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Amplitude Modulation (AM)

PRE-LAB TEST:
1) Explain the earliest modulation method used to transmit voice by radio.
2) Which parameter can be varied in a transmitted signal to perform amplitude modulation?
3) What is meant by single-sideband modulation?
) Explain about vestigial sideband.
!) "ention some types of amplitude modulation techni#ues designated by $nternational
%elecommunication &nion '$%&)
() Why standard )" is sometimes called as *+ouble-,ide-and )mplitude "odulation
'+,--)")?
.) Why )" transmission is vie/ed as spectrally inefficient techni#ue?
0) What is meant by )" modulation index?
1) "ention the classifications of modulation circuits.
12) What is lo/ level modulation circuit?
11) What is high level modulation circuit?
12) Explain the process of )" broadcasting.
13) "ention some advantages of amplitude modulation.
1) "ention some disadvantages of amplitude modulation.
1!) "ention some applications of amplitude modulation.
1() +iscuss about the fre#uency range 3 band/idth re#uirement of )".
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Answer key -- Pre-lab test:
1) Explain the earliest modulation method used to transmit voice by radio.
)" /as the earliest modulation method used to transmit voice by radio. $t is
a modulation techni#ue used in electronic communication4 most commonly for transmitting
information via a radio carrier /ave. )" /or5s by varying the strength 'amplitude) of the carrier
in proportion to the /aveform being sent.
$n )"4 a radio /ave 5no/n as the *carrier* or *carrier /ave* is modulated in amplitude
by the signal that is to be transmitted.
2) Which parameter can be varied in a transmitted signal to perform amplitude modulation?
)" techni#ue /or5s by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the
information being sent. %hat /aveform may4 for instance4 correspond to the sounds to be
reproduced by a loudspea5er4 or the light intensity of television pixels.
3) What is meant by single-sideband modulation?
$n radio communications4 single-sideband modulation ',,-) or single-sideband
suppressed-carrier ',,--,6) is a refinement of amplitude modulation that more efficiently uses
transmitter po/er and band/idth. )mplitude modulation produces an output signal that has
t/ice the band/idth of the original baseband signal. ,ingle-sideband modulation avoids this
band/idth doubling4 and the po/er /asted on a carrier4 at the cost of increased device
complexity and more difficult tuning at the receiver.
) Explain about vestigial sideband.
) vestigial sideband 'in radio communication) is a sideband that has been only partly cut
off or suppressed. %elevision broadcasts 'in analog video formats) use this method if the video is
transmitted in )"4 due to the large band/idth used. $t may also be used in digital transmission4
such as the )%,6 standardi7ed 0-8,-.
!) "ention some types of amplitude modulation techni#ues designated by $nternational
%elecommunication &nion '$%&)
esi!nation es"ription
)3E double-sideband full-carrier 9 the basic amplitude-modulation scheme
:3E single-sideband reduced-carrier
;3E single-sideband full-carrier
<3E single-sideband suppressed-carrier
-0E independent-sideband emission
63= vestigial-sideband
>incompex lin5ed compressor and expander
() Why standard )" is sometimes called as *+ouble-,ide-and )mplitude "odulation* '+,--
)")?
$n amplitude modulation4 the amplitude or *strength* of the carrier oscillations is /hat is
varied. =or example4 in )" radio communication4 a continuous /ave radio-fre#uency signal
'a sinusoidal carrier /ave) has its amplitude modulated by an audio /aveform before
transmission. %he audio /aveform modifies the amplitude of the carrier /ave and determines
the envelope of the /aveform. $n the fre#uency domain4 amplitude modulation produces a signal
/ith po/er concentrated at the carrier fre#uency and t/o ad?acent sidebands. Each sideband is
e#ual in band/idth to that of the modulating signal4 and is a mirror image of the other. ,tandard
)" is thus sometimes called *double-sideband amplitude modulation* '+,--)") to distinguish
it from more sophisticated modulation methods also based on )".
.) Why )" transmission is vie/ed as spectrally inefficient techni#ue?
%he := band/idth of an )" transmission is t/ice the band/idth of the modulating
'baseband) signal4 since the positive and negative sidebands around the carrier fre#uency each
have a band/idth as /ide as the highest modulating fre#uency. )lthough the band/idth of an
)" signal is narro/er than one using fre#uency modulation '=")4 it is t/ice as /ide as single-
sideband techni#ues@ it thus may be vie/ed as spectrally inefficient.
0) What is meant by )" modulation index?
%he )" modulation index is a measure based on the ratio of the modulation excursions
of the := signal to the level of the unmodulated carrier. $t is thus defined asA
/here and are the modulation amplitude and carrier amplitude4 respectively@ the
modulation amplitude is the pea5 'positive or negative) change in the := amplitude from its
unmodulated value.
1) "ention the classifications of modulation circuits.
"odulation circuit designs may be classified as lo/- or high-level 'depending on /hether
they modulate in a lo/-po/er domainBfollo/ed by amplification for transmissionBor in the
high-po/er domain of the transmitted signal).
12) What is lo/ level modulation circuit?
$n modern radio systems4 modulated signals are generated via digital signal processing
'+,C). With +,C many types of )" are possible /ith soft/are control 'including +,- /ith
carrier4 ,,- suppressed-carrier and independent sideband4 or $,-). 6alculated digital samples
are converted to voltages /ith a digital to analog converter4 typically at a fre#uency less than the
desired :=-output fre#uency. %he analog signal must then be shifted in fre#uency and linearly
amplified to the desired fre#uency and po/er level 'linear amplification must be used to prevent
modulation distortion).D3E %his lo/-level method for )" is used in many )mateur :adio
transceivers.
11) What is high level modulation circuit?
;igh-po/er )" transmitters 'such as those used for )" broadcasting) are based on
high-efficiency class-+ and class-E po/er amplifier stages4 modulated by varying the supply
voltage.
12) Explain the process of )" broadcasting.
)" broadcasting is the process of radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation ')").
)" /as the first method of impressing sound on a radio signal and is still /idely used today.
6ommercial and public )" broadcasting is authori7ed in the medium /ave band /orld/ide4 and
also in parts of the long /ave and short /ave bands. :adio broadcasting /as made possible by
the invention of the amplifying vacuum tube4 the )udion 'triode).
13) "ention some advantages of amplitude modulation.
)" signals can be transmitted over long distances. $t has a smaller band/idth so it can
have more stations available in any fre#uency range. $t is simple to implement. $t can be
demodulated using a circuit consisting of very fe/ components. )" receivers are very cheap as
no specialised components are needed.
1) "ention some disadvantages of amplitude modulation.
Less e##i"ient: $n amplitude modulation4 the sidebands contain the signal. %he po/er in
the sidebands is the only useful po/er. %he po/er carrier by the side bands is only 33.3F even
/hen there is 122F modulation. $f modulation is !2F4 then po/er carried by the sidebands is
11.1F. 6learly4 the useful po/er is small. ,o4 the amplitude modulation has lo/ efficiency.
$oisy Re"eption: +ifferent types of atmospheric and other electrical disturbance are
reproduced in amplitude modulation receivers. %his ma5es the reception noisy. )" is more
susceptible to noise because noise affects amplitude4 /hich is /here information is *stored* in an
)" signal.
Small %peratin! Ran!e: +ue to small useful po/er the messages cannot be transmitted
over large distance. ,o4 the transmitter based on amplitude modulation has small range.
1!) "ention some applications of amplitude modulation.
$t is used in both analog and digital communication and telemetry. $t is
a modulation techni#ue used in electronic communication4 most commonly for transmitting
information via a radio carrier /ave.
1() +iscuss about the fre#uency range 3 band/idth re#uirement of )".
=re#uency range of )" radio ranges from !3! to 1.2! G;7 'upto1222 -its per second).
%he band/idth re#uired for )" is t/ice the highest modulating fre#uency. $n )" radio
broadcasting4 the modulating signal has band/idth of 1!5;74 and hence the band/idth of an
amplitude-modulated signal is 325;7.
E&p $o:' AMPL(T)E M%)LAT(%$ A$ EM%)LAT(%$
A(M
%o study the )mplitude "odulation ':ing +iode) and +emodulation 'Envelope +etector) /ith
modulation index calculation.
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
86% -23
Co/er card
Catch chords
+,H
T+E%R,
M%)LAT(%$
"odulation is defined as the process by /hich some characteristics of a carrier signal is
varied in accordance /ith a modulating signal. %he base band signal is referred to as the
modulating signal and the output of the modulation process is called as the modulation signal.
)mplitude modulation is defined as the process in /hich is the amplitude of the carrier /ave is
varied about a means values linearly /ith the base band signal. %he envelope of the modulating
/ave has the same shape as the base band signal provided the follo/ing t/o re#uirements are
satisfied
1. %he carrier fre#uency fc must be much greater than the highest fre#uency components fm of
the message signal m 't) i.e. fc II fm
2. %he modulation index must be less than unity. if the modulation index is greater than unity4
the carrier /ave becomes over modulated.
EM%)LAT(%$
%he process of detection provides a means of recovering the modulating ,ignal from
modulating signal. +emodulation is the reverse process of modulation. %he detector circuit is
employed to separate the carrier /ave and eliminate the side bands. ,ince the envelope of an )"

=igureA )"C>$%&+E "H+&>)%$HJ
/ave has the same shape as the message4 independent of the carrier fre#uency and phase4
demodulation can be accomplished by extracting envelope.)n increased time constant :6 results
in a marginal output follo/s the modulation envelope. ) further increase in time constant the
discharge curve become hori7ontal if the rate of modulation envelope during negative half cycle
of the modulation voltage is faster than the rate of voltage :6 combination 4the output fails to
follo/ the modulation resulting distorted output is called as diagonal clipping A this /ill occur
even high modulation index.
%he depth of modulation at the detector output greater than unity and circuit impedance is less
than circuit load ':l I Km) results in clipping of negative pea5s of modulating signal. $t is called
Lnegative clipping L
=igureA )"C>$%&+E +E"H+&>)%$HJ
PR%-E)RE
M%)LAT(%$
1.%urn on the po/er supply.
2.,et modulating signal fre#uency'1G;7) and amplitude'28pp) at pin C1 and C2
3.,et carrier signal fre#uency '!2G;7) and amplitude above '!8pp) at pinC1 and C12
.6onnect C14C2 to modulating input of the diode modulator C!4C(
!.6onnect C14C12 to carrier input of the diode modulator C34C
(.,et +6 bias in minimum position
..Hbserve the modulated output at C. and C0
0.6alculate the modulation index using
m - "odulation index
8max-"ax pea5 voltage
8min-"in pea5 voltage
1.8ary the modulation voltage to chec5 different modulation methods.
EM%)LAT(%$
1.Cerform the modulation procedure
2.6onnect the modulated output 'C.4C0) into demodulator input of the envelope detector at
'C1.4C10)
3.8ie/ the demodulated output at 'C114C22)
.%abulate the readings and plot the graph.

