
s B s A
s
B
s
A
s s
)+uatin# terms'
B A
B A s
2 9 2 ( 1
2 (
+
+
This has solution'
1 ' 1 B A
4t follo$s that'
9 2 A <
2
? ?
2
?
+

+ +

s
e
s
e
s s
e
s s
s
and .steps omitted in t%e derivation0
9
5
2
5
A <
<
2
+

+ + s s s s
9 2
1 1
2
1
1
5
1
5
9
1
5
2
1
5
A <
<
+ +

1
]
1

1
]
1

'

'

'

+ +
s s s s
s s s
L
s
L
s s
L
t t
e e
9 2
5 5

'

'

'

+ +

9
1
2
1
A <
2
? 1 ? 1
2
? 1
s
e L
s
e L
s s
e L
s s s
t
s s
e
s s
L
2
2
1
1
2
1

+

1
]
1

'

+
t
s s
e
s s
L
9
9
1
1
9
1

+

1
]
1

'

+
5A
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
*o %& the second shift theorem'
( )

'

<

'

+


? 2
?
2
1
? 2
? 1
t
t e
s
e L
t
s
*imilarl&
( )

'

<

'

+


? 2
?
9
1
? 9
? 1
t
t e
s
e L
t
s
Cuttin# this alto#ether' .i"e" the results in the %o/es a%ove0 $e #et
( )
( ) ( )

'

+
<



? 5 5
? 5 5
? 9 ? 2 9 2
9 2
t e e e e
t e e
t y
t t t t
t t
*ee the fi#ure %elo$ for a #raphical solution"
-
-.1
-.2
-.3
-.4
-.$
-.&
-.(
-..
- 2 4 & . 1-
&
*
)igure 3.3 6 "rap%ical solution of t%e initial value problem9 (3.12.
5B
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3.#.2 $onlinear differential e!uations
Althou#h Laplace transforms provide a #ood $a& of solvin# initial value pro%lems $ithout
resortin# to calculus %ased techni+ues the& are restricted to linear differential e+uations $ith
constant coefficients" This is differential e+uations of the form'
( ) t f cy
dt
dy
b
dt
y d
a + +
2
2
$here a' b and c are constants" 4n this section $e $ant to e/tend the ran#e of application to
nonlinear e+uations of the form'
( ) t f y
dt
dy
y t c
dt
dy
dt
dy
y t b
dt
y d
dt
dy
y t a

,
_

,
_

,
_

' ' ' ' ' '


2
2
3or e/ample
( ) 2 1 y y
dt
dy
is a nonlinear first order differential e+uation" This is nonlinear as
1 y c
There is no eas& $a& of solvin# the a%ove differential e+uation usin# Laplace transforms"
:n its place *e solve a linear differential equation t%at approximates t%e original
nonlinear differential equation.
Appro/imatin# a nonlinear differential e+uation %& a linear e+uation is called lineari;ation.
The derivation of an appro/imate linear differential e+uation uses a 1
st
order Ta&lor *eries"
6ecall that a Ta&lor series of a function f.y0 centred on y
*
is #iven %&'
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + +
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
y f y y y f y y y f y f
*o for e/ample consider the function'
( ) ( )
2
1 y y y y y f .3.130
( ) y y f 2 1
Then a linear appro/imation to .3.130 centred on y
*
=- is'
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 f y f y f +
92
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( ) y y y f 5 9 0 5 . 2 2 +
.3.1(0
*ee the 3i#ure %elo$ to compare the function and it-s linear appro/imation"
,14
,12
,1-
,.
,&
,4
,2
-
2
4
&
- 1 2 3 4
*
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
'/1,'0
4,3'
)igure 3.( 6 ,omparison of a function *it% its linear approximation
centred on y
0
82.
8e see that near the centre of the Ta&lor series e/pansion' y
*
=-' the appro/imation is ver&
accurate and accurac& deteriates as &ou move a$a& from the centre" Let us see ho$ this
impacts on the solution of an initial value pro%lem'
7onsider the initial value pro%lem'
( ) 2 1 y y
dt
dy
.3.1-0
( ) 2 2 y
This is a separa%le differential e+uation (some revision so can %e solved %& separatin# the
dependent and independent varia%les'
( )
dt dy
y y

