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Brand is logo, or identity of a particular product that adds different value to the product beyond
its functional features. Main target of any brand is to create perception in customers mind
regarding that particular brand which ultimately leads the consumers to buy that brand. Brand
let the consumers to shop with confidence; it provides customer with a route map through a
puzzling variety of choices, for this customer does not have to be an expert, brand name, tariff
and payment method are enough for him to make a right choice for a brand (om Blackett,!
Brands and Branding.
Brand management begins with having a thorough knowledge of the term brand. "t includes
developing a promise, making that promise and maintaining it. "t means defining the brand,
#ositioning the brand, and delivering the brand. Brand management is nothing but an art of
creating and sustaining the brand. Branding makes customers committed to your business. $
strong brand differentiates your products from the competitors. "t gives a %uality image to your
Brand management includes managing the tangible and intangible characteristics of brand. "n
case of product brands, the tangibles include the product itself, price, packaging, etc. &hile in
case of service brands, the tangibles include the customers' experience. he intangibles
include emotional connections with the product ( service.
Branding is assembling of various marketing mix medium into a whole so as to give you an
identity. "t is nothing but capturing your customers mind with your brand name. "t gives an image
of an experienced, huge and reliable business.
"t is all about capturing the niche market for your product ( service and about creating a
confidence in the current and prospective customers' minds that you are the uni%ue solution
to their problem.
he aim of branding is to convey brand message vividly, create customer loyalty, persuade the
buyer for the product, and establish an emotional connectivity with the customers. Branding
forms customer perceptions about the product. "t should raise customer expectations about the
product. he primary aim of branding is to create differentiation.
)trong brands reduce customers' perceived monetary, social and safety risks in buying
goods(services. he customers can better imagine the intangible goods with the help of brand
name. )trong brand organizations have a high market share. he brand should be given good
support so that it can sustain itself in long run. "t is essential to manage all brands and build
brand e%uity over a period of time. *ere comes importance and usefulness of brand
management. Brand management helps in building a corporate image. $ brand manager has to
oversee overall brand performance. $ successful brand can only be created if the brand
management system is competent.
Understanding Brand :
$ brand is defined in marketing theory as +a name, term, symbol or design, or a combination of
them, which is intended to signify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to
differentiate them from those of competitors+.
his definition fails to address an important aspect of branding however, it defines the brand in
terms of the organization's intended message, not the customer-s understanding of that
message. $ brand exists not only in the organization's marketing activities, but also in the mind
of the customer, who may in fact have %uite a different understanding of what the brand is. "t is
important to find out what the customer-s perception is in order to market brands effectively.
"t may therefore be more useful to define a brand in relation to the customer, rather than to the
organization's marketing activities. o the customer, a brand is a kind of shorthand which stands
for the various elements differentiating one product or group of products or services from
another. hese elements together appeal to the customer both at a rational and an emotional
level, a successful brand communicates what it stands for to its target customer and therefore
acts as a shortcut in his or her decision making process. he customer knows what he or she is
buying, because the brand is a promise of consistency, reliability and %uality.
$ brand or brands may often be the means by which the organization establishes a relationship
with the customer, because a brand (composed as it is of emotional as well as rational
elements! can have an identity and a personality in a way that a product cannot. Branding can
be a powerful way of humanizing products or services.
he ability of a successful brand to do this makes it an important weapon in the fight for
competitive advantage, hence branding techni%ues traditionally used by fast moving consumer
goods sectors have in recent times been adopted in the marketing of services and industrial
goods, and even in the public sector.
Brands are different from products in a way that brands are .what the consumers buy/, while
products are .what concern(companies make/. Brand is an accumulation of emotional and
functional associations. Brand is a promise that the product will perform as per customer's
expectations. "t shapes customer's expectations about the product.
Brands usually have a trademark which protects them from use by others. $ brand gives
particular information about the organization, good or service, differentiating it from others in
Brand carries an assurance about the characteristics that make the product or service uni%ue. $
strong brand is a means of making people aware of what the company represents and what are
its offerings.
T a !ns"#er$ brand #eans and signi%ies:
)ource of product
0elegating responsibility to the manufacturer of product
1ower risk
1ess search cost
2uality symbol
0eal or pact with the product manufacturer
)ymbolic device
Brands simplify consumers purchase decision. 3ver a period of time, consumers discover the
brands which satisfy their need. "f the consumers recognize a particular brand and have
knowledge about it, they make %uick purchase decision and save lot of time. $lso, they save
search costs for product. 4onsumers remain committed and loyal to a brand as long as they
believe and have an implicit understanding that the brand will continue meeting their
expectations and perform in the desired manner consistently. $s long as the consumers get
benefits and satisfaction from consumption of the product, they will more likely continue to buy
that brand. Brands also play a crucial role in signifying certain product features to consumers.
T a se&&er$ brand #eans and signi%ies:
Basis of competitive advantage
&ay of bestowing products with uni%ue associations
&ay of identification to easy handling
&ay of legal protection of products' uni%ue traits(features
)ign of %uality to satisfied customer
Means of financial returns
$ brand, in short, can be defined as a seller's promise to provide consistently a uni%ue set of
characteristics, advantages, and services to the buyers(consumers. "t is a name, term, sign,
symbol or a combination of all these planned to differentiate the goods(services of one seller or
group of sellers from those of competitors. )ome examples of well known brands are Mc
0onald's', Mercedes5Benz, )ony, 4oca 4ola, 6ingfisher, etc.
$ brand connects the four crucial elements of an enterprise5 customers, employees,
management and shareholders. Brand is nothing but an assortment of memories in customers
mind. Brand represents values, ideas and even personality. "t is a set of functional, emotional
and rational associations and benefits which have occupied target market's mind. $ssociations
are nothing but the images and symbols associated with the brand or brand benefits, such as,
he 7ike )woosh, he 7okia sound, etc. Benefits are the basis for purchase decision.
A' Genera& (ense:
$ brand is a collection of experiences and associations connected with a service, a person or
any other entity.
Brands have become increasingly important components of culture and the economy, now
being described as .cultural accessories and personal philosophies./
)ome people distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. he
experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as
the brand experience.
he psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct
created within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectations
associated with a product or service.
4areful brand management, supported by a cleverly crafted advertising campaign, can be
highly successful in convincing consumers to pay remarkably high prices for product which are
inherently extremely cheap to make.
his concept, known as creating value, essentially consists of manipulating the pro8ected image
of the product so that the consumer sees the product as being worth the amount that the
advertiser wants him(her to see, rather than a more logical valuation that comprises an
aggregate of the cost of raw materials, plus the cost of manufacture, plus the cost of

$ brand which is widely known in the market place ac%uires brand recognition.
&hen brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand en8oys a critical mass of positive
sentiment in the market place, it is said to have achieved brand franchise.
3ne goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company
4onsumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of products or services,
as it often serves to denote a certain attractive %uality or characteristics (see also brand
promise!. 9rom the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services also command
higher prices.
&here two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding
(such as a generic, store5branded product!, people may often select the more expensive
branded product on the basis of the %uality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.
B' Mar)eting (ense:
he $merican Marketing $ssociation defines a brand as A name, term, sign, symbol or
design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one
seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors.
$ brand is thus a product or service that's adds a dimension that differentiates it in some way
from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need.
hese differences may be functional, rational, or tangible5 related to product performance of the
Brand #anage#ent is ne!essar* in a&& as+e!ts % t,e brand t,at is:-
0eveloping the Brand
Maintaining and :xtending the Brand
#rotecting the Brand
Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level of %uality people have come to
expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the same product.
"n this regard, Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a broader and more
strategic role than Marketing alone.
he purpose of brand management is to create a powerful and lasting emotional
connection with customers and other audiences.
$ brand is a set of elements or .brand assets/ that in combination create a uni%ue,
memorable, unmistakable, and valuable relationship between an organization and its
he brand is carried by a set of compelling visual, written and vocal tools to represent
the business plan and intentions of an organization.
Brand management is the voice and image that represents your business plan to the
outside world. &hat your company, products and services stand for should all be
captured in your branding strategy, and represented consistently throughout all your
brand assets and in your daily marketing activities. he brand image that carries this
emotional connection consists of the many manageable elements of branding system,
including both visual image assets and language assets.
he process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only in .big
change situation/ where the brand redefinition is re%uired, but also in the management
of routine marketing variables and tactics.
his does not have to be a .ground5up/ situation where there are wholesale changes to
the business.
;ather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the business plan are
incremental and the work of the changes to the business plan are incremental and the
brand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding
strategy and resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing
0,at #a)es a strng brand1
Brands in the new millennium need to be strong enough to fight these challenges. $t the most
basic level, a brand must fulfill a number of criteria in order to work effectively,
"t must work as a product or service. 7o fancy advertising campaign or clever logo
design will compensate for a poorly performing product.
"t must appeal on an emotional as well as a rational level. he marketing literate
customer knows that many no5brands or own label products +work+ 8ust as well as the
brand leader. he price premium which a brand can command is 8ustified by the
additional intangible, emotional benefits.
"t must be integrated and coherent, given that a brand is a bundle of benefits, both
tangible and intangible, these elements must be consistent with each other to present a
coherent and believable +brand personality+.
&hat it offers must be wanted by the customer and mean something to him or her. &hat is
relevant may change over time, for example, +environmentally friendly+ is a relevant benefit now
for products and services ranging from motor cars to holidays to coffee beans; thirty years ago
it would not have been a relevant benefit for a brand to represent, and the customer would not
have been prepared to pay a premium for it.
<iven the widespread adoption of branding techni%ues across a whole range of sectors, it is
worth testing out your brand or brand idea against the above four key criteria. Below are some
examples of effective branding in non5traditional areas.
G&ba& Brands:-
$ll of us are aware of the existence of strong global brands, especially in areas such as food and drink
or motor cars. 3rganizations who create successful global brands can reap the benefits of economies of
scale in production, marketing and distribution. $t the same time, however, they need to ensure that they
are still being responsive to customer wants, which may vary from one country or region to another.
he issue is how to balance global economies of scale with local responsiveness. "n
practice, some of an organization's brand management activities will be global, and
others local. "n deciding where the balance should lie, it may help to consider the
following %uestions,
*ow similar are customer wants in this market= "s there a trend for these needs to
converge, or are they country specific= his may depend on a number of factors 5
culture, geography or legislation. 9or example, basic food products such as bread are
strongly linked to culture and difficult to market globally; convenience foods, such as
hamburgers, ice cream or soft drinks are not so culture5specific.
$re there segments in this market which may cross borders= "t is far more likely that a
brand will appeal to a global segment than to a global market. 9re%uent examples of this
are youth segments (e.g. 4oke, 1evis! and luxury segments (e.g. Mercedes, ;olex! but
there are other cases where consumers may have more in common with a similar group
in another country than they have with groups in their own country= here are big
differences between consumers in 7orthern and )outhern "taly, for example, the Milan
businessman has more in common with his counterpart in 9rankfurt than with a peasant
farmer in )icily.
*ow transparent is the market 5 in other words can price differentials in different national
markets be sustained, or is there a risk of parallel imports= $re customers aware of
competitive offerings in other countries=
*ow similar is the market structure in different countries= $re distribution or
communication channels very different, for example 5 if so a global branding strategy
would be difficult to sustain.
0oes the main competition in this market come from international or local competitors=
$re the key factors for success in this market the same across geographical borders=
he answers to the above %uestions will determine how far a standardized brand
positioning can be adopted across different national markets. "n most cases, the
communication of this positioning 5 via the marketing mix and the other tools discussed
above 5 will vary from one country or region to another, even for so called global brands,
different advertising or pricing strategies may be used to support a common brand
1.2 T,e e&e#ent % a brand
<iven that a brand is a combination of tangible and intangible, rational and emotional appeals, it
is useful to break a brand down into its different elements in order to understand how it works.
0ifferent writers on branding suggest different approaches to this, but all advocate separating
the physical attributes from the emotional benefits of the brand, and attempting to define what
lies at the core of the brand-s identity.
his central core is what makes the brand distinctive and valuable to the customer, and is easily
understood by them. "t should remain consistent over time and over the different markets and
products or services using the brand. 3therwise the customer will become confused and the
value of the brand diluted.
"t is useful to map brands in this way 5 both the organization's and its competitors- 5 because it
helps to clarify what is essential to the brand and what may change as the brand develops or is
extended into new areas. $n example is shown below,
he relationship between the elements of a brand