TAB)LAT(%$:
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
6arrier signal
)" /ave
+emodulated
signal
M%EL .RAP+
RES)LT
%hus the )mplitude modulation and demodulation /as performed and modulation index /as
calculated.
=igureA "odulation $ndex
P%ST-LAB TEST:
1) What is meant by modulation?
2) +efine amplitude modulation.
3) What is meant by +,--)"?
) Write do/n the formula for )" modulation index.
!) Why amplitude modulation is said to be less efficient?
() "ention some applications of )".
.) +ra/ the /aveform for amplitude modulation process.
0) What is the fre#uency range of )"?
1) Why )" possesses small operating range?
12) "ention some areas /here amplitude modulation techni#ue can be applied.
11) ,tate /hether amplitude modulation techni#ue is analog or digital?
12) +ouble-,ide-and )mplitude "odulation.
13) Which type of sideband is called as partly cut off sideband?
1) Mive the $%& designation of single-sideband reduced-carrier.
1!) "ention the techni#ue under /hich video can be transmitted using )".

/re0uen"y Modulation (/M)
PRE-LAB TEST:
1) Explain the process of fre#uency modulation1
2) What is meant by =" modulation index?
3) Explain narro/band =" and /ideband =".
) ;o/ can /e acheive eight-fold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio?
!) Explain the process of =" broadcasting.
() Explain about 6arsonNs band/idth rule for =".
.) What are the types of =" signal generation?
0) "ention some demodulation methods used for =".
1) "ention some advantages of fre#uency modulation.
12) "ention some disadvantages of fre#uency modulation.
11) "ention some applications of fre#uency modulation.
12) What is the fre#uency range of ="?
13) +iscuss about the band/idth re#uirements of =".
/re0uen"y Modulation (/M)
Answer key 2 Pre-lab test:
1) Explain the process of fre#uency modulation1
=re#uency modulation is a process in /hich the amplitude of the modulated carrier is
5ept constant4 /hile its fre#uency and rate of change are varied by the modulating signal. $n this
type of angle modulation4 the instantaneous fre#uency is varied linearly /ith a modulating signal
f't) about an unmodulated fre#uency.
$n ="4 a radio /ave 5no/n as the *carrier* or *carrier /ave* is modulated in fre#uency
by the signal that is to be transmitted.
2) What is meant by =" modulation index?
%he modulation index of =" indicates by ho/ much the modulated variable varies
around its un-modulated level. $t relates to variations in the carrier fre#uencyA
/here is the highest fre#uency component present in the modulating signal xm't)4 and is
the pea5 fre#uency-deviationBi.e. the maximum deviation of the instantaneous fre#uency from
the carrier fre#uency.
3) Explain narro/band =" and /ideband =".
$f 4 the modulation is called narrowband ="4 and its band/idth is
approximately . $f 4 the modulation is called wideband FM and its band/idth is
approximately 2 . While /ideband =" uses more band/idth4 it can improve the signal-to-
noise ratio significantly.
) ;o/ can /e acheive eight-fold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio?
+oubling the value of 4 /hile 5eeping constant4 results in an eight-fold
improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. With a tone-modulated =" /ave4 if the modulation
fre#uency is held constant and the modulation index is increased4 the 'non-negligible) band/idth
of the =" signal increases but the spacing bet/een spectra remains the same@ some spectral
components decrease in strength as others increase. $f the fre#uency deviation is held constant
and the modulation fre#uency increased4 the spacing bet/een spectra increases.
!) Explain the process of =" broadcasting.
=" broadcasting is a 8;= broadcasting technology /hich uses fre#uency modulation
'=") to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. %he term *=" band* describes the
fre#uency band in a given country /hich is dedicated to =" broadcasting. %his term is slightly
misleading4 since it e#uates a modulation method /ith a range of fre#uencies.
() Explain about 6arsonNs band/idth rule for =".
) rule of thumb4 6arsonOs rule states that nearly all 'P10 percent) of the po/er of a fre#uency-
modulated signal lies /ithin a band/idth -%4 ofA
-% Q 2' Rfm)4
/here 4 as defined above4 is the pea5 deviation of the instantaneous fre#uency f't)4 from the
center carrier fre#uency fc.
.) What are the types of =" signal generation?
=" signals can be generated using either direct or indirect fre#uency modulation.
+irect =" modulation can be achieved by directly feeding the message into input of a 86H.
=or indirect =" modulation4 the message signal is integrated to generate a phase-modulated
signal. %his is used to modulate a crystal-controlled oscillator4 and the result is passed through a
fre#uency multiplier to give an =" signal.
0) "ention some demodulation methods used for =".
) common method in =" for recovering the information signal is through a =oster-
,eeley discriminator. ) phase-loc5ed loop can be used as an =" demodulator. ,lope detection
demodulates an =" signal by using a tuned circuit /hich has its resonant fre#uency slightly
offset from the carrier. )s the fre#uency rises and falls the tuned circuit provides a changing
amplitude of response4 converting =" to )".
1) "ention some advantages of fre#uency modulation.
Resilien"e to noise: Hne particular advantage of fre#uency modulation is its resilience
to signal level variations. %he modulation is carried only as variations in fre#uency. %his means
that any signal level variations /ill not affect the audio output4 provided that the signal does not
fall to a level /here the receiver cannot cope.
Easy to apply modulation at a low power sta!e o# t3e transmitter: )nother
advantage of fre#uency modulation is associated /ith the transmitters. $t is possible to apply the
modulation to a lo/ po/er stage of the transmitter4 and it is not necessary to use a linear form of
amplification to increase the po/er level of the signal to its final value.
E##i"ien"y: $t is possible to use non-linear := amplifiers to amplify =" signals in a
transmitter and these are more efficient than the linear ones re#uired for signals /ith any
amplitude variations 'e.g. )" )
*uality: =" has greater sound #uality due to higher band/idth.
12) "ention some disadvantages of fre#uency modulation.
Re0uires more "ompli"ated demodulator: Hne of the minor dis-advantages of
fre#uency modulation is that the demodulator is a little more complicated4 and hence slightly
more expensive than the very simple diode detectors used for )".
Sidebands e&tend to in#inity eit3er side: %he sidebands for an =" transmission
theoretically extend out to infinity. %o limit the band/idth of the transmission4 filters are used4
and these introduce some distortion of the signal.
11) "ention some applications of fre#uency modulation.
=re#uency modulation is /idely used in many areas of radio technology including
broadcasting and areas of t/o /ay radio communication. $t is used in both analog and digital
communication and telemetry. $t is still /idely used for many broadcast and radio
communications applications.
Ma!neti" tape stora!e: =" is also used at intermediate fre#uencies by analog 86: to
record the luminance 'blac5 and /hite) portions of the video signal.
Sound: =" is also used at audio fre#uencies to synthesi7e sound.
12) What is the fre#uency range of ="?
=re#uency range of =" radio ranges in a higher spectrum from 00 to 120 ";7 'upto
1222 to 222 bits per second).
13) +iscuss about the band/idth re#uirements of =".
%he band/idth re#uired for )" is t/ice the sum of the modulating signal fre#uency and
the fre#uency deviation. $f the fre#uency deviation is .!5;7 and the modulating signal fre#uency
is 1!5;74 the band/idth re#uired is 1025;7.
E&p $o: 4 /RE*)E$-, M%)LAT(%$ A$ EM%)LAT(%$
A(M
%o perform the fre#uency modulation and demodulation
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE:
86% -11
Co/er card
Catch chords
+,H
T+E%R,
=re#uency modulation is also called as an!le modulation. =re#uency modulation is
defined as changing the fre#uency of the carrier /ith respect to the message signal amplitude.
;ere the amplitude of the carrier remains #i&ed 5 timin! parameter #re0uen"y is varied.
When the modulating signal has 7ero amplitude4 then the carrier has fre#uency of =c as
amplitude of the modulating signal in"reases. %he fre#uency of the "arrier in"reases4 similarly4
as the amplitude of the modulating signal decreases4 the fre#uency of the carrier decreases
%he modulation index is defined as the ratio of the maximum #re0uen"y de6iation to t3e
modulatin! #re0uen"y1 %he maximum fre#uency deviation is the shift from center fre#uency =c
/hen the amplitude of the modulating signal is maximum.
-y 6arlsonNs rule -W Q 2 '=R =m'max))
/here @ = Q "aximum fre#uency deviation
=m'"ax) Q "aximum modulating fre#uency
=igureA =:ES&EJ6T "H+&>)%$HJ
PR%-E)RE
M%)LAT(%$
1.,/itch on the po/er supply
2.6onnect sine /ave generator output to fre#uency modulator input
3.,W1 is for selecting lo/Uhigh fre#uency carrier and 5eep ,W2 in high deviation mode
.8ary the amplitude of the sine /ave and observe the variation in the fre#uency
!.Jote do/n the readings and plot the graph
EM%)LAT(%$
1.Cerform the modulation
2.6onnect fre#uency modulator output into any one 'C>> detectorUSuadrature detectorU=oster
seeley detectorU:atio detector) input
3.8ie/ the demodulated output and plot the graph
=igureA =:ES&EJ6T +E"H+&>)%$HJ
RES)LT
%hus the fre#uency modulation and demodulation is performed.
TAB)LAT(%$ A
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
6arrier signal
=" /ave
+emodulated
signal
C>> +etector
Suadrature
+etector
=oster ,eelay
+etector
M%EL .RAP+
P%ST-LAB TEST:
1) What is meant by fre#uency modulation?
2) Explain =" modulation index.
3) What is the common method used for =" demodulation?
) What is the fre#uency range of ="?
!) +iscuss about =" broadcasting.
() What is the advantage of =" over )"?
.) +ra/ the /aveform for fre#uency modulation process.
0) +ifferentiate )" 3 ="?
1) "ention any t/o applications of fre#uency modulation.
Pulse Amplitude78idt37Position Modulation (PAM7P8M7PPM)
PRE-LAB TEST:
1) Explain the techni#ue Culse-amplitude modulation.
2) +iscuss about the types of pulse amplitude modulation techni#ue.
3) What is the ma?or use of pulse amplitude modulation.
) "ention some applications of pulse amplitude modulation.
!) "ention some advantages and disadvantages of C)" techni#ue.
() What is meant by Culse-/idth modulation?
.) ;o/ CW" techni#ue can be used driving )6 motor?
0) Explain about s/itching fre#uency of CW".
1) What is meant by duty cycle and ho/ it is related /ith po/er?
12) "ention some advantages of CW" techni#ue.
11) "ention some applications of CW" techni#ue.
12) +efine the techni#ue Culse-position modulation?
13) Explain Culse Cosition "odulator using $6 !!!?
1) Mive some disadvantages of CC" techni#ue.
1!) "ention some advantages 3 applications of CC" techni#ue.
Pulse Amplitude78idt37Position Modulation (PAM7P8M7PPM)
Answer key - Prelab test :
1) Explain the techni#ue Culse-amplitude modulation.
Culse-amplitude modulation 'C)")4 is a form of signal modulation /here the message
information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. $t is an analog pulse
modulation scheme in /hich the amplitudes of a train of carrier pulses are varied according to
the sample value of the message signal. +emodulation is performed by detecting the amplitude
level of the carrier at every symbol period.
2) +iscuss about the types of pulse amplitude modulation techni#ue.
%here are t/o types of pulse amplitude modulationA
,ingle polarity C)"A $n this a suitable fixed +6 bias is added to the signal to ensure that
all the pulses are positive.
+ouble polarity C)"A $n this the pulses are both positive and negative.
3) What is the ma?or use of pulse amplitude modulation.
Culse-amplitude modulation is /idely used in modulating signal transmission of digital
data4 /ith non-baseband applications having been largely replaced by pulse-code modulation4
and4 more recently4 by pulse-position modulation. $n particular4 all telephone modems faster than
322 bitUs use #uadrature amplitude modulation 'S)").
) "ention some applications of pulse amplitude modulation.
Culse amplitude modulation techni#ue have application areas such asA
Ethernet communication - ,ome versions of the Ethernet communication standard are an
example of C)" usage. $n particular4 the =ast Ethernet 122-),E-%2 medium 'no/
defunct)4 running at 122 "bitUs4 uses five-level C)" modulation 'C)"-!) running at 2!
million pulses per second over t/o /ire pairs. %he $EEE 022.3an standard defines the
/ire-level modulation for 12M-),E-% as a version of pulse-amplitude modulation /ith
1( discrete levels 'C)"-1()4 encoded in a t/o-dimensional chec5erboard pattern 5no/n
as +,S120.
Choto biology - for the study of photosynthesis using a speciali7ed instrument that
involves a spectrofluorometric measurement.
>E+ lighting - for the control of light-emitting diodes '>E+s)4 especially for lighting
applications. >E+ drivers based on the C)" techni#ue offer improved energy efficiency
over systems based upon other common driver modulation techni#ues such as pulse-
/idth modulation 'CW").
!) "ention some advantages and disadvantages of C)" techni#ue.
%he main advantages of pulse amplitude modulation includes its simple receiver and
transmitter designs. +emodulation circuit of pulse amplitude modulation has only a holding
circuit and a lo/ pass filter4 so4 the demodulation costs of pulse amplitude modulation techni#ue
are very less. Hther advantages of pulse amplitude modulation are that data can be transferred
using po/er amplitudes. $f the C)" signals are to be transmitted directly over a pair of /ires
then no further signal processing is necessary.
%he main disadvantage of pulse amplitude modulation method is the band/idth for
transmission of C)" signal is very large compared to its maximum fre#uency content. %he
amplitude of C)" pulses varies accordingly to modulated signal4 since amplitude 5eeps varying
so there is noise associated /ith it.
() What is meant by Culse-/idth modulation?
Culse-/idth modulation 'CW")4 or pulse-duration modulation 'C+")4 is a modulation
techni#ue that controls the /idth of the pulse4 formally the pulse duration4 based on modulator
signal information. )lthough this modulation techni#ue can be used to encode information for
transmission4 its main use is to allo/ the control of the po/er supplied to electrical devices4
especially to inertial loads such as motors. %he average value of voltage 'and current) fed to the
load is controlled by turning the s/itch bet/een supply and load on and off at a fast pace. %he
longer the s/itch is on compared to the off periods4 the higher the po/er supplied to the load.
.) ;o/ CW" techni#ue can be used driving )6 motor?
CW" in an )6 motor driveA the phase-to-phase voltage 'blue) is modulated as a series of
pulses that results in a sine-li5e flux density /aveform 'red) in the magnetic circuit of the motor.
%he smoothness of the resultant /aveform can be controlled by the /idth and number of
modulated impulses.
0) Explain about s/itching fre#uency of CW".
%he CW" s/itching fre#uency has to be much faster than /hat /ould affect the load4 /hich is
to say the device that uses the po/er. %ypically s/itching has to be done several times a minute
in an electric stove4 122 ;7 in a lamp dimmer4 from fe/ 5ilohert7 '5;7) to tens of 5;7 for a
motor drive and /ell into the tens or hundreds of 5;7 in audio amplifiers and computer po/er
supplies.
1) What is meant by duty cycle and ho/ it is related /ith po/er?
%he term duty cycle describes the proportion of OonO time to the regular interval or OperiodO
of time@ a lo/ duty cycle corresponds to lo/ po/er4 because the po/er is off for most of the
time. +uty cycle is expressed in percent4 122F being fully on.
12) "ention some advantages of CW" techni#ue.
%he main advantage of CW" is that po/er loss in the s/itching devices is very lo/.
When a s/itch is off there is practically no current4 and /hen it is on4 there is almost no voltage
drop across the s/itch. CW" also /or5s /ell /ith digital controls4 /hich4 because of their
onUoff nature4 can easily set the needed duty cycle. CW" has also been used in certain
communication systems /here its duty cycle has been used to convey information over a
communications channel.
1. 6heap to ma5e.
2. >ittle heat /hilst /or5ing.
3. >o/ po/er consumption.
. 6an utili7e very high fre#uen7ies '!2-122 Gh7 is not uncommon.)
!. 8ery energy-efficient /hen used to convert voltages or to dim light bulbs.
(. ;igh po/er handling capability
.. Efficiency up to 12F
11) "ention some applications of CW" techni#ue.
Ser6os: CW" is used to control servomechanisms4 see servo control.
Tele"ommuni"ations: $n telecommunications4 CW" is a form of signal modulation
/here the /idths of the pulses correspond to specific data values encoded at one end and
decoded at the other.
Audio e##e"ts and ampli#i"ation: CW" is sometimes used in sound 'music) synthesis4
in particular subtractive synthesis4 as it gives a sound effect similar to chorus or slightly detuned
oscillators played together.
12) +efine the techni#ue Culse-position modulation?
Culse-position modulation 'CC") is a form of signal modulation in /hich " message bits
are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of 2V" possible time-shifts.D1ED2E %his is
repeated every % seconds4 such that the transmitted bit rate is "U% bits per second. $t is primarily
useful for optical communications systems4 /here there tends to be little or no multipath
interference.
13) Explain Culse Cosition "odulator using $6 !!!?
%he !!! timer $6 is an integrated circuit used in a variety of timer4 pulse generation and
oscillator applications. %he !!! can be used to provide time delays4 as an oscillator and as a flip-
flop element. $ts recent derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one pac5age. $t /as
introduced in 11.1 by ,ignetics4 /ith lo/ price and good stability and is no/-a-days it is
manufactured by many companies in the original bipolar type and also in lo/-po/er 6"H,
types.
1) Mive some disadvantages of CC" techni#ue.
Syn"3roni9ation: Hne of the 5ey difficulties of implementing this techni#ue is that the
receiver must be properly synchroni7ed to align the local cloc5 /ith the beginning of each
symbol. %herefore4 it is often implemented differentially as differential pulse-position
modulation4 /hereby each pulse position is encoded relative to the previous4 such that the
receiver must only measure the difference in the arrival time of successive pulses.
Sensiti6ity to multipat3 inter#eren"e: )side from the issues regarding receiver
synchroni7ation4 the 5ey disadvantage of CC" is that it is inherently sensitive to multipath
interference that arises in channels /ith fre#uency-selective fading4 /hereby the receiverOs signal
contains one or more echoes of each transmitted pulse. ,ince the information is encoded in the
time of arrival 'either differentially4 or relative to a common cloc5)4 the presence of one or more
echoes can ma5e it extremely difficult4 if not impossible4 to accurately determine the correct
pulse position corresponding to the transmitted pulse.
1!) "ention some advantages 3 applications of CC" techni#ue.
$on-"o3erent dete"tion: Hne of the principal advantages of CC" is that it is an "-ary
modulation techni#ue that can be implemented non-coherently4 such that the receiver does not
need to use a phase-loc5ed loop 'C>>) to trac5 the phase of the carrier. %his ma5es it a suitable
candidate for optical communications systems4 /here coherent phase modulation and detection
are difficult and extremely expensive. %he only other common "-ary non-coherent modulation
techni#ue is "-ary =re#uency ,hift Geying '"-=,G)4 /hich is the fre#uency-domain dual to
CC".
%pti"al "ommuni"ations systemsA %he /ireless systems tend to have /ea5 multipath
distortions4 and CC" is a viable modulation scheme in many such applications.
Appli"ations: Jarro/band := 'radio fre#uency) channels /ith lo/ po/er and long
/avelengths 'i.e.4 lo/ fre#uency) are affected primarily by flat fading4 and CC" is better suited
than "-=,G to be used in these scenarios. Hne common application /ith these channel
characteristics4 first used in the early 11(2s4 is the radio control of model aircraft4 boats and cars.
CC" is employed in these systems4 /ith the position of each pulse representing the angular
position of an analogue control on the transmitter4 or possible states of a binary s/itch.
E&p $o: : P)LSE M%)LAT(%$ - PAM7P8M7PPM
A(M
%o perform the follo/ing pulse modulation schemes
1.Culse amplitude modulation
2.Culse /idth modulation
3.Culse position modulation schemes

APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
86% !C 'CW")
Catch chord
+,H
-J6 to ,C . cable
%;EH:T
P)LSE AMPL(T)E M%)LAT(%$ (PAM):
Culse )mplitude "odulation 'C)") is based on a conversion the signal into a series of
amplitude-modulated pulses. %he band/idth re#uirements are given by the Jy#uist sampling
theorem4 so the modulated signal can be uni#uely represented by uniformly spaced samples of
the signal at a rate higher or e#ual to t/o times the signal band/idth. )n attractive feature of
C)" is this lo/ band/idth re#uirement resulting in a minimal carrier fre#uency4 /hich /ould
minimi7e the po/er dissipation in a s/itching po/er amplification stage. &nfortunately4 C)" is
limited by the re#uirements for pulse amplitude accuracy. $t turns out to be problematic to reali7e
a high efficiency po/er output stage that can synthesi7e the pulses /ith accurately defined
amplitude. $f only a fe/ discrete amplitude levels are re#uired4 as it is the case /ith the other
three pulse modulation methods4 the tas5 of po/er amplification of the pulses is much simpler.
Culse amplitude modulation is defined as an analog modulation techni#ue in /hich
the signal is sampled at regular intervals such that each sample is proportional to the amplitude
of the signal4 at the instant of sampling
=igureA C&>,E "H+&>)%$HJ
P)LSE 8(T+ M%)LAT(%$ (P8M):
Culse /idth modulation is defined as an analog modulation techni#ue in /hich the /idth of
each pulse is made proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the signal at the sampling
instant. Culse Width "odulation 'CW") is dramatically different form C)" in that it performs
sampling in time /hereas C)" provides sampling in amplitude. 6onse#uently4 the information is
coded into the pulse time position /ithin each s/itching interval. CW" only re#uires synthesis
of a fe/ discrete output levels4 /hich is easily reali7ed by topologically simple high efficiency
s/itching po/er stages. Hn the other hand4 the band/idth re#uirements for CW" are typically
close to an order of magnitude higher than C)". %his penalty is /ell paid given the
simplifications in the s/itching po/er stage U po/er supply.
=igureA C&>,E +E"H+&>)%$HJ
"H+&>)%$HJA
1. ,/itch HJ the trainer.
2. 6hec5 the sine source fre#uency and amplitude at test point C1 using the oscilloscope of
channel 14 and note do/n the /aveform.
3. 6hec5 the triangle /ave fre#uency and amplitude at test point C2 using the oscilloscope
of channel 14 and note do/n the /aveform.
. 6onnect C1 to C3 and C2 to C by using the patch chord.
!. 6onnect the 6:H channel 1 to the sine source output at test point C1 and 6:H channel 2
to comparator output at test point C!.
(. +isplay the message signal and CW" modulated output using a probe on channel 1 and
channel 2 of the oscilloscope. $ncrease sine/ave amplitude by rotating M)$J )+<&,%
potentiometer in cloc5/ise direction and set sine/ave amplitude to 28pp and note do/n
the corresponding CW" output /aveform.
.. $ncrease triangle /ave amplitude by rotating M)$J )+<&,% potentiometer in cloc5/ise
direction and note do/n the corresponding F of modulation output /aveform.
0. Clot all the noted /aveforms such as sine /ave4 triangle /ave4 CW" output on a linear
graph sheet.
+E"H+&>)%$HJA
1. ,/itch on the %:)$JE:.
2. "a5e /iring connection on 86%-!C as sho/n in patching diagram 'or) connect the test
points C1 to C34 C2 to C and C! to C0 using patch chords provided /ith the trainer.
3. 6onnect the 6:H channel 1 to the sine source output at test point p1 and 6:H channel 2
to the 2
nd
order >C= output at test points C. by using the -J6-to-,C. cable.
. Jo/ the message signal and 2
nd
order filtered output /ill be displayed on the 6:H and
notedo/n the /aveform.
!. 6onnect the test point C. to C0 by using patch chord.
(. :eplace the channel 2 /aveform by
th
order >C= output 'at test point C1) and notedo/n
the corresponding filtered output /aveform.
.. 6onnect the test point C1 to C12 using the patch chord.
0. :eplace the channel 2 /aveform by amplifier output at test point C11.
1. $ncrease the amplified output by rotating the M)$J )+<&,% potentiometer and get the
re#uired amplified output. Jote do/n the /aveform.
12. Clot all the noted /aveforms such as 2
nd
order >C=4
th
order >C= and amplified output
/aveform on a linear graph sheet.
M%EL .RAP+ (P8M) :

