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Culture

Modern civilization, from this point of view, becomes not a necessary pinnacle of
human achievement but one entry in a long series of possible adjustments
(Benedict 1!"# 1$%&'
(o one civilization can possibly utilize in its mores the whole potential range of
human behavior (Benedict 1!"# )&'
*culture is invisible+ (Metcalf %,,)# 1&'
-ulture shoc. came to mean simple the reaction to entering another culture, and
that can be disorienting enough (Metcalf %,,)# !&'
Copy and paste into essay
/very society, beginning with some slight inclination in one direction or another,
carries its preference farther and farther, integrating itself more and mole 0sic1
completely upon its chosen basis, and discarding those type of behavior that are
uncongenial (Benedict 1!"# 2&'
3ngraham ma.es this clear as she claims that 0those supporting the mos4ue1 thin.
assimilation is 5merica bending to the Muslim outloo. not the other way around
(%,1,&'
5mericans already have an idea of what 5merica is# they believe 5merica is great
and should not succumb to 3slamic mos4ues that can further complicate the idea of
the 6reat 7atan (Beeman %,,)# 2& as they preach abroad (3ngraham %,1,&'
0the belief1 that the same ethnological phenomena are always due to the same
causes8 leads to the still wider generalization that the sameness of ethnological
phenomena found in diverse regions is proof that the human mind obeys the same
laws everywhere (Boas 192# %:!&' ;urthermore, if other cultures are di<erent,
rather than part of the sameness, they are seen as less human'
-ultures are e=amined> the more di<erent they are from the more prominent
developed cultures doing the e=amination, the more they are belittled' ?he more
divergent something is from their own e=perience, the more they ta.e it to
represent an earlier state of human development (Moron %,,)# %)"&'?he truth is,
neither culture is less developed, because they .eep developing' @n di<erent roads,
they all end up in the same place, due to their own beliefs as 0n1o one civilization
can possibly utilize in its mores the whole potential range of human behavior
(Benedict 1!"# )&' Aet the identical result may have been reached on four
di<erent lines of development and from an inBnite number of starting points (Boas
192# %:"&' ?he other cultures are developed, they are just developed di<erently,
and on a di<erent line' ?hey are civilized, as civilization means civilization itself,
not its impulses (Croeber 11)# %9!&' ?his means, not matter what their beliefs are,
or how they act, they are still a civilization> not an uncivilized less developed
people'
Daisy Chan iterates that the mos4ue will teach people what it means to be Muslim
and 5merican$ that is to assimilate 5merican and Muslim ways, where 3ngraham
responds, 0t1hey thin. assimilation is 5merica bending to the Muslim outloo.,
3ngraham says, not the other way around (%,1,&' 5ssimilation is both cultures
coming together to become a new culture, not just a nation bending to a religious
view, or vice versa# assimilation is co$e=isting, bending to each other, to become a
more developed people, as development never ceases' Eeople are always
developing> cultures are always developing, rather than almost unchangeable
(Moran %,,)# %)%& as it is not a B=ed position on an evolutionary scale (Moron
%,,)# %)&'
Ethnocentric Views:
?he very eyes with which we see the problem are conditioned by the long
traditional habits in our own society (Benedict 1!"# 2&'
the /nglish called themselves *-hristians+ while referring to the @thers$ the
5fricans$ as +heathens+ (?ehranian %,,,# 9!,&'
Contrasting civilizations
the individuals whose characteristics are not congenial to be the selected type of
human behavior in that community are the deviants, no matter how valued their
personality traits may be in a contrasted civilization (Benedict 1!"# :&'
?he term does not signify any speciBc cultural, societal, or governmental state
reached by any group of Muslim people sin any place or time' 3t has no meaning at
all, save for some e=otic abstraction through which an imaginary *Festern
-ivilization+ can more easily deBne 0sic1and contain an e4ually imaginary *3slam+
(5slan %,,# 1)&'
Festern civilization and 3slamic -ivilization are hurtling toward each other in a
catastrophic yet inevitable collision, determined by the gods long before but hidden
from the eyes of men until, in an e=plosion of light and sound, both suddenly
appeared on stage (5slan %,,# 1)9&'
/veryone here has a decision to ma.e' Fe can either stare at each other li.e
gunBghters in a showdown at the @C -orral, each side waiting for the other side to
apologize' @r we can admit that each of us is the person who both needs and
apology and owes one (GirschBeld %,,:# 9$,&'
Fhen we have cleared up the history of a single culture and understand the e<ects
of environment and the psychological conditions that are reHected in it we have