1. Estab&is, and Maintain t,e Brand
$s a threshold issue, it will be extremely important to establish and maintain the brand.
&hen doing so, the adoption of a holistic approach, or an .overall brand strategy/ is
)uch overall brand strategy should be implemented with full recognition that the brand
may travers numerous different product lines and geographic regions.
$dopting an overall brand strategy also re%uires recognition that brands are significant to
both the traditional retail and the online market.
$ccomplishing an overall brand strategy re%uires close coordination between the
licensor and licensees in different markets.
here must be a consistent program for protecting brands and monitoring the usage of
9ocus should also be placed upon prospective uses of brands.
his may include identifying brands that might be used in the future and identifying new
products and services with which existing brands might be used.
.. Ens"re Cnsisten!* bet4een t,e Brand 5i!ensing (trateg* and O6era&&
B"siness Ga&s
:ffective brand management strategies also necessitate emphasis on ensuring
consistency between the brand licensing strategy and the enterprise's overall business
:fforts should be undertaken to ensure that the brand reflects positively on the company,
does not detract from other product lines and remains profitable with other parts
of company.
2. (e&e!t Pr%itab&e and Inn6ati6e 5i!ense Partners
he importance of consistency should also be reflected in the selection of license
9ocus should surely be placed upon license partners that en8oy healthy businesses and
that offer innovative products.
$t the same time, however, emphasis should also be placed upon licensee partners with
similar cultures and business goals since doing so may help to reduce the amount of
time that is expended on reaching the basis business terms.
4ompanies should develop a profile of the ideal license partner but recognize that while
many licensors and licensees may en8oy long5term relationships, few of
such relationships will be permanent.
3. /!"s n Ma7i#i8ing 5e6erage % t,e Brand
)uccessful brand management will involve focus on the maximizing the leverage of the
3f course, this may mean different things in different context. *owever, in all
circumstances, a considered 8udgment regarding brand placement will be crucial.
9. 5i!ense Agree#ents: E7!&"si6e r Nn-E7!&"si6e1
he exclusivity of the license agreement will be a key factor in brand management.
&hether the license agreement will be exclusive or non>exclusive will have important
implications for all of the business.
&hen considering the exclusivity of a license grant, it must be recalled that the license
can only be granted once as an exclusive license.
$ccordingly, particular scrutiny must be directed towards the strategies and business
goals of potential exclusive licensees.
"n addition to understanding the current interests and strategies of the prospective
exclusive licensee, it is advisable to construct the license in such a way so as to maintain
the licensee's commitment licensee to the brand.
4learly, it will be in the interest of the licensor to ensure that the licensee's interest in the
brand is and will stay as high as possible.
his can be done in a number of ways including, for example, by re%uiring additional
payments or some other form of compensation during the license term in order to
maintain the exclusivity of the arrangement.
&hile exclusive licensing arrangements will be extremely important, it must be recalled
that non5exclusive licenses can also play a role in the business.
$ccordingly, proper attention and resources should also be devoted to constructing such
non5exclusive arrangements and ensuring that they are profitable.
:. 5i!ense agree#ents M"st In!&"de E%%e!ti6e Means /r En%r!ing ;e*
$ll license agreements should include effective means of enforcement.
Most license agreements will address extremely important issues including %uality
control standards and reporting standards.
*owever, such standards and re%uirements will not be of much use without effective
enforcement mechanisms to back them up.
he precise enforcement mechanisms that should be used will depend on the particulars
of the licensing arrangement.
$s an example, however, in an exclusive licensing arrangement, the termination of
exclusivity may be an effective remedy for the breach of certain contractual
<. Be Pr-A!ti6e n Prd"!ts = (er6i!es
1icensors should be not adopt a .hands off/ approach when dealing with the licensee's
products and services. ;ather, efforts should be undertaken to ensure that the licensee's
products are desirable and up5to5date.
4learly, it will be in the licensor's interest to ensure that its brand will be affixed to the
most popular products and services.
3f course, consumer interest can change over time so it will be essential to periodically
monitor changes in demand for the licensee's product and services.
>. ("!!ess%"& Brand 5i!ensing (trateg* Re?"ires Dedi!ated (ta%%
he enterprise's staff will play an extremely important role in the company's overall brand
licensing initiatives. )election of licensing staff should be undertaken with the recognition
such staff members will be re%uired to organize control and coordinate all the activities of
the licensees.
"n addition to focusing on the key licensing staff, other relevant staff members should be
trained and encouraged to take an active role in the efforts overall brand licensing
@. A!ti6e&* Integrate t,e Brand 5i!ensing (trateg* int Prd"!t De6e&+#ent
and 5a"n!, A!ti6ities
4ompanies should be active > and not static > when undertaking efforts to integrate the
brand strategy into product development and launch activities.
$ clear and proactive strategy is likely to generate the most reward.
A gd brand na#e s,"&d:
? be protected (or at least protectable! under rademark law.
? be easy to pronounce.
? be easy to remember.
? be easy to recognize.
? be easy to translate into all languages in the markets where the brand will be used.
? attract attention.
? suggest product benefits or suggest usage (note the tradeoff with strong trademark
? suggest the company or product image.
? distinguish the product-s positioning relative to the competition.
? be attractive.
? stand out among a group of other brands.
BPre#i"#:- 4ost more than other product in the category
B E!n#i!:- argeted to high price elasticity market segment.
BMan"%a!t"ring:- "t is directly manufactured by manufactures who have invested heavily on
building them.
/r e7a#+&e, )urf, ;in , 1ux, 4olgate.
BGeneri! brand:- "t is consumer products (often supermarket goods! are distinguished by
the absence of a brand name. generics brand are usually priced below those products sold by
supermarkets under their own brand (fre%uently referred to as +store brands+ or
+own brands+!.
<enerally they imitate these more expensive brands, competing on price.
/r e7a#+&e, ;ice, wheat, 0oormats, paper napkins.
$ number of different types of brands are recognized.
$ .premium brand/ @typically costs more than other products in the same category.
hese are sometimes referred to as -top5shelf- products. $n @'economy brand @' is a brand
targeted to high price elasticity market segment. hey generally position themselves as offering
all the same benefits as a premium product, for an -economic- price.
$ @'fighting brand'' is a brand created specifically to counter a competitive threat. &hen a
company-s name is used as a product brand name, this is referred to as corporate branding.
&hen one brand name is used for several related products, this is referred to as family
&hen all company's products are given different brand names, this is referred to as
individual branding. &hen a company uses the brand e%uity associated with an existing brand
name to introduce a new product or product line, this is referred to as +brand extension.+
&hen large retailers buy products in bulk from manufacturers and put their own brand name on
them, this is called private branding, store brand, white labeling , private label or own brand

#rivate brand can be differentiated from .manufacturers' brand/ (also referred to as
+national brands+!.
&hen different brands work together to market their products, this is referred to as .company/.
&hen a company sells the rights to use brand name to another company for use on a non5
competing product or in another geographical area, this is referred to as +brand licensing.+
$n +employment brand+ is created when a company wants to build awareness with potential
"n many cases, such as <oogle, this brand is an integrated extension of their customer.

Branding in essence is effective brand strategy. "t-s the application of sound research into brand
communications, analytical techni%ues, and the development of an improved strategy for your
)trategy is all about brand positioning. "t identifies the key elements of product brand and
develops a branding action plan to implement it.
"n this strategy company introduces additional item in the same product category in the same
brand name.
his item may be different in size, packaging, color and so on. "t is available through different
specific mix of trade channels e.g. lower end products are available at general stores and
higher end products. "t offers a variety of products to the customer.
1ine extensions can be innovative. "t also allows company to command more shelf > space at
the retail level. 1ine extensions work only if the sales are taken away from the competitors.
/r e7a#+&e, 4oke in "ndia means BCCml. Bottles it extended to DCCml and Eltr. hen can have

<odre8 had face cream with the name 9air glow fairness cream and came out with the fair glow
toilet soap to cater the people who wished to use soap bar rather than cream.
:xtending brand name is extended to a product being launched in a new product category.
"f new product is not satisfactory in performance, it might affect the reputation of the company's
other products.
Most of the times, brand name may not be appropriate for the new product category. Brand
extension advisable to see how the associations of the parent brand are consistent with the
extended brand.
/r e7a#+&e$ Ba8a8 is a brand name in the field of )cooters. he company used the same
brand name for :lectronics appliances, Motor cycles, empos.
1. E7tending t,e brand :-
4ol gate is avai labl e in both tooth paste and toothpowder. )imilarly Fim bar extended to
the powder.
.. Prd"!t &ine e7tensin: - $dditional product is added under same brand name. 9or
example *11 extended its flora brand of sunflower oil to the gingerly oil segment of the edible
oil category.
2. Rea!,ing "t t t,e ne4 !ategr*:-&hen the brand has potential of providing
benefit in another category either through chosen brand name or through its wi de
acceptance in a category, thi s form of extension is followed.
"t is the process of launching the brand after certain time gap. 4ompanies try to ac%uire a brand
from other companies and relaunch it with necessary modification.
/r e7a#+&e$ <laxo smith line ac%uire Fiva a Maltova from Gagat8it industries in HCCC, but
could not secure the expected benefit.
*11 ac%uired 6wality ice cream in the mid5 nineties it as 6wality &alls.
his kind of strategy is employed to saturate the market. $dditional brand share introduced to
cater to the different segment.
Multi brand strategy may not allow company to focus on company's resources.
Because of this profitability get affected.
4ompetitors brand get affected by the product and sometime own brand also get affected. /r
e7a#+&e, #I<'s tide is for soiled clothes and drift for gentle clothes.
4oco5 4ola came with humps Ap, <old spot, 1imca brands.
o make brand name more appropriate, a company puts a new brand name when it enters a
new product category.
$ new brand again has to be built up, and this is %uite expensive. "t should be considered
whether the sales and profit estimated from the new brand.
/r e7a#+&e , Manikchand entered the mineral water segment with the brand name 3xyrich.
Asing same brand hamper the sale of mineral water. &hen Manikchand atta were launched, it
did not succeed in the market.
1.> T,reats t brands in t,e ne4 #i&&enni"#:
"n the eighties, brands were fre%uently in the news as big take5overs and mergers took place,
with large organizations looking to increase their portfolio of leading brands, and paying high
prices for them. he #hilip Morris take5over of 6raft in the A) in EJKK was a case in point ,
#hilip Morris paid a premium of five times the value of the organization's tangible assets,
because of the intangibles which went with them 5 the brand names. )ome organization's
began to list brands as assets on their balance sheets, and the concept of +brand e%uity+
"n the nineties, the pressures on brands grew and came from a variety of different sources,
Ed"!ated !ns"#ers:
he nineties consumer is marketing literate and alert to any hint of @marketing hype'. Brands
must offer real added value; even so5called brand loyal customers are often loyal to a group of
brands (called a repertoire! rather than any single brand.
P4er%"& retai&ers:
)trong retailers or retail groups can dictate terms to manufacturers. here is an increasing trend
towards partnership with a preferred supplier who will manage an entire category for the
retailer, including its own and rival brands. he retailer may be building a brand in its own right
()ainsbury's in the A6; 7ordstrom in the A) are prime examples of this! and the customer
trusts and feels loyal to the retailer rather than to the product. )tores like Marks I )pencer and
he <ap sell only own label, their power as retail brands is sufficient to do this.
Bt, % t,e ab6e &eading t +ress"re n +ri!es:
"f a consumer does not perceive a product to deliver added value, they will not be prepared to
pay a price premium. *owever, there is an increasing trend for customers to demand both low
prices $70 added value 5 especially in the Anited )tates where the concept of everyday low
pricing was introduced by #roctor and <amble, but taken up by others. &hen #hilip Morris cut
the price of Marlboro on +Marlboro 9riday+, Hnd $pril EJJB, it was acknowledging that even a
strong brand can no longer expect to command a price premium in a tough market.
T,e gr4t, % 4n &abe&:
I% t,e !"st#er des nt +er!ei6e t,e brand as adding an* rea& 6a&"e$ and i% in additin
t,e retai&er re+resents s#e strng brand 6a&"es itse&%$ t,en t,e 4a* is !&ear %r strng
4n &abe& +rd"!ts. T,is is seen !&ear&* in OTC D6er t,e !"nter' +,ar#a!e"ti!a&s b"t
a&s in %d and drin) +rd"!ts. (ainsb"r*Es &a"n!, % C&assi! C&a t dire!t&* !,a&&enge
C)e 4as a t"rning +int in t,is 4arF b"*ing t,e 4n &abe& a&ternati6e is n4 seen b*
s#e !ns"#er gr"+s as t,e s#art t,ing t d$ s t,at G4n &abe&G be!#es a
state#ent in itse&%.
Brand e7tensin instead % inn6atin:
$s is pointed out by 1eslie de 4hernatonay in his article 2001 - The brand management
odyssey, brands which in the past were built through real technical innovation can no
longer keep pace, and may choose instead to extend an existing brand into new areas or
variants. "f done carefully, this can enhance an existing brand, but there is also the
danger of brand dilution or of confusing the customer. )ome of the big fashion houses
such as #ierre 4ardin and <ucci have fallen into this trap in the past.
Ne4 !#+etitin %r# "tside t,e se!tr:
:xisting strong brands (eg Firgin, <M! looking to extend their franchise into other areas may
also pose a threat. 9or example, the Firgin brand was probably much stronger than any of its
new competitors when it entered the field of personal finance 5 as was Marks I )pencer. 7ew
competitors like this are hard to fight because they are playing a different game 5 and have
honed their skills on a different playing field.
B Brand A4areness:-
Brand awareness is the starting point in the development of brand e%uity. "t represents the
consumer's ability to recall a brand name when given a product category ($aker, EJJE!.
/r e7a#+&e$ when a person is asked to name a brand of basketball shoes, they are more
likely to mention 7ike, ;eebok, 4onverse or $didas than they are to name 1$ <ear or )palding.
$ccording to 6eller (EJJK!, brand awareness is important to brand strategy for two reasons.
9irst, awareness of the brand ensures the brand enters the consumer's consideration set when
looking to make a purchase.
)econd, brand awareness can affect choices within the consideration set. "f one brand has a
large presence through advertising, it may be considered more favorably.
hird , awareness can impact the development and salience of associations with the brand.
/r e7a#+&e$ when anyone says, about 4omputer 4ompany you remember about "BM. &hen
anyone says, about detergent u remember popular brand like ide, )urf, $riel and so on.
B Per!ei6er H"a&it*:-
#erceived %uality represents a consumer's 8udgments of a product's overall excellence relative
to its intended purpose.
/r e7a#+&e, given its rich heritage with the sport of football $didas is commonly perceived to
produce a high5%uality football shoes.
Because it has been shown to drive financial performance (return5on5 investment!, perceived
%uality is often the focal point of corporate strategy.
Besides the actual make5up of the product, pricing strategies may impact a consumer-s
perception of %uality.
herefore, in athletic footwear, as in many other industries, higher price may connote higher

/r e7a#+&e$ Maggi noodle, it positioned their products as healthy fast food with the slogan @' H
minute noodles.''
)logan based on H minutes it help mother with promise of @ food to cook and great to eat' .his
slogan specifies you can prepare food within H minutes and it will not harm to your health.
B Brand ass!iatin:-
"t is associate brand with certain tangible and intangible attributes, a celebrity endorser or a
visual symbol.
Most of this association are derived from brand identity and brand image.
:ach organization has to carve a brand identity and develop it further to build strong brands.
B 5g and s*#b&:-
$long with the brand name, companies also use a logo for visual identification.
$ long is pictorial symbol indented to communicate with the consumers.
9lags, pictures, graphical designs and alphabets are all used as logos.
"t is the piece of creativity. 1ogo is a relatively permanent entity for a company.
9or example, logo of the $ditya Birla group of companies in "ndia is a ;ising )un. $ccording to
the company, the logo represents the company's outlook, which is posi ti ve thinking and
also a stress on values such as integrity, %uality, and performances.
B C,ara!ters:-
Brand characters typically are introduced through advertising and can play a central role in
these and subse%uent ad campaigns.