TAB)LAT(%$A 'CW")
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
%riangular Wave
"odulated Hutput
+emodulated
Hutput
P)LSE P%S(T(%$ M%)LAT(%$
Culse Cosition "odulation 'CC") differs from CW" in that the value of each instantaneous
sample of a modulating /ave is caused to vary the position in time of a pulse4 relative to its non-
modulated time of occurrence Each pulse has identical shape independent of the modulation
depth. %his is an attractive feature4 since a uniform pulse is simple to reproduce /ith a simple
s/itching po/er stage. Hn the other hand4 a limitation of CC" is the re#uirements for pulse
amplitude level if reasonable po/ers are re#uired. %he po/er supply level of the s/itching
po/er stage /ill have to be much higher than the re#uired load voltage. %his leads to sub-
optimal performance on several parameters as efficiency4 complexity and audio performance
Culse position modulation is defined as an analog modulation techni#ue in /hich the signal is
sampled at regular intervals such that the shift in position of each sample is proportional to the
instantaneous value of the signal at the sampling instant

.

M%EL .RAP+ (PAM)
TAB)LAT(%$: 'C)")
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
,ampled Hutput
,ample 3 ;old
Hutput
=lat %op Hutput
:econstructed
Hutput
RES)LT
%hus the modulation and demodulation of all the pulse modulation schemes are studied.
M%EL .RAP+ 'CC") A
TAB)LAT(%$: 'CC")
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
6loc5 Culse
"odulated Hutput
+emodulated
Hutput
P%ST-LAB TEST:
1) Explain the analog pulse modulation scheme in /hich the amplitudes of a train of carrier
pulses are varied?
2) ;o/ C)" techni#ue can be used for Ethernet communication?.
3) Why there is noise associated /ith C)" techni#ue?
) "ention some advantages of C)" techni#ue.
!) Why Culse-/idth modulation 'CW") is also called as pulse-duration modulation 'C+")?
() ;o/ po/er control can be achieved using CW" techni#ue?
.) Explain /hy po/er loss in CW" is minimum.
0) What is the maximum efficiency of Culse-/idth modulation techni#ue?
1) +efine the techni#ue Culse-position modulation.
12) +ifferentiate CC" vs. "-=,G.
11) "ention the advantage of CC" over "-=,G.
12) Which method is much suitable for Jarro/band radio fre#uency applications?
Pulse "ode modulation and demodulation
PRE-LAB TEST:
1.What is meant by C6"?
2.+efine CW".
3.+efine )+C6".
.What should be the minimum band/idth re#uired to transmit a C6"
channel?
!.What is the advantage of delta modulation over C6"?
(.What is the main difference in +C6" and +"?
.."ention the merits of +C6".
0. +efine #uanti7ing process.
1. +efine #uanti7ation error?
Pulse "ode modulation and demodulation
Answerb key - Prelab test:
1.What is meant by C6"?
Culse code modulation 'C6") is a method of signal coding in /hich the message signal
is sampled4 the amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of
discrete levels and encoded so that both time and amplitude are represented in discrete form..
%his allo/s the message to be transmitted by means of a digital /aveform.
2.+efine CW".
CW" is basically pulse /idth modulation. Width of the pulse changes according to
amplitude of the modulating signal. $t also referred as pulse duration modulation or C+".
3.+efine )+C6".
$t means adaptive differential pulse code modulation4 a combination of adaptive
#uanti7ation and adaptive prediction. )daptive #uanti7ation refers to a #uanti7er that operates
/ith a time varying step si7e. %he autocorrelation function and po/er spectral density of speech
signals are time varying functions of the respective variables. Credictors for such input should be
time varying. ,o adaptive predictors are used.
.What should be the minimum band/idth re#uired to transmit a C6"
channel?
%he minimum transmission band/idth in C6" is given as4
-% Q vW
;ere v is the number of bits used to represent one pulse.
W is the maximum signal fre#uency
!.What is the advantage of delta modulation over C6"?
+elta modulation uses one bit to encode on sample. ;ence bit rate of delta modulation is
lo/ compared to C6".
(.What is the main difference in +C6" and +"?
+" encodes the input sample by one bit. $t sends the information about R d or 6d4 ie step
rise or fall. +C6" can have more than one bit of encoding the sample. $t sends the information
about difference bet/een actual sample value and the predicted sample value.
.."ention the merits of +C6".
1. -and/idth re#uirement of +C6" is less compared to C6".
2. Suanti7ation error is reduced because of prediction filter
3. Jumbers of bits used to represent one sample value are also reduced
compared to C6".
0. +efine #uanti7ing process.
$t is process of approximating the sample signal to the nearest #uanti7ation level.
1. +efine #uanti7ation error?
Suanti7ation error is the difference bet/een the output and input values of #uanti7er.
E&p $o:; P)LSE -%E M%)LAT(%$ A$ EM%)LAT(%$
A(M
%o perform pulse code modulation and the fre#uency response of the system
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
86%-2.
Co/er card
Catch chords
+,H
T+E%R,
Culse code modulation is a process of converting a analog signal into digital. %he voice or
any data input is first sampled using a sampler '/hich is a simple s/itch) and then #uanti7ed.
Suanti7ation is the process of converting a given signal amplitude to an e#uivalent binary
number /ith fixed number of bits. %his #uanti7ation can be either mid tread or mid-raise and it
can be uniform or non-uniform based on the re#uirements. =or example in speech signals4 the
higher amplitudes /ill be less fre#uent than the lo/ amplitudes. ,o higher amplitudes are given
less step si7e than the lo/er amplitudes and thus #uanti7ation is performed non-uniformly. )fter
#uanti7ation the signal is digital and the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and
then launched into the channel serially.
)t the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames and each
frame is de-#uanti7ed to an e#uivalent analog value. %his analog value is thus e#uivalent to a
sampler output. %his is the demodulated signal. $n the 5it this is implemented differently. %he
analog signal is passed through a )+6 ')nalog to +igital 6onverter) and then the digital
code/ord is passed through a parallel to serial converter bloc5. %his is modulated C6". %his is
ta5en by the ,erial to Carallel converter and then through a +)6 to get the demodulated signal.
%he cloc5 is given to all these bloc5s for synchroni7ation. %he input signal can be either +6 or
)6 according to the 5it. %he /aveforms can be observed on a 6:H for +6 /ithout problem. )6
also can be observed but /ith poor resolution.
=igureA C&>,E 6H+E "H+&>)%$HJ 3 +E"H+&>)%$HJ
$n the model graph4 a sine /ave 'red curve) is sampled and #uanti7ed for C6". %he sine /ave is
sampled at regular intervals4 sho/n as tic5s on the x axis. =or each sample4 one of the available
values 'tic5s on the y-axis) is chosen by some algorithm. %his produces a fully discrete
representation of the input signal 'shaded area) that can be easily encoded as digital data for
storage or manipulation. =or the sine /ave example at right4 /e can verify that the #uanti7ed
values at the sampling moments are .4 14 114 124 134 14 14 1!4 1!4 1!4 14 etc. Encoding these
values as binary numbers /ould result in the follo/ing set of nibbles A 2111
'2
3
W2R2
2
W1R2
1
W1R2
2
W1Q2RR2R1Q.)4 12214 12114 11224 11214 11124 11124 11114 11114 11114
11124 etc. %hese digital values could then be further processed or analy7ed by a digital signal
processor. ,everal C6" streams could also be multiplexed into a larger aggregate data stream4
generally for transmission of multiple streams over a single physical lin5. Hne techni#ue is
called time division multiplexing '%+") and is /idely used4 notably in the modern public
telephone system. %he C6" process is commonly implemented on a single integrated
circuit generally referred to as an analog-to-digital converter ')+6)
PR%-E)RE
1.,/itch on the po/er supply
2.6onnect function generator output 'C2) into sample and hold input 'C0)
3.Geep CH% 1 and CH% 2 in minimum position and select 0G;7 using ,W1 as sampling cloc5
.,et sine /ave amplitude as 38pp and display the sample and hold 'C12) output
!. -y varying CH% 1 observe the modulated output at C21
(.=or reconstruction connect C21 to C22 and read /aveform at C3.
RES)LT
%hus the Culse code modulation and demodulation /as performed.
M%EL .RAP+
,ampling and #uanti7ation of a signal 'red) for -bit C6"
TAB)LAT(%$:
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
,ample 3 ;old
Hutput
Carallel to ,erial
6onverter Hutput
+emodulated
Hutput
P%ST-LAB TEST
1. What is the main difference in +C6" and +"?
2. ,tate ,ampling theorem
3. ;o/ the message can be recovered from C)"?
. Write an expression for band/idth of binary C6"
!. With J "essages Each With ) "aximum =re#uency Hf =m ;7 What $s "eant -y
Suanti7ation?
(. What is Jy#uist rate of sampling.
.. What is aliasing. ;o/ it is minimi7ed practically.
0. ,tate and explain samling theorem
1. What is #uanti7ation? ;o/ is this error minimi7ed?
12. Explain different types of digital modulation techni#ues.
elta modulation and demodulation
PRE-LAB TEST:
1.+efine delta modulation.
2.+efine adaptive delta modulation.
3.+efine #uanti7ation error?
.What you mean by non-uniform #uanti7ation?
!.What is the disadvantage of uniform #uanti7ation over the non-uniform
#uanti7ation?
(.What are the advantages of the +elta modulation?
..What is meant by adaptive delta modulation?
0.What is the advantage of delta modulation over pulse modulation
schemes?
1.What are the t/o limitations of delta modulation?
12.;o/ does Mranular noise occurs?
elta modulation and demodulation
Answer key - Prelab test :
1.+efine delta modulation.
+elta modulation is the one-bit version of differential pulse code "odulation.
2.+efine adaptive delta modulation.
%he performance of a delta modulator can be improved significantly by ma5ing the step
si7e of the modulator assume a time- varying form. $n particular4 during a steep segment of the
input signal the step si7e is increased. 6onversely4 /hen the input signal is varying slo/ly4 the
step is reduced 4 $n this /ay4 the step si7e is adapting to the level of the signal. %he resulting
method is called adaptive delta modulation ')+")
3.+efine #uanti7ation error?
Suanti7ation error is the difference bet/een the output and input values of #uanti7er.
.What you mean by non-uniform #uanti7ation?
,tep si7e is not uniform. Jon-uniform #uanti7er is characteri7ed by a step si7e that
