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Journal of Elasticity, Vol. 6, No.

2, April 1976
Noor dhof f Int ernat i onal Publishing - Leyden
Pri nt ed in The Net herl ands
Closed form solutions for small deformations superimposed upon
the symmetrical expansion of a spherical shell
JAMES M. HI LL*
Department of Theoretical Mechanics, University ~?f Nottingham, England
(Received Oct ober 10, 1974)
ABSTRACT
For small axially symmetric deformations of isotropic incompressible hyperelastic materials which are super-
imposed upon t he symmetrical expansion of a spherical shell, new closed form solutions are derived wi t hout
any restrictions on t he strain-energy function. These solutions are used to derive the n = 1 buckling
criterion for thick-walled spherical shells which are subjected to uniform external pressure. They are also
used to deduce an upper bound to the force deflection rel at i on for small superimposed t ransl at i onal deflec-
tions of bonded pre-compressed spherical r ubber bush mountings.
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Fiir den Fall kleiner, axialsymmetrischer Deformat i onen isotropischer inkompressibler hyperelastischer
Materialien, die der symmetrischen Dehnung einer sphgrischen Schale tiberlagert sind, werden L/Ssungen
in geschlossener For m abgeleitet, ohne einschr~inkende Bedingungen ftir die Deformationsenergiefunktion.
Mi t Hilfe dieser L6sungen wird das Kni ck-Kri t eri um (n = 1) fiir dickwandige sph/irische Schalen gewonnen,
die gleichf/Srmigem, ~iusserem Druck, ausgesetzt sind. Wei t erhi n wird mi t Hilfe der L/Ssungen eine obere
Grenze gewonnen fiir die Kraft-Ablenkungs-Relation im Falle iiberlagerter kleiner Transl at i onen yon
gebundenen, vorgespannt en sph~irischen Gummi buchsen.
1. Introduction
For i sotropi c i ncompressi bl e hyperelastic materials the author [1] has given cl osed form
sol ut i ons for a pl ane deformati on whi ch is superi mposed upon the si mul t aneous
inflation and ext ensi on of a cylindrical tube. In this paper for the same materials we
give correspondi ng cl osed form sol ut i ons for a small axially symmetric deformati on
whi ch is superi mposed upon the symmetrical expansi on o f a spherical shell. These
sol uti ons, as in [1], are derived wi t hout any restrictions on the strain-energy functi on
of the material and are used to formulate the buckl i ng criterion for the first ( n = 1)
unsymmetri cal mode of a thick-walled spherical shell under uni f orm external pressure.
We al so use these sol ut i ons to not e the force-deflection relation for small super-
i mposed translational deflections of a bonded pre-compressed compl ete spherical shell.
In the f ol l owi ng secti on we give the general equat i ons in spherical polar coordi nates
* Present address: Depar t ment of Mat hemat i cs, The University of Wollongong, Australia.
Journal ~?f Elasticity 6 (I 976) 125-136
126 James M. Hill
for axially symmetric deformations of isotropic incompressible hyperelastic materials.
The initial deformation and the governing fourth order system of ordinary differential
equations for the small superimposed deformation are given in section 3. In section 4,
by evaluating the resultant force on an arbitrary originally spherical surface we are
able to integrate this fourth order system completely for the special case of n = 1.
As with the solutions given in [1] we find that two of the four independent solutions
do not involve the strain-energy function of the material and are thus controllable.
The problem of the stability of thick-walled spherical shells loaded by a uniform
external pressure has been considered by both Wesolowski [2] and Wang and Ertepinar
[3] and the reader is referred to these papers for further references to the problem.
In both [2] and [3], numerical solutions of the governing ordinary differential
equations are given. In section 5 we use the solutions given in section 4 to derive
the buckling criterion (5.4) for the first (n= 1) unsymmetrical mode. This criterion
involves the strain-energy function of the material and for particular examples we
consider the neo-Hookean and Varga materials. For the neo-Hookean material it is
a simple matter to show that buckling in the n= 1 mode cannot occur. For the
Varga material (for which references are given in [1]), buckling in the n= 1 mode is
possible under an applied internal pressure and we tabulate roots of the buckling
criterion (5.12) and corresponding critical pressures for various radii of the shell.
We remark that whether or not the n= 1 deformation mode is jactually achieved
for the Varga material would depend upon the critical pressures for the higher
deformation modes which we do not consider here.
