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EM 4: SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

Task: to measure some of the characteristics for a three phase synchronous


generator
Theory: The characteristics here measured are the no load characteristics, the short
circuit characteristics and the load characteristics
Circuit diagram:
Equipment:
M = Electric torque meter MV 100
G = Synchronous machine MV 122
TG = Tachometer generator MV153
R
my
= Shunt rheostat TS 500/440
U = Voltmeter 300 V TI 105
I
m
= Ammeter 1.6A TI 101
I
A
= Ammeter 6A TI 102
S = Switch TO 3
R
B
= Load resistor TB 40
F = Power pack TF 123A
For later use
X
L
= Load inductor TB 41
X
C
= Load capacitor TB 42

1. Connecting up and start
1.1 Connect the torque meter as motor and the synchronous machine as generator in
accordance with the circuit diagram
1.2 Make a note of the ratings of the synchronous machine shown on the rating plate on
the rear of the machine. These ratings must not be exceeded at any time during the
laboratory exercises
1.3 The supervisor should now check the connections
1.4 Turn on the fixed DC voltage switch
Adjust the shunt rheostat of the torque meter so as to obtain max excitation current.
The switch S must be off
1.5 Set the variable DC voltage control on the power pack to zero and turn on the
variable DC voltage switch. Then slowly turn up the variable DC voltage to 230V and
continuously check the rotor current on the ammeter of the torque meter. The motor
should rotate in the direction of the arrow
1.6 Adjust the torque meter to bring the speed to exactly 1500 rpm. This speed must be
kept constant throughout the exercise

I
A
U
= -90
o
= +90
o
= 0
o

2. Measurement of no load characteristic
i.e. the induced no load voltage as function of the exciting
current
2.1 The switch S must be off. Vary the excitation current I
m
in
steps of 0.2A from zero to maximum (see ratings). For
every step make a note of I
m
and the induced voltage read
on the voltmeter U
Check the speed!
3. Measurement of short circuit characteristic


i.e. the armature current as function of the excitation current when the stator is short
circuited
3.1 Adjust the shunt rheostat R
my
of the synchronous machine
to bring the excitation current to zero. Short circuit all three
phases on the S on the side on which the load resistor is
connected
3.2 Turn on switch S. Vary the armature current in steps of 0.5A from zero to maximum
(see ratings) with the shunt rheostat R
my
and for each step make a note of I
A
and I
m

Check the speed!
3.3 Adjust the shunt rheostat of the synchronous machine to bring the exciting current to
zero. Turn off switch S and remove the short circuit
4. Measurement of load characteristic


i.e. the generator voltage as function of the armature current
4.1 Adjust the shunt rheostat R
my
of the synchronous machine
to bring the voltage (U) to 220V. Make a note of setting of
the generator exciting current I
m
. This value of I
m
, like the
speed, must be kept constantthroughout the experiment and
should therefore be checked from time to time
4.2 Turn on switch S and with the load resistor R
B
vary the armature current in steps of
E
Im
I
A
I
m
0.5A up to maximum (see ratings)
For each step make a note of current I
A
and voltage U
Check the speed excitation current and speed!
4.3 Turn off switch S and replace the load resistor by the delta connected load inductor
4.4 Turn on switch S and with the load inductor vary armature current in steps up to
maximum (see Ratings). For each step make a note of current I
A
and voltage U
Check the speed excitation current and speed!
4.5 Turn off switch S and replace the load inductor by the star connected load capacitor
4.6 Turn on switch S and with the load capacitor vary armature current in steps up to
maximum (see Ratings). For each step make a note of current I
A
and voltage U.
terminate the measurement when the voltage has risen to 300V.
Check the speed excitation current and speed!
Tasks
a. Draw graphs of the no load characteristic and short circuit characteristic in the same
diagram and with common I
m
axis
b. Draw graphs of the three load characteristics in the same diagram and with common
I
A
axis
c. Read the no load characteristic the excitation current I
mo
corresponding to the read
voltage
d. Read the short circuit characteristic the short circuit current I
ko
obtained at the
excitation current I
mo

e. Calculate the synchronous reactance of the generator per phase as :


f. calculate the short circuit ratio of the generator

, where I
n
= rated current of
the generator.
g. Draw three vector diagrams to scale with E = 127V, IA = 2A and = 0
o
, +90
o
, -90
o

respectively. The numerical values of X
s
will be obtained from task e
Read U in the vector diagrams and compare with the corresponding values on the
load characteristic
No load Short circuit Load characteristic
characteristic characteristic
I
m
= const =
= 0
o
= +90
o
= -90
o

I
m

(A)
E
(V)
I
m

(A)
I
A

(A)
I
A

(A)
U
(V)
I
A

(A)
U
(V)
I
A

(A)
U
(V)
0 220 0 220 0 220









EM 5: SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Task: To synchronous a synchronous machine to a three phase mains and to study
its properties when connected to a power bus
Theory: The synchronous machine is started with the torque meter and the
synchronization is done by means of sequential lighting of the synchronous
lamp. The machine is then drive as synchronous capacitor and as motor
Circuit Diagram:
A
rpm
TG M
A Im
R
B
S
F1
F2
R
my
F1
F2 A2
A1 U1 V1 W1
U2 W2 V2
F
- +
220 V
220 V
I
A
P
3x220 V
G
F
0 R S T
Cos meter