increases as the separation from the origin of the transfer characteristics is increased. Jon-
uniform #uanti7ation is other/ise called as robust #uanti7ation
!.What is the disadvantage of uniform #uanti7ation over the non-uniform
#uanti7ation?
,J: decreases /ith decrease in input po/er level at the uniform #uanti7er but non-
uniform #uanti7ation maintains a constant ,J: for /ide range of input po/er levels. %his type
of #uanti7ation is called as robust #uanti7ation.
(.What are the advantages of the +elta modulation?
1. +elta modulation transmits only one bit for one sample. %hus the signalling rate and
transmission channel band/idth is #uite small for delta modulation.
2. %he transmitter and receiver implementation is very much simple for delta modulation.
%here is no analog to digital converter involved in delta modulation.
..What is meant by adaptive delta modulation?
$n adaptive delta modulation4 the step si7e is ad?usted as per the slope of the input signal.
,tep si7e is made high if slope of the input signal is high. %his avoids slope overload distortion
0.What is the advantage of delta modulation over pulse modulation
schemes?
+elta modulation encodes one bit per samples. ;ence signalling rate is reduced in +".
1.What are the t/o limitations of delta modulation?
1. ,lope of overload distortion.
2. Mranular noise
12.;o/ does Mranular noise occurs?
$t occurs due to large step si7e and very small amplitude variation in the input signal.
E&p $o: < ELTA M%)LAT(%$7AAPT(=E ELTA M%)LAT(%$
A(M
%o perform the deltaUadaptive delta modulation schemes
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
86% !2
Co/er card
Catch chords
+,H
T+E%R,
+elta modulation transmits only 1 bit per sample. %he modulator comprises of
comparator4 #uanti7er and integrator. With conventional C6"4 each code is a binary
representation of both the sign and magnitude of a particular sample4 therefore multiple-bit code
is re#uired to represent a one sample. With +"4 rather than transmit a coded representation of
the sample4 only a single bit is transmitted4 /hich simply indicates /hether that the sample is
larger or smaller than the previous sample. $f the current sample is smaller than previous sample4
a logic level 2 is transmitted. $f the current sample is larger than the previous sample4 a logic 1 is
transmitted.
Delta Modulation (DM) is a simplified C6". $n some type of signals4 the neighboring samples
are closely correlated /ith each other. %herefore4 once a sample value is 5no/n this enables the
determination of the follo/ing sample values most probably. %hus4 instead of sending the real
value of each sample at each time4 differences 'variances) bet/een ad?acent samples are sent in
+".
$n +"4 t/o-level #uanti7er and one-bit coding is used. %ransmitted code pulses do not carry the
data related to the message signal itself@ instead they carry data regarding the differentials of the
message function. %he output of a delta modulator is a bit stream of samples at a relatively high
rate4 the value of each bit being determined according to /hether the input message sample
amplitude has increased or decreased relative to the previous sample.
=igureA +E>%) "H+&>)%$HJ
%he system is in the form of a feedbac5 loop. $t is a continuous-time to discrete-time
converter. $n fact4 it is a form of analog to digital converter. )fter the sampler is cloc5ed4 the
resulting signal is the delta modulated signal. %he output from the sampler is a bipolar signal4 in
bloc5 diagram being either X Y volts. $f the output of Z,ummerN 'or comparator) is positive than
the sample value of +" signal is R Y 4 other/ise it is - Y . %he /aveform of the +" signal is
sho/n in bottom of =igure 2. $t is fed bac54 in a feedbac5 loop4 via an integrator4 to a summer.
%he integrator output is a sa/ tooth li5e /aveform as sho/n in =igure 2.
%he operation of a delta modulator isA
i) periodically sample the input message4
ii) ma5e a comparison bet/een the current sample and the preceding one and4
iii) give a single bit as output /hich indicates the sign of the difference bet/een t/o samples
PR%-E)RE
1.,/itch on the po/er supply
2.6onnect sine generator C1comparator input C1
3.,elect 32G;7 cloc5 generator C2 into sampler input C1 and ?oin multiplier output C11 to C12
and display the /aveform at C12
.Hbserve the delta modulated /aveform at C1!
!.=or demodulation connect C1! to sampler input C11 and display the /ave form at C21 for delta
demodulator
(.Jote do/n the values and plot the /aveforms
..:epeat the same procedure for different cloc5 signals and observe the changes
RES)LT
%hus the delta modulation and demodulation /as performed.
M%EL .RAP+ :
$ntegrator output superimposed on the message /ith the +elta "odulator signal
TAB)LAT(%$:
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
6omparator
Hutput
+elta "odulated
Hutput
+emodulated
Hutput
P%ST-LAB TEST
1. What is the advantage of delta modulation over pulse modulation schemes?
2. What should be the minimum band/idth re#uired to transmit a C6" channel?
3. What are the advantages of the +elta modulation?
. What is the advantage of delta modulation over C6"?
!. +istinguish bet/een +" and )+"
(. Explain the different types of errors in +".
.. 6ompare the different types of +" techni#ues.
0. What are the advantages of digital transmission?
1. What are the advantages of digital communication?
12. What is C6" dra/ the bloc5 diagram of a typical C6" system?
i!ital modulation 5 demodulation -AS>?/S>?PS>?*PS>
PRELAB TEST:
1.+efine ),G.
2.What is meant by +C,G?
3.What is the difference bet/een C,G and =,G?
.What is meant by coherent ),G?
!.What is the ma?or advantage of coherent C,G over coherent ),G?
(.Explain ho/ SC,G differs from C,G in term of transmission band/idth and bit information it
carries?
..What is nominal carrier fre#uency in ",G ?
0. +efine bit time and baud rate
1.+efine S)"
12. +efine $nformation 6apacity
i!ital modulation 5 demodulation -AS>?/S>?PS>?*PS>
Answer key - Prelab test:
1.+efine ),G.
$n ),G4 carrier is s/itched on /hen binary 1 is to be transmitted and it is s/itched off
/hen binary + is to be transmitted ),G is also called on-off 5eying
2.What is meant by +C,G?
$n +C,G4 the input se#uence is modified. >et input se#uence be d't) and outputse#uence
be b't). ,e#uence b't) changes level at the beginning of each interval in /hich d't)Q1 and it does
not changes level /hen d't)Q2. When b't) changes level4 phase of the carrier is changed. )nd as
stated above4 b't) changes tQits level only /hen d't) Q1. %his means phase of the carrier is
changed only if d't)Q1. ;ence the techni#ue is called +ifferential C,G
3.What is the difference bet/een C,G and =,G?
$n C,G4 phase of the carrier is s/itched according to input bit se#uence. $n =,G
fre#uency of the carrier is s/itched according to input bit se#uence. =,G needs double of the
band/idth of C,G
.What is meant by coherent ),G?
$n coherent ),G4 correlation receiver is used to detect the signal. >ocally generated
carrier is correlated /ith incoming ),G signal. %he locally generated carrier is in exact phase
/ith the transmitted carrier. 6oherent ),G is also called as synchronous ),G.
!.What is the ma?or advantage of coherent C,G over coherent ),G?
),G is on6off signalling4 /here as the modulated carrier is continuously transmitted in
C,G. ;ence pea5 po/er re#uirement is more ),G4 /hereas it is reduced in case of C,G
(.Explain ho/ SC,G differs from C,G in term of transmission band/idth and bit information it
carries?
=or a given bit rate 1U%b4 a SC,G /ave re#uires half the transmission band/idth of the
corresponding binary C,G /ave. E#uivalently for a given transmission band/idth4 a SC,G
/ave carries t/ice as many bits of information as the corresponding binary C,G /ave.
..What is nominal carrier fre#uency in ",G ?
Jominal carrier fre#uency is the arithmetic mean of the t/o fre#uencies f1and f2 and it is
given as
f c Q [ 'f 1 R f 2 )
/here f 1 is the fre#uency for symbol 91
f 2 is the fre#uency for symbol 9 2
0. +efine bit time and baud rate
-it %imeA it is reciprocal of the bit rate
-aud :ateA the rate of change of a signal on the transmission medium after encoding and
modulation have occurred.
1.+efine S)"
) system involves phase as /ell as amplitude modulation is called #uadrature amplitude
modulation 'S)")
12. +efine $nformation 6apacity
$nformation capacity reprensents the number of independent symbols that can be carried
in the system for a given time.
E&p $o:@ (.(TAL M%)LAT(%$5EM%)LAT(%$ -AS>?/S>?PS>?*PS>
A(M
Cerform the digital modulation schemes-),G4=,G4C,G4SC,G and dra/ the /aveforms.
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
86% 1 ) 3 86% 1 -
Catch chords
Co/er card
+,H
T+E%R,
-aseband digital signals are suitable for transmission over a pair of /ires or coaxial cables
due to its si7able po/er at lo/ fre#uencies. %hese signals cannot be transmitted over a radio lin5
because this /ould re#uire impractically large antennas to efficiently radiate the lo/-fre#uency
spectrum of the signal. ;ence4 for such purposes4 /e use analog modulation techni#ues in /hich
the digital signal messages are used to modulate a high-fre#uency continuous-/ave '6W) carrier.
$n binary modulation schemes4 the modulation process corresponds to s/itching 'or 5eying)
the amplitude4 fre#uency or phase of the 6W carrier bet/een either of t/o values corresponding
to binary symbols L2\ or L1\. %he three types of digital modulation are amplitude-s3i#t keyin!
(AS>)4 #re0uen"y-s3i#t keyin! (/S>) and p3ase-s3i#t keyin! (PS>)1
Amplitude-S3i#t >eyin! (AS>)
$n ),G4 the amplitude of the carrier assumes one of the t/o amplitudes dependent on the
logic states of the input bit stream. %his modulated signal can be expressed asA

=
*1* symbol cos
*2* symbol 2
) '
t A
t x
c
c

=igureA ),G "H+&>)%$HJ


Jote that the modulated signal is still an on-off signal.
/re0uen"y-S3i#t >eyin! (/S>)
$n =,G4 the fre#uency of the carrier is changed to t/o different fre#uencies depending on the
logic state of the input bit stream. &sually4 a logic high causes the centre fre#uency to increase to
a maximum and a logic lo/ causes the centre fre#uency to decrease to minimum. %he modulated
signal can be expressed asA

=
*1* symbol cos
*2* symbol cos
) '
2
1
t A
t A
t x
c

P3ase-S3i#t >eyin! (PS>)


$n C,G4 the phase of the carrier changes bet/een different phases determined by the logic
states of the input bit stream. $n t/o-phase shift 5eying4 the carrier assumes one of the t/o
phases. ) logic L1\ produces no phase change and a logic L2\ produces a 102
2
phase changes
%his modulated signal can be expressed asA