1
1
and inte#ratin# %oth sides of the e+uation"
( )

dt dy
y y 1
1
C t dt #. +

91
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( )


dy
y
dy
y
dy
y y
L#.
1
1 1
1
1
<)rom partial fractions=
( )

,
_


1
ln 1 ln ln
y
y
y y

G4 onl& need one inte#ration constantH
*o
C t
y
y
+

,
_

1
ln
6earran#in# the result such that y is the su%1ect of the e+uation"
t C t y
y
Ae e
y
y
e

,
_

1
1
ln
t t
t
e A
A
Ae
Ae
y

1
the inte#ration constant' A can %e found usin# the initial value'
2
1
2

A
A
A
Iivin# the anal&tical solution
t
e
y

2
2
Juite a lot of $ork to produce an anal&tical solution to compare $ith the solution of the
linear appro/imation to the linear pro%lem'
Worked Example
3ind an appro/imate solution to the initial value pro%lem #iven %elo$ usin# a linear
appro/imation to the function .3.130"
( ) 2 1 y y
dt
dy
( ) 2 2 y
92
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
!olution
The linear appro/imation to the function has alread& %een calculated' .3.1(0 #ivin# the linear
initial value pro%lem'
2 5 9 + y
dt
dy
( ) 2 2 y
This is no$ in a form that the Laplace transform method can %e applied to"
!tep 1
Appl&in# the Laplace transform
{ } { } 2 5 9 +

'

y L L
dt
dy
L
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 5
9
2 + s Y
s
y s sY
!tep 2
*u%stitute the initial value and make Y.s0 the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) ( )
s
s
s
s Y s
9 2 9
2 5
+
+ +
( )
( ) 5
9 2
+
+

s s
s
s Y
!tep 3
3ind the inverse Laplace transform usin# partial fractions'
( )
( )
( ) 5
5
5 5
9 2
+
+ +

+
+
+
+
s s
Bs s A
s
B
s
A
s s
s
)+uatin# terms in the numerator #ives A and B'
5
2
'
5
9
B A
( )
5
1 1 1
1
5
2
5
9
5
1
5
2 1
5
9
5
9 2
+

1
]
1

'

+
+

'

'

+
+
s s
s s
L
s
L
s s
s
L
95
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
t
e
5
5
2
5
9

+
Iivin# the result'
( )
t
e t y
5
5
2
5
9

+
The fi#ure %elo$ sho$s a comparison %et$een the e/act anal&tical solution and the
appro/imate solution"
1
1.2
1.4
1.&
1..
2
2.2
- -.2 -.4 -.& -.. 1
t
*
1*act #olution
)ppro*imate #olution
)igure 3.- 6 ,omparison of t%e exact and approximate solution to (3.1-.
3rom the fi#ure a%ove the t$o solutions are in close a#reement for tK2"5 and the difference
%et$een the t$o curves #ro$s $ith time" This is consistent $ith 3i#ure 5"@ 8here as &
decreases the linear appro/imation to the function .3.130 %ecomes less and less accurate"
This is not the first e/ample of the use of linear appro/imation to produce a linear differential
e+uation that can %e solved that appro/imates a nonlinear differential e+uation" 6ecall last
semester in the discussion of the oscillations of an undamped pendulum' the application of
e$ton-s second la$ .F=&a0 #ave the model e+uation'

sin
2
2
&g
dt
d
&" .3.100
8here is the an#ular displacement from the vertical' m is the pendulum mass' " is the len#th
of the strin# and g is #ravit&" *ee *ection 1"2"2"1 in the printed notes from last semester for
more details" This is a second order nonlinear differential e+uation" Last semester the model
$as converted to an appro/imate linear model %& notin# that for small an#ular displacement'
sin
99
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Iivin# the linear model after a little simplification'
2
2
2
+