Brand characters come in many different forms. )ome brand characters are animated where as
others are live5action figures. 4onse%uently brand characters can be %uite useful for creating
brand awareness. 4haracters often must be updated over time so that their image and
personality remains relevant to the target market.
9or example, an $sian paint is another that has created a wining logo.
&hen you look for $sian paints, you catch sight of <attu 5 the impish little boy with a paintbrush
in one hand a dripping can of paints in the other.
"n many towns of 7orth "ndia, buyer asks for $sian #aints, by asking for the .bacha chaap
..1 Brand Na#e
Brand name is one of the brand elements which helps the customers to identify and
differentiate one product from another. "t should be chosen very carefully as it captures the key
theme of a product in an efficient and economical manner. "t can easily be noticed and its
meaning can be stored and triggered in the memory instantly. 4hoice of a brand name re%uires
a lot of research. Brand names are not necessarily associated with the product. 9or instance,
brand names can be based on places ($ir "ndia, British $irways!, animals or birds (0ove soap,
#uma!, people (1ouise #hillips, $llen )olly!. "n some instances, the company name is used for
all products (<eneral :lectric, 1<!.
/eat"res % a Gd Brand Na#e
E. $ good brand name should have following characteristics,
H. "t should be uni%ue ( distinctive (for instance5 6odak, Mustang!
B. "t should be extendable.
L. "t should be easy to pronounce, identified and memorized. (9or instance5ide!
D. "t should give an idea about product's %ualities and benefits (9or instance5 )wift, 2uickfix,
M. "t should be easily convertible into foreign languages.
N. "t should be capable of legal protection and registration.
K. "t should suggest product(service category (9or instance 7ewsweek!.
J. "t should indicate concrete %ualities (9or instance 9irebird!.
EC. "t should not portray bad(wrong meanings in other categories. (9or instance 73F$ is a poor
name for a car to be sold in )panish country, because in )panish it means .doesn't go/!.
Pr!ess % (e&e!ting a ren4ned and s"!!ess%"& Brand Na#e:
De%ine t,e bIe!ti6es % branding in ter#s % si7 !riterins 5 descriptive, suggestive,
compound, classical, arbitrary and fanciful. "t "s essential to recognize the role of brand
within the corporate branding strategy and the relation of brand to other brand and products.
"t is also essential to understand the role of brand within entire marketing program as well as
a detailed description of niche market must be considered.
Generatin % #"&ti+&e na#es - $ny potential source of names can be used; organization,
management and employees, current or potential customers, agencies and professional
(!reening % na#es n t,e basis % branding bIe!ti6es and #ar)eting
!nsideratins s as t ,a6e a #re s*n!,rni8ed &ist - he brand names must not
have connotations, should be easily pronounceable, should meet the legal re%uirements etc.
Gat,ering #re e7tensi6e detai&s n ea!, % t,e %ina&i8ed na#es 5 here should be
extensive international legal search done. hese searches are at times done on a se%uential
basis because of the expense involved.
Cnd"!ting !ns"#er resear!, - 4onsumer research is often conducted so as to confirm
management expectations as to the remembrance and meaningfulness of the brand names.
he features of the product, its price and promotion may be shown to the consumers so that
they understand the purpose of the brand name and the manner in which it will be used.
4onsumers can be shown actual B50 packages as well as animated advertising or boards.
)everal samples of consumers must be surveyed depending on the niche market involved.
3n the basis of the above steps, management can finalize the brand name that maximizes the
organization's branding and marketing ob8ectives and then formally register the brand name.
... Brand Attrib"tes
Brand $ttributes portray a company's brand characteristics. hey signify the basic nature of
brand. Brand attributes are a bundle of features that highlight the physical and personality
aspects of the brand. $ttributes are developed through images, actions, or presumptions. Brand
attributes help in creating brand identity.
A strng brand #"st ,a6e %&&4ing attrib"tes:
1.Re&e6an!*- $ strong brand must be relevant. "t must meet people's expectations and should
perform the way they want it to. $ good 8ob must be done to persuade consumers to buy the
product; else in spite of your product being uni%ue, people will not buy it.
..Cnsisten!*- $ consistent brand signifies what the brand stands for and builds customers
trust in brand. $ consistent brand is where the company communicates message in a way that
does not deviate from the core brand proposition.
2.Pr+er +sitining- $ strong brand should be positioned so that it makes a place in target
audience mind and they prefer it over other brands.
3.("stainab&e- $ strong brand makes a business competitive. $ sustainable brand drives an
organization towards innovation and success. :xample of sustainable brand is Marks and
9.Credibi&it*- $ strong brand should do what it promises. he way you communicate your
brand to the audience( customers should be realistic. "t should not fail to deliver what it
promises. 0o not exaggerate as customers want to believe in the promises you make to them.
:.Ins+iratina&- $ strong brand should transcend( inspire the category it is famous for.
9or example5 7ike transcendent Gersey #olo )hirt.
<.Uni?"eness- $ strong brand should be different and uni%ue. "t should set you apart from
other competitors in market.
>.A++ea&ing- $ strong brand should be attractive. 4ustomers should be attracted by the
promise you make and by the value you deliver.
..2 Brand Psitining
Brand positioning refers to target !ns"#erJs reason to buy your brand in preference to others.
"t is ensures that all brand activity has a common aim; is guided, directed and delivered by the
brand's benefits(reasons to buy; and it focusses at all points of contact with the consumer.
he term brand positioning is generally used to describe how an organization attempts to influence
the customer-s perception of its brand by presenting it in a particular way, through activities such
as advertising, point of sale material, direct mail etc. he organization first chooses a brand identity
and then communicates it to the target market. 1ynn Apshaw in her book
makes the point,
however, that the brand is actually positioned by the consumer, whilst all the organization can do is
send what she calls +positioning prompts+ to influence or persuade.
)uccessful brands are rarely created overnight. hey are the result of careful positioning supported
by long term strategies and consistent investment, and any organization which tries to change its
brand positioning too fre%uently will soon find that the customer becomes confused.
3f course, if positioning is about influencing customer perceptions, the organization must first
understand and track customer wants and competitive offerings. "f the brand in %uestion already
exists, considerable time and effort must be spent in understanding how the customer perceives the
brand, before any thought can be given to changing that perception. "n any event, changes in
customer perception can usually only be achieved gradually, in small steps over long periods of time.
"t is the act of designing companies the company's offer so that it occupies a distinct and valued
place in the minds of customer.
Brand positioning is a part of brand identity and value proposition that is to be actively communicated
to the target audience and demonstrate an advantage over competing brands.

1. Psitining b* +ri!e and ?"a&it*: -
<ood %uality costs little more. he consumer selects the product at different level of price, offering
different %uality and decided which is more suitable.
/r e7a#+&e$ this strategy commonly used in construction industry.
..Psitining b* "ser !ategr*:-
he product is associated with the specific user class of people. 9amous personalities are used to
influences the consumers.
2.Psitining b* +rd"!t !&ass:-
)ome advertisers use class associations which are seen substitute to satisfy needs of the consumer.
/r e7a#+&e$ 4adbury dairy milk came with the chocolate box as a gift.
3. Psitining b* bene%it:-
#osition on the basis of special benefit.
/r e7a#+&e$ Maggi two minute noodles position itself with .wo minute positioning/, .9ast to cook
good to eat/.
Brand +sitining #"st #a)e s"re t,at:
"s it uni%ue( distinctive vs. competitors=
"s it significant and encouraging to the niche market=
"s it appropriate to all ma8or geographic markets and businesses=
"s the proposition validated with uni%ue, appropriate and original products=
"s it sustainable 5 can it be delivered constantly across all points of contact with the consumer=
"s it helpful for organization to achieve its financial goals=
"s it able to support and boost up the organization=
"n order to create a distinctive place in the market, a niche market has to be carefully chosen
and a differential advantage must be created in their mind. Brand positioning is a medium
through which an organization can portray it's customers what it wants to achieve for them and
what it wants to mean to them. Brand positioning forms customer's views and opinions.
Brand #ositioning can be defined as an activity of creating a brand offer in such a manner that it
occupies a distinctive place and value in the target customer's mind. 9or instance56otak
Mahindra positions itself in the customer's mind as one entity5 .6otak /5 which can provide
customized and one5stop solution for all their financial services needs. "t has an unaided top of
mind recall. "t intends to stay with the proposition of .hink "nvestments, hink 6otak/. he
positioning you choose for your brand will be influenced by the competitive stance you want to
Brand #ositioning involves identifying and determining points of similarity and difference to
ascertain the right brand identity and to create a proper brand image. Brand #ositioning is the
key of marketing strategy. $ strong brand positioning directs marketing strategy by explaining
the brand details, the uni%ueness of brand and it's similarity with the competitive brands, as well
as the reasons for buying and using that specific brand. #ositioning is the base for developing
and increasing the re%uired knowledge and perceptions of the customer. "t is the single feature
that sets your service apart from your competitors. 9or instance5 6ingfisher stands for youth
and excitement. "t represents brand in full flight.
T,ere are 6ari"s +sitining errrs$ s"!, as-
1.Under +sitining- his is a scenario in which the customers have a blurred and unclear
idea of the brand.
..O6er +sitining- his is a scenario in which the customers have too limited a awareness of
the brand.
2.Cn%"sed +sitining- his is a scenario in which the customers have a confused opinion of
the brand.
3.D"b&e Psitining- his is a scenario in which customers do not accept the claims of a
..3 Brand Identit*
Brand identit* stems from an organization, organization is responsible for creating a
distinguished product with uni%ue characteristics. "t is how an organization seeks to identify
itself. "t represents how an organization wants to be perceived in the market. $n organization
communicates its identity to the consumers through its branding and marketing strategies. $
brand is uni%ue due to its identity. Brand identity includes following elements 5 Brand vision,
brand culture, positioning, personality, relationships, and presentations.
Brand identity is a bundle of mental and functional associations with the brand. $ssociations are
not .reasons5to5buy/ but provide familiarity and differentiation that's not replicable getting it.
hese associations can include signature tune(for example 5 Britannia .ting5ting5ta5ding/!,
trademark colours (for example 5 Blue colour with #epsi!, logo (for example 5 7ike!, tagline (for
example 5 $pple's tagline is .hink different/!,etc. Brand identity is the total proposal(promise
that an organization makes to consumers.
he brand can be perceived as a product, a personality, a set of values, and a position it
occupies in consumer's minds. Brand identity is all that an organization wants the brand to be
considered as. "t is a feature linked with a specific company, product, service or individual. "t is
a way of externally expressing a brand to the world.
Brand identity is the term used to describe how brand strategists want their brand to be
perceived. "t must be relevant to customer wants and must be clear and easy to understand. "t
is the brand identity which is at the heart of the relationship between the customer and the
organization, and therefore at the heart of any brand strategy. "t encompasses associations
both with the product and the organization, but is more than the sum of these , a strong brand
has a personality of its own, human %ualities which appeal to customers and make them want
not only to buy the product, but to have a relationship with the brand.
"t may help organization's to think of their brands in this way. "f the brand can be thought of as a
person, it is possible to ask %uestions such as, "f this brand were a person, what sort of car
would it drive= &hat would be its favorite drink= &hat would it say to you= "f the answer is not
obvious, then the brand personality and hence the overall brand identity may not be clear.
$ successfully positioned brand has a clear identity which can be understood by everyone,
even outside the target market group. $lmost anyone in the world could tell you what a global
brand such as 4oca 4ola or Mercedes stands for ( not all brands are global, of course, but
successful national brands are well understood by their local market!.
Brand identity is the noticeable elements of a brand (for instance 5 rademark colour, logo,
name, symbol! that identify and differentiates a brand in target audience mind. "t is a crucial
means to grow your company's brand.
Brand identity is the aggregation of what all you (i.e. an organization! do. "t is an organization's
mission, personality, promise to the consumers and competitive advantages. "t includes the
thinking, feelings and expectations of the target market(consumers. "t is a means of identifying
and distinguishing an organization from another. $n organization having uni%ue brand identity
have improved brand awareness, motivated team of employees who feel proud working in a
well branded organization, active buyers, and corporate style.
Brand identity leads to brand loyalty, brand preference, high credibility, good prices and good
financial returns. "t helps the organization to express to the customers and the target market the
kind of organization it is. "t assures the customers again that you are who you say you are. "t
establishes an immediate connection between the organization and consumers. Brand identity
should be sustainable. "t is crucial so that the consumers instantly correlate with your
Brand identity should be futuristic, i.e, it should reveal the associations aspired for the brand. "t
should reflect the durable %ualities of a brand. Brand identity is a basic means of consumer
recognition and represents the brand's distinction from its competitors.
4ollectively, a company's brand identification system will serve as a face of the brand, creating
sought after impressions and familiarity, market recognition and recall, and brand loyalty and
&e work with companies to define and develop an effective brand identification system that
supports and furthers the positioning strategy and is critical to its overall achievement and
5g (*ste#:
4reating primary and secondary creative cues > logos and sub5marks > that represent the key
entities of the brand.
5) and /ee&
0efining the visual essence and personality of the brand through graphic devices, symbols,
colors, tone and typography
0eveloping a complete suite of tools designed to act as mnemonic devices to enable audiences
to develop a network of brand associations in their minds
0etermining key names and modifiers that represent the brand and its various parts >
businesses, products, services and additional entities, as directed by the brand strategy
Brand identity is the uni%ue set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create
or maintain.
hese associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to customers for
the organization members.
"t is much more comprehensive than brand positioning which communicate to the consumer
relevant value to the brand to distinguish from competitor's brand.
Brand Identit* /r C&se U+ Tt, Paste
Cre Identit*: 3ral freshness which allows young people to come closer to each
E7tended Identit*: - %uality products from 1ever
Ka&"e Pr+sitin: - "t is a sweet gel, having bright colors. "t is only cleanness but
freshness the mouth.
Brand Identit* /r N*!i&
Cre Identit*: - $ powder which take care of prickly heat in summer
E7tended Identit*: "t is a sweat fighter. "t is life style products.
Ka&"e Pr+sitin: ;elief from prickly heat in tropical climate and summer. Make
life comfortable.
Pers+e!ti6e Di#ensin Re#ar)s
Brand as