+
=
*1* symbol cos
*2* symbol ) cos'
) '
t A
t A
t x
c
c
c


PR%-E)RE
AS>
1."a5e the connections as sho/n in fig. 6onnection on 86% 1)
C1 to C4C3 to C!4 C( to C2!4 C1 toC2(
6onnection bet/een 86% 1 )386% 1-
C2. to C1
=igureA =,G "H+&>)%$HJ 3 +E"H+&>)%$HJ
6onnection on 86% 1-
C2 to C22
C21 to C2
2.,/itch on the trainer and set the data using s/itches from ,W 1-0
3.+isplay the input data at C ( and ),G output at C2.
.=or demodulation ma5e the connections and display the rectifier output at C2 and the filter
output at C21
!.)d?ust the potentiometer CH% 1 until the pulses at the comparatorOs output have the same time
interval as in input data. %here /ill be some delay because the filter
/S>
1."a5e the connections as sho/n in fig 6onnection on 86% 1)
C1 to C4C3 to C!4 C( to C234 C23 to C204C2 to C2!4 C1 to C2(4 C1( to C214 C2.to C31
C32 to C32
6onnection bet/een 86% 1 )386% 1-
C33 to C3
6onnection on 86% 1-
C to C22
C32 to C32
2.,/itch on the trainer and set the data using s/itches from ,W 1-0
3.+isplay the input data at C ( and =,G output at C33
.=or demodulation ma5e the connections and display the C>> output at C and the filter output
at C23
!.+isplay the data in 86% ) on C( and threshold detector output at C20.)d?ust the potentiometer
CH% 2 until the pulse comparatorOs output have same as input.
=igureA C,G "H+&>)%$HJ 3 +E"H+&>)%$HJ
PS>
1. "a5e connections as sho/n in figure .6onnection on 86% 1 )
C1-C4C3-C!4C.-C1.4C11-C2!4C1-C2(
6onnection bet/een 86% 1) 386% 1-
C2.-C!
6onnection on 86%-1-
C12-C224C23-C2!4C20-C214C20-C24C1-C3
2. +isplay the data input at C. and C,G in C2..
3. %o see the C,G demodulation display the C,G /aveform in C! on channel 1 and C( on 86%
1- to channel 2.%he /aveform in channel 2 is t/ice the input fre#uency of C,G
. %o get bac5 the demodulated data display the J:K '") on channel 1 and filter output at C23 in
channel 2 note do/n the /aveform and it /ill be rounded version of +ata input.
TAB)LAT(%$:
),GA
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
-inary $nput
6arrier ,ignal
"odulated Hutput
+emodulated
Hutput
=,GA
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
$nput ,ignal
+ata Menerator
=,G Hutput
+emodulated
Hutput
C,GA
)mplitude %ime =re#uency
"essage signal
6arrier ,ignal
"odulated Hutput
+emodulated
Hutput
MatLab -ode :
Fmatlab code for digital modulationA 'as54 fs5 and ps5)
piQ3.1@
fQ!@
f2Q12@
phiQpi@
xQD1 2 1 1 2E@
nxQsi7e'x42)@
iQ1@
/hile i]nxR1
t Q iA2.221AiR1@
if x'i)QQ1
as5Qsin'2^pi^f^t)@
fs5Qsin'2^pi^f^t)@
ps5Qsin'2^pi^f^t)@
else
as5Q2@
fs5Qsin'2^pi^f2^t)@
ps5Qsin'2^pi^f^tRphi)@
end
subplot'34141)@
plot't4as5)@
hold on@
grid on@
axis'D1 12 -2 2E)@


S(M)LATE 8A=E/%RMS
subplot(3,1,2);
plot(t,fsk);
hold on;
grid on;
axis([1 10 -2 2]);

subplot(3,1,3);
plot(t,psk);
hold on;
grid on;
axis([1 10 -2 2]);
i=i1;
!nd
RES)LT A
%hus the digital modulation schemes are studied /ith trainer 5it and ")%>)- coding"
P%ST- LAB TEST
1. What is meant by +C,G?
2. Explain coherent detection?
3. What is the difference bet/een C,G and =,G?
. What is the ma?or advantage of coherent C,G over coherent ),G?
!. Hn /hat factor4 the error probability of matched filter depends.
(. Write the expression for bit error rate for coherent binary =,G
.. What is the error probability of ",G 3 +C,G?
0. +ra/ the phasor diagram of SC,G signal
1. What is SC,G modulation?
12. What is signal space representation?
esi!nin!? Assemblin! and Testin! o# Pre- emp3asis 7 e-emp3asis
PRELAB TEST:
1. What is Cre-emphasis in ="?
2. What is +e-emphasis in ="?
3. What does the Cre- emphasis in =" system involves?
. ,tate the need of Cre 9 emphasis 3 +e- emphasis circuits in digital communication.
!. What is the importance of +e-emphasis net/or5 in =" receiver?
(. ,tate the formula for cutoff fre#uency.
.. >ist do/n the application of Cre- emphasis 3 +e-emphasis?
0. What is the advantage of =" over )"?
1. +efine 6apture effect in =".
12. ,tate the formula for transmission efficiency of )" signal.
11. +ifferentiate =" 3 C".
12. ,tate the 6arsonN rule.
13. +efine "odulation index in =".
1. 6ompare Jarro/band 3 Wideband in =".
1!. ) 6arrier fre#uency modulated /ith a sinusoidal signal of 2 5;7 resulting in a maximum
deviation of ! 5;74 =ind the modulation index and band/idth of the modulated signal.
esi!nin!? Assemblin! and Testin! o# Pre- emp3asis 7 e-emp3asis
Answer key 2 Prelab test :
1. What is Cre-emphasis in ="?
$n ="4 the effect of noise is more on higher fre#uencies /hen compared /ith lo/
fre#uencies4 therefore in order to have high signal to noise ratio4 the high fre#uencies are
amplified at the transmitter side and for compensation de-emphasis is done at receiver side.
2. What is +e-emphasis in ="?
+e-emphasis is the complement of pre-emphasis4 in the anti noise system called emphasis.
Emphasis is a system process designed to decrease '/ithin a band of fre#uencies)4 the
magnitude of the other fre#uencies in order to improve the magnitude of some fre#uencies
'overall ,J: ratio) by minimi7ing the attenuation.
3. What does the Cre- emphasis in =" system involves?
)mplification of higher fre#uency component of modulating signal is the process done by
preQemphasis in =" system.
. ,tate the need of Cre 9 emphasis 3 +e- emphasis circuits in digital communication.
%hese t/o circuits are needed for boosting up the message signal to the sufficient level in
order to have faithful communication bet/een the t/o communication parties.
!. What is the importance of +e-emphasis net/or5 in =" receiver?
Hne characteristics of the =" process is that the noise is distributed such that itNs lo/est at
the bottom fre#uency of the channel4 and increases steadily as you move up the channel4
/hich decreases the noise in the =" communication channel.
(. ,tate the formula for cutoff fre#uency
%he cut off fre#uency is given by
fc Q 1U2_:64
Where :Q 2_ fc>.
.. >ist do/n the application of Cre- emphasis 3 +e-emphasis
%he applications are ="4
)udio digital recording.
0. What is the advantage of =" over )"?
%he primary advantages of =" over )" are its immunity to noise.
Joise is short-duration amplitude variations caused by lightning4 motors4 auto-
ignitions4 po/er transients and other sources.
$t has the capture effect that allo/s the strongest signal on fre#uency to dominate
/ithout the interference from the other signal.
$t has greater transmitter efficiency.
1. +efine 6apture effect in ="
) phenomenon4 associated /ith =" reception4 in /hich only the stronger of 2 signals at
or near the same fre#uency /ill be demodulated. %he completer suppression of the /ea5er signal
occurs at the receiver limiter4 /here it is treated as noise 3 re?ected4 /hen both the signals are
nearly e#ual in strength or are fading independently4 the receiver may s/itch from one to the
other@ this effect is called as capture effect in =".
12. ,tate the formula for transmission efficiency of )" signal
$t is defined as percentage of total po/er contributed by the side bands4 mathematically it is
given as
%his means that only one third of the total po/er is carried by the side bands and the rest of t/o
third is a /aste and is transmitted for a lo/ cost reception.
11. +ifferentiate =" 3 C"
=re#uency modulation Chase "odulation
$nstantaneous fre#uency of the
carrier is varied from its reference
value by an amount proportional to
the modulating signal amplitude.
=re#uency carrier is directly varied.
Chase carried is indirectly varied4
Chase angle of the carrier is varied
from its reference value by an
amount proportional to the
modulating signal amplitude.
Chase carrier is directly varied.
=re#uency carrier is indirectly
varied.
12. ,tate the 6arsonN rule
) rule of thumb4 6arsonNs rule states that nearly all of the po/er of a fre#uency modulated signal
lies /ithin a band/idth -%.
-% Q 2'`f R=m)4 /here `f is the pea5 deviation of the instantaneous fre#uency from the centre
carrier fre#uency.
13. +efine "odulation index in =".
$t is defined as m Q aUfm Q "aximum fre#uency deviationU"odulating fre#uency.
1. 6ompare Jarro/band 3 Wideband in ="
Jarro/ band =" Wideband ="

" ] 1

,pectrum contains a 2 sidebands and


carrier.

-WQ 2="

&sed for mobile communication

" I 1

,pectrum contains infinite number of


side bands and carrier.

-WQ 2'a R ="'max)

&sed for broadcasting and


entertainment.
1!. ) 6arrier fre#uency modulated /ith a sinusoidal signal of 2 5;7 resulting in a maximum
deviation of ! 5;74 =ind the modulation index and band/idth of the modulated signal
E&p $o:A ES(.$($.?ASSEMBL($. A$ TEST($. %/ PRE- EMP+AS(S 7
E-EMP+AS(S
A(M
%o study and plot the response of passive pre-emphasis.
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
1. 86%-03 %rainer
2. 6:H
3. Catch cards
T+E%R,:
Pre-emp3asis
Cre-emphasis refers to boosting the relative amplitudes of the modulating voltage for
higher audio fre#uencies from 2 to approximately 1! G;7.
Pre-emp3asis "ir"uit
)t the transmitter4 the modulating signal is passed through a simple net/or5 /hich
amplifies the high fre#uency4 components more than the lo/-fre#uency components. %he
simplest form of such a circuit is a simple high pass filter of the type sho/n in fig 'a).
,pecification dictate a time constant of .! microseconds 'bs) /here t Q :6. )ny combination
of resistor and capacitor 'or resistor and inductor) giving this time constant /ill be satisfactory.
,uch a circuit has a cutoff fre#uency fco of 2122 ;7. %his means that fre#uencies higher than
2122 ;7 /ill he linearly enhanced. %he output amplitude increases /ith fre#uency at a rate of (
d- per octave. %he pre-emphasis curve is sho/n in =ig 'b). %his pre-emphasis circuit increases
the energy content of the higher-fre#uency signals so that they /ill tend to become stronger than
the high fre#uency noise components. %his improves the signal to noise ratio and increases
intelligibility and fidelity.
=igureA C:E- E"C;),$, U +E-E"C;),$,
%he pre-emphasis circuit also has an upper brea5 fre#uency fu /here the signal enhancement
flattens out.,ee =ig 'b). %his upper brea5 fre#uency is computed /ith the expression.
fu Q :1 R':2U2c:1:16)
$t is usually set at some very high value beyond the audio range. )n fu of greater than 32G;7 is
typical.
PR%-E)RE:
1. 6onnect the output of sine /ave generator to the passive pre-emphasis circuit.
2. 6onnect the output of pre-emphasis circuit to 6:H.
3. ,/itch HJ the trainer.
. %abulate the reading.
!. =rom the reading4 plot the graph 'Main vs =re#uency).
(. =rom the graph4 note do/n the cutoff fre#uency.
TAB)LAT(%$:
=in B '=
S1$%1 /re0uen"y =olta!e
.ainB4Clo!(=
C
7=
in
)
A(M
%o study and plot the response of passive de-emphasis.
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
1. 86%-03 %rainer
2. 6:H
3. Catch cards
e-emp3asis
+e-emphasis means attenuating those fre#uencies by the amount by /hich they are boosted.
;o/ever pre-emphasis is done at the transmitter and the de-emphasis is done in the receiver. %he
purpose is to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for =" reception. ) time constant of .!bs is
specified in the :6 or >UK net/or5 for pre-emphasis and de-emphasis.
e-emp3asis -ir"uit