made a step forward, as we can investigate in how far the same causes or other
causes were at wor. in the development of other cultures (Boas 192# %:&'
?he metaphysical notions of man may be reduced to a few types which are
universal distribution> the same time is the case in regard to the forms of society,
laws, and inventions (Boas 192# %:1&'
?he danger is that ethnocentrism will harden into chauvinism, that is, the
conviction that everything do or thin. is right, and everything everyone else does or
thin.s is wrong, unreasonable, or even wic.ed (Metcalf %,,)# 2&'
0communication problems1 often caused drastic misreading of the content of
communication between two cultural worlds, and mutual accusations of
deviousness, insincerity and bad faith (Beeman %,,)# :&'
Assimilation
Aou can+t be someone else+s teacher until you+re willing to be their student
(GirschBeld %,,:# ,&'
7uccessful litigations demonstrated evidence of whiteness in their character,
religious practices and beliefs, class orientation, language, the ability to intermarry,
and a host of other traits that had nothing to do with the intrinsic racial grouping
(?ehranian %,,,#9%,$1&'
courts played an instrumental role in limiting naturalization to those new
immigrant groups whom judges saw as most Bt to carry on the tradition of the
*Fhite Iepublic+ (?ehranian %,,,# 9%1&'
?he rights enjoyed by white males could only be obtained through assimilatory
behavior' Fhite privilege became a 4uid pro 4uo for white performance (?ehranian
%,,,# 9%1&'
+5nglo conformity+ 0includes1 educational attainment, occupational dispersal,
language choice, residential location, and intercultural marriage(?ehranian %,,,#
9%!&'
?o be considered a candidate to be naturalized, one had to be educated and well as
educating their family in 5merican schools, attend 5merican churches, and use
/nglish in their home (?ehranian %,,,# 9%9&'
Uncivilized to Civilized; other
?he so$called savage is no transition between the animal and the scientiBcally
educated man (Croeber 11)# %92&'
one Bnds a consistent conHation of the distinction between 7elf and @ther with the
distinction between superior and inferior people (7egal %,,)# !)9&
Jictorian anthropology identiBed living *savages+ and *barbarians+ with the newly
recognized e=panse of prehistory$ peoples lac.ing writing with the time before
writing$ to support elaborate models of generalized stages of human social
evolution (7egal %,,)# %)&'
Erimitives carries a social evolutionary vision of the human career in time it points
unabashedly to as much earlier past (7egal %,,)# !2,&'
resistance to 0the Mad Mullah+s1 rule has continued even in the face of their
superior claims to legitimacy in establishing the 3slamic Iepublic, adding to their
negative reputation (Beeman %,,)# :!&
03slamic fundamentalists1 believe that governments should be run by clerics
according to strict 3slamic law (Ka.o< %,,"# )&'
5merica must become a moral leader using fundamental human values# caring and
responsibility carried out with strength to respond to the world+s problem (Ka.o<
%,,"# 2!&'
both nations construct the *other+ to Bt an idealized picture of an enemy (Beeman
%,,)# "&'
07tudents1 harbored a lingering resentment against the Lnited 7tates and other
Festern nations that had hosted them$ not for anything that had been done to
them$ but because their education, which was to be their salvation, turned out to be
a hollow fulBllment of the promise it had o<ered beforehand (Beeman %,,)# 2,&'
Symbol
?he personal or individual has no historical value save as illustration' /thnological
genealogies are valuable material' 7o are the actions of conspicuous historical
personages' But their dramatic anecdotic, or biographical recital is biographical or
Bctional art, or possibly psychology, not history (Croeber 11)# %9"&' @ne person
should not represent a whole group of people'
they were represented as e=otic, outlandish, primitive, romantic desert nomads or
medieval dwellers but not as modern people deserving political rights and ready for
independence(Ma.disi %,,#9&'
Military: taing blame
?he ability to cut through the mythology of the *cultural other+ is crucial to
understanding and evaluating what we are told about the deployment (or decision
not to deploy& 5merican military power abroad (Moron %,,)# %2!&'
7he says if we object to the mos4ue than we are Muslim haters' Ge says we have
blood on our hands (3ngraham %,,)&
+Fith the support of 5merica,+ Chomeini wrote in 1:9, and with all the infernal
means at his disposal, the 7hah has fallen on our oppressed people, turning 3ran
into one vast graveyard+ (Ma.disi %,,# 11&'
0i1f you are not with us, then you are with the terrorists (5slan %,# 1):&'
!ther "uotes that might be use#ul
@yewumi, @yeron.e ?he 3nvention of Fomen %,,) In 5nthropology in ?heory#
3ssues in /pistemology Genrietta Moore(/ditor&, ?odd 7anders (/ditor&'