2uality pri ce relationship is kept in mind.
Gohnson and Gohnson are for babies.
ata stands for %uality. )uch an association is
more enduring than one based on product
?visuals imagery
4oca cola's classic bottle
6odak and Oellow pages
he 8ourney in palace on wheels, the coaches
of whi ch are the saloons of former
("r!e % Brand Identit*:-
)ymbols help customers memorize organization's products and services. hey help us
correlate positive attributes that bring us closer and make it convenient for us to purchase those
products and services. )ymbols emphasize our brand expectations and shape corporate
images. )ymbols become a key component of brand e%uity and help in differentiating the brand
characteristics. )ymbols are easier to memorize than the brand names as they are visual
images. hese can include logos, people, geometric shapes, cartoon images, anything. /r
instan!e, Marlboro has its famous cowboy, #illsbury has its #oppin' 9resh doughboy, 0uracell
has its bunny rabbit, Mc 0onald has ;onald, 9ed :x has an arrow, and 7ike's swoosh. $ll these
symbols help us remember the brands associated with them.
Brand symbols are strong means to attract attention and enhance brand personalities by
making customers like them. "t is feasible to learn the relationship between symbol and brand if
the symbol is reflective( representative of the brand. 9or instance, the symbol of 1< symbolize
the world, future, youth, humanity, and technology. $lso, it represents 1<'s efforts to keep close
relationships with their customers.
$ logo is a uni%ue graphic or symbol that represents a company, product, service, or other
entity. "t represents an organization very well and make the customers well5ac%uainted with the
company. "t is due to logo that customers form an image for the product(service in mind.
$didas's .hree )tripes/ is a famous brand identified by it's corporate logo.
/eat"res % a gd &g are:
E."t should be simple.
H."t should be distinguished( uni%ue. "t should differentiate itself.
B."t should be functional so that it can be used widely.
L."t should be effective, i.e., it must have an impact on the intended audience.
D."t should be memorable.
M."t should be easily identifiable in full colours, limited colour palettes, or in black and white.
N."t should be a perfect reflection(representation of the organization.
K."t should be easy to correlate by the customers and should develop customers trust in the
J."t should not loose its integrity when transferred on fabric or any other material.
EC."t should portray company's values, mission and ob8ectives.
T,e e&e#ents % a &g are:
5gt*+e - "t can be a simple or expanded name. :xamples of logotypes including only the
name are 6ellogg's, *yatt, etc.
I!n - "t is a name or visual symbol that communicates a market position. 9or example51"4
'hands', A" 'kalash'.
(&gan - "t is best way of conveying company's message to the consumers. 9or instance5
7ike's slogan .Gust 0o "t/.
rademark is a uni%ue symbol, design, or any form of identification that helps people recognize
a brand. $ renowned brand has a popular trademark and that helps consumers purchase
%uality products. he goodwill of the dealer(maker of the product also enhances by use of
trademark. rademark totally indicates the commercial source of product(service. rademark
contribute in brand e%uity formation of a brand. rademark name should be original. $
trademark is chosen by the following symbols,
P (denotes unregistered trademark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand goods!;
(denotes unregistered service mark!
Q (denotes registered trademark!.
;egistration of trademark is essential in some countries to give exclusive rights to it. &ithout
ade%uate trademark protection, brand names can become legally declared generic. <eneric
names are never protectable as was the case with Faseline, escalator and thermos.
(#e g"ide&ines %r trade#ar) +rte!tin are as %&&4s:
E. <o for formal trademark registration.
H. 7ever use trademark as a noun or verb. $lways use it as an ad8ective.
B. Ase correct trademark spelling.
L. 4hallenge each misuse of trademark, specifically by competitors in market.
D. 4apitalize first letter of trademark. "f a trademark appears in point, ensure that it stands out
from surrounding text.
..9 Brand I#age
Brand i#age is the current view of the customers about a brand. "t can be defined as a uni%ue bundle
of associations within the minds of target customers. "t signifies what the brand presently stands for. It
is a set % be&ie%s ,e&d ab"t a s+e!i%i! brand. "n short, it is nothing but the consumers' perception
about the product. "t is the manner in which a specific brand is positioned in the market. Brand image
conveys emotional value and not 8ust a mental image. Brand image is nothing but an organization's
character. "t is an accumulation of contact and observation by people external to an organization. "t
should highlight an organization's mission and vision to all. he main elements of positive brand image
are5 uni%ue logo reflecting organization's image, slogan describing organization's business in brief and
brand identifier supporting the key values.
Brand image is the overall impression in consumers' mind that is formed from all sources. 4onsumers
develop various associations with the brand. Based on these associations, they form brand image. $n
image is formed about the brand on the basis of sub8ective perceptions of associations bundle that the
consumers have about the brand. Folvo is associated with safety. oyota is associated with reliability.
he idea behind brand image is that the consumer is not purchasing 8ust the product(service but
also the image associated with that product(service. Brand images should be positive, uni%ue
and instant. Brand images can be strengthened using brand communications like advertising,
packaging, word of mouth publicity, other promotional tools, etc.
Brand image develops and conveys the product's character in a uni%ue manner different from
its competitor's image. he brand image consists of various associations in consumers' mind 5
attributes, benefits and attributes. Brand attributes are the functional and mental connections
with the brand that the customers have. hey can be specific or conceptual. Benefits are the
rationale for the purchase decision. here are three types of benefits, 9unctional benefits 5 what
do you do better (than others !,emotional benefits 5 how do you make me feel better (than
others!, and rational benefits(support 5 why do " believe you(more than others!. Brand attributes
are consumers overall assessment of a brand.
Brand image has not to be created, but is automatically formed. he brand image includes
products- appeal, ease of use, functionality, fame, and overall value. Brand image is actually
brand content. &hen the consumers purchase the product, they are also purchasing it's image.
Brand image is the ob8ective and mental feedback of the consumers when they purchase a
product. #ositive brand image is exceeding the customers expectations. #ositive brand image
enhances the goodwill and brand value of an organization.
$ uni%ue set of associati ons in the minds of customers concerning what a brand
stands for and the implied promises the brand makes.
he sum of all tangible I intangible traits. "t represents all internal I external characteristics.
"t-s anything I everything that influences how brand or a company is perceived by its target

"t is the best, single marketable investment a company can make. "deas, belief, values, culture,
name, symbol packaging, advertising, sales materials.
/r e7a#+&e$ when you listen to the song of A and " and when you see the red color you
remember the brand Fodafone. hat's the brand image created by Fodafone on their customer.
Brand i#age R he image of a goods or service which is formed in the
customer's mind
T,e I#+rtan!e O% I#age:-
E. "mage communicates expectations
H. "mage is a filter influencing perceptions of the performance of the firm
B. "mage is a function of expectations and experiences
L. "mage has an internal impact on employees
;esearch on image built through endorsement of celebrities show that there are three aspects
that influence a consumer's attitude of a brand. hese are,
Cntents % Ad6ertise#ent :-
he %uality of contents i.e. headlines, the color combination, words can give indented image to
the brand.
/r e7a#+&e$ i f cheap humor is used in the ad, the brand may get cheap image.
Media Used :-
he %uality of media or programs sponsors also affects the brand image. 9or example, ;eid
and aylor advertised in business.
Pri!e :-
he can generate image for the brands. 9or example, the premium pricing for oyota has
developed a rich image not only for company but for brand.
Pa!)aging :-
he package must be properly designed in order to give a rich image to the brand as package
is the face of the product.
Distrib"tin :-
he type of distribution by a company may affect the brand. 9or example, compani es en8oy
goodwil l in the market can generate favorable image for thei r brands.
T s"# "+$ Brand i#age is t,e !"st#erJs net e7tra!t %r# t,e brand.
..: Brand Identit* 6s. Brand I#age

Brand Identit* Brand I#age
Brand identity develops from the source or
the company.
Brand image is perceived by the receiver or the
Brand message is tied together in terms of
brand identity.
Brand message is untied by the consumer in the
form of brand image.
he general meaning of brand identity is
.who you really are=/
he general meaning of brand image is .*ow
market perceives you=/
"t's nature is that it is substance oriented or
"t's nature is that it is appearance oriented or
Brand identity symbolizes firms' reality. Brand image symbolizes perception of
Brand identity represents .your desire/. Brand image represents .others view/
"t is enduring. "t is superficial.
"dentity is looking ahead. "mage is looking back.
"dentity is active. "mage is passive.
"t signifies .where you want to be/. "t signifies .what you have got/.
"t is total promise that a company makes to
"t is total consumers' perception about the
2.1 Brand Persna&it*
Brand personality is the way a brand speaks and behaves. "t means assigning human personality
traits(characteristics to a brand so as to achieve differentiation. hese characteristics signify brand
behaviour through both individuals representing the brand (i.e. it's employees! as well as through
advertising, packaging, etc. &hen brand image or brand identity is expressed in terms of human traits, it
is called brand personality. 9or instance 5 $llen )olley brand speaks the personality and makes the
individual who wears it stand apart from the crowd. "nfosys represents uni%ueness, value, and
Brand personality is nothing but personification of brand. $ brand is expressed either as a personality
who embodies these personality traits (9or instance 5 )hahrukh 6han and $irtel, Gohn $braham and
4astrol! or distinct personality traits (9or instance 5 D6e as honest, feminist and optimist; *ewlett
#ackard brand represents accomplishment, competency and influence!. Brand personality is the result
of all the consumer's experiences with the brand. "t is uni%ue and long lasting.
Brand +ersna&it* #"st be di%%erentiated %r# brand i#age, in sense that, while brand
image denote the tangible (physical and functional! benefits and attributes of a brand, brand
personality indicates emotional associations of the brand. "f brand image is comprehensive
brand according to consumers' opinion, brand personality is that aspect of comprehensive
brand which generates it's emotional character and associations in consumers' mind.
Brand personality develops brand e%uity. "t sets the brand attitude. "t is a key input into the look
and feel of any communication or marketing activity by the brand. "t helps in gaining thorough
knowledge of customers feelings about the brand. Brand personality differentiates among
brands specifically when they are alike in many attributes. 9or instance 5 )ony versus
#anasonic. Brand personality is used to make the brand strategy lively, i.e, to implement brand
strategy. Brand personality indicates the kind of relationship a customer has with the brand. "t is
a means by which a customer communicates his own identity.
Brand personality and celebrity should supplement each other. rustworthy celebrity ensures
immediate awareness, acceptability and optimism towards the brand. his will influence
consumers' purchase decision and also create brand loyalty. 9or instance 5 Bollywood actress
#riyanka 4hopra is brand ambassador for G.*ampstead, international line of premium shirts.
Brand personality not only includes the personality features(characteristics, but also the
demographic features like age, gender or class and psychographic features. #ersonality traits
are what the brand exists for.
T4 e&e#ents t,"s a%%e!t an indi6id"a&Es re&atins,i+ 4it, a brand:
9irst, there is the relationship between the brand as person and the customer, which is
analogous to the relationship between two people.
)econd, there is the brand personality55that is, the type of person the brand represents.
he brand personality provides depth, feelings and liking to the relationship.

3f course, a brand5customer relationship can also be based on a functional benefit, 8ust as two
people can have a strictly business relationship.
"t is the description of a brand in the terms human characteristics.
:ffective personality of a brand to its prospective customers in an idealized sense.
"t tends to create an identity of a brand with the person.
"t plays the role of a differentiator.

"t create link between brand and customer. "t is also called $"0$ (attention, interest, desire,
action! it is a strategic weapon in a cluttered marketplace.
Ad6antages % brand +ersna&it*:-
E."t creates favorable brand image of a product.
H. "t helps the advertiser to face brand wars and market competition effectively.
B."t acts as positive selling points.
L."t facilitates psychological satisfaction in specific segment.