Equipment :
G : Electric torque meter MV 100
M : Synchronous machine MV122
TG : Tachometer generator MV153
R
my
: Shunt rheostat TS 500/440
U
G
, U
N
: Voltmeter 240V TI 105
I
A
: Ammeter 6A TI 102
I
m
: Ammeter 1.6A TI 101
S : Switch T0 30
K : Terminal board with short circuit button TM 125
Z : Synchronizing device TI 21
E : Power factor meter 5A (Cap. 0.5-1-0.5 Ind)
P1 : Wattmeter, single phase, 240V 5A
R
B
: Load resistor TB 40
F : Power pack TF 123A

1. Connecting up and start
1.1 Connect the torque meter as motor and the synchronous machine for
synchronization in accordance with the circuit diagram. The load switch S and the
switch on the synchronizing device must be off
1.2 Make a note of the ratings of the synchronous machine marked on the rating plate.
These ratings must not be exceeded at any time during the laboratory exercise
1.3 The teacher check the connections
1.4 Turn on the fixed DC voltage switch. Adjust the shunt rheostat of the torque meter so
as to obtain max excitation current
1.5 Set the variable DC voltage control on the power pack to zero and turn on the
variable DC voltage switch. Then slowly turn up the DC voltage to 22V and
continuously check that the current is not too great for ammeter of the torque meter.
The motor then starts and comes up about 1450 rpm
1.6 Adjust the torque meter to bring the speed to exactly 1500 rpm

3. The synchronous motor as phase compensator
Measurement of V characteristics

, i.e. the rotor current as function of the


exciting current of the synchronous motor
3.1 With the shunt the rheostat R
my
vary the excitation current of
the synchronous motor in steps of 0.2A from maximum to
minimum as determined by the current ratings of the
synchronous motor (see ratings). For each step make a note
of I
m
, I
A
, U
N
, P1 and cos. If in any measurement the power
factor deflection goes outside the scale, note ind and cap. Observe that with
overexcited synchronous motor the power factor must be capacitive
3.2 Adjust the shunt rheostat R
my
of the synchronous motor to bring the rotor current to
minimum. Adjust the shunt rheostat of the torque meter to bring the excitation current
to zero, set the load resistor R
B
to minimum load current and turn on switch S
3.3 Turn up the shunt rheostat and load resistor of the torque meter to bring the torque to
3.0 Nm
3.4 With the shunt rheostat R
my
vary the excitation current of the synchronous motor in
steps from maximum to 0.4A in steps of 0.1A. For each step make a note of I
m
, I
A
,
U
N
, P1 and cos. Check that the torque is 3.0 Nm throughout.

4. The synchronous machine as driving motor
Measurement of power characteristics

and

, i.e. the
armature current and reactive power, respectively, as function of the power output
P
out
I
A
P
out
Q

4.1 Adjust the shunt rheostat of the torque meter to bring the torque to minimum. Adjust
the shunt rheostat of the synchronous machine to bring the rotor current to minimum.
Make a note of the excitation current of the synchronous machine. The excitation
current must be kept constant throughout the experiment
I
m
I
A
4.2 Load the synchronous machine by varying the shunt rheostat of the torque meter
and the load resistor R
B
in steps of 0.5A up to the rated current of the synchronous
motor. For each step make a note of M, I
m
, I
A
, U
N
, P1 and cos.
4.3 With the shunt rheostat of the torque meter adjust the torque to minimum. Change
the excitation current of the synchronous machine to 1.0A and maintain this value
constant throughout the experiment
4.4 Load the synchronous machine by varying the shunt rheostat of the torque meter
and the load resistor R
B
in steps of 0.5A up to the rated current of the synchronous
motor. For each step make a note of M, I
m
, I
A
, U
N
, P1 and cos.

Problem and Tasks
a. Calculate for all measurements:
The total input power Pin = 3 . P1
The apparent power S = 3 . Un . Ia
The reactive power


The power output


Observe the sign of Q which is obtained from cos .
b. Draw graphs of the V-charateristics Ia = f ( Im ) for measurement 3 with common Im
axis.
c. Draw graphs of the power characteristics Ia = f (Pout ) and Q = f(Pout) for
measurement 4.
d. Calculate what percentage of the rated power of the synchronous machine can be
used when operating as overexcited phase compensator.
e. What is it that limits the available power under d?
f. How could the available power be increased when operating as under excited phase
compensator?
g. Why is there little change in the active power during measurement 3?


MEASURED VALUES CALCULED VALUES
Meas.
no
M
(Nm)
I
m
(A)
I
A
(A)
U
N
(V)
P
1
(Watt)
cos

S
(VA)
P
in
(Watt)
Q
(VAR)

(Watt)
3.1









3.2
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
4.2








4.4
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8