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7-101C The ideal process for all three devices is the reversible adiabatic (i.e., isentropic) process. The

adiabatic efficiencies of these devices are defined as

energy kinetic exit c insentropi

energy kinetic exit actual

and ,

input work actual

input work c insentropi

,

output work c insentropi

output work actual

N C T

7-102C No, because the isentropic process is not the model or ideal process for compressors that are

cooled intentionally.

7-103C Yes. Because the entropy of the fluid must increase during an actual adiabatic process as a result

of irreversibilities. Therefore, the actual exit state has to be on the right-hand side of the isentropic exit

state

7-104 Steamenters an adiabatic turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 0.90 at a specified state with a

specified mass flow rate, and leaves at a specified pressure. The turbine exit temperature and power output

of the turbine are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change

with time. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3

The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.

Analysis (a) From the steamtables (Tables A-4 through A-6),

kJ /kg 2268.3 2335.3 0.8475 289.27

8475 . 0

8234 . 6

9441 . 0 7266 . 6

kPa 30

K kJ /kg 6.7266

kJ /kg 3399.5

C 500

MPa 8

2 2

2

2

1 2

2

1

1

1

1

fg s f s

fg

f s

s

s

s

h x h h

s

s s

x

s s

P

s

h

T

P

P

1

=8 MPa

T

1

=500 C

STEAM

TURBINE

T =90%

P

2

=30 kPa

From the isentropic efficiency relation,

Thus,

C 69.09

kPa 30 @ sat 2

2

2

2 1 1 2

2 1

2 1

kJ /kg 2381.4

kPa 30

kJ /kg 2381.4 2268.3 3399.5 0.9 5 . 3399

T T

h

P

h h h h

h h

h h

a

a

a

s a

s

a

T T

(b) There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the actual turbine as the system,

which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-flow system

can be expressed in the rate formas

out in

energies etc. potential,

kinetic, internal, in change of Rate

(steady) 0

system

mass and work, heat, by

nsfer energy tra net of Rate

out in

0

E E

E E E

) (

0) pe ke (since

2 1 out a,

2 out a, 1

h h m W

Q h m W h m

Substituting,

kW 3054 kJ /kg 2381.4 3399.5 kg/s 3

out a,

W

7-64

7-105 EES Problem 7-104 is reconsidered. The effect of varying the turbine isentropic efficiency from

0.75 to 1.0 on both the work done and the exit temperature of the steam are to be investigated, and the

results are to be plotted.

Analysis The problem is solved using EES, and the results are tabulated and plotted below.

"System: control volume for turbine"

"Property relation: Steam functions"

"Process: Turbine: Steady state, steady flow, adiabatic, reversible or isentropic"

"Since we don't know the mass, we write the conservation of energy per unit mass."

"Conservation of mass: m_dot[1]=m_dot[2]=m_dot"

"Knowns:"

WorkFluid$ ='Steam_iapws'

m_dot =3 [kg/s]

P[1] =8000 [kPa]

T[1] =500 [C]

P[2] =30 [kPa]

"eta_turb =0.9"

"Conservation of Energy - SSSF energy

balance for turbine -- neglecting the

change in potential energy, no heat

transfer:"

h[1]=enthalpy(WorkFluid$,P=P[1],T=T[1])

s[1]=entropy(WorkFluid$,P=P[1],T=T[1])

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

s [kJ /kg-K]

8000 kPa

30 kPa

0.2

0.4 0.6

0.8

Steam

1

2

s

2

T_s[1] =T[1]

s[2] =s[1]

s_s[2] =s[1]

h_s[2]=enthalpy(WorkFluid$,P=P[2],s=s_s[2])

T_s[2]=temperature(WorkFluid$,P=P[2],s=s_s[2])

eta_turb =w_turb/w_turb_s

h[1] =h[2] +w_turb

h[1] =h_s[2] +w_turb_s

T[2]=temperature(WorkFluid$,P=P[2],h=h[2])

W_dot_turb =m_dot*w_turb

turb

W

turb

[kW]

0.75 2545

0.8 2715

0.85 2885

0.9 3054

0.95 3224

1 3394

0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

3100

3200

3300

3400

turb

7-65

7-106 Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at a specified state, and leaves at a specified state. The mass flow

rate of the steamand the isentropic efficiency are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Potential energy changes

are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.