"
g
dt
d
.3.110
$hich can %e solved the conventional $a& or %& usin# Laplace transforms" o$ $e see that
the ar#ument could run sli#htl& differentl&= The linear appro/imation to sin centred on the
ori#in is #iven %&'
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
f f f +
( ) ( ) + 2 cos 2 2 sin y f
#ivin# the result"
The fi#ure %elo$ sho$s a comparison of the anal&tical solution of .3.110 and a numerical
solution of .3.100 calculated usin# MATLAB' sho$in# in this case that introducin# the linear
appro/imation produces an error in the phase that #ro$s pro#ressivel& $ith time""
,-..
,-.&
,-.4
,-.2
-
-.2
-.4
-.&
-..
1
- $ 1- 1$ 2-
t

)ppro*imate #olution
1*act #olution
)igure 3.0 6 ,omparison of t%e nonlinear and linear undamped oscillator
model.
9:
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Exercise
*olve the initial value pro%lem
2
2
2
+

"
g
dt
d
( ) 2 2 ' 2 " 2 2 t ,%en
dt
d

usin# the Laplace transform method"
Engineering .pplication 6 >utflo* from a *ater tank.
Lolume conservation applied to a $ater tank empt&in# #ives the e+uation'
out
!
dt
d!


$here the ri#ht hand side is the volume flo$ rate out of the tank" *ee the schematic fi#ure
%elo$"
)igure 3.1 "ravity driven outflo* from a *ater tank.
4t is more convenient to $ork $ith the $ater hei#ht' % rather than the volume' !' $here'
% A !
cros

%
A
cros
out
!

9<
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
as if the outflo$ is due to #ravit& alone a model for the outflo$ is #iven %&'
g% A C !
pipe D out
2

There are a lot of s&m%ols here that $ill not %e defined as this is a mathematics module not a
course in fluid mechanics' suffice it to sa& ever&thin# is a constant e/cept % and ! and these
chan#e $ith time' the remainder $ill soon %e fi/ed to some convenient values so $e can
focus on the mathematics" ;sin# the a%ove the volume conservation e+uation %ecomes
g% A C
dt
d%
A
pipe D cros
2
Therefore #iven the initial hei#ht of the $ater' %
&a/
the time the tank takes to empt& can %e
estimated" To allo$ us to focus on the mathematics $e #roup all of the constants to#ether to
#ive the initial value pro%lem'
% C
dt
d%

.3.130
( )
ma/
2 % %
$here
g A
A
C
C
pipe
cros
D
2
Lettin# C=1 and h
max
=1' the initial value pro%lem can %e solved .revision0 to #ive the e/act
solution'
( ) 2 2
2
1
2

,
_

t for
t
t % .3.140
Worked Example
Linearise the initial value pro%lem .3.130 usin# a Ta&lor series of order one centred on h
0
=1
for the source term in .3.130 and solve usin# the Laplace transform method"
!olution (some steps %ave been omitted
The first thin# to do is derive the linear appro/imation to the source term" The #eneral form
of the truncated Ta&lor series is #iven %elo$'
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
% f % % % f % f +
8here in this case'
( ) % % f
9?
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
and
( )
%
% f
2
1

thus
( ) ( ) % % % f
2
1
2
1
1 2
1
1 1 + +
The linear appro/imation to the ori#inal initial value pro%lem is then'

,
_

+ %
dt
d%
2
1
2
1
( ) 1 2 %
Appl&in# the Laplace transform method to %oth sides and su%stitutin# in the initial value'