The solutions given in section 4 can be shown to apply to other non-axially
symmetric deformations which are superimposed upon the initial deformation and which
moreover can be shown to give rise to the same buckling criterion (5.4). In particular
for a hollow sphere which is pre-compressed by a deformation of the form (3.1) and
is then "cold" bonded to effectively rigid inner and outer spherical metal shells, we
can deduce from the solutions given in section 4 the force-deflection relation for small
superimposed translational deflections which are effected when the outer metal shell is
held fixed and the inner suffers a small uniform translation. This force-deflection
relation provides an upper bound for spherical rubber bush mountings which are used
extensively as engineering components and consist of thick spherical pre-compressed
rubber shells with their polar caps removed. Since thecalculations associated with
these non-axially symmetric superimposed deformations are extremely long and tedious,
we simply note the main results for them in section 6.
2. Axially symmetric deformations of isotropic ,incompressible hyperelastic materials
In this section we outline the main results for axially symmetric deformations in
spherical polar coordinates of is0tropic incompressible hyperelastic materials. These
results can be derived in a manner similar to that described in [4] for axially
symmetric deformations in cylindrical polar coordinates and the reader is referred to
this paper for further details, l~0r: material and spatial spherical polar coordinates
(R, O, ~) and (r, 0, 95) respectively, we consider the axially symmetric deformation
r=r( R, O) , O=O( R, O) , 95=~, (2.1)
Symmetrical expansion of a spherical shell 127
whi ch f or a n i nc ompr e s s i bl e mat er i al sat i sfi es t he c o n d i t i o n
R 2 sin O
rROo--roOR-- r2 sin O ,
(2.2)
whe r e rR, 0o, etc. d e n o t e pa r t i a l der i vat i ves. I t c a n be s h o wn t ha t t he c o n t r a v a r i a n t
c o mp o n e n t s o f t he Ca u c h y st r ess t e ns or f or an i s ot r opi c i nc ompr e s s i bl e hype r e l a s t i c
mat er i al a r e gi ven b y
1 2 2 = _ p , ( 0 ~ ' ~
7 + 1 0~+ RU'
= q51 ( r g 0 R + ro0o' ~ (2. 3)
t 12
R 2 / '
133 P* (~2
- r 2 s i n 2 ~ + R 2 sin z O '
t 13 = t 23 =- 0 ,
wher e p* is t he pr e s s ur e f unct i on a n d q51 a n d ~b2 ar e r e s pons e f unc t i ons whi ch a r e
gi ven b y
q~l = 2 + )2 ,
= +1 - 2 4 .
(2. 4)
He r e Z(I1, I2) is t he s t r ai n- ener gy f unct i on of t he ma t e r i a l a n d 11 a n d I 2 a r e t he
us ual first t wo i nva r i a nt s of t he i nver se Ca u c h y d e f o r ma t i o n t e ns or a n d ar e gi ven b y
1
I1 = 1 + 2 2 , 1 2 = 2 2 I + 2~- , (2.5)
whe r e I a n d 2 ar e def i ned b y
( 0~' ~ r sin 0 (2.6)
I =r ~ + rR--5 2 + r z 02 + R2 } , 2 - R s i n ~ "
F r o m (2. 3) a n d t he a p p r o p r i a t e e qui l i br i um e q u a t i o n s we c a n d e d u c e t he f ol l owi ng
e q u a t i o n s
{ ( , o , o ,sin 2 O
P* = ~)1 VZ r - r 02 + R z j j + ~91grR + R ~ -- q~2 R 2 s i n 2 0 ,
{ 2 ( , o o < , o o o s o o c o s o
P~ - - q~l V 2 0 -[- rROR + R2 / j + ~)IROR ~- R 2 ~ 2 R2 s i n 2 0
r 2
(2. 7)
128 James M. Hill
where the Laplacian V 2 is given by
8 2 2 a 1 8 2 cot 0 8
V 2=- + +- - - - + Re . (2.8)
8R 2 Rs-R~ R 2 802 80
If we introduce the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor in the usual way, then from
(2.3) and (2.2) we can show that the resultant force F* in the conventional z-direction,
acting on a surface which is given originally by the sphere R = constant, is given by
i~ [- p*r sin O(r sin 0)o+ RZsin 04)1(r cos 0)R]dO. (2.9)
F* 2r~
Moreover we can show that the boundary conditions of a normal pressure P acting
inwardly over a surface again given originally by the sphere R = constant become
( - p* + P)r 2 sin O0o+ R 2 sin 04)1r R = O,
(2.10)
( - p*+P) sin Or e- R 2 sin O~blO R= O.