Analysis (a) From the steamtables (Tables A-4 and A-6),

kJ /kg 2780.2

C 150

kPa 50

K kJ /kg 7.0910

kJ /kg 3650.6

C 600

MPa 7

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

a

h

T

P

s

h

T

P

There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the actual turbine as the system, which

is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can

be expressed in the rate form as

out in

energies etc. potential,

kinetic, internal, in change of Rate

(steady) 0

system

mass and work, heat, by

nsfer energy tra net of Rate

out in

0

E E

E E E

1

6 MW

H

2

O

2

0) pe (since /2) + ( ) 2 / (

2

1

2

2

1 2 out a,

2

1 2 out a,

2

1 1

V V

h h m W

Q V h m W V h m

2

Substituting, the mass flow rate of the steam is determined to be

kg/s 6.95 m

m

2 2

2 2

/s m 1000

kJ /kg 1

2

) m/s 80 ( ) m/s 140 (

3650.6 2780.2 kJ /s 6000

(b) The isentropic exit enthalpy of the steamand the power output of the isentropic turbine are

kJ /kg 2467.3 2304.7 0.9228 340.54

0.9228

6.5019

1.0912 7.0910

kPa 50

2 2

2

2

1 2

2

fg s f s

fg

f s

s

s

s

h x h h

s

s s

x

s s

P

and

kW 8174

/s m 1000

kJ /kg 1

2

) m/s 80 ( ) m/s 140 (

3650.6 2467.3 kg/s 6.95

2 /

2 2

2 2

out s,

2

1

2

2 1 2 out s,

W

V V h h m W

s

Then the isentropic efficiency of the turbine becomes

73.4% 0.734

kW 8174

kW 6000

s

a

W

W

T

7-66

7-107 Argon enters an adiabatic turbine at a specified state with a specified mass flow rate, and leaves at a

specified pressure. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Kinetic and potential

energy changes are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 Argon is an

ideal gas with constant specific heats.

Properties The specific heat ratio of argon is k =1.667. The constant pressure specific heat of argon is c

p

=

0.5203 kJ /kg.K (Table A-2).

Analysis There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the isentropic turbine as the

system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-

flow systemcan be expressed in the rate formas

1

) (

0) pe ke (since

2 1 out s,

2 out , 1

out in

s

s s

h h m W

Q h m W h m

E E

370 kW

Ar

T

From the isentropic relations,

K 479

kPa 1500

kPa 200

K 1073

7 0.667/1.66 / 1

1

2

1 2

k k

s

s

P

P

T T

Then the power output of the isentropic turbine becomes 2

kW 1 412 479 1073 K kJ /kg 0.5203 kg/min 80/60

2 1 out s,

.

s p

T T c m W

Then the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is determined from

89.8% 898 . 0

kW 412.1

kW 370

s

a

W

W

T

7-108E Combustion gases enter an adiabatic gas turbine with an isentropic efficiency of 82% at a specified

state, and leave at a specified pressure. The work output of the turbine is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Kinetic and potential

energy changes are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 Combustion

gases can be treated as air that is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.

Analysis From the air table and isentropic relations,

1

T

h

P

r

1

1

1

1740

2000R

=504.71Btu/lbm

.

AIR

T

=82%

Btu/lbm 417.3 87.0 174.0

psia 120

psia 60

2s

1

2

1 2

h P

P

P

P

r r

There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the

actual turbine as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the

boundary. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be expressed

as

2

) (

0) pe ke (since

2 1 out a,

2 out a, 1

out in

h h m W

Q h m W h m

E E

Noting that w

a

=

T

w

s

, the work output of the turbine per unit mass is determined from

Btu/lbm 71.7 Btu/lbm 417.3 504.71 0.82

a

w

7-67

7-109 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] Refrigerant-134a enters an adiabatic compressor with an

isentropic efficiency of 0.80 at a specified state with a specified volume flow rate, and leaves at a specified

pressure. The compressor exit temperature and power input to the compressor are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Kinetic and potential

energy changes are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.