,
_

+ #
s
s#
2
1
2
1
1
Make # the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) 1 2
1 2
+

s s
s
#
;sin# partial fractions
( )
2
1
1
2
1
1 2
1 2
+
+
+

s
s s s
s
#
Takin# inverse Laplace transforms
( )
t
s s
e
s
t %
2
1
2
1
2 1
1
2 1

+
+
1
]
1

+
Iivin# the result'
( ) 1 2
2
1

t
e t %
.3.250
The fi#ure %elo$ sho$s a comparison %et$een the appro/imate . 3.250 and e/act solution
.3.140 to the initial value pro%lem .3.130"
9A
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
-
-.2
-.4
-.&
-..
1
1.2
- -.$ 1 1.$ 2
t
!
1*act #olution
)ppro*imate #olution
)igure 3.3 6 ,omparison of t%e exact and approximate solution to (3.13.
Exercise 6 ?eating a slab up
The temperature of a sla% %ein# heated %& an electric heater is #iven %& the initial value
pro%lem'
( )
9 9
a&b
0 0 q
dt
d0
C
( )
a&b
0 0 2
$here 0
a&b
is the surroundin# air temperature and has a value of 522F" C is the heat
capacitance of the sla% .a constant0" q is the heat flu/ imposed %& the heater .a constant0 and
is called the coefficient of radiation .another constant0"
Linearise the differential e+uation usin# a 1
st
order truncated Ta&lor *eries centred on the
initial temperature for the function'
9 9
0 .
a&b
0 0 0 f
*olve the resultin# linear initial value pro%lem usin# the Laplace transfer method #iven'
1
2
C 222 ' 1
3 q 222 ' 1
9B
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
9
A
12 1
1
3


Exercise 6 )lo* across a distillation column tray
The flo$ d&namics for a tra& in a distillation column is #overned %& volume conservation'
out in tray
! !
dt
d%
A


$here the outflo$ term is #iven %& a correlation for flo$ over a $eir of the form'
: " 1
C% !
out

ote C is a constant" *ee the fi#ure %elo$ for the confi#uration of the distillation tra&"
)igure 3.4 6 )lo* over a tray in a distillation column.
The values for the ph&sical properties in this scenario are #iven convenient values rather than
ph&sicall& correct values"
%
in
!

A
tray
:2
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Iiven the initial value pro%lem'

: " 1
2 5
2
1
%
dt
d%

( ) 1 2 %
Linearise the differential e+uation usin# a Ta&lor series centred on %
*
D1 and solve usin# the
Laplace transform method"
3.+ #*stems of differential equations
The e/tension of the Laplace transform method for solvin# differential e+uations is natural"
6ecall that for one differential e+uation the Laplace transform method is a three step process"
$%e Laplace $ransform 2et%od
!tep 1
Take the Laplace Transform of the #iven differential e+uation
!tep 2
Make the transformed varia%le .Y.s0 a%ove0 the su%1ect of the transformed e+uation"
!tep 3
Appl& the inverse Laplace transform to find y.t0"
3or a s&stem of differential e+uations the second step is more complicated as it involves the
solution of a s&stem of .simultaneous0 al#e%raic e+uations rather than one e+uation" B& $a&
of e/ample consider the follo$in# initial value pro%lem"
Example
*olve the follo$in# initial value pro%lem usin# the Laplace transform method"
2 1
1
2/ /
dt
d/
+
2 1
2
2 2 / /
dt
d/

( ) 2 2
1
/ ' ( ) 1 2
2
/
:1
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
!olution
The first step is to take the Laplace transform of the differential e+uations"
{ } { }
2 1
1
2 / L / L
dt
d/
L +

'

{ } { }
2 1
2
2 2 / L / L
dt
d/
L

'