D."t facilitates selection of an appropriate advertising media.
/r e7a#+&e$
$pple ,5 "ntelligent , 4reative
"BM ,5 4onfident , :xpert , $dvisor
0isney ,5 9amily fun entertainment
<oogle ,5 simplicity
(#e %a#"s Brand +ersna&ities
B Pe+si- Brand Persna&it*:-
#epsi built youth, spontaneity and irreverence as key elements of the brand personality. )achin
was shown smashing a windscreen and $zhar swiping a #epsi. 4oke has still a define a
personality for itself.
B MR/ T*res:-
Ap market, sporty, powerful.
Ce&&"&ar P,ne Persna&it*:-
B N)ia:-
he charming :uropean, a widely travelled global citizen with a sense of humor, practical
technology likes to interact with the people, and explore what they expect, and fulfill those
B Mtr&a:-
he live > wire $merica executives. #owerful as well as resourceful. *e believes in hard sell.
4ommand over technology.
2.. Brand A4areness
Brand a4areness is the probability that consumers are familiar about the life and availability of the
product. "t is the degree to which consumers precisely associate the brand with the specific product. "t
is measured as ratio of niche market that has former knowledge of brand. Brand awareness includes
both brand recognition as well as brand recall. Brand re!gnitin is the ability of consumer to
recognize prior knowledge of brand when they are asked %uestions about that brand or when they are
shown that specific brand, i.e., the consumers can clearly differentiate the brand as having being
earlier noticed or heard. &hile brand re!a&& is the potential of customer to recover a brand from his
memory when given the product class(category, needs satisfied by that category or buying scenario as
a signal. "n other words, it refers that consumers should correctly recover brand from the memory
when given a clue or he can recall the specific brand when the product category is mentioned. "t is
generally easier to recognize a brand rather than recall it from the memory.
Brand awareness is improved to the extent to which brand names are selected that is simple
and easy to pronounce or spell; known and expressive; and uni%ue as well as distinct. 9or
instance 5 4oca 4ola has come to be known as 4oke.
T,ere are t4 t*+es % brand a4areness:
Aided a4areness- his means that on mentioning the product category, the customers
recognize your brand from the lists of brands shown.
T+ % #ind a4areness DI##ediate brand re!a&&'- his means that on mentioning the
product category, the first brand that customer recalls from his mind is your brand.
he relative importance of brand recall and recognition will rely on the degree to which
consumers make product5related decisions with the brand present or not. 9or instance 5 "n a
store, brand recognition is more crucial as the brand will be physically present. "n a scenario
where brands are not physically present, brand recall is more significant (as in case of services
and online brands!.
B"i&ding brand a4areness is essentia& %r b"i&ding brand e?"it*. "t includes use of various
renowned channels of promotion such as advertising, word of mouth publicity, social media like
blogs, sponsorships, launching events, etc. o create brand awareness, it is important to create
reliable brand image, slogans and taglines. he brand message to be communicated should
also be consistent. )trong brand awareness leads to high sales and high market share. Brand
awareness can be regarded as a means through which consumers become ac%uainted and
familiar with a brand and recognize that brand.
2.2 Brand 5*a&t*
Brand 1oyalty is a scenario where the consumer fears purchasing and consuming product from
another brand which he does not trust. "t is measured through methods like word of mouth publicity,
repetitive buying, price sensitivity, commitment, brand trust, customer satisfaction, etc. Brand loyalty is
the extent to which a consumer constantly buys the same brand within a product category. he
consumers remain loyal to a specific brand as long as it is available. hey do not buy from other
suppliers within the product category. Brand loyalty exists when the consumer feels that the brand
consists of right product characteristics and %uality at right price. :ven if the other brands are available
at cheaper price or superior %uality, the brand loyal consumer will stick to his brand.
Brand &*a& !ns"#ers are t,e %"ndatin % an rgani8atin. <reater loyalty levels lead to less
marketing expenditure because the brand loyal customers promote the brand positively. $lso, it acts as
a means of launching and introducing more products that are targeted at same customers at less
expenditure. "t also restrains new competitors in the market. Brand loyalty is a key component of brand
Brand loyalty can be developed through various measures such as %uick service, ensuring
%uality products, continuous improvement, wide distribution network, etc. &hen consumers are
brand loyal they love .you/ for being .you/, and they will minutely consider any other alternative
brand as a replacement. :xamples of brand loyalty can be seen in A) where true $pple
customers have the brand-s logo tattooed onto their bodies. )imilarly in 9inland, 7okia
customers remained loyal to 7okia because they admired the design of the handsets or
because of user5 friendly menu system used by 7okia phones.
Brand &*a&t* !an be de%ined as re&ati6e +ssibi&it* % !"st#er s,i%ting t ant,er brand
in !ase t,ere is a !,ange in +rd"!tJs %eat"res$ +ri!e r ?"a&it*. $s brand loyalty increases,
customers will respond less to competitive moves and actions. Brand loyal customers remain
committed to the brand, are willing to pay higher price for that brand, and will promote their
brand always. $ company having brand loyal customers will have greater sales, less marketing
and advertising costs, and best pricing. his is because the brand loyal customers are less
reluctant to shift to other brands, respond less to price changes and self5 promote the brand as
they perceive that their brand have uni%ue value which is not provided by other competitive
Brand loyalty is always developed post purchase. o develop brand loyalty, an organization
should know their niche market, target them, support their product, ensure easy access of their
product, provide customer satisfaction, bring constant innovation in their product and offer
schemes on their product so as to ensure that customers repeatedly purchase the product.
"f a strong brand identity is communicated effectively and positioned positively in the mind of the
customers, the theory is that they will recognize the brand as being +for them+ and will become
loyal to it. his does not mean, however, that they will never buy any competitor brand again.
$ndrew :hrenberg-s work on brand loyalty
showed that customers tend to use +repertoires+
of brands rather than single brands, and that the specific brand they buy on any one occasion
will depend on other factors such as availability, special price offers, recent advertising
campaigns, point of sale factors.
"t is also worth noting that brand loyalty is more prevalent for some products than others 5
cigarettes and newspapers are obvious examples, whereas for products such as car insurance
or petrol, customers will tend to be much more promiscuous, shopping around for the best deal.
$gain, however, some customer groups are more likely to be brand loyal than others.
#erversely, more highly educated and affluent groups are less likely to be willing to pay a price
premium for branded products, they know that the own label e%uivalents perform 8ust as well.
"t can be considered as conscious or unconscious decision of consumers that is reflected in his
expressed intent or behavior to purchase and repurchase it on a continuous basis.
4onsumer loyalty towards a brand can be attributed to his perception about the brand that it
provides the right mix of features and %uality.
Behavioral scientists argue that brand loyalty occurs because of reinforcement.
4ognitive scientist states that brand loyalty is a problem solving behavior. "t is aspects of
Brand loyalty has been proclaimed by some to be the ultimate goal of marketing. "n marketing,
brand loyalty consists of a consumer's commitment to purchase the brand and can be
demonstrated by repeated buying of a product or service or other positive behaviors such as
word of mouth advocacy.
rue brand loyalty implies that the consumer is willing, at least on occasion, to put aside their
own desires in the interest of the brand.
Brand loyalty is more than simple repurchasing, however. 4ustomers may repurchase a brand
due to situational constraints, a lack of viable alternatives, or out of convenience.
)uch loyalty is referred to as +spurious loyalty+.
rue brand loyalty exists when customers have a higher relative attitude toward the brand
which is then exhibited through repurchase behavior.
his type of loyalty can be a great asset to the firm, customers are willing to pay higher prices,
they may cost less to serve, and can bring new customers to the firm.
9or example, if Goe has brand loyalty to company $ he will purchase 4ompany $-s products
even if 4ompany B-s are cheaper and(or of a higher %uality. #hilip 6otler, again, defines four
patterns of behavior,
Hard Cre 5*a& - who buy the brand all the time.
(%t Cre 5*a& - loyal to two or three brands.
(,i%ting 5*a& 5 moving from one brand to another.
(4it!,ers -with no loyalty they are switching their brand constantly.
2.3 Brand Ass!iatin
Brand $ssociations are not benefits, but are images and symbols associated with a brand or a brand
benefit. 9or example5 he 7ike )woosh, 7okia sound, 9ilm )tars as with .1ux/, signature tune ing5ting5
ta5ding with Britannia, Blue colour with #epsi, etc. $ssociations are not .reasons5to5buy/ but provide
ac%uaintance and differentiation that's not replicable. "t is relating perceived %ualities of a brand to a
known entity. 9or instance5 *yatt *otel is associated with luxury and comfort; BM& is associated with
sophistication, fun driving, and superior engineering. Most popular brand associations are with the
owners of brand, such as 5 Bill <ates and Microsoft, ;eliance and 0hirubhai $mbani.
Brand ass!iatin is an*t,ing 4,i!, is dee+ seated in !"st#erJs #ind ab"t t,e brand. Brand
should be associated with something positive so that the customers relate your brand to being positive.
Brand associations are the attributes of brand which come into consumers mind when the brand is
talked about. "t is related with the implicit and explicit meanings which a consumer relates(associates
with a specific brand name. Brand association can also be defined as the degree to which a specific
product(service is recognized within it's
product(service class(category. &hile choosing a brand name, it is essential that the name chosen
should reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that forms it's product positioning. 9or
instance 5 #ower book.
Brand ass!iatins are %r#ed n t,e %&&4ing basis:
E.4ustomers contact with the organization and it's employees;
B.&ord of mouth publicity;
L.#rice at which the brand is sold;
D.4elebrity(big entity association;
M.2uality of the product;
N.#roducts and schemes offered by competitors;
K.#roduct class(category to which the brand belongs;
J.#3# ( #oint of purchase! displays; etc
#ositive brand associations are developed if the product which the brand depicts is durable,
marketable and desirable. he customers must be persuaded that the brand possess the
features and attributes satisfying their needs. his will lead to customers having a positive
impression about the product. #ositive brand association helps an organization to gain goodwill,
and obstructs the competitor's entry into the market.
Brand Pr#ise- O"r brand is a +r#ise % 4,at 4e de&i6er
Brand evokes the responses. here are many people who love their $pple i#od or love their car etc.
here are certain feelings that come to your mind when you think about your favorite brands. #eople
expect that these brands should demonstrate brand promises every time whenever they are,
encountered. "nconsistencies in the performance of services can lead to damage in further relations.
his can cause a customer to select some other brand.
Brand +r#ise is 4,at *" sa* t t,e !"st#er and 4,at is t be de&i6ered. "f you are not able
to meet the expectations of the customer, your business will either flounder or die. "f you are not able
to deliver the brand promise you will not be able to meet the expectations that have been created in
the customers mind.
T,ere are t,ree #aIr #ista)es t,at t,e b"siness &eaders #a)e 4,i&e
e7e!"ting and de6e&+ing t,e brand +r#ise:
E.he first mistake is when you re%"se t re!gni8e t,e !"st#er e7+e!tatins that are created
in customers mind before it comes in contact with that particular brand. he customers are very
easily able to realize your brand promise by the business you are dealing with. 9or example, if you
have a gourmet restaurant then the customers will have a image in their mind that it will different
from the local restaurant. his is one of the ma8or reason, why one should work for every smallest
detail. 9or example, the image of a gourmet restaurant does not include plastic menus or paper
H.he second ma8or mistake is to i#+&e#ent a s*ste# 4,i!, gi6es a negati6e e7+erien!e t t,e
!"st#er. Business leaders work on creating efficient results for saving time and money. *uman
beings are self5centered creatures with a thought in their mind to save money and time for us. 9or
example, a customers asks do you accept credit card= 0o you accept all credit cards or only master
card and visa= "f you don't accept these cards, does it make any difference in the cost= "ts 8ust that
you are losing sales. hen what are the other services you are giving to the customer in place which
is the attraction for the customers. $ny small inconvenience which will force the customer to say that
.you are not completely service oriented/ and encourages the customer to some other brand.
B.he third ma8or mistake is that when you are nt ab&e t ,ire t,e best !andidate. Oou easily hire
anyone who applies and don't even put some efforts to train them gives a really terrible experience
to the customers. Brand promises are delivered by the staff. "f your goal is to be a business leader
you will invest time to train the staff. "f you select a person who is very polite and does not even
know how to dress up for an interview then you competition should send a thank you card for all the
business you will send his way.
L.#eople who want to become the business leader understand they are a great product
brands. hey are authentic, dependable and reliable. heir icon is their name. 0elivering the
best of themselves is their brand promise. 0o you want to become winner at working= hen,
deliver the brand promise.
(te+s in B"i&ding a Brand Prd"!t r (er6i!e:
E. $t times, organizations are often inspired by a variety of ideas to create products and services
which can be offered locally or globally. <enerally, such products or services re%uire the
establishment of a brand or company name. 3ften these brands include both logo and lettering
and can do a long way in advertising such products or services. herefore, one of the most
important steps in building a Brand is decide upon a brand name for the product or service one
wishes to sell.
H. Branding is a +r!ess t,at a&&4s an indi6id"a& r a gr"+ % indi6id"a&s t,e abi&it* t
+r6ide a brand i#age and &ettering t an idea. Apon doing so, one has a better chance of
selling such items to a broader audience whether that be on a local or global level. herefore,
while the old adage .nothing happens until somebody sells something,/ still stands true to some
extent, at times almost seems as if the process of advertising and branding has overtaken the
desire to sell.
B. $lthough branding generally identifies the company and philosophies behind same, it
can also be representative of those working for such a company. his is a good thing as
it generates the right type of audience to the product or service being sold based on
personal relationships with those running the company. herefore, benefiting both the
organizations selling the branded product or service and the dealers buying same.
L. 3ne of the most important steps in selling any product or service is the be&ie% one holds
in relation to the item. herefore, only those who strongly believe in the products and
services offered by the company are going to be good at selling same. 3therwise, one
may want to work from an advertising or graphic artist perspective in relation to
advertising rather than sales when it comes to time to market same.
D. $nother step is to build a brand that maintains &*a&t* with its customer base and has a
strong customer service department. 9or, having such a department in today-s world
where one is both experienced and knowledgeable when it comes to helping others can
be a rare find. )o, companies who represent oneself has having a strong customer base
and even stronger customer service department are often more successful than those
who do not.
M. $ very important step in marketing a brand is to identi%* t,e target a"dien!e before
creating the logo and lettering in relation to marketing. his is because different age
groups react differently to a variety of logo and lettering especially as so much is
misrepresented by a variety of gangs and others using such material inappropriately.
herefore, if one can define the brand name, logo and lettering and present same to a
marketing research review panel or the like, one may be able to gain a better
understanding of which audience one needs to direct their product or service to in order
to create the most sales.
N. )till, if one can communicate the use of their product or service clearly, estab&is, tr"st
4it,in t,e !##"nit*, be that locally or globally, aim marketing at the right audience,
build a base of buyers and customer loyalty and offer great customer service, then one is
on their way to not only !reating and ad6ertising an e7!e&&ent brand but selling one as
K. herefore, when looking for steps in building a brand, there are many steps which one
can complete to help make the creation of such brand an easier task. hese include,
knowing your audience, building your brand, finding a great logo and lettering to
represent same, targeting the appropriate audience and placing a number of ads in as
many online and offline advertising venues one can find. 9or, after doing so, one may
8ust find that they are selling even more products and services than one had ever
dreamed possible.
2.9 Brand E?"it* :
Brand :%uity is the value and strength of the Brand that decides its worth. "t can also be defined
as the differential impact of brand knowledge on consumers response to the Brand
Marketing. Brand :%uity exists as a function of consumer choice in the market place. he
concept of Brand :%uity comes into existence when consumer makes a choice of a product or a
service. "t occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favourable
positive strong and distinctive brand associations in the memory.
0espite the threats to brands in the new millennium, strong brands can be important assets to
companies and organizations. 0uring the eighties, the concept of brand e%uity emerged as a
way of describing the sum of those assets. $ organization's brand e%uity needs to be nurtured
and defended, and can be measured both internally and externally.
0avid $aker, in Building Strong Brands , defines brand e%uity as consisting of four asset
E. brand awareness.
H. brand loyalty.
B. perceived %uality.
L. brand associations.
)ystems for measuring brand e%uity have been developed by a number of sources, including
$aker. he organization "nter brand tracks leading brands on a number of variables including
sales, market growth, how international they are, how well protected they are in law, etc.
&hichever system is adopted, it is clearly useful to measure the strength of your own
organization's brand and track it against that of competitor brands. Brand e%uity could form part
of a broader evaluation of the strategic health of an organization.
Brand :%uity is the value and strength of the Brand that decides its worth. "t can also be defined
as the differential impact of brand knowledge on consumers response to the Brand
Marketing. Brand :%uity exists as a function of consumer choice in the market place. he
concept of Brand :%uity comes into existence when consumer makes a choice of a product or a
service. "t occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favourable
positive strong and distinctive brand associations in the memory.
Brand E?"it* !an be deter#ined b* #eas"ring:
;eturns to the )hare5*olders.
:valuating the Brand "mage for various parameters that are considered significant.
:valuating the Brand's earning potential in long run.
By evaluating the increased volume of sales created by the brand compared to other brands in
the same class.
he price premium charged by the brand over non5branded products.
9rom the prices of the shares that an organization commands in the market (specifically if the
brand name is identical to the corporate name or the consumers can easily co5relate the
performance of all the individual brands of the organization with the organizational financial
3;, $n amalgamation of all the above methods.
/a!trs !ntrib"ting t Brand E?"it*:
E. Brand $wareness
H. Brand $ssociations
B. Brand 1oyalty
L. Per!ei6ed H"a&it*: refers to the customer's perception about the total %uality of the
brand. &hile evaluating %uality the customer takes into account the brands performance
on factors that are significant to him and makes a relative analysis about the brand's
%uality by evaluating the competitors brands also. hus %uality is a perceptual factor and
the consumer analysis about %uality varies. *igher perceived %uality might be used
for brand positioning. #erceived %uality affect the pricing decisions of the organizations.
)uperior %uality products can be charged a price premium. #erceived %uality gives the
customers a reason to buy the product. "t also captures the channel member's interest.
9or instance 5 $merican :xpress.
D. Ot,er Pr+rietar* Brand Assets: #atents, rademarks and 4hannel "nter5relations are
proprietary assets. hese assets prevent competitors attack on the organization. hey
also help in maintaining customer loyalty as well as organization's competitive
Brand E?"it* = C"st#er E?"it*
Brand :%uity is defined as value and strength of the Brand that decides its worth whereas
4ustomer :%uity is defined in terms of lifetime values of all customers.
Brand E?"it* and C"st#er E?"it* ,a6e t4 t,ings in !##n-
E. Both stress on significance of customer loyalty to the brand
H. Both stress upon the face that value is created by having as many customers as possible
paying as high price as possible.
B"t !n!e+t"a&&* bt, brand e?"it* and !"st#er e?"it* di%%er.
E. &hile customer e%uity puts too much emphasis on lower line financial value got from the
customers, brand e%uity attempts to put more emphasis on strategic issues in managing
H. 4ustomer :%uity is less narrow alternative. "t can overlook a brands optional value and their
capacity effect revenues and cost beyond the present marketing environment.
B. Gust as customer e%uity can persist without brand e%uity, brand e%uity may also exist without
customer e%uity. 9or instance " may have positive attitude towards brands 5 Mc0onald and
Burger 6ing, but " may only purchase from Mc0onald's brand consistently.
o conclude, we can say brands do not exist without consumer and consumer do not exist
without brands. Brands serve as a temptation that utilizes other intermediaries to lure the
customers from whom value is extracted. 4ustomers serve as a profit5medium for brands to
encash their brand value. Both the concepts are highly co5related.
2.: Brand C,artering
$ more recent development is that of brand chartering, a process by which organization's
undertake a tough internal audit to charter the underlying strength of their brands on a regular
basis. his differs from measuring brand e%uity in that it probes the organization behind the
brand, rather than the strength of the brand in the marketplace. "n The Brand 4hartering
*andbook 4hris Macrae suggests asking %uestions +which probe the depth and breadth of the
organizational and strategic strengths that can be interwoven in a vital corporate branding
structure+ such as,
"s there a common interpretation of the brand-s essential meaning throughout the organization=
&hat core competences does this brand represent=
&ould your people be proud to be called manifestations of your brand=
Macrae cautions against linking a brand too closely to one product or technical platform,
building on the concept of core competences put forward in *amel and #rahalad-s
book Competing for the Future
2.< Brand E7tensin
Brand E7tensin is the use of an established brand name in new product categories. his new
category to which the brand is extended can be related or unrelated to the existing product categories.
$ renowned(successful brand helps an organization to launch products in new categories more easily.
9or instance, 7ike's brand core product is shoes. But it is now extended to sunglasses, soccer balls,
basketballs, and golf e%uipments. $n existing brand that gives rise to a brand extension is referred to
as +arent brand. "f the customers of the new business have values and aspirations
synchronizing(matching those of the core business, and if these values and aspirations are embodied
in the brand, it is likely to be accepted by customers in the new business.
+)tretching+ the brand into new areas often seems like the most obvious next step for a successful
brand. "f a brand is an asset, then organization's will reasonably try to gain as much +leverage+ from
that asset as possible, and brand leverage has been an important phenomenon in brand management
in the eighties and nineties. "f a customer identifies closely enough with a brand, then they might
reasonably be expected to buy a different (but related! product if it bears the same label. he risk of
trying out a new product is reduced by the familiarity and promise held out by the old, +friendly+ brand.
*owever, great care must be taken in extending existing brands. $t best, the existing brand may add
no value in the new area , at worst, the existing brand may be damaged if the new product performs
less well, or diluted, if the new product does not fit well with the brand image in the eyes of the
customer. he existing product may be repositioned by accident and the result will be confusion. 0avid
suggests that the following tests should be applied, and %uotes the following examples,
"s the brand essence still applicable= 9or example, Marlboro could launch a pipe tobacco, which at first
sight might seem close to its existing product, but in fact would be completely at odds with the brand
essence (whereas 9ormula E racing cars are not!.
"s the brand property transferable= 9or example, a strawberry version of the fruit drink ;ibena was not
very successful, since a key brand property of ;ibena is its blackcurrant flavour and colour (high in
vitamin 4 and good for children!.
Brands may be extended into completely different areas, however, if the brand essence remains intact
and the key brand attributes are still relevant, for example, Marks I )pencer may offer financial
services products, but they should be safe and conservative, in keeping with its brand image.
:xtending a brand outside its core product category can be beneficial in a sense that it helps
evaluating product category opportunities, identifies resource re%uirements, lowers risk, and measures
brand's relevance and appeal.
Brand extension may be successful or unsuccessful.
Instan!es 4,ere brand e7tensin ,as been a s"!!ess are-
0i+r which was originally into computers has extended into shampoo, powder, and
Mars is no longer a famous bar only, but an ice5cream, chocolate drink and a slab of
Instan!es 4,ere brand e7tensin ,as been a %ai&"re are5
"n case of new C)e, 4oca 4ola has forgotten what the core brand was meant to stand for. "t
thought that taste was the only factor that consumer cared about. "t was wrong. he time and
money spent on research on new 4oca 4ola could not evaluate the deep emotional attachment
to the original 4oca5 4ola.
;asna 1td. 5 "s among the famous soft drink companies in "ndia. But when it tried to move away
from its niche, it hasn't had much success. &hen it experimented with fizzy fruit
drink OranI&t, the brand bombed even before it could take off. 3ran8olt was a fruit drink in
which carbonates were used as preservative. "t didn't work out because it was out of
synchronization with retail practices. 3ran8olt need to be refrigerated and it also faced %uality
problems. "t has a shelf life of three5four weeks, while other soft5 drinks assured life of five
Ad6antages % Brand E7tensin
Brand :xtension has following advantages,
It #a)es a!!e+tan!e % ne4 +rd"!t eas*.
E. "t increases brand image.
H. he risk perceived by the customers reduces.
B. he likelihood of gaining distribution and trial increases. $n established brand name
increases consumer interest and willingness to try new product having the established brand
L. he efficiency of promotional expenditure increases. $dvertising, selling and promotional
costs are reduced. here are economies of scale as advertising for core brand and its
extension reinforces each other.
D. 4ost of developing new brand is saved.
M. 4onsumers can now seek for a variety.
N. here are packaging and labeling efficiencies.
K. he expense of introductory and follow up marketing programs is reduced.
T,ere are %eedba!) bene%its t t,e +arent brand and t,e rgani8atin.
E. he image of parent brand is enhanced.
H. "t revives the brand.
B. "t allows subse%uent extension.
L. Brand meaning is clarified.
D. "t increases market coverage as it brings new customers into brand franchise.
M. 4ustomers associate original(core brand to new product, hence they also have %uality
Disad6antages % Brand E7tensin
E. Brand extension in unrelated markets may lead to &ss % re&iabi&it* if a brand name is
extended too far. $n organization must research the product categories in which the
established brand name will work.
H. here is a risk that the new product may generate implications that da#age t,e
i#age of the core(original brand.
B. here are chances of &ess a4areness and trial because the management may not
provide enough investment for the introduction of new product assuming that the spin5off
effects from the original brand name will compensate.
L. "f the brand extensions have no advantage over competitive brands in the new category,
then it will %ai&.
4o5branding is the utilization of two or more brands to name a new product. he ingredient
brands help each other to achieve their aims. he overall synchronization between the brand
pair and the new product has to be kept in mind. :xample of co5branding 5 4itibank co5branded
with MF to launch a co5branded debit card. his card is beneficial to customers who can avail
benefits at specific outlets called MF 4itibank club.
T*+es % C-branding
4o5branding is of two types,
Ingredient !-branding and C#+site !-branding.
1.Ingredient !-branding implies using a renowned brand as an element in the production of
another renowned brand. his deals with creation of brand e%uity for materials and parts that
are contained within other products. he ingredient(constituent brand is subordinate to the
primary brand. 9or instance 5 0ell computers has co5branding strategy with "ntel processors.
he brands which are ingredients are usually the company's biggest buyers or present
suppliers. he ingredient brand should be uni%ue. "t should either be a ma8or brand or should
be protected by a patent. "ngredient co5branding leads to better %uality products, superior
promotions, more access to distribution channel and greater profits. he seller of ingredient
brand en8oys long5term customer relations. he brand manufacture can benefit by having a
competitive advantage and the retailer can benefit by en8oying a promotional help from
ingredient brand.
..C#+site !-branding refers to use of two renowned brand names in a way that they can
collectively offer a distinct product( service that could not be possible individually. he success
of composite branding depends upon the favorability of the ingredient brands and also upon the
extent on complementarities between them.
Ad6antages and Disad6antages % C-branding
E. 4o5branding has various advantages, such as 5 risk5sharing, generation of royalty
income, more sales income, greater customer trust on the product, wide scope due to
8oint advertising, technological benefits, better product image by association with another
renowned brand, and greater access to new sources of finance.
H. But co5branding is not free from limitations. 4o5branding may fail when the two products
have different market and are entirely different. "f there is difference in visions and
missions of the two companies, then also composite branding may fail. 4o5branding may
affect partner brands in adverse manner. "f the customers associate any adverse
experience with a constituent brand, then it may damage the total brand e%uity.
C##"ni!ating t,e brand
3nce a brand identity has been chosen, the process of positioning can begin. 4ommunicating a brand
successfully so that the customer positions it positively means paying attention to all the elements which
may influence the customer-s perception. his includes, but should not be limited to, all the traditional
elements of the marketing mix,
1. he product or service behind the brand, together with its packaging, design, logo etc.
2. he price, including any discounts or bundling.
3. he place, i.e. where and how the brand is distributed.
4. he promotional package, including all types of advertising, both above and below the
line, #; activities, sponsorship etc.
4ommunicating brands today means paying attention to factors outside the traditional
marketing mix which can influence a customer-s perception of a brand. hese may include an
organization's staff policies, for example, the type of people it employs, the charities or
community activities it supports, the look and feel of its head%uarters, the personality of its 4:3
5 anything, in fact, which the customer may see as a tangible manifestation of the brand. $ good
example of communicating a brand using all the elements (except mass media advertising! to
create a consistent picture is the Body )hop 5 all the more remarkable because it is a franchise
operation, which makes the various elements more difficult to control.
;ecent literature has stressed the inade%uacy of relying on mass advertising to communicate a
. "t is argued that the cost of advertising in mass media is increasing, but that it is too
poorly targeted for today-s increasingly fragmented markets. 0irect marketing, database
marketing and building relationships, both with customers and within the organization, are the
key to communicating brands successfully. #romotions such as money off vouchers should aim
to encourage repeat purchase or to build the relationship with the customer in other ways, not
8ust to stimulate trial. Manufacturers of nappies, and baby foods, for example, send free
samples of appropriate products to new mothers as the baby progresses. he mailings include
money off vouchers for small amounts to be used one at a time with a single purchase, thus
encouraging repeat buying behaviour. hey also sponsor advice booklets and nutrition experts
to speak to mother and baby groups 5 all building the relationship with the customer.
$ number of factors 5 the increasing cost and reduced effectiveness of mass media advertising,
the emergence of new media, and the emphasis on relationship and database marketing 5 have
led to the phenomenon of interactive brand communication. Many organization's will include
free telephone numbers or + care lines+ in their brand communications, as a way of eliciting
feedback (not 8ust complaints! from customers. he increase of loyalty cards and clubs is
another aspect of this trend 5 and both help to give the brand a more human face.
2.@ Brand 5e6erage:-
&hen marketers leverage on brand e%uity by using the existing brand name for new products, it
can be termed as Brand leverage.
Marketers resort to this method so that consumers will perceive the new brand as having some
of the characteristics of the existing brand.
9or example, 1ux used its brand name to move into the li%uid soap and shampoo market.
<odre8 9air glow soap brand was extended to its fairness cream.
/r e7a#+&e$ the manufacturer of Mr. 4offee, coffee makers used its brand name strength to
launch Mr. 4offee brand coffee.