2 Analysis (a) Fromthe refrigerant tables (Tables A-11E through A-13E),

0.3 m

3

/min

R-134a

C

=80%

kJ /kg 281.21

MPa 1

/kg m 0.16212

K kJ /kg 0.94779

kJ /kg 236.97

vapor sat.

kPa 120

2

1 2

2

3

kPa 120 @ 1

kPa 120 @ 1

kPa 120 @ 1

1

s

s

g

g

g

h

s s

P

s s

h h

P

From the isentropic efficiency relation, 1

Thus,

C 58.9

a

a

a

s a

a

s

T

h

P

h h h h

h h

h h

C C

2

2

2

1 2 1 2

1 2

1 2

kJ /kg 292.26

MPa 1

kJ /kg 292.26 /0.80 236.97 281.21 236.97 /

(b) The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is determined from

kg/s 0.0308

/kg m 0.16212

/s m 0.3/60

3

3

1

1

m

There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the actual compressor as the system,

which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-flow system

can be expressed as

out in

energies etc. potential,

kinetic, internal, in change of Rate

(steady) 0

system

mass and work, heat, by

nsfer energy tra net of Rate

out in

0

E E

E E E

) (

0) pe ke (since

1 2 in a,

2 1 in a,

h h m W

Q h m h m W

Substituting, the power input to the compressor becomes,

kW 1.70 kJ /kg 236.97 292.26 kg/s 0.0308

in a,

W

7-68

7-110 EES Problem 7-109 is reconsidered. The problem is to be solved by considering the kinetic energy

and by assuming an inlet-to-exit area ratio of 1.5 for the compressor when the compressor exit pipe inside

diameter is 2 cm.

Analysis The problem is solved using EES, and the solution is given below.

"Input Data from diagram window"

{P[1] =120 "kPa"

P[2] =1000 "kPa"

Vol_dot_1 =0.3 "m^3/min"

Eta_c =0.80 "Compressor adiabatic efficiency"

A_ratio =1.5

d_2 =2/100 "m"}

"System: Control volume containing the compressor, see the diagram window.

Property Relation: Use the real fluid properties for R134a.

Process: Steady-state, steady-flow, adiabatic process."

Fluid$='R134a'

"Property Data for state 1"

T[1]=temperature(Fluid$,P=P[1],x=1)"Real fluid equ. at the sat. vapor state"

h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$, P=P[1], x=1)"Real fluid equ. at the sat. vapor state"

s[1]=entropy(Fluid$, P=P[1], x=1)"Real fluid equ. at the sat. vapor state"

v[1]=volume(Fluid$, P=P[1], x=1)"Real fluid equ. at the sat. vapor state"

"Property Data for state 2"

s_s[1]=s[1]; T_s[1]=T[1] "needed for plot"

s_s[2]=s[1] "for the ideal, isentropic process across the compressor"

h_s[2]=ENTHALPY(Fluid$, P=P[2], s=s_s[2])"Enthalpy 2 at the isentropic state 2s and

pressure P[2]"

T_s[2]=Temperature(Fluid$, P=P[2], s=s_s[2])"Temperature of ideal state - needed only for

plot."

"Steady-state, steady-flow conservation of mass"

m_dot_1 =m_dot_2

m_dot_1 =Vol_dot_1/(v[1]*60)

Vol_dot_1/v[1]=Vol_dot_2/v[2]

Vel[2]=Vol_dot_2/(A[2]*60)

A[2] =pi*(d_2)^2/4

A_ratio*Vel[1]/v[1] =Vel[2]/v[2] "Mass flow rate: =A*Vel/v, A_ratio =A[1]/A[2]"

A_ratio=A[1]/A[2]

"Steady-state, steady-flow conservation of energy, adiabatic compressor, see diagram

window"

m_dot_1*(h[1]+(Vel[1])^2/(2*1000)) +W_dot_c=m_dot_2*(h[2]+(Vel[2])^2/(2*1000))

"Definition of the compressor adiabatic efficiency, Eta_c=W_isen/W_act"

Eta_c =(h_s[2]-h[1])/(h[2]-h[1])

"Knowing h[2], the other properties at state 2 can be found."

v[2]=volume(Fluid$, P=P[2], h=h[2])"v[2] is found at the actual state 2, knowing P and h."