( )
2 1 1 1
2 2 4 4 / s4 +
( )
2 1 2 2
2 2 2 4 4 / s4
*u%stitutin# the initial values into the e+uations and reor#anisin# to put all of the unkno$ns
on one side of the e+uations'
( ) 2 2 1
2 1
4 4 s .3.210
( ) 1 2 2
2 1
+ + 4 s 4 .3.220
This is t$o e+uations in t$o unkno$ns' 4
1
and 4
-
$hich can %e solved" 3rom .3.210
1
1
2
2
1

s
4
4 .3.230
*u%stitutin# for 4
1
in .3.220'
( ) 1 2
1
1
9
2
2
+ +

+
4 s
s
4
$hich can %e rearran#ed'
1
5
1
9 1
1
9
1 2
1
9
2

,
_

+ +

s
s
s
s
s
4 s
s
( )( )
1
5
1
1 2 9
2

,
_

+ +
s
s
4
s
s s
( )( ) 2
1
5 2
5
<
5
2 2

+
+

+
+

s s s
s
s s
s
4
:2
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
Havin# found 4
-
$e can su%stitute into .3.230 to #ive 4
1
"
2
2
2
2 1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1

,
_

,
_

s s
s
s s
s
4
Havin# solved the simultaneous e+uations takin# the inverse Laplace transform #ives the
result'
{ }
t
s s
e
s s s
L 4 L
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2

1
]
1

1
]
1

'



usin# the ta%le of Laplace transforms and the 1
st
shift theorem"
*imilarl&
{ }
t
e
s
L 4 L
2 1
2
1
2
1

'


Iivin# the result'
( )
t
e t /
2
1
2
( )
t
e t /
2
2

W%at about 2
nd
order systems@
W%at about non%omogeneous systems@
The method is e/actl& the same" A second order s&stem e/ample is #iven %elo$' a
nonhomo#eneous first order s&stem is left as an e/ercise"
Worked Example
*olve the follo$in# second order s&stem usin# the Laplace transform method"
2 2
2
2
+ y /
dt
/ d
2 2
2
2
+ y /
dt
y d
( ) 9 2 /
'
( ) 2 2 y
dt
dy
dt
d/
t 2
:5
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
!olution
*ome of the details of the solution $ill %e omitted as it is essentiall& the same steps as the last
e/ample"
Take the Laplace transform of the differential e+uations
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2
2
+

,
_

Y 4
dt
d/
s/ 4 s
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2
2
+

,
_

Y 4
dt
dy
sy Y s
*u%stitute for the initial values and rearran#e such that the Gunkno$nsH are on one side
( ) s Y 4 s 9 2
2
+ .3.2(0
( ) s Y s 4 2 2
2
+ + .3.2-0
3rom .3.2(0'
( ) s 4 s Y 9 2
2
+ .3.200
*u%stitutin# for Y in .3.2-0 and rearran#in# such that 4 is the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( )( ) 5 1
12 9
5 9
12 9
2 2
5
2 9
5
+ +
+

+ +
+

s s
s s
s s
s s
4
*u%stitutin# this into .3.200 and tid&in# up the e+uation #ives'
( )( ) 5 1
A 2
2 2
5
+ +
+

s s
s s
Y
6epresentin# 4 and Y usin# partial fractions'
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) 5 1
1 5
5 1 5 1
12 9
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
5
+ +
+ + + + +

+
+
+
+
+

+ +
+

s s
s D Cs s B As
s
D Cs
s
B As
s s
s s
4
Multipl&in# out the %rackets on the numerator and e+uatin# terms #ives the follo$in#
e+uations"
9 (
5
+C A s
2 (
2
+ D B s
12 5 ( +C A s
2 5 ( 1 +D B
:9
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
These e+uations can %e solved to #ive'
2 1 ' 2 ' 5 D and C B A
Thus
5 1
5
2 2
+
+
+

s
s
s
s
4
*imilarl&'
5 1
5
2 2
+

s
s
s
s
Y
Takin# the inverse Laplace transforms
{ }

'

+
+

'