TAB)LAT(%$:
=in B '=
S1$%1 /re0uen"y =olta!e
.ainB4Clo!(=
C
7=
in
)
%o return the fre#uency response to its normal level4 a de-emphasis circuit is used at the receiver.
%his is a simple lo/-pass filter /ith a constant of .! cs. ,ee figure 'c). $t features a cut off of
2122 ;7 and causes signals above this fre#uency to be attenuated at the rate of (b- per octave.
%he response curve is sho/n in =ig 'd). )s a result4 the pre-emphasis at the transmitter is exactly
offset by the de-emphasis circuit in the receiver4 providing a normal fre#uency response. %he
combined effect of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis is to increase the high-fre#uency components
during transmission so that they /ill be stronger and not mas5ed by noise.
PR%-E)RE
1. 6onnect the output of sine /ave generator to the passive de-emphasis circuit.
2. 6onnect the output of de-emphasis circuit to 6:H.
3. ,/itch HJ the trainer.
. %abulate the reading.
!. =rom the reading4 plot the graph 'Main vs =re#uency).
(. =rom the graph4 note do/n the cutoff fre#uency
RES)LT:
%hus the characteristics of pre emphasis and de emphasis circuits are studied and the response
curve has been plotted.
P%ST LAB TEST:
1. %ell /hat an intermediate fre#uency amplifier /ill do?
2. ;o/ to reduce the noise during transmission in ="?
3. Which techni#ue is used at the receiver side to reconstruct the original signal?
. What should be the time consant for the de emphasis circuit?
!. Why pre emphasis is done after modulation?
(. Explain the operation of pre-emphasis circuit.
.. Cre emphasis operation is similar to high pass filter /ith gain in pass band explain ho/?
0. +e emphasis operation is similar to lo/ pass filter /ith attenuation in stop band4 <ustify?
1. What is de-emphasis?
12. +ra/ the fre#uency response of a pre-emphasis circuit.
11. +ra/ the fre#uency response of a de-emphasis circuit.
12. Mive the formula for the cutoff fre#uency of the pre-emphasis circuit.
PLL and /re0uen"y synt3esi9er
PRELAB TEST:
1. What is C>>?
2. ,tate the operation of C>>.
3. +efine capture range.
. +efine loc5 range in C>>.
!. What is meant by free running fre#uency in C>>?
(. +etermine /hat type of electronic signals /ould be seen at points ) 3 - for the
follo/ing input conditions.
.. What is voltage controlled oscillator?
0. >ist the applications of C>>.
1. Mive the formula for free- running fre#uency4 loc5 range and capture range of C>>.
12. What is a fre#uency synthesi7er?
11. ,tate the 3 main phase detectors that are used for fre#uency synthesis application.
12. "ention the features of fre#uency synthesi7er.
13. >ist do/n the mixer types.
PLL and /re0uen"y synt3esi9er
Answer key 2 Prelab test:
1. What is C>>?
) C>> is an electronic circuit /ith a voltage or current driven oscillator that is constantly
ad?usted to match in phase the fre#uency of an input signal .C>> is used for fre#uency control.
#has!
$!t!%tor
&#' ()*
%hey can be configured as multipliers4 dividers4 demodulators4 trac5ing generators or recovery
circuits.
2. ,tate the operation of C>>
%he crystal oscillator generates a fre#uency of desired range '12 ";7) /hich is fed to
Chase detector4 the 86H output is 7ero right no/ so the phase detector output is very high
because the fre#uencies differ a lot. %he Chase detector output gets fed into the 86H and
generated a fre#uency4 this goes bac5 to the phase detector and so on4 eventually the 86H /ill
loc5 onto the fre#uency of the crystal and the output of the 86H /ill be 12 ";7. %his is basic
C>> circuit operation.
3. +efine capture range
%he capture range is the incoming signal fre#uency range over /hich the phase
comparator and oscillator can react fast enough so that phase loc5 is achieved before the phase
comparator goes through another cycle.
. +efine loc5 range in C>>.
%he range of fre#uencies in /hich it is possible to achieve loc5 condition.
!. What is meant by free running fre#uency in C>>?
%he 86H is a special type of oscillator that has a fre#uency controlled by an applied
voltage. %he fre#uency of the 86H /ithout any control signal applied is called as free running
fre#uency in C>>.
(. +etermine /hat type of electronic signals /ould be seen at points ) 3 - for the follo/ing
input conditions.
)) $UCQ ,ine /ave4 steady fre#uency
,teady +6 voltage 3 fre#uency e#ual to input signal.
-) $UCQ ,ine /ave4 increasing fre#uency
$ncreasing +6 voltage 3 fre#uency e#ual to input signal.
6) $UCQ ,ine /ave4 decreasing fre#uency
+ecreasing +6 voltage 3 fre#uency increases and decreases regularly.
.. What is voltage controlled oscillator?
$t is an electronic oscillator /hose oscillation fre#uency is controlled by a voltage input4
the applied input voltage determines the instantaneous oscillation fre#uency also it is part of
C>>.
0. >ist the applications of C>>.
=unction generator4 =re#uency synthesi7ers4 6loc5 recovery in a serial data lin5.
1. Mive the formula for free- running fre#uency4 loc5 range and capture range of C>>.

=ree running fre#uency4 fo Q 1.2U:t6t4

>oc5 range4 => Q R0foU28o

6apture range4 =6 Q Rd =>U2_ :262.


12. What is a fre#uency synthesi7er?
$t is an electronic system for generating any range of fre#uencies from a single fixed
time base or oscillator. $t can combine fre#uency multiplication4 fre#uency division 3 fre#uency
mixing operations to produce the desired signal.
11. ,tate the 3 main phase detectors that are used for fre#uency synthesis application.
Chase fre#uency detector4 EeH: phase detector 3 <G flip flop phase detector.
12. "ention the features of fre#uency synthesi7er.
8ery /ide band/idth4 $ntegrated 862 RC>>4 =ast settling time4 ;igh reliability over
temperature4 &sed as <ammers.
13. >ist do/n the mixer types
Cassive and active mixer. "ixers are classified as /hether the inputs are balanced or
unbalanced.
,ingle ended - both W13 W2 are single ended
W1 9balanced- 3 W2 is single ended
W2 9 balanced - 3 W1 is single ended
+oubly balanced both the W1 3 W2 are balanced.
E&p1 $o: D PLL A$ /RE*)E$-, S,$T+ES(EER
A(M
%o study the phase loc5ed loop 3 to find out capture range4 loc5 range 3 free running
fre#uency range.
APPARAT)S RE*)(RE
1. %->%-122.
2. 6:H
3. Catch cards
T+E%R,:
) Chase >oc5ed >oop or a C>> is a feedbac5 control circuit. )s the name suggests4 the
phase loc5ed loop operates by trying to loc5 to the phase of a very accurate input signal through
the use of its negative feedbac5 path. ) basic form of a C>> consists of three fundamental
functional bloc5s namely
) Chase +etector 'C+)
) >oop =ilter '>=)
) voltage controlled oscillator '86H)
=igureA C>> )J+ =:ES&EJ6T ,TJ%;E,$KE:
%he phase detector compares the phase of the output signal to the phase of the reference signal. $f
there is a phase difference bet/een the t/o signals4 it generates an output voltage4 /hich is
proportional to the phase error of the t/o signals. %his output voltage passes through the loop
filter and then as an input to the voltage controlled oscillator '86H) controls the output
fre#uency. +ue to this self correcting techni#ue4 the output signal /ill be in phase /ith the
reference signal. When both signals are synchroni7ed the C>> is said to be in loc5 condition. %he
phase error bet/een the t/o signals is 7ero or almost 7ero at this. )s long as the initial difference
bet/een the input signal and the 86H is not too big4 the C>> eventually loc5s onto the input
signal. %his period of fre#uency ac#uisition4 is referred as pull-in time4 this can be very long or
very short4 depending on the band/idth of the C>>. %he band/idth of a C>> depends on the
characteristics of the phase detector 'C+)4 voltage controlled oscillator and on the loop ffilter.
PR%-E)RE:
'1 To #ind #ree runnin! #re0uen"y ran!e
i. Jo input signal applied to the pin no. 1 'C1!).
ii. 6onnect C( 3 C3.
iii. 6onnect C1 3 C1(.
iv. 6onnect C103C11.
v. 6onnect C203C21.
vi. 6onnect 6:H probe bet/een C20 3 C12.
vii. Jote do/n =86H Q =H '=ree running fre#uency) at pin no. C20.
41 To #ind minimum #re0uen"y
i. +isconnect C0 3 C11. 6onnect C0 3 C12.
ii. Jote do/n 86H HUC fre#uency.
:1 To #ind ma&imum #re0uen"y
i. 6onnect C0 3 8++.
ii. Jote do/n 86H HUC fre#uency.
;1 To #ind Lo"k ran!e 5 -apture ran!e
i. $nput signal is pin C1 3 C2 connected across C10 3 C1!.
ii. 6onnect C0 3 C11.
iii. =ind >oc5 range 3 6apture range.
iv. 6onnect the 6:H probe bet/een C20 3 C12.
RES)LT:
%hus the characteristics of Chase >oc5 >oop has been studied and the cloc5 range4 loc5 range
and free running fre#uency has been studied"
TAB)LAT(%$:
S1$%1 Parameters /re0uen"y
1.
2.
3.
.
=61'min capture)
=>1'min loc5)
=62'max capture)
=>2'max loc5)
.RAP+(-AL (A.RAM
=min
=>1 =61
6apture :ange
=62 =>2
=2
6enter fre#uency
/re0uen"y