T[2]=temperature(Fluid$, P=P[2],h=h[2])"Real fluid equ. for T at the known outlet h and P."

s[2]=entropy(Fluid$, P=P[2], h=h[2]) "Real fluid equ. at the known outlet h and P."

T_exit=T[2]

"Neglecting the kinetic energies, the work is:"

m_dot_1*h[1] +W_dot_c_noke=m_dot_2*h[2]

7-69

SOLUTION

A[1]=0.0004712 [m^2]

A[2]=0.0003142 [m^2]

A_ratio=1.5

d_2=0.02 [m]

Eta_c=0.8

Fluid$='R134a'

h[1]=237 [kJ /kg]

h[2]=292.3 [kJ /kg]

h_s[2]=281.2 [kJ /kg]

m_dot_1=0.03084 [kg/s]

m_dot_2=0.03084 [kg/s]

P[1]=120.0 [kPa]

P[2]=1000.0 [kPa]

s[1]=0.9478 [kJ /kg-K]

s[2]=0.9816 [kJ /kg-K]

s_s[1]=0.9478 [kJ /kg-K]

s_s[2]=0.9478 [kJ /kg-K]

T[1]=-22.32 [C]

T[2]=58.94 [C]

T_exit=58.94 [C]

T_s[1]=-22.32 [C]

T_s[2]=48.58 [C]

Vol_dot_1=0.3 [m^3 /min]

Vol_dot_2=0.04244 [m^3 /min]

v[1]=0.1621 [m^3/kg]

v[2]=0.02294 [m^3/kg]

Vel[1]=10.61 [m/s]

Vel[2]=2.252 [m/s]

W_dot_c=1.704 [kW]

W_dot_c_noke=1.706 [kW]

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

-50

-25

0

25

50

75

100

125

Entropy [kJ /kg-K]

1000 kPa

120 kPa

R134a

T-s diagram for real and ideal compressor

Ideal Compressor Ideal Compressor

Real Compressor Real Compressor

7-70

7-111 Air enters an adiabatic compressor with an isentropic efficiency of 84% at a specified state, and

leaves at a specified temperature. The exit pressure of air and the power input to the compressor are to be

determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Kinetic and potential

energy changes are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 Air is an

ideal gas with variable specific heats.

Properties The gas constant of air is R =0.287 kPa.m

3

/kg.K (Table A-1)

2

Analysis (a) From the air table (Table A-17),

2.4 m

3

/s

AIR

C

=84%

kJ /kg 533.98 K 530

1.2311 kJ /kg, 290.16 K 290

2 2

1 1 1

a

r

h T

P h T

From the isentropic efficiency relation

1 2

1 2

h h

h h

a

s

C

,

951 . 7 kJ /kg 495.0 290.16 533.98 0.84 290.16

2

1 2 1 2

r

a s

P

h h h h

C

1

Then from the isentropic relation ,

kPa 646 kPa 100

1.2311

7.951

1 2

1

2

1

2

1

2

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

r

r

r

r

(b) There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the actual compressor as the

system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-

flow system can be expressed as

out in

energies etc. potential,

kinetic, internal, in change of Rate

(steady) 0

system

mass and work, heat, by

nsfer energy tra net of Rate

out in

0

E E

E E E

) (

0) pe ke (since

1 2 in a,

2 1 in a,

h h m W

Q h m h m W

where kg/s 884 . 2

) K 290 )( K /kg m kPa 0.287 (

) /s m 2.4 )( kPa 100 (

3

3

1

1 1

RT

P

m

Then the power input to the compressor is determined to be

kW 703 kJ /kg ) 290.16 533.98 )( kg/s 2.884 (

in a,

W

7-71

7-112 Air is compressed by an adiabatic compressor froma specified state to another specified state. The

isentropic efficiency of the compressor and the exit temperature of air for the isentropic case are to be

determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Kinetic and potential

energy changes are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 Air is an

ideal gas with variable specific heats.

Analysis (a) From the air table (Table A-17),

2

T h

T h

r

a

1 1

2 2

1

1386 300K 300.19kJ /kg,

550K 554.74kJ /kg

. P

AIR

From the isentropic relation,

kJ /kg 508.72 8.754 1.386

kPa 95

kPa 600

2

1

2

1 2

s r r

h P

P

P

P

Then the isentropic efficiency becomes

1

C

h h

h h

s

a

2 1

2 1

50872 30019

55474 30019

0819

. .