5 1
5
2
1
2
1 1
s
s
L
s
s
L 4 L
Both of these inverse Laplace transforms can %e found usin# the ta%le of Laplace transforms'
( ) t t t / 5 cos cos 5 +
*imilarl&
( ) t t t y 5 cos cos 5
::
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
There are man& e/amples of s&stems of differential e+uations that are formulated as pro%lems
in vi%ration and circuit simulation' as an e/ample application a mathematical model for the
simulation of a circuit is #iven %elo$"
.pplication
A t$o loop circuit is sho$n schematicall& in 3i#ure 5"12 sho$n %elo$"
)igure 3.15 6 . double loop circuit.
Appl&in# Firchhoff-s 1
st
la$ at node 4 #ives'
2 1
i i i +
Appl&in# Firchhoff-s 2
nd
la$ to the t$o loops in turn #ives the differential e+uations'
( ) ( ) ! i i i
dt
d
L i i + + + +
1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1
2
1 2 2 5
2
2
+ i i
dt
di
L
( ) ( ) 2 2 2
2 1
i i
Iiven
$%&s $%&s 22 ' 12
2 5 1

#enrys L L :
2 1

!o"ts ! 222

-

5
L
1
L
-
!'t(
i
1
i
-
i
4
:<
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3ind the currents i
1
and i
-
usin# the Laplace transform method"
!olution
3irstl& su%stitute the numerical values for the constant terms into the differential e+uations'
( ) 222 22 : 12
1
2 1
2 1
+

,
_

+ + + i
dt
di
dt
di
i i
2 22 12 :
1 2
2
+ i i
dt
di
!ividin# throu#h %& common factors in the differential e+uations'
( ) 92 9 2
1
2 1
2 1
+ + + + i
dt
di
dt
di
i i
2 9 2
1 2
2
+ i i
dt
di
and takin# Laplace transforms
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s
+ i s+ i s+ + +
92
9 2 2 2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 1
+ + + +
( ) ( ) 2 9 2 2
1 2 2 2
+ + + i s+
*u%stitutin# in the initial values and tid&in# up'
( ) ( )
s
+ s + s
92
2 <
2 1
+ + +
.3.210
( ) 2 2 9
2 1
+ + + s + .3.230
3rom .3.230
2
9
1
2
+

s
+
+ .3.240
*u%stitutin# for +
-
in .3.210 and makin# +
1
the su%1ect of the e+uation'
( ) 12
92
1
+

s s
+
:?
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
3rom .3.240
( ) ( ) 12 2
1<2
2
9
1
2
+ +

s s s s
+
+
.3.350
;sin# partial fractions'
( )
( )
( ) 12
12
12 12
92
1
+
+ +

+
+
+

s s
Bs s A
s
B
s
A
s s
+
e+uatin# terms in the numerators
9 9
12
92
A B and A
Therefore

,
_

,
_

12
1
9
1
9
1
s s
+
Takin# inverse Laplace transforms and appl&in# the first shift theorem to the second term'
( ) ( )
t
s s
e
s s
t i
12
12
1
1 9
1
9 9
12
1
9 9

+

1
]
1


1
]
1

+

*imilarl& representin# .3.350 usin# partial fractions and appl&in# the 1
st
shift theorem .details
omitted0
( )
t t
e e t i
12 2
2
2 12 A

+
3., #ummar*
This %lock has %een or#anised into three separate sets of theor&" The first looks at findin# the
Laplace transforms of functions" This can %e done %& evaluatin# the improper inte#ral
definition of the Laplace transform'
( ) { } ( )