&hile coffee machines and coffee beans are in different product categories, there is a strong
enough correlation between the two items that the brand name has a powerful impact on
consumers of both categories.
Brand leveraging communicates valuable product information to consumers about new
4onsumers enter retail outlets e%uipped with pre5existing knowledge of a brand's level of
%uality and consistently relate this knowledge to new products carrying the familiar brand.
<enerally, consumers maintain a consistent brand perception until disappointed > creating a
risky advantage for established brands.
Additina& ad6antages % brand &e6eraging in!&"de:
?More products mean greater shelf space for the brand and more opportunities to make sale.
?he cost of introducing a brand leveraged product is less than introducing an independently
new product due to a much smaller investment in brand devel opment and advertising
designed to gai n brand recognition.
?$ full line permits coordination of product offerings, such as bagels and cream, cheese, potato
chips and ranch dip, peanut butter and 8elly, etc.
?$ greater number of products increase efficiency of manufacturing facilities and raw materials.
$ brand leveraging strategy will not work in every situation.
$ brand leveraging strategy can be extremely successful and profitable if it is correctly
implemented and provides new products with the right image.
here are important %uestions that should be considered in order to make the best decision for
your brand,
?0oes the new product fit into the established product family=
?0oes the brand have attributes or features that easily and effectively carry into new
?"s the brand name strengthened or diluted by representing two (or more! differentiated
?0oes your company have facilities necessary to manufacture and distribute a new and
differentiated product=
?&ill sales of the new product cover the cost of product development and marketing=
2.1L Brand (+nsrs,i+:-
"t is form of publicity, which is done by supporting and linking the organization name with a
particular event most commonly, sporting events or an activity that involves a large public
gathering. )ponsorship of ma8or events it's a great opportunity for companies to gain publicity.
he company should be cleared about the benefit it is trying to derive out of sponsoring a
particular event.
9irst, creating awareness of the brand during the event and developing association and
relationship with the brand.
)econd, from the option available the firm should choose the event that will help to achieve its
sponsoring ob8ective.

hird, brand easily gets associated with the event.
9ourth, it is better to have long term relationship with the event rather the sponsor a new event
every time.
9or examples, @4oca54ola' is one of the top global sponsors of sport. he rationale for
sponsoring international and local sporting events is that it is .a natural fit/.
By matching the brand with world standard event @4oca5 4ola' benefits from the exposure and
the associations made between it and the event being sponsored.
:%ually by ensuring that local events are sponsored the brand is exposed exclusively to a local
market and will thus be seen as a local brand.
C!a-C&aE #eets its s+nsrs,i+ bIe!ti6es:-
?o connect with teens in an interesting and fun way.
?o create unforgettable teen moments linked to -4oca54ola-.
?o communicate the dynamic and leading attributes of the brand.
?o be seen as a national sponsor at a local level and global sponsor on an international level.
Brand de6e&+#ent
:ffective brand development is merely impossible to execute in house because it is difficult to
be dispassionate and ob8ective when evaluating the state of your business.
$s a result companies often make a the mistake of confusing the business of their business
with the business of their brand.
)trategically speaking, the business of your business is what you make and (or sell. $ll to often
we describe are brand by what we do and these obscures are marketing opposition and brand
his is the reasoning behind the many companies with a marketing position and( or brand
identity that is merely a reflection category benefits, showing almost no differentiation.
his brand marketing simply defines the offering or presents a banal chain that is neither
important nor believable in the eyes of the target audience.
A"r res+nsibi&it* :
E. here a few important responsibilities in defining the business of your business, and this
are vastly different from the brand strategies that arises from the business of your brand.
H. Oour product must perform according to the standards set by the markets.
B. 9or example , "f you are selling soap powder, your product need to clean clothing, has a
pleasant fragrance, and be competitively priced.
L. "f needs to be constant in %uality and value (consistency!, and it need to perform a
5. Oou are also selling your brand identity and must preserve that brand identity with great
care, consistently delivering the value your corporate identity promises. *ere many
companies brand development companies as well get confused.
M. Oour logo, mark, theme line, and @look and feel' are part of your corporate identity, not
your brand identity.
N. Marks and e%uities are all about the recognition of you and your company. hey are how
the customer remembers you.
K. hese values are about processes, operations and ingenuity.
0,at *"r !"st#ers b"*1
"f you were able to take a dispassionate look at your customers and see them not as you
imagine them or idealize them, but rather as they are, you would see the beginnings of brand
#urchasing decisions are all about positioning, meaning and integrity.
H4 !"st#ers !,se1
*ow then does the consumers decide they want (preference! and what price they are willing to
pay for that brand (margins!
Cnsidering t,at a&#st a&& +rd"!ts se&& !##dit* bene%its$ 4,at !"&d +ssib&* be
&hat is left is brand.
Brand identity strategy begins with a clear understanding of your target audience and this does
not stop at a simple usage and attitudinal study.
E.4ompanies are embracing brand reputation management as a strategic imperative and are
increasingly turning to online monitoring in their efforts to prevent their public image from
becoming tarnished.
H.3nline brand reputation protection can mean monitoring for them is appropriation of a
brand trademark by fraudsters intent on confusing consumers for monetary gain.
B."t can also mean monitoring for less malicious, although perhaps e%ually damaging,
infractions, such as the unauthorized use of a brand logo or even for negative brand information
(and misinformation! from online consumers that appears in online communities and
other social media platforms.
L.he red flag can be something as benign as a blog rant about a bad hotel experience or an
electronic gadget that functions below expectations.
On&ine Brand Manage#ent (trategies :
his site is devoted to helping branding managers with their online branding management
efforts. *ere is a breakdown of what you'll learn about . . .
E.H4 t Mnitr A"r Brand On&ine
here are many free ways to monitor what people are saying about your brand online.
$nd there are plenty of free web analytic tools available to help you analyze the data.

1earn how to track what people are saying about your brand and(or products online with these
online brand monitoring strategies.
H.H4 t Prte!t A"r Brand On&ine
3nline Brand Managers need to know how to protect their brand within search results.
$nd they need to know when and how to respond appropriately.

9ind out everything you should know about online brand protection strategies and best
practices for online reputation management.
B.(!ia& Media Manage#ent (trategies
$s you know, a vast ma8ority of web users in the Anited )tates receive advice and information
about various brands and products by tapping into their online social networks.
1earn how companies are using social networking to improve their brand's image S and
find out about best practices for social media management.
L.(ear!, Engine O+ti#i8atin Ti+s %r Brand Managers
)earch :ngine 3ptimization ():3! is an important strategy used by professional online brand
he more optimized branded content online, the less chance that other websites will show up
for the keyword phrases that are important to you. 1earn the nuts and bolts of search engine
he simple way to find out what people are saying about your brand is to simply create a
<oogle $lert so that you'll get an email any time your brand name is mentioned.

*owever, <oogle $lerts are limited > and aren't designed to be an online brand management
tool. hat's why you need to use a variety of online tools to find out what people are saying.
#rofessor 0avid Gobber identifies seven main factors in building successful brands, as
illustrated in the diagram below,

E. 2uality is a vital ingredient of a good brand. ;emember the .core benefits/ > the things
consumers expect.
H. hese must be delivered well, consistently. he branded washing machine that leaks, or
the training shoe that often falls apart when wet will never develop brand e%uity.
B. ;esearch confirms that, statistically, higher %uality brands achieve a higher market share
and higher profitability that their inferior competitors.
E. #ositioning is about the position a brand occupies in a market in the minds of
H. )trong brands have a clear, often uni%ue position in the target market.
B. #ositioning can be achieved through several means, including brand name, image,
service standards, product guarantees, packaging and the way in which it is delivered.
L. "n fact, successful positioning usually re%uires a combination of these things.
E. ;epositioning occurs when a brand tries to change its market position to reflect a change
in consumer's tastes.
H. his is often re%uired when a brand has become tired, perhaps because its original
market has matured or has gone into decline.
B. he repositioning of the 1ucozade brand from a sweet drink for children to a leading
sports drink is one example.
L. $nother would be the changing styles of entertainers with above5average longevity such
as 6ylie Minogue and 4liff ;ichard.
E. 4ommunications also play a key role in building a successful brand.
H. &e suggested that brand positioning is essentially about customer perceptions > with
the ob8ective to build a clearly defined position in the minds of the target audience.
B. $ll elements of the promotional mix need to be used to develop and sustain customer
L. "nitially, the challenge is to build awareness, then to develop the brand personality and
reinforce the perception.
/irst-#6er ad6antage
E. Business strategists often talk about first5mover advantage.
H. "n terms of brand development, by .first5mover/ they mean that it is possible for the first
successful brand in a market to create a clear positioning in the minds of target
customers before the competition enters the market.
B. here is plenty of evidence to support this.
L. hink of some leading consumer product brands like <illette, 4oca 4ola and )ellotape
that, in many ways, defined the markets they operate in and continue to lead.
D. *owever, being first into a market does not necessarily guarantee long5term success.
M. 4ompetitors > drawn to the high growth and profit potential demonstrated by the .market5
mover/ > will enter the market and copy the best elements of the leader's brand (a good
example is the way that Body )hop developed the .ethical/ personal care market but
were soon facing stiff competition from the ma8or high street cosmetics retailers.
5ng-ter# +ers+e!ti6e
E. his leads onto another important factor in brand5building, the need to invest in the brand
over the long5term.
H. Building customer awareness, communicating the brand's message and creating
customer loyalty takes time.
B. his means that management must .invest/ in a brand, perhaps at the expense of short5
term profitability.
Interna& #ar)eting
E. 9inally, management should ensure that the brand is marketed .internally/ as well as
H. By this we mean that the whole business should understand the brand values and
B. his is particularly important in service businesses where a critical part of the brand
value is the type and %uality of service that a customer receives.
L. hink of the brands that you value in the restaurant, hotel and retail sectors.
D. "t is likely that your favorite brands invest heavily in staff training so that the face5to5face
contact that you have with the brand helps secure your loyalty.
E. 0ue to the way the "nternet is fast evolving, especially through the social web and
social media, there is now a plethora of digital channels which can be used to hold a
dialogue between a Brand and a 4onsumer, or groups of consumers.
H. 0igital brand engagement is brand engagement with a key focus on communication via
the web. he clue train manifesto written by four visionaries in EJJJ (which is now a
very long time ago! predicted the
B. "nternet would evolve to a point where the consumer holds the +power+ and no longer
could the corporate world continue to communicate to their markets (the people they
wish to interact with!in a push marketing or broadcast manner. *ow right they were.
L. he "nternet has evolved and people(consumers can now be very selective about which
brands they choose to interact with; and have the ability to communicate their thoughts
and feelings globally.
D. )uch mediums on the social web including blogs, micro5blogs, forums, social network,
groups within social networks, book marking sites, imagery and video sites can all be
utilized by consumers; and they are doing 8ust this in their thousands.
M. Brands can take notice of what is being said about them, their product or service by
monitoring conversations taking place outside of their own website, through +buzz
monitoring+ tools and there are a number of tools to choose from.
N. he value of the information provided is proportional to the time and expertise dedicated
to configuring and analyzing the data provided.
K. his value can be increased further when the buzz monitoring data is correlated with
onsite web analytics data. "t-s important to listen and observe the buzz, and analyze its
impact prior to engaging.
he key elements to consider when listening and observing, before formulating a digital
engagement strategy, are,
&ho ar e t hey= &hat ar e
their values=
*ow do
t hey behave=
&here are they= $re they 8ust
an 3bserver=
$re they a
3r are they active
of conversation=
of dialogue
and site=
Folume and
of buzz=
)entiment 5
Brand Ass!iatin
$re they in%uisitive
and looking
for info=
$re they
about to
commit to the
$re they
loyal brand
$re they brand
3nce you have an overview of what the current brand(consumer situation is online, you
are far better informed to create an engagement strategy.
he information above will provide a +9actual+ position as it is based upon what people
are actually doing and saying.
here is another level of research that can be carried out which adds a +#redictive+
element. ".e. undertake some consumer testing prior to implementing and engagement
ypically, and traditionally this is carried out in a conscious level manner of research,
such as focus groups, surveys and interviews.
*owever, it is becoming recognized that conscious level research on its own can be
flawed, as it is based upon the assumption that people are prepared to and are able to
articulate what they are think on all levels.
herefore a combination of research at the conscious and unconscious level is
*aving obtained meaningful and valuable information from all there search and analysis,
the time should now be right to start formulating the digital engagement strategy.
he other key area to consider is full integration with +offline+ brand
engagement(marketing strategy.
o maximize the returns, these need to be full synchronized and complementary.
ypically, offline marketing can be used to drive online interaction.
:ncouraging people to communicate with the brand
consumer gr
why they need
your brand
aspects of
the brand
appeal to
4reate content
that has a value
to each group
Be present
available in
the relevant
online areas
Be visible and
offer free
a platform(
:ngage with
them observing
the right eti%uette
#riorities the
inter consumer
status and
for influenc
$ddress negative
comments by

your advoca
cy into
inter consumer
dialogue to
minimize risk
of commitment
your advoc
and people
loyal to
your brand
;educe brand
where possible

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)amsika-s challenge was to extend the brand and reposition it in "ndia.
"ts advice was to focus mainly on cakes and go for an aggressive growth strategy. )amsika
chose the franchising route and evolved a comprehensive marketing strategy including the
launch, pricing, ad agency selection and sales Idistribution.
Monginis was given a customer orientation and positive perception management. $ strong
campaign was supported by periodic promotions. "nternally too, )amsika advocated a
complete overhaul, dividing operations into distinct strategic business units and independent
profit centres.
he results led to a national brand presence 5 over NCT growth in the number of cake shops
to EKL and an increase of manufacturing franchisees from E to N.

:xploring new markets for new products was the challenge before )amsika as far as 7avneet
#ublications was concerned. 4hildren-s books and stationery were two entirely new )BAs
initiated by )amsika . )amsika showed it was possible to post spectacular growth rates 5
stationery ()BA B! sales increased by JMT and children-s books ()BA H! sales went up by
BCT. )amsika initiated the 7avneet ;edemption 4entres (7;4s! which today boasts of
a healthy EMH members. $ new )BA L with a newspaper for kids was positioned with the help of
a memorable ad campaign under )amsika-s guidance.
4harting the route for a finance product, targeting the middle class and developing a retail and
channel partner network calls for finely tuned strategy and careful market planning. )amsika
strategised the branding, positioning and pricing for 65value to capture the market. Membership
of 6otak Mahindra 65value has grown at a steady BBLT per month. 65value is in a position to
finance a range of top brands and has a wide dealer network.
&hen #idilite "ndustries approached )amsika Marketing 4onsultants, it was to breathe
fresh life into their sales and distribution systems. heir premier product, 9evicol , was an
unchallenged market champion. he idea was to consolidate. )amsika stepped in, cautiously
gathering intelligence and mapping the market with the )amsika ;etail Barometer. wo needs
were immediately identified, one, to get closer to the customer and win over greater share of

emotional e%uity; two, to strengthen the mother brand. )amsika suggested that #idilite
capitalise on its brand property of -bonding- by extending it from the tangible benefit associated
with 9evicol(;! to an intangible level where there would be a -bonding- between the brand and
the trade, the brand and the customer. he )amsika ;elationship Marketing :xercise was
prescribed. he )amsika ;etail Barometer was implemented. )egmentation and positioning of
the 9evicol.

;! related products had to be precise so as to open up the exactniches that )amsika had
identified. he )amsika )aleskit Module empowered the sales and distribution efforts. $ cost5
effective advertising and media strategy was developed and an overall marketing strategy was
evolved to help launch new brands. $s a result of )amsika-s efforts, the 9evicol.
(;! brand and all its satellite products have gone into a higher, more positive orbit.

ake the time to discover what makes you different. 0o this with a professional who can assist
you in new ways of looking at your business and yourself. Make a list of five to ten.

&hen you know what makes you special you are able to move forward and build a platform for
success based on these you5uni%ue factors. Oou will stand out from the crowd and increase
your attraction %uotient. 7iche markets will be easier to identify.
.. C##"ni!atin:
3nce your uni%ue %ualities are discovered, it is much easier to speak to your audience clearly
and in a way that they can hear you.
Oour communications will become less stressful and more likely to hit your intended target. $
clear path will begin to unfold.
4reate a tagline or @personal mantra' to easily state your uni%ue %ualities and benefits. #ractice
with a mentor until you find the best one,
2. Cnsisten!*:
&ith step E I H complete you are now able to be consistent in your continuing campaigns to
educate future prospects.
$pply your new tag language to every piece of your promotional and(or collateral material.
9ormulate tangible business practices, review and plan your vision for developing business, so
clients can rest assured that you will deliver in are liable fashion.
$ll visual communications should clearly link together as well.
3. Credibi&it*:
4onsistency in product, delivery and communications will lead to credibility in the marketplace.
his cornerstone to success stands firmly on the shoulders of the previous steps you have
"nternal and external experiences of your business should align. Measure your effectiveness
through client feedback.
<ather client testimonials to integrate into materials for promotion.
9. Creati6it*:
$nother important element is your creativity in fulfilling and building a brand. "t is a challenge to
present your business in innovative ways that will continue to attract more potential clients.
Atilizing the steps above, staying creative is much more likely to occur. *ave fun and think out
of the box.
:n8oy this exercise and you will play the game to winU *ow can you stimulate your creativity=
:. C#+assin:
$lways remember what it is like to be a consumer of your goods.
#ut yourself in your clients shoes at every 8uncture to test the viability of your choices. &ill it
serve the client in a way that they will appreciate=
"f not, how can you steer the ship in that direction= &e do not operate in a void. 3ur audience
must relate to us as we grow and develop. 4lient retention depends on it.
<. C#+eten!ies:
"n order to remain competent at our endeavors we must continue to grow and learn.
o give our clients what they deserve we must evolve and educate ourselves to be on the
cutting edge of innovation in our industries.
1ove to learn and think in new ways and your knowledge will keep you ahead of the crowd.
$lways look forward while measuring the past, and learn wherever you can.
Goin organizations, hire the best, find mentors and advisors to assist. )hare these experiences
with staff and colleagues to stay engaged and energized.
Atilizing and reviewing these principles on a continuous basis can yield the results you desire.
his information can also be an excellent method to review with your marketing professionals to
insure correct application while building additional strategies for your business development.
9inally, )trength in Branding is indeed a pivotal element for success.
Brands have always been commercial agents and brand managers take pride in their ability to
meet the needs of their target market.
*owever, these two desires are in conflict with the recent trend towards positioning brands as
.authentic,/ emphasizing the timeless values desired by consumers while downplaying apparent
commercial motives.
he dual problem for the firm is in creating images of authenticity while dealing with the
challenge that authenticity presents for brand management.
$n initial realization must be that brand managers are not the sole creators of brand meaning.
"n this sense, there also exists a need for it to have moral legitimacy by pursuing prosocial
9or example, the early support offered to the gay community by the levi's clothing company
ensures that the brand continues to have relevant meaning to gays.
Brands that tried to exploit this segment when homosexuality became more generally accepted
struggled because they were late to the party and were viewed as exploiting a community
without paying the necessary dues.
4onnection with time and place is also important for consumers because it affirms tradition.
"n retail, $ustralian stores such as he 0epot affirm older traditions by drawing on EJDCs
$merican style to convey a sense of authenticity and nostalgia.
$t the other end of the spectrum, authenticity serves consumers as a form of )elf5expression
for brands that represent a genuine expression of an inner personal truth or an expression of
identity through community membership such as the ownership of a *arley 0avidson
Marketing practice must continually craft together these disparate sources to create rich brand
meanings for target consumers rather than seeing them as competing sources of authenticity.
he important thing is that consumers perceive the aspects of authenticity as real, whether
those aspects are really authentic or not.
Managers must spend more time with their consumers listening to their needs and interests and
how their brand can meet those needs.
)o while consumers may identify with certain attributes of authenticity5 links to past, hand5
crafted methods, respect for traditions, or cultural links, all of which downplay commercial
&hen they select brands, the makeup of these attributes will depend on the shared histories of
a community of consumers.
his means that instead of attempting to play up the authentic origins of a brand directly,
marketing efforts must take an indirect route, for example by becoming a member of a
9or example, 0unlop in $ustralia sponsor local sporting events rather than high profile sports,
sponsoring newspaper columns and radio spots on local sports results.
his gives 0unlop a significant advantage over larger international rivals.
Merely making an assertion that a brand is .authentic/ probably will not be successful because
of differing views on what such claims would mean > for some it could indicate a real brand,
while for others it could mean something much deeper.
Marketers will need to indicate authenticity by drawing on attributes that can be real, though
efforts also include some claims that are contrived.