. .

. 81.9%

(b) If the process were isentropic, the exit temperature would be

h T

s s 2 2

508.72kJ /kg 505.5K

7-72

7-113E Argon enters an adiabatic compressor with an isentropic efficiency of 80% at a specified state, and

leaves at a specified pressure. The exit temperature of argon and the work input to the compressor are to be

determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Potential energy changes

are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 Argon is an ideal gas with

constant specific heats.

Properties The specific heat ratio of argon is k =1.667. The constant

pressure specific heat of argon is c

p

=0.1253 Btu/lbm.R (Table A-2E).

2

Analysis (a) The isentropic exit temperature T

2s

is determined from

R 1381.9

psia 20

psia 200

R 550

7 0.667/1.66 / 1

1

2

1 2

k k

s

s

P

P

T T

The actual kinetic energy change during this process is

Btu/lbm 1.08

/s ft 25,037

Btu/lbm 1

2

ft/s 60 ft/s 240

2

2 2

2 2 2

1

2

2

V V

ke

a

Ar

C

=80%

1

The effect of kinetic energy on isentropic efficiency is very small. Therefore, we can take the kinetic

energy changes for the actual and isentropic cases to be same in efficiency calculations. From the

isentropic efficiency relation, including the effect of kinetic energy,

08 . 1 550 1253 . 0

08 . 1 550 9 . 1381 1253 . 0

8 . 0

) (

) (

2 1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

a a a p

s s p

a

s

a

s

T ke T T c

ke T T c

ke h h

ke h h

w

w

C

It yields T

2a

= 1592 R

(b) There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the actual compressor as the

system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-

flow system can be expressed as

out in

energies etc. potential,

kinetic, internal, in change of Rate

(steady) 0

system

mass and work, heat, by

nsfer energy tra net of Rate

out in

0

E E

E E E

ke

2

0) pe (since /2) + ( ) 2 / (

1 2 in a,

2

1

2

2

1 2 in a,

2

2 2

2

1 1 in a,

h h w

V V

h h m W

Q V h m V h m W

Substituting, the work input to the compressor is determined to be

Btu/lbm 131.6 Btu/lbm 1.08 R 550 1592 R Btu/lbm 0.1253

in a,

w

7-73

7-114 CO

2

gas is compressed by an adiabatic compressor from a specified state to another specified state.

The isentropic efficiency of the compressor is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Kinetic and potential

energy changes are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 CO

2

is an

ideal gas with constant specific heats.

Properties At the average temperature of (300 +450)/2 =375 K, the constant pressure specific

heat and the specific heat ratio of CO

2

are k =1.260 and c

p

=0.917 kJ /kg.K (Table A-2). 2

Analysis The isentropic exit temperature T

2s

is

CO

2

1.8 kg/s

K 434.2

kPa 100

kPa 600

K 300

0 0.260/1.26 / 1

1

2

1 2

k k

s

s

P

P

T T

From the isentropic efficiency relation,

89.5% 895 . 0

300 450

300 2 . 434

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

T T

T T

T T c

T T c

h h

h h

w

w

a

s

a p

s p

a

s

a

s

C

1

7-115E Air is accelerated in a 90% efficient adiabatic nozzle from low velocity to a specified velocity. The

exit temperature and pressure of the air are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Potential energy changes

are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with

variable specific heats.

Analysis From the air table (Table A-17E),

T h

r 1 1

1

5304 1480R 363.89Btu/lbm, . P

There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the nozzle as the system, which is a

control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be

expressed as

out in

energies etc. potential,

kinetic, internal, in change of Rate

(steady) 0

system

mass and work, heat, by

nsfer energy tra net of Rate

out in

0

E E

E E E

2

AIR

N

=90%

1

2

0) pe (since /2) + ( ) 2 / (

0

2

1

2

2

1 2

2

2 2

2

1 1

V V

h h

Q W V h m V h m

Substituting, the exit temperature of air is determined to be

Btu/lbm 351.11

/s ft 25,037

Btu/lbm 1

2

0 ft/s 800

kJ /kg 363.89

2 2

2

2

h

From the air table we read T

2a

= 1431.3 R

From the isentropic efficiency relation

1 2

1 2

h h

h h

s

a

N

,

04 . 46 Btu/lbm 349.69 0.90 / 363.89 351.11 363.89 /

2

1 2 1 2 r a s

P h h h

N

h

Then the exit pressure is determined from the isentropic relation to be

psia 52.1 psia 60

53.04

46.04

1 2

1

2

1

2

1

2

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

r

r

r

r

7-74

7-116E EES Problem 7-115E is reconsidered. The effect of varying the nozzle isentropic efficiency from