2
dt t f e t f L
st
This approach is not advocated here as a %etter approach is to use a table of Laplace
transforms to#ether $ith the first s%ift t%eorem and the linear property of t%e Laplace
operator"
Havin# mastered Laplace transforms $e focused on findin# inverse Laplace transforms" This
is a more difficult pro%lem as it re+uires a certain a%ilit& to reco#nise patterns" The different
:A
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
techni+ues for findin# inverse Laplace transforms' such as the use of partial fractions and
completing t%e square are all a%out representin# the Laplace transform in a $a& that it can
%e matched up $ith functions in the ta%le of Laplace transforms" The first s%ift t%eorem in
reverse can also %e used to find inverse Laplace transforms"
8e looked at the application of Laplace transforms to the solution of differential e+uations"
This involves three steps'
!tep 1 Appl& the Laplace transform to the differential e+uation
!tep 2 6earran#e the transformed e+uation to %e e/plicit in the Laplace
transform of the solution' Y.s0
!tep 3 Take the inverse Laplace transform to find the solution of the
differential e+uation"
The Laplace transform method of solution for differential e+uations has a num%er of
advanta#es over standard methods"
The incorporation of initial values is simpler"
The solution techni+ue re+uires no kno$led#e of calculus"
7ertain pro%lems involvin# near instantaneous distur%ances to the modelled s&stem
can %e incorporated"
The last point a%ove involves representin# instantaneous distur%ances usin# +irac functions
and solvin# the differential e+uation usin# t%e 2
nd
s%ift t%eorem"
The final part of the %lock looked at ho$ this techni+ue can %e applied to nonlinear
differential e+uations and s&stems of differential e+uations" 6ather than solvin# a nonlinear
differential e+uation the nonlinear term is replaced usin# a 1
st
order truncated $aylor !eries
centred on t%e initial value" This #ives a linear differential e+uation that can %e solved $ith
Laplace transforms that is initiall& accurate and diver#es from the e/act solution for
increasin# time"
Linear s&stems of differential e+uations are relativel& eas& to solve usin# the Laplace
transform method as &ou can follo$ the 5 step process #iven a%ove" The second step for
s&stems of differential e+uations includes the solution of simultaneous e+uations"
:B
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
$ppendi& $1- Partial .ractions /1st *ear notes0
4n the same $a& &ou can add al#e%raic fractions to#ether &ou can also separate them into
com%inations of al#e%raic fractions' such terms are called partial fractions"
Worked Example
7onsider
2 5
12 ?
2
+ +
+
/ /
/
*uppose $e $ant to convert this into the sum of partial fractions"
!olution
!tep 1. 3actorise the denominator"
8e have alread& used this as a $orked e/ample so $e kno$
( )( ) 1 2
12 ?
2 5
12 ?
2
+ +
+

+ +
+
/ /
/
/ /
/
!tep 2. Assume a solution $ith unkno$n coefficients .A and B0
( )( ) 1 2 1 2
12 ?
+
+
+

+ +
+
/
B
/
A
/ /
/
!tep 3. Multipl& %oth sides of the e+uation %& the denominator ./6-0./610"
( )( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
1
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
12 ? 1 2
+
+ +
+
+
+ +

+ +
+ + +
/
B / /
/
A / /
/ /
/ / /
and tid& up
( ) B / A / / 0 2 . 1 12 ? + + + +
!tep (. 3ind A and B"
The a%ove e+uation is true for all values of /" *o let / %e -1 and then -2"
1 /
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) B A 0 2 1 . 1 1 12 1 ? + + + +
*o
5 B
<2
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
2 /
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) B A 0 2 2 . 1 2 12 2 ? + + + +
*o
9 A
1
5
2
9
2 5
12 ?
2
+
+
+

+ +
+
/ / / /
/
8here &ou have an al#e%raic fraction of the form'
( )
2
1
2
+

/
/
that is the denominator has a repeated root the a%ove approach does not $ork &ou can tr& it if
&ou like"
4n this case &ou have to represent the al#e%raic fraction as the sum of t$o partial fractions in
the form'
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 1
2
+
+
+

/
B
/
A
/
/
Multipl& %oth sides %& ./610
-
'
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2 1
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
/
B /
/
A /
/
/ /
Tid& up'
( ) B A / / + + 1 2
You no$ e+uate terms to #et t$o simultaneous e+uations in A and B to solve"
A / 1 (
B A+ 2 ( 1
*o
0 . 1 7asy A
5 B
<1
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
( ) ( )
2 2
1
5
1
1
1
2
+