3. The initial deformation and governing ordinary differential equations for the small
superimposed deformation
We suppose that a spherical shell of inner and outer radii A and B respectively is
subjected to the following symmetrical inflation (Green and Shield [5])
r =( R3+K) ~, 0- - O, ~b=~, (3.1)
where K is a constant. For this deformation we find from (2.6) that
g = + Xo- (3.2)
' - - R '
where we define p to be given by
p = ( R3+K) ~ . (3.3)
From (2.4) and (3.2) we note that the response functions q51 and q52 are the same for
the deformation (3.1) and from (2.7)1 we can deduce that the pressure function
corresponding to (3.1) is given by
( R) 4 IR 2q51 K( 2~3+K )
P(R)=q51 --JA ( - ~~ de +a , (3.4)
where a is a constant. The stress tensor t~ for (3.1) is now easily obtained from (2.3).
We now look for solutions of (2.2) and (2.7) of the form
r = (R 3 + K)++ eu.(R)P.(cos 0) ,
0 = 0 + evn(R ) dP,(cos O)
dO ' (3.5)
p* = po(R) +~G(R)P, (cos O),
where e is some small parameter for which we can neglect terms of order e e and
Symmetrical expansion o f a spherical shell 129
higher, n is a positive integer and P, is a Legendre function of degree n. Using the
incompressibility condition (3.8)1, we find from (2.5), (2.6), (3.2) and (3.5) that the
invariants 11 and I2 are given by
5
P- ' ' e o) ,
I1 = I l o+e 2KR I l ou, ,(cos
5
Y ' ' R o) ,
I2 = I2o+e 2KR I2un n(cs
(3.6)
where 11o and 120 are the invariants of the initial deformation and primes denote
differentiation with respect to R. Thus for the response functions 01 and 02 we have
/35
01(I1, 12)= 01(110, 120) +~ 2 ~ 0 i ( I l o , !20)'u'nPn(cos 0 ) ,
/ ) 5
02(11, ] 2) = 02(110, /20) -~'~ ~ 02(110, I 2 0 ) ' u ' . P. ( c o s 0 ) ,
(3.7)
and since 01(11o,/2o) =02( ho, I2o), the response functions therefore admit the same
expansion up to order e. Hereafter 01 denotes the response function evaluated at the
initial deformation, that is 41(ho, X2o). Using (3.5) and (3.7) we obtain from (2.2)
and (2.7), on equating terms of order e, the following system of ordinary differential
equations
( ~) 2 u' +2 -u-p n ( n + l ) v = O ,
P' =0 1 u " + 2 ~ - n ( n + l ) R 2 R2 + 2 n ( n + l ) ~ 5 RZp5 j
+0'1 (I pR3u' ' (4R6+3KR3-ZK2)2KRp 2 u'} + O'l'PR3u , (3.8)
P -~' 01 t 02 v t t ~ 2 R - n ( n +l ) ~ + 2 ~ - + 2 7 v ' + 2 RZpS j
, ~ R 2 p Tu ' [
+01 P 2v' + - - +
p2 u 2 g3 ,
where we have omitted the suffix n from the functions u, (R), v, (R) and p , ( R) .
The fourth order system of ordinary differential equations (3.8) is evidently highly
non-homogeneous and as with the corresponding system given in [1] there are as yet
no known closed form solutions of these equations for general n. In the following
section we deduce the complete integral of (3.8) for the special case of n = 1.
4. Cl os ed f orm s ol ut i ons for the s peci al cas e of n = 1
If we substitute (3.5) and (3.7)1 into (2.9), then we find that the resultant force F*
has a term of order e only for the case of n = 1. For n = 1 (3.5) becomes
130 James M. Hill
r = (R3+K)}+gu(R) cos O,
0 = O- ev( R) sin O, (4.1)
p* = po(R)+ cp(R) cos O,
where u, v and p in (4.1) and hereafter refer to the functions Ul, vl and Pl. The
resultant force F* is found to be given by
R3p 3 ]
F* 4rcg _pp2 + , , 2 ,
= 3 ~- ~1 u +R ~l(u+2pv) l , (4.2)
and since this expression must be constant we set
8roe
F* -- - - - (4.3)
3 K271'
where 71 is a constant. Thus from (4.2) and (4.3) we have
p = 2 ~K2yl R3P2K-q)I u" ' R2
+ + 7241(u+2pv)' , (4.4)
which is a first integral of (3.8) for n = 1.
If we now substitute (4.4) into either (3.8)2 or (3.8)3 using (3.8)1 to eliminate v,
then we obtain after some simplifications the following equation
~bl O' - - q- ~10=4K2~; 1 7, (4.5)
where ~( R) is defined by
O(R) = pu" + ( 4R3- K) u' (4.6)
Rp2
Integrating (4.5) we obtain
R 2
q510 -- 2K71 + 2K72, (4.7)
R 7
wher e Y2 is a constant. Using (4.6) we see that (4.7) can be written as
u' = 2KTa ~ + 2K72 ~bl(R)" (4.8)
Performing two further integrations and interchanging the order of integration in the
double integrals that result, we can deduce the following
R 44
i " -
u(R)=I <()
+72/Tg-jA~R2 (R({3q-K)-~ d{ - f ~2( ~3+K) } d~} ~/ 51~- ~bl(~) (4.9)
R 2
-~Y3 ~2- q- 74,
Symmetrical expansion'of a spherical shell 131
where 73 and 7, are arbitrary constants. Fr om (4.9) and (3.8)1 we find that the function
v(R) is given by
{ l f ~ ~2(~3+K) ~ d~ - I ( R ~4
v( R) = 71
qbl (~) p 3A ~ d ~
{ I I R( { 3 + K) ' d ~ - 1- f R~2( ~3+K) }d{} (4.10)
+ ~ + ~
R p
while the function p(R), if needed, can be obtained from (4.4), (4.9) and (4.10).
As with the corresponding results given in [1], we note that the solutions associated
with the constants 73 and 74 are independent of the strain-energy function of the
material and are therefore controllable. In the following two sections we give two
applications of the solutions given here.
5 . The f i rs t buc kl e d mode o f t hi c k- wa l l e d spherical s h e l l s subjected t o uniform e x t e r n a l
pressure
If a spherical shell is subjected to a uniform external pressure P, then the deformation
(3.1) describes the symmetrical deformed configuration where the constants K and a
are determined by the boundary conditions of zero pressure at the inner radius
and normal pressure G at the outer radius. Fr om (2.10), (3.1) and (3.4) we find
that a is zero and that K is determined by the condition
I B d~ ( 5 . 1 )
2Kq~1(~)(2~3 + K)
p: _ --
A ( 4 3 + K) 7/3 "
In order to find the critical pressures for which unsymmetrical solutions of the
boundary value problem may exist, we use the met hod of adjacent equilibria for
which further references can be found in [2] and [3]. We look for unsymmetrical
solutions of the form (3.5) and for n= 1 we find from (2.10), (3.7)1 and (4.1) that the
boundary conditions of normal pressure at the inner and outer radii become
R 3 p . . . . R 2
p = qqu +2 ~ q ~ l u '
2K
p"
at R = A, B, (5.2)
e 2
~) i u
p4
where we remind the reader that p is defined by (3.3). Since there are no resultant
forces we have that 71 is zero and from (4.4) on using (3.8)1 with n = 1 we see that
( 5 . 2 ) 1 r e d u c e s t o ( 5 . 2 ) 2 .
Fr om (4.9), (4.10) and (5.2)2 we obtain the following equations for the constants
72 and Y3
" ( #3+K) d~ - (5.3)
72[)A q S * ( ~ ) 01(R)(2R3+K)J + 7 3 =0 at R=A, B,
132 James M. Hill
which have non-trivial solutions if and only if
f B(3+K)~ d4 = (5.4)
B(B3 + K) 7/3 A(A3 + K) 7/3
A ~ ~,(S)(2B3+K) ~x(A)(2A3+K) '
and this is the buckling criterion for the first (n = 1) unsymmetrical mode.
By integration by parts we can show that (5.4) becomes
f B 4(3 q_K)s,- ~6ys-(~3q-K)(243q-K) ~b~(~)} d4 =0 (5.5)
JA ~b,(~)(243+K)2{ " q61(4) "
For the neo-Hookean material for which q~l is a constant we obtain
f
B ~6(~3 .~_ K) ff
A (23+K) 2 d4= 0, (5.6)
for which the integrand can evidently not vanish for any 40 such that A<<.4o<...B if
both A and A 3 +K are to be strictly positive. Thus for the neo-Hookean material
buckling in the n= 1 mode can never occur. For the Varga material for which
references are given in [1] the strain-energy function is given by
Z = 2#(21 + 22 + 23- 3), (5.7)
where # is the usual infinitesimal shear modulus and 2~ (i = 1, 2, 3) are the principal
stretches which' for the deformation (3.1) are given by
21= , 22- - 23=~- .
Now from (2.4)1, (2.5) and (3.2) we have that for any strain-energy function
pV R3S' (5.9)
~1 - 2K2(2R3 + K) ,
and thus from this equation and (5.7) and (5.8) we find that the response function
q~l for a Varga material is given by
2#Rp2 (5.10)
q~l - (2R3+K)
Using (5.10), (5.1) can be shown to become
p B 2 A 2
- 2~ = ( B3+K) } ( A3+K) }' (5.11)
while the buckling criterion (5.5) yields
f~ ~-(343- K)(43 + K) ~ d4 = 0. (5.12)
From (5.12) we see that K=3~g for some ~o such that A<~o~B and thus K is
positive and hence for the Varga material buckling in the n = 1 mode can occur only
under an applied internal pressure (that is for P negative).
The integral (5.12) can be evaluated in terms of elementary functions. If we define
the function f(x) by
Symmetrical expansion of a spherical shell
( 7 + i ) 1 )~ 1 ~ ( 2 x + 1) x/3 2 - X 2 ~ x S
f ( x ) = l og ( x + ~ - t a n - + ,
a n d i f i n a d d i t i o n we def i ne
B K
a = ~ , k = y , ,
a n d
~ = l + k / , f i = 1 +
t h e n we f i nd t h a t k is d e t e r mi n e d as a r o o t of t he e q u a t i o n
f ( a ) = f ( f i )
TABLE 1
Values of K/ A 3 and - P/ 2# for various values of B/A.
6 = B/ A k = K/ A s - P/21~
1.1 3.48 0.06
1.2 4.01 0.11
1.3 4.60 0.15
1.4 5.25 0.20
1.5 5.97 0.23
2.0 10.64 0137
3.0 26.41 0.53
4.0 52.90 0.60
5.0 92.57 0.64
10.0 568.73 0.73
133
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
(5.16)
Tabl e 1 gives t he r o o t s of (5.16) a n d t he c o r r e s p o n d i n g val ues of - P/ 2# o b t a i n e d
f r om (5.11) for t ypi cal val ues of 6. We r e mi n d t he r e a d e r t h a t a l t h o u g h we ha ve s h o wn
t ha t t he n = 1 mo d e is a possi bl e d e f o r me d c onf i gur a t i on for t he Va r ga mat er i al ,
t hi s d e f o r ma t i o n mo d e ma y ne ve r be a c hi e ve d i n pr act i ce i f t he cr i t i cal pr es s ur es for
t he hi gher d e f o r ma t i o n mo d e s a r e less t h a n t ha t f or t he n = 1 mode .
6. Non-axially symmetric superimposed deformations
Mo r e ge ne r a l l y t he s ol ut i ons (4.9) a n d (4.10) c a n be s hown t o be appl i cabl e t o t he
f ol l owi ng d e f o r ma t i o n
r = (R ~ + I~)*~+~u(R) S,
0 = O+~v(R)So, (6.1)
~(R)
q~ = ~ + ~ s ,
p* = po(R) +~p(R) S,
134 James M. Hill
where S(O, q)) is any spherical harmonic of degree one, that is any solution of the
equation
Soo + cot O So + cosec 20 See + 2S = 0. (6.2)
We note that (4.1) is retrieved from (6.1) by taking S= cos O and that it can be shown
that the buckling criterion (5.4) is applicable to any S which is a solution of (6.2).
The calculations for these non-axially symmetric modes are extremely long and will be
ommitted here.
The case of S=si n O cos q~ is of particular interest in connection with the
pre-compressed bonded spherical rubber bush mountings described in the introduction.
In this case (6.1) becomes
r = ( R3+K) ~+eu( R) sin O cos ~,
0 = O+~v( R) cos O cos q~,
(6.3)
~) = ~- e v ( R) --sin q~
sin O'
p* = po( R) +ep( R) sin O cos 45,
and in this context we can identify the constant ~4 appearing in (4.9) and (4.10) as
representing a uniform rigid translation of the sphere R = constant in the conventional
x-direction. Moreover the constant 71 is now associated with the resultant force in
the conventional x-direction acting on the sphere R= constant.
If a rubber spherical shell which is pre-compressed by a deformation of the form
(3.1) and is "cold" bonded to effectively rigid inner and outer metal shells, undergoes
small superimposed translational deflections in the conventional x-direction which are
effected by fixing the outer metal shell and moving the inner, then a deformation
of the form (6.3) is applicable where the functions u(R) and v(R) satisfy the following
boundary conditions
1
u(A) -- 1, v(A) - (A 3 + K) ~ ,
u(B) = O, v(B) = 0, (6.4)
and e is the small distance moved by the inner metal shell. The force F required
to maintain the deformation is given by
F = 8rte
~- K221, (6.5)
where the constant 71 is found from (4,9), (4.10) and (6.4) to be given by
(~3 + Kfi- d~
fA (#1 ()
~1 = {f~ (~3lt-S)' d* f~ ,4 (~B ,2(,3+K) , d,)2}" (6.6)
(bx(~) ~- 7~ d: - - \ Oa ~-7(~)
Equations (6.5) and (6.6) constitute the force-deflection relation for small super-
imposed translational deflections of a complete spherical shell. This relation provides
Symmetrical expansion of a spherical shell 135
an upper bound for translational deflections of bounded pre-compressed spherical
rubber bush mountings which consist of spherical rubber shells with their polar caps
removed. In the context of (6.3) the solutions (4.9) and (4.10) have been derived by
the aut hor in [6] for the special case of the neo-Hookean material and by a different
met hod to that used here. The reader is referred to this paper for further details of
spherical rubber bush mountings and for numerical results for the force-deflection
relation of a neo-Hookean material.
7. Conclusion
For small axially symmetric deformations of isotropic incompressible hyperelastic
materials which are superimposed upon the symmetrical expansion of a spherical
shell we have derived new closed form solutions without any restrictions on the strain-
energy function. We have used these solutions to formulate the n-- 1 buckling criterion
for thick-walled spherical shells which are subjected to uniform external pressure.
Using this criterion we have established that the n= 1 mode is not a possible
deformed configuration for the neo-Hookean material. For the Varga material we have
shown that the n = 1 mode is a possible deformed configuration only under an applied
internal pressure and we have tabulated roots of the buckling criterion and
corresponding critical pressures for various radii of the shell. In addition we have
noted that the solutions derived here are also applicable to certain superimposed
non-axially symmetric deformations one of which describes small translational
deflections of a pre-compressed bonded spherical shell and we have noted the
force-deflection relation for deformations of this type. This relation provides an
upper bound for small superimposed translational deflections of bonded pre-compressed
spherical rubber bush mountings which are commonl y used as engineering components.
We might summarise the importance of the solutions given here and in [1] as
follows. Firstly they are closed form solutions of highly non-homogeneous ordinary
differential equations for which only numerical solutions have been given previously.
Secondly they are applicable to any strain-energy function and illustrate clearly the
manner in which the small superimposed deformation depends on the strain-energy
function of the material. Finally these solutions should at least throw some light on
the difficult probl em of determining solutions for the higher deformation modes.
Acknowledgements
The aut hor gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Science Research
Council.
136 James M. Hi l l
REFERENCES
[1] Hill, J. M., Closed form solutions for small deformations superimposed upon the simultaneous inflation
and extension of a cylindrical tube, Journal of Elasticity 6 (1976) 113-123.
[2] Wesolowski, Z., Stability of an elastic, thick-walled spherical shell loaded by an external pressure,
Arch. Mech. Stosow, 19 (1967) 3-44.
[3] Wang, A. S. D. and A. Ertepinar, Stability and vibrations of elastic thick-walled cylindrical and
spherical shells subjected to pressure, Int. J. Nonlinear Mech., 7 (1972) 539-555.
[4] Hill, J. M., Partial solutions of finite elasticity axially symmetric deformations, Z. angew. Math. Phys.,
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