0.8 to 1.0 on the exit temperature and pressure of the air is to be investigated, and the results are to be

plotted.

Analysis The problem is solved using EES, and the results are tabulated and plotted below.

"Knowns:"

WorkFluid$ ='Air'

P[1] =60 [psia]

T[1] =1020 [F]

Vel[2] =800 [ft/s]

Vel[1] =0 [ft/s]

eta_nozzle =0.9

"Conservation of Energy - SSSF energy balance for turbine -- neglecting the change in potential

energy, no heat transfer:"

h[1]=enthalpy(WorkFluid$,T=T[1])

s[1]=entropy(WorkFluid$,P=P[1],T=T[1])

T_s[1] =T[1]

s[2] =s[1]

s_s[2] =s[1]

h_s[2]=enthalpy(WorkFluid$,T=T_s[2])

T_s[2]=temperature(WorkFluid$,P=P[2],s=s_s[2])

eta_nozzle =ke[2]/ke_s[2]

ke[1] =Vel[1]^2/2

ke[2]=Vel[2]^2/2

h[1]+ke[1]*convert(ft^2/s^2,Btu/lbm) =h[2] +ke[2]*convert(ft^2/s^2,Btu/lbm)

h[1] +ke[1]*convert(ft^2/s^2,Btu/lbm) =h_s[2] +ke_s[2]*convert(ft^2/s^2,Btu/lbm)

T[2]=temperature(WorkFluid$,h=h[2])

P_2_answer =P[2]

T_2_answer =T[2]

nozzle

P

2

[psia

T

2

[F

T

s,2

[F]

0.8 51.09 971.4 959.2

0.85 51.58 971.4 962.8

0.9 52.03 971.4 966

0.95 52.42 971.4 968.8

1 52.79 971.4 971.4

0.8 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1

950

960

970

980

nozzle

T

2

T

s[2]

7-75

7-117 Hot combustion gases are accelerated in a 92% efficient adiabatic nozzle from low velocity to a

specified velocity. The exit velocity and the exit temperature are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. 2 Potential energy changes

are negligible. 3 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 Combustion gases can be

treated as air that is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.

Analysis From the air table (Table A-17),

4 . 123 kJ /kg, 1068.89 K 1020

1

1 1 r

P h T

From the isentropic relation ,

kJ /kg 783.92 34 . 40 123.4

kPa 260

kPa 85

2

1

2

1 2

s r r

h P

P

P

P

P

1

=260 kPa

T

1

=747 C

V

1

=80 m/s

AIR

N

=92%

P

2

=85 kPa

There is only one inlet and one exit, and thus m m m

1 2

. We take the nozzle as the system, which is a

control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The energy balance for this steady-flow system for the

isentropic process can be expressed as

out in

energies etc. potential,

kinetic, internal, in change of Rate

(steady) 0

system

mass and work, heat, by

nsfer energy tra net of Rate

out in

0

E E

E E E

2

0) pe (since /2) + ( ) 2 / (

2

1

2

2

1 2

2

2 2

2

1 1

V V

h h

Q W V h m V h m

s

s

s s

Then the isentropic exit velocity becomes

m/s 759.2

kJ /kg 1

/s m 1000

kJ /kg 783.92 1068.89 2 m/s 80 2

2 2

2

2 1

2

1 2 s s

h h V V

Therefore,

m/s 728.2 m/s 759.2 0.92

2 2 s a

V V

N

The exit temperature of air is determined fromthe steady-flow energy equation,

kJ /kg 806.95

/s m 1000

kJ /kg 1

2

m/s 80 m/s 728.2

kJ /kg 1068.89

2 2

2 2

2a

h

From the air table we read T

2a

= 786.3 K

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