=olta!e
(=)
=max
>oc5
P%ST LAB TEST:
1. What is ++, '+irect +igital ,ynthesis)?
2. Mive the operation of fre#uency divider4 8oltage multiplier 3 =re#uency multiplier.
3. +ra/ the schematic of C>> "odel.
. +efine the term <itter ,uppression
!. What is fre#uency translation?
(. ,tate the problem associated /ith C>>.
.. Mive the difference bet/een Chase detector 3 %ri-state phase detector.
0. >ist do/n the noise sources available in C>>.
1. +escribe about %hird order C>>.
12. ,tate the use of fre#uency modulator.
Line "odin! te"3ni0ues
PRELAB TEST:
1. +efine line coding.
2. +ifferentiate &ni- polar4 -i-polar and polar signaling.
3. +ifferentiate J:K 3 :K signaling
. What is meant by J:K->4 J:K-" 3 J:K-,?
!. What are the types of bi-phase coding techni#ues?
(. What is meant by -i-phase level4 -i phase mar5 3 -i 9phase space signaling?
.. What is codec? "ention its use.
0. +efine multilevel signals.
1. >ist do/n the properties of line coding.
12.;o/ do /e send bitsUpulses over /ire?
11. +efine +ata rate 3 -aud rate.
12.,tate the band/idth usage of line codes.
Line "odin! te"3ni0ues
Answer key 2 Prelab test:
1. +efine line coding.
>ine coding is defined as the /aveform representation of digital data.
2. +ifferentiate &ni- polar4 -i-polar and polar signaling.
$n unipolar signaling4 symbolN2N is represented by Z2Nvolts 3 symbol Z1N by positive
pulse.
$n polar signaling4 symbol Z2N is represented by negative pulse 3 symbol Z1N by positive
pulse.
$n bi-polar signaling4 symbolN2Nis represented by Z2N volts and symbol Z1N is represented
by alternative positive and negative pulse.
3. +ifferentiate J:K 3 :K signaling
$n non-return to 7ero signaling4 the pulses are transmitted for the entire bit duration but in
return to 7ero ':K) signaling4 the pulses are transmitted only for half bit duration.
. What is meant by J:K->4 J:K-" 3 J:K-,?
%he J:K-level is ?ust li5e the unipolar J:K. $n J:K-" the change in level occurs for
symbol Z1N and no change for symbol Z2N. $n J:-,4 the change in level occurs for symbol Z2N and
no change for symbol Z1N.
!. What are the types of bi-phase coding techni#ues?
-i-Chase level4 -i 9 Chase mar54 -i- Chase space.
(. What is meant by -i-phase level4 -i phase mar5 3 -i 9phase space signaling?
$n -i-phase level4 symbol Z1N is represented by positive to negative function at half bit
interval and symbol Z2N is represented by negative to positive transition at half bit interval.
$n -i phase mar5 signaling4 symbolN1N is represented by both starting transition and half a bit
interval transition and the symbol Z2N is represented by only starting transition.
$n -i 9phase space signaling4 symbol Z2N is represented by both starting transition and half a bit
interval transition and symbolN1N is represented by only starting transition.
.. What is codec? "ention its use
) codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data
stream or signal. %he /ord codec is a portmanteau of *coder-decoder* or4 less commonly4
*compressor-de-compressor*. ) codec 'the program) should not be confused /ith a coding or
compression format or standard 9 a format is a document 'the standard)4 a /ay of storing data4
/hile a codec is a program 'an implementation) /hich can read or /rite such files. $n practice4
ho/ever4 *codec* is sometimes used loosely to refer to formats. ) codec encodes a data stream or
signal for transmission4 storage or encryption4 or decodes it for playbac5 or editing.
6odecs are used in videoconferencing4 streaming media and video editing applications. )
video cameraOs analog-to-digital converter ')+6) converts its analog signals into digital signals4
/hich are then passed through a video compressor for digital transmission or storage. )
receiving device then runs the signal through a video decompressor4 then a digital-to-analog
converter '+)6) for analog display. %he term codec is also used as a generic name for a
videoconferencing unit
0. +efine multilevel signals
"ulti level signal use three or more levels of voltages to represent the binary digits4 Z1N 3
Z2N instead of normal high and lo/s. :eturn to 7ero 9)lternate mar5 inversion ':K-)"$) is the
most commonly used multilevel signal and under the category of multilevel signal.
1. >ist do/n the properties of line coding.
%ransmission band/idthA as small as possible.
Co/er efficiencyA )s small as possible for given band/idth 3 probability of error.
Error detection and correction capability.
=avorable po/er spectral density.dcQ2.
)de#uate timing contentA Extract timing from pulses.
%ransparencyA Crevent long strings of 2Ns 3 1Ns.
12. ;o/ do /e send bitsUpulses over /ire?
,erial modeA 1 bit is sent /ith each cloc5 tic54 one communication channelU/ire is needed.
Carallel modeA "ultiple bits are sent /ith each cloc5 tic54 advantage is n-times faster than serial
mode4 disadvantage is high cost.'0 times of /ire cost 3 used for short distance only).
11. +efine +ata rate 3 -aud rate.
+ata rate is defined as number of data elements 'bits) sent in 1-secUunitA bps.
,ignal rate is defined as number of signal elements U pulses sent in 1 secUunitA baud.
.
12. ,tate the band/idth usage of line codes.
&sed for digital base band modulation.
&sed for spectral properties of the line codes.
Crocedure for finding the C,+ of line codes.
E&pt $o:F L($E -%($. TE-+$(*)ES
A(M :
%o study different types line coding techni#ues.
APPARAT)S RE*)(REA
1. 6ommunication trainer 5it
2. "ulti Hutput Co/er ,upply.
3. Catch cords.
. +,HU6:H
T+E%R,:
We need to represent C6" binary digits by electrical pulses in order to transmit them
through a base band channel. %he most commonly used C6" popular data formats are being
reali7ed here. >ine coding refers to the process of representing the bit stream ''s and Cs) in the
form of voltage or current variations optimally tuned for the specific properties of the physical
channel being used. %he selection of a proper line code can help in so many /aysA Hne
possibility is to aid in cloc5 recovery at the receiver. ) cloc5 signal is recovered by observing
transitions in the received bit se#uence4 and if enough transitions exist4 a good recovery of the
cloc5 is guaranteed4 and the signal is said to be self-cloc5ing.
)nother advantage is to get rid of +6 shifts. %he +6 component in a line code is called the
bias or the DC coefficient. &nfortunately4 most long-distance communication channels cannot
transport a +6 component. %his is /hy most line codes try to eliminate the +6 component
before being transmitted on the channel.,uch codes are called DC balanced4 zero-DC4 zero-bias4
or DC equalized.,ome common types of line encoding in common-use no/adays are unipolar4
polar4 bipolar4 "anchester4 ">%-3 and +uobinary encoding. %hese codes are explained hereA
'1 )nipolar ()nipolar $RE and )nipolar RE)A
&nipolar is the simplest line coding scheme possible. $t has the advantage of being compatible
/ith %%> logic. &nipolar coding uses a positive rectangular pulse p't) to represent binary '4 and
the absence of a pulse 'i.e.4 7ero voltage) to represent a binary 2. %/o possibilities for the pulse
p't) exist3A Jon-:eturn-to-Kero 'J:K) rectangular pulse and :eturn-to-Kero ':K) rectangular
pulse. %he difference bet/een &nipolar J:K and &nipolar :K codes is that the rectangular pulse
in J:K stays at a positive value 'e.g.4 R!8) for the full duration of the logic ' bit4 /hile the pule
in :K drops from R!8 to 28 in the middle of the bit time. ) dra/bac5 of unipolar ':K and J:K)
is that its average value is not 7ero4 /hich means it creates a significant +6-component at the
receiver 'see the impulse at 7ero fre#uency in the corresponding po/er spectral density 'C,+) of
this code. %he disadvantage of unipolar :K compared to unipolar J:K is that each rectangular
pulse in :K is only half the length of J:K pulse. %his means that unipolar :K re#uires t/ice the
band/idth of the J:K code.
Polar (Polar $RE and Polar RE):
$n Colar J:K line coding binary 's are represented by a pulse p't) and binary Cs are
represented by the negative of this pulse -p't) 'e.g.4 -!8). Colar 'J:K and :K) signals .&sing the
assumption that in a regular bit stream a logic C is ?ust as li5ely as a logic '4polar signals
'/hether :K or J:K) have the advantage that the resulting +ccomponent is very close to 7ero.
%he rms value of polar signals is bigger than unipolar signals4 /hich means that polar signals
have more po/er than unipolar signals4 and hence have better ,J: at the receiver.
)ctually4 polar J:K signals have more po/er compared to polar :K signals. %he
dra/bac5 of polar J:K4 ho/ever4 is that it lac5s cloc5 information especially /hen a long
se#uence of Cs or 's is transmitted. $on-Return-to-Eero? (n6erted ($RE(): J:K$ is a
variant of Colar J:K. $n J:K$ there are t/o possible pulses4 p't) and 9p't). ) transition from one
pulse to the other happens if the bit being transmitted is a logic '4 and no transition happens if the
bit being transmitted is a logic C1 %his is the code used on compact discs '6+)4 &,- ports4 and
on fiber-based =ast Ethernet at 122-"bitUs .
MA$-+ESTER E$-%($.:
$n "anchester code each bit of data is signified by at least one transition. "anchester
encoding is therefore considered to be self-cloc5ing4 /hich means that accurate cloc5 recovery
from a data stream is possible. $n addition4 the +6 component of the encoded signal is 7ero.
)lthough transitions allo/ the signal to be self-cloc5ing4 it carries significant overhead as there
is a need for essentially t/ice the band/idth of a simple J:K or J:K$ encoding
P%8ER SPE-TRA %/ L($E -%ES:
&nipolar most of signal po/er is centered around origin and there is /aste of po/er due
to +6 component that is present.
Colar format most of signal po/er is centered around origin and they are simple to
implement.
-ipolar format does not have +6 component and does not demand more band/idth4 but
po/er re#uirement is double than other formats.
"anchester format does not have +6 component but provides proper cloc5ing
PR%-E)RE
1. 6onnect the C:-, 'test point C!) to various line coding formats. Hbtain the coded output
as per the re#uirement.
2. 6onnect coded signal test point to corresponding decoding test point as inputs.
3. ,et the ,W1 as per the re#uirement.
. ,et the potentiometer C1 in minimum position.
!. ,/itch HJ the po/er supply. Cress the s/itch ,W2 once.
(. +isplay the encoded signal on one channel of 6:H and decoded signal on second channel
of 6:H.
M%EL .RAP+
TAB)LAR -%L)M$
,.Jo Jame of the signal )mplitude in 8 %ime period in ,ec =re#uency in ;7
1
"odulating ,ignal
2 6arrier ,ignal
3 "odulated ,ignal
+emodulated
,ignal
RES)LTA %hus the different types of line coding techni#ues /ere studied.
P%ST LAB TEST:
1. ,tate the concept of "anchester coding.
2. +efine data signaling rate.
3. What is meant by modulation rate?
. Explain the po/er spectra of line codes.
!. >ist do/n the characteristics of line coding.
(. 6ompare the different types of line codes.
.. +ifferentiate "anchester 3 +ifferential "anchester coding.
0. What is digital modulation?
1. What is meant by bloc5 coding?
12. Which encoding type al/ays has a non 7ero average amplitude?
'a) &nipolar
'b) Colar
'c) -ipolar
'd) )ll the above
11. Which of the follo/ing encoding methods does not provide for synchroni7ation?
'a) J:K->
'b) :K
'c) J:K-$
'd) "anchester
12. -loc5 coding can help in fffffffffffffff at the receiver.
'a) ,ynchroni7ation 'b) Error detection 'c) )ttenuation 'd) 'a) and 'b)
13. Culse rate is al/ays fffffffffffffff the bit rate.
'a) Mreater than 'b) >ess than
'c) Mreater than or e#ual to 'd) >ess than or e#ual to