/ / /
/
You can also #et al#e%raic fractions $here the denominator includes +uadratic terms
.a/
-
6b/6c0 that cannot %e factorised into t$o linear factors as the roots are comple/" This
#ives rise to a partial fraction of the form'
c b/ a/
B A/
+ +
+
2
8here A and B are real constants"
Worked Example
7onsider the al#e%raic fraction'
( )( ) 2 1
?
2
+ + / / /
/
7onvert this into partial fractions"
!olution
ote the /
-
6/61 has comple/ roots so cannot %e factorised" The partial fraction
representation is #iven %elo$"
( )( ) 2 1 2 1
?
2 2

+
+ +
+

+ + /
C
/ /
B A/
/ / /
/
o$ $e have the partial fraction representation of the al#e%raic fraction $e find the
unkno$ns' A' B and C in the same $a& as the other e/amples"
<2
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
!tep 1 6ecom%ine the partial fractions over a common denominator
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) 2 1
1 2
2 1
2
2
2
+ +
+ + + +

+
+ +
+
/ / /
/ / C / B A/
/
C
/ /
B A/
!tep 2 Multipl& out the factors in the numerator' usin# F8$8+8L if re+uired"
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( ) 2 1
2 2
2 1
1 2
2
2 2
2
2
+ +
+ + + +

+ +
+ + + +
/ / /
C C/ C/ B B/ A/ A/
/ / /
/ / C / B A/
!tep 3 Tid& up
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) 2 1
2 2
2 1
?
2
2
2
+ +
+ + + + +

+ + / / /
C B / C B A / C A
/ / /
/
!tep ( )+uate terms
C A / + 2 (
2
..1.10
C B A / + + 2 ? (
..1.20
C B + 2 2 ( 1
..1.30
!tep - *olve s&stem of e+uations to #ive A'B and C"
Three e+uations in three unkno$ns %ut the approach is the same as the other $orked
e/amples" 3rom ..1.30'
A C
*u%stitutin# into the t$o remainin# e+uations'
B A A B A + + 5 ? 2 ?
..1.(0
A B 2 2 ..1.-0
3rom ..1.-0
B A 2
*u%stitutin# for A in ..1.(0 #ives B"
( ) 1 ? ? 2 5 ? + B B B B
Back su%stitutin#'
<5
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
2 2 B A
2 A C
Cuttin# this all to#ether #ives the final result"
( )( ) 2
2
1
1 2
2 1
?
2 2

+
+ +
+

+ + / / /
/
/ / /
/
The #eneral rules for partial fractions are
Iiven a9 b9 c9 "9 &9 n9 p9 q9 r and s i"e" the& are num%ers then
( )( ) s r/
B
q p/
A
s r/ q p/
n &/
+
+
+

+ +
+
( ) ( )
2 2
q p/
B
q p/
A
q p/
n &/
+
+
+

+
+
( )( ) q p/
C
c b/ a/
B A/
q p/ c b/ a/
n &/ "/
+
+
+ +
+

+ + +
+ +
2 2
2
Multipl& throu#h %& the denominator on the left hand side of
the e+uation' tid& up and compare terms in the top line"
<9
Block 2 Laplace Transforms
$ppendi& $2 1 Completing t!e square /1
st
*ear notes0
4n an& +uadratic e+uation &ou can complete the s+uare" 7onsider the +uadratic function'
2 5
2
+ / / y
You can complete the s+uare %& notin# that
9
B
2
2
5
2 5
2
2
+

,
_

+ / / /
This representation comes from notin# that
9 2
2
2
2
b b
/ b/ /

,
_

+ +
8here b is an& num%er &ou like' such as A3" >nce &ou have completed the s+uare &ou can
find the roots of the ori#inal +uadratic althou#h in the Laplace transform method that is not
the point of the operation"
<: