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Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 1

Heat Exchanger design/


Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 2
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
Baffles are used to establish a
cross-flow and to induce
turbulent mixing of the shell-
side fluid, both of which
enhance convection.
The number of tube and shell
passes may be varied.
This configuration increases
substantially the heat transfer
area. A = N
tubcs
nI
One Shell Pass and One Tube Pass
One Shell Pass,
Two Tube Passes
Two Shell Passes,
Four Tube Passes
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 3
One-shell and four-tube pass heat exchanger
Tube
fluid
in
Shell
fluid
out
Tube sheet
Inlet header
Tubes
Shell
fluid
in
Drain
Baffle
Tube
fluid
out
Outlet
header
Baffles
Baffles help support the
tubes and mix the shell-side
fluid along the length of the
heat exchanger
Shell characteristics pipe or rolled sheet
Tube characteristics B.W.G. (Birmingham Wire Gauge) 1
Tube considerations
Tubes up to 120 length
Heat exchangers may
have ~10 1000+tubes (!)
Information about standard tube
dimensions, including areas can be
found in Tables (for example p. 14,
Heaslip)
Tubes generally handle
the least viscous, most
corrosive & fouling fluid
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 7
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Temperature Profile
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 8
Log-Mean temperature difference
To account for complex flow conditions in multi-pass, shell and tube
and cross-flow heat exchangers, the log-mean temperature difference
must modified:
CF lm lm
T F T
,
A = A
where F=correction factor
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 9
Correction Factor
where t is the tube-
side fluid
temperature
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 10
Example
A shell-and-tube heat exchanger must be designed to heat 2.5 kg/s of water from 15
to 85C. The heating is to be accomplished by passing hot engine oil, which is
available at 160C, through the shell side of the exchanger. Ten tubes pass the water
through the shell. Each tube is thin walled, of diameter D=25 mm, and makes eight
passes through the shell. If the oil leaves the exchanger at 100C, what is the
required flow rate? If the overall heat transfer coefficient is estimated at 354 W/m2.K,
what is the total area of heat transfer?
Fluid properties: Engine Oil at T=130C: c
p
=2350 J /kg.K, Water at T=50C:
c
p
=4181J /kg.K, =548x10
-6
N.s/m
2
, k=0.643 W/m.K, Pr=3.56
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 11
Correction Factor
where t is the tube-
side fluid
temperature
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 12
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Recall:
o
cond o
i i
o
o
h
R A
A h
A
U
1
1
+ +
=
But: Estimation of U
poses some
challenges for shell
and tube heat
exchangers!
h
i
h
o
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 13
Determination of tube side film coefficient, h
i
Approach 1: Using convection correlations and charts (for example Sieder-Tate,
see also Welty et al, Ch. 20, equations 4.1, 2.37, 2.36) :
Approach 2: Sieder and Tate relationship plotted in graph below (p. 53 Heaslip)
14 . 0
w
b 3 1 5 4
D D
Pr Re 0.023
k
D h
Nu
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

For these calculations the mass flow rate per tube must be used:
m
per tube
=
m
t
n
p
n
t
t

i
pertube
D
m 4
U D
Re
f
t t f
D
= =
2
t f
t
t
p
t
D
4
m
n
n
U
t


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
tubes of number : n
passes of number : n
in tubes rate flow mass total : m
t
p
t

(U
t
is the local velocity in each tube)
Determination of tube side film coefficient, h
i
Shell
Inlet
Shell
Outlet
Tube
Inlet
Tube
Outlet
Determination of tube side film coefficient, h
i
Note that in the Sieder-Tate plots, the mass velocity, G, is used, where
0
t
= pu
tubc sdc
=
m
tubc

sdc
A
t
where A
t
is the cross-sectional area available for flow on the tube-side
and G is in units of lb/(hr)(ft
2
)
Based on this definition, Rc =
u

(multiply in cp by 2.42 for units to


match)
To find G, we need to determine the flow area on the tube side:
A
t
=
No.o] tubcs]Iow ucutubc (n nchcs)
No.o] pusscs144
(in ft
2
)
The diameter D and flow area/tube can be found from tables (p. 14 Heaslip,
see next slide), Table 10 Kern
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 15
p. 14 Heaslip (2007)
Tubes create a complex combination of flow patterns.
Variable cross section confronted by the fluid.
Proprietary software packages or experimental facilities e.g. Heat
Transfer Research Inc. (HTRI).
Delaware method Serth (later chapters)
Tabulated values presented in various heat transfer references.
The problem:
The solution:
Determination of shell side film coefficient, h
o
Tube patterns and layout
Square
Square
(rotated)
Triangular
Tube pitch is the centre-to-centre distance between tubes
Square and rotated square patterns permit mechanical cleaning of
the outside of the tubes
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 19
Determination of h
o
Approach 1: Using convection correlations (for example Welty et al, Ch. 20)
Approach 2: Using charts by Kern, (p. 56 Heaslip). See also curve fit eq.
3.21 in Serth, (but check out assumptions)
Typical values of baffle cuts 20-25% for liquids and 40-45% for vapour
Serth, pg. 3/110 See also curve fit eq. 3.21 in Serth, (but be aware of assumptions!)
Determination of h
o
Once again we need the mass velocity on the shell side, G
s
.
0
s
=
m
shcII

sdc
A
s
(where A
s
is the cross-sectional area available for flow on
the tube-side).
Rc =

c
u
s

The equivalent diameter must be calculated based on the pitch (see


next slide), or can be found in the charts (such as p. 56 Heaslip).
The shell-side cross-flow area must also be calculated based on the
pitch, baffle spacing and internal tube diameter (see next slide)
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 21
Calculation of shell-side equivalent diameter
Square pitch
Triangular pitch
The equivalent diameters are
commonly included in the charts for
the shell-side heat transfer
coefficients
A
S
=
IC
|
B
P
T
144
in ft
The shell-side crossflowarea is:
where B is the baffle spacing
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 23
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
o
o f cond o
i
i f o
i i
o
o
h
R R A
A
R A
A h
A
U
1
1
+ + + +
=
"
,
"
,
Up to now we have determined the design (or clean) overall heat
transfer coefficient (U
D
) .
To account for fouling:
Fluid velocities and pressure drops in tubes
Higher fluid velocity gives higher heat transfer coefficient.
Higher fluid velocity helps reduce build-up of scale and
contaminants on pipe/tube walls.
But
Higher fluid velocity gives a higher pressure drop.
Higher fluid velocity requires larger internal fluid pressures (potential
safety issues?).
Target values
For liquids, velocities of 1-3 m/s in pipes or tubes are recommended.
For liquids, pressure drops of 30-60 kPa (or less) are permissible.
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 25
Pressure Drop
In practice there can be a significant pressure drop along the pipes of
a multipass heat exchanger.
Results in property changes
Pressure drop must be accounted for in real design situations and
maximum allowable pressure drops must be respected (see
specifications in design assignment)
See pages 67-69 (Heaslip).
Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 26
Tube Side Pressure Drop
Useful to obtain an estimate of a suitable combination of L,n and D for
your H.E.(i.e. starting point)
In calculations of double-pipe heat exchangers, for flow in annulus just
use equivalent diameter

The tubeside pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drop through the tubes plus the pressure
drop through the channels:


AP
t
= f G
t
2
L

n + 4n V
2
lbs/in
2

5.22 x 10
10
D
e
s |
t
s 2g'

Where: APt =Pressure drop across the tubeside, lbs/ft
2

f =Friction factor, ft
2
/in
2

Gt =Tube mass velocity, lb/hr-ft
2

L =Tube length, ft
n =Number of tube passes
De =Equivalent diameter, ft
s =Specific gravity =density, lbs/ft
3
/ 62.4
|s =The viscosity ratio (/w)
0.14

g' =Acceleration due to gravity =32.2 ft/sec
2

Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 27
Shell Side Pressure Drop

The pressure drop through the shell of an exchanger is proportional to the the number of times the
fluid crosses the bundle between baffles. It is also proportional to the distance across the bundle
each time it is crossed.

The isothermal equation for pressure drop for the shellside flow of a fluid being heated or cooled and
including the entrance and exit losses is:

AP
s
= f G
s
2
D
s
(N+1) lbs/in
2

5.22 x 10
10
D
e
s |
s


Where: AP
s
=Pressure drop across the shell, lbs/ft
2

f =Friction factor, ft
2
/in
2

Gs =Shell mass velocity, lb/hr-ft
2

D
s
=Shell inside diameter, ft
N =Number of baffles
D
e
=Equivalent diameter, ft
s =Specific gravity
|
s
=The viscosity ratio (/
w
)
0.14

Heat Exchangers Chee 331/332/333 28
Some design tips
Step-by-step instructions to size double pipe heat exchangers are
provided in Serth (2007), Chapter 4 (Example 4.1)
Step-by-step instructions to size shell and tube heat exchangers are
provided in Serth, Chapter 5 (Example 5.1), and multiple examples are
provided by Kern.
A listing of common heat exchanger tube dimensions is included in page
14 (Heaslip).
See p. 22-23 (Heaslip) for useful information on baffle design
Useful shell dimensions are found in pages 16-17 (Heaslip)
Criteria for the placement of the fluid (tube side or shell side) can be found
in Serth Table 3.4 and section 5.7 and in p. 30 Heaslip.