Brand (,are %

1 <oogle E M
. Microsoft L E
2 4oca54ola EH H
3 "BM D J
9 Mc0onalds K D
: $pple N EL
< 4hina Mobile M HB
> <: H KD
@ Fodafone HC L
1L Marlboro B JH

:.1 CA(E (TUDA
C#+an* Na#e: - #roctor and <amble
+3ur brand is our bond with consumers./
&hen we succeed, we convert a trademark into a trust mark, and another #I< brand becomes
a valued and trusted member of the household.+
N,n 5a%&e*$ President = CEO$ P=G.
Ba!)gr"nd Nte:-
#roctor and <amble was established in EJBN. &illiam #roctor and Games <ambled started a
small business and set up their business in 4incinnati.
$ pioneer in introducing a formalized brand management system way back in the EJBC's, #I<
constantly modified its brand management strategies as and when the company expanded its
product I brand portfolio and its business operations globally.
Based in 4incinnati, A), #rocter I <amble (#I<! was one of the largest manufacturers of fast
moving consumer goods (9M4<! in the world.
"n HCCB, the company was ranked BEst among the 9ortune DCC companies. #I< had
operations in KC countries globally, with an employee5strength of around E, EC,CCC world wide.
he company introduced the category management model in the EJKCs , focused on the
@global' branding strategy in the early EJJCs and made changes in its brand management
system under the organization HCCD restructuring exercise in the late EJJCs.
"n HCCC, #I< introduced the @cohort management strategy' for managing brands. he strategy
involved grouping of brands to appeal to similar consumer groups.
#I< encouraged the promotion of rival brand within the company to complete against one
hey comprised full color print ads in national magazines.
P=GJs C#+etiti6e Ad6antage in Branding:-
#I<'s core strength is its ability to build big leadership brands. he company's goal is to
continue to doing that better and more consistency that any other company in the worl d.
here are three factors on which #I<' ) success based upon these are,5
Understanding !ns"#er needs: -
#I< talks more than D.Dmillion consumers worldwide everywhere. he companies use a
variety of approach, from in >home visit to concepts and product testing via the internet. "n this
way they discover new customer needs.
In6enting ne4 +rd"!t te!,n&g*: - #I< call .connecting what's
needed with what's possible/. he company has more than HNCCC patented
technologies and they can simply find the more number of innovative way to turn its best ideas
into improved products that meet consumer needs better.
C##er!ia&i8ing and e7+anding ne4 +rd"!ts g&ba&&*: -
#I< marketing and distributing partnership. he company can introduced big new ideas faster
than ever before.
hese capabilities have helped it win consumers around the world.
T,e g&ba& branding strateg*:-
#I< was known as the .one page memo company/.
he brand manager of #I< were asked to offer their ideas, suggestion, business plan in 8ust
one page.
he plan was communicated to respective functional unit heads and the top management, who
reviewed the document and returned it back for necessary changes.
his process continued until the memo was finally accepted. By the end of EJJC, #I< had
established global strategic planning groups (<)#<! that constituted of B to HC individuals, for
each of its product categories. :ach <)#< was assigned several tasks.
hey develop global manufacturing I sourcing strategic and gathered data about the country
specific marketing strategies.
he <)#< were also responsible to developing global and local brand policy that involved
decision making on the element of brand strategy that had to be standardized across the world.
<)#< were responsible for developing brand strategies, the implementation of these
strategies was carried out by a global category team (<4! each of the product of #I< was
handled by <4 which was headed by an executive vice president.
he <4 constituted the top management executive handling different line of responsibilities
like, production marketing, and research and development. he country specific brand
management implemented the branding strategy in local market.
#I< encouraged branding team at the country level to develop their own brand building
program. &hen branding program was highly successful in the country, it was tested in the
other market also.

he @glass and a half' corporate purple and flowing script has become synonymous with
4adburys use a line extension brand strategy. 1ine extension is a strategy in which companies
is introducing their new products in the same product category.
4adbury came with the many chocolate like 0airy milk, Dstar, <ems, #erk, emptation and one
of the snacks is Bytes.
"n the early JC-s, chocolates were seen as -meant for kids- usually a reward or a bribe for
children. "n the Mid JC's the category was re5defined by the very popular V;eal aste of
1ife- campaign, shifting the focus from V8ust for kids- to the Vkid in all of us-. "t appealed to the
child in every adult.
$nd 4adbury 0airy Milk became the perfect expression of -spontaneity- and -shared good
"n the late JC's, to further expand the category, the focus shifted towards widening chocolate
consumption amongst the masses, through the -6hanewalon 6o 6hane 6a Bahana 4hahiye-
his campaign built social acceptance for chocolate consumption amongst adults, by
showcasing collective and shared moments.
More recently, the 6uch Meetha *o Gaaye' campaign associated 4adbury 0airy milk with
celebratory occasions and the phrase @'#appu #ass *ogaya'' became part of street language.
"t has been adopted by consumers and today is used extensively to express 8oy in a moment
of achievement ( success.
he interactive campaign for + #appu #ass *o <aya+ bagged a Bronze 1ionat the prestigious
4annes $dvertising 9estival HCCM for -Best use of internet and new media-.
he idea involved a tie5up with ;eliance "ndia Mobile service and encouraged those who
passed their examinations to celebrate with 4adbury 0airy Milk.
he #appu #ass *o <aya' campaign also went on to win )ilver for he Best "ntegrated
Marketing 4ampaign and <old in the consumer products category at the :99":) HCCM (global
benchmark for effective advertising campaigns! awards.
:very time they are coming with the some new advertisement and in every advertisement are
giving new reason to buy dairy milk.
$bout their cost strategy, from so many years their price has not changed only they are
launching new products under the same brand name 4adbury.
Cadb"r* Dair* Mi&)
4adbury dominates the chocolate market in "ndia with a NCT share of the market.
4adbury 0airy Milk is its largest chocolate brand which accounts for a third of every chocolate
bar consumed.
T,e Tas):
"n HCCD the task before 4adbury 0airy Milk was to increase its consumer franchise.
T,e (trateg*:-
?he task was to get the youth audience to adopt 4adbury 0airy Milk in the sweet eating or +
muh meetha karna+ moments
?he campaign of .Gab #appu #ass *o Gaya, 6uch Meetha *o Gaye/ captured the thought of
celebrating a moment of delight with 0airy Milk.
?$ campaign was built around the idea of how .#appu/ celebrated passing his exams with 0airy
T,e Media:

?$ multi5 media campaign was launched on F, "nternet, ;adio and 3utdoor.
?he key was how do own the moment of + pappu passing his exams+ in the media space.
T,e Res"&ts:
he activity contacted HC M7 students across the country and was awarded a Bronze 1ion at
the 4annes Media awards in HCCD.
Cadb"r* 9 (tar Cr"n!,*
Mar)et Ba!)gr"nd:
4adbury is the market leader in the chocolates category, with 4adbury D)tar being its second
largest brand.
4adbury D )tar which is uni%ue bar of nougat and caramel enrobed in 4adbury 0airy Milk
4hocolate provides one of the most distinctive and involving chocolate eat experiences.
*owever in recent years the 4adbury D )tar franchise was in decline.
he brand was under threat from other more offerings in the market.
T,e Brand
4adbury D )tar needed to introduce an element of surprise in its eat experience to gain share
among lapsed consumers.
o do this the variant 4adbury D )tar 4runchy was launched5 which still had the richness of
caramel, cheeriness of nougat but also contained rice crispies.
T,e (trateg*
he campaign was built around the proposition of an .unexpected surprise+ which had a
surprise in every bit. his was creatively expressed as .7aya 9ive )tar 4runchy... $b har bite
main $rreyU+
he campaign targeted at youth was executed in a light hearted vein built around a boy5girl
"n order to engage youth the campaign was executed across F, radio, internet, outdoor and
print media.
#rivate branding has become a successful marketing strategy in the retail sector.
he main advantages of a private branding strategy are enhanced loyalty to retail outlets,
increased chain profitability, better control over shelf5space, and improved bargaining power
over manufacturers.
$lthough some of these advantages are potentially relevant to businesses in the service sector,
private branding has not yet become a recognized component of service %uality.
he aim of the present study is to analyze the potential contribution of private branding to the
service sector by,

?examining the capabilities of private branding as a strategic device;
?describing the role of private branding in improving service %uality; and
?integrating a private branding strategy into the ):;F2A$1 model.
/r e7a#+&e:-
;ole of private branding in improving healthcare service %uality.
"mproving service %uality in the healthcare sector in accordance with the five dimensions of
):;F2A$1 involves attention to the following matters,
E. ;eliability dimension, #atient scheduling, accuracy of diagnoses by doctors.
H.;esponsiveness dimension, $ccessibility to medical staff, nurses, and secretaries, waiting
times, attentiveness by medical staff and managers to clients problems and re%uests.
B.$ssurance dimension, professional knowledge, skills, and reputations of medical staff and
L.:mpathy dimension, willingness to listen to customers' needs; patience.

D. angibles dimension, aesthetic %ualities of waiting rooms; general /atmosphere/; medical
instrumentation; auxiliary items (such as information leaflets!.

1.0,at %a!trs ne #"st !nsider be%re branding1

?<eographic, socigraphic, demographic, psychographic, and specific customer factors by
segmentation can be used.
..0,at are strengt, and 4ea)nesses re&ated t brands1

?)ee , it depends on the brand ,the name, the logo, companies name, goodwill, etc.

?"f the brand is true to what it stands for, " think that strength and vice5versa is the weaknesses.
2./r# *"r +int % 6ie4 4,at is an idea& brand1

?)omething which emotionally connects to consumer.

3.0,at is brand +sitining1
?$ brand which is distant and valued in the minds of the customers.

?o customize as per needs and wants of the customers such it fits into their mind.
9.0,at r&e branding +&a*s in tda*Js s!enari1

?0ue to globalization there are numerous players in today's cenario and so " think
branding plays a vital role with respect to making brand distant from those of competitors
?$lso it tangibles the intangibleness of the product.
:.0,at is *"r !re branding strateg*1
?" am extremely sorry due to official reasons " will not be able to disclose it.
?But " can say in general that we focus on customers.
<.0,at are t,e essentia& in+"ts in brand #anage#ent1
?he most important input for branding is the product itself.
?Oou cannot use a specific branding strategy or any standard strategy for all products.
?hus it is the product that matters a lot.
>./ina&&* 4,* brand #anage#ent is 6ita& in tda*Js 4r&d1
?$s " told you why branding is vital in today's scenario " think in the same way brand
management plays a significant role in today's scenario.
?"t plays a strategic role in today's scenario and not 8ust marketing.
?9inally, proper brand management will lead to brand loyalty.
E. Brand management play vital role for any company weather it is services or product
industry. "t differ one company's product to other and it create value for the customer.
H. 4adbury 0airy Milk emerged as the 7o. E most trusted brand in Mumbai for the HCCD
edition of Brand :%uity's most trusted Brand survey.
B. 2uality is the dominating aspect which influences consumer to purchase the product. "n
the JC's 4adbury face many problems but they cope with the problem and now they are
the leaders in the market. 4adbury is having maximum market share compare to other
L. he 4adbury brand has proven itself to be a leader in a highly volatile and competitive
market because it has successfully established, nurtured and developed its brand and
growing portfolio of products.
D. oday, the current intense in the global competitive environment, the changes
experienced in consumer behavior, the companies who tries to reach consumer through
an effort of brand concept and branding as a result of in the information communication
technology, and whose attempt to stay alive in terms of big companies start to gain more
M. 7ames, terms, words, symbols, design ,sign, shape, color or in terms of their various
components for the products and services are determined, introduced and in this context
the brand concept which allows it to differentiate from its competitors start to gain
importance in the intense competitive environment in terms of online
education programs.
N. Brand concept covers the basic definitions of the trademark, logo, corporate, risk
reduction, identity systems, image, value system, personality, relationships and
evolution. "n the basic of these context can be mentioned receiving importance of
trademark of the online education programs and not only have its own intellectual
property but also that can be mentioned to differentiate between other line education
programs in the market through the uni%ue of the trademark. $lso when looked at
another basic of brand that can be mentioned great importance of the logo concept for
the online education programs.
K. he logo of an online education program carries a great importance in terms of the brand
personality. By this effect, we can mention that the logo became different in the
consumer who wants to get education and improve their selves from an online
education program. $lso the online education program brand must be connected with its
corporate because, an online education program is the declaration of its corporate but at
the same time the corporate is the declaration of the online education program brand
too. he corporate image is supported by the positive image of an online
education program.
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