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IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO.

10, OCTOBER 1999

A Low-Power 16

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16-b Parallel Multiplier Utilizing Pass-Transistor Logic


C. F. Law, S. S. Rofail, and K. S. Yeo

AbstractThis paper describes a low-power 16 2 16-b parallel


very large scale integration multiplier, designed and fabricated
using a 0.8-m double-metal double-poly BiCMOS process. In
order to achieve low-power operation, the multiplier was designed utilizing mainly pass-transistor (PT) logic circuits. The
inherent nonfull-swing nature of PT logic circuits were taken
full advantage of, without significantly compromising the speed
performance of the overall circuit implementation. New circuit implementations for the partial-product generator and the
partial-product addition circuitry have been proposed, simulated,
and fabricated. Experimental results showed that the worst case
multiplication time of the test chip is 10.4 ns at a supply voltage of
3.3 V, and the average power dissipation is 38 mW at a frequency
of 10 MHz.
Index Terms Low-power VLSI design, parallel multipliers,
pass-transistor logic.

I. INTRODUCTION

OST advanced digital systems today incorporate a


parallel multiplication unit to carry out high-speed
mathematical operations. In many situations, the multiplier
lies directly in the critical-path, resulting in an extremely high
demand on its speed. In the past, considerable efforts were put
into designing multipliers with higher speed and throughput,
which resulted in fast multipliers which can operate with a
delay time as low as 4.1 ns [1]. However, with the increasing
importance of the power issue due to the portability and
reliability concerns of electronic devices [2], recent work has
started to look into circuit design techniques that will lower
the power dissipation of multipliers [3][5].
This paper describes the design and fabrication of a
16 16-b parallel multiplier, based on a 0.8- m BiCMOS
process, for low-power applications. Pass-transistor (PT)
logic is chosen to implement most of the logic functions
within our multiplier. Emerging as an attractive replacement
for the conventional static CMOS logic, especially in
the design of arithmetic macros, PT logic requires fewer
devices to implement basic logic functions in an arithmetic
operation, such as the XOR function. This translates into
lower input gate capacitance and power dissipation as
compared to conventional static CMOS [2]. In the PT circuit
implementations reported so far [6][9], transmission-gate
(TG) design techniques which provide full voltage swings
were widely adopted. In this paper, we present several circuits
that fully exploit the inherent nonfull-swing (NFS) nature of

Manuscript received November 17, 1998; revised March 20, 1999.


The authors are with the Division of Circuits and Systems, School of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University,
Singapore 639798 (e-mail: eksyeo@ntu.edu.sg).
Publisher Item Identifier S 0018-9200(99)08225-6.

CODING OF

IN A

TABLE I
STANDARD PPG IMPLEMENTATION

PT logic. These circuits were used as basic building blocks


within our multiplier to achieve low-power operation.
Various proposed and reported circuit implementations
of the partial-product generator (PPG) and partial-product
adder (PPA) are discussed in Sections II and III, respectively.
Section IV presents the experimental measurements of the test
chip. All circuit simulations are based on a 0.8- m doublemetal double-poly BiCMOS process, and carried out on the
HSPICE simulator.
II. PARTIAL-PRODUCT GENERATOR (PPG)
To date, the most widely adopted technique for partialproduct generation in large multipliers (16-b and above) is
the modified Booths algorithm (MBA). The main attraction
of MBA is that instead of generating partial-products for an
-b multiplication, it only generates half of that. According
to MBA, a signed binary number in its two-complement form
can be partitioned into overlapping groups of three bits. By
coding each of these groups, an -b signed binary number
signed digits. As each
can be represented as a sum of
signed digit takes the possible values of zero, 1 and 2, the
required partial-products are all power-of-two multiples of the
multiplicand (X), which are readily available.
The standard PPG circuit implementation requires five control bits, each representing a , X, X, 2X, or
2X operation. The truth table for the control bits are
shown in Table I. When implemented in full CMOS, the
encoders only exhibit moderate performance [4]. To improve
its performance, complementary PT logic (CPL) family cells
have been used in [4]. Although significant improvement in
power dissipation (30%) has been reported, the CPL encoder
requires 122 transistors to implement, a 150% increase compared to the CMOS encoder (48 transistors), and provides
only 6% improvement in speed. We present a PT Booths
encoder (Fig. 1) which offers better performance over both
the CMOS and CPL implementations in terms of power, speed
and transistor count. From Table I, it is obvious that the control
,
, and
are the same.
bit for 0 is high when

00189200/99$10.00 1999 IEEE

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IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1999

TABLE II
IMPROVEMENT OF PROPOSED ENCODER OVER CMOS

AND

CPL ENCODERS

different, provided
is low. The same is true for X,
must now be high. The expressions for these
except that
control bits are

(2)

(3)

It is clear from (1)(3) that an XOR operation between


and
should be performed to generate all three control
bits. A PT XOR-XNOR pair carries out this operation and
the results (XOR and XNOR) are fed simultaneously into
three PT AND-NAND pairs to generate the respective control
bits. The control bits for 2X and 2X are generated
using conventional CPL logic style and therefore will not
be discussed. The proposed circuit was compared with the
CMOS and CPL circuits, and the results are shown in Table II.
The proposed encoder outperforms the CMOS implementation
by 21% in speed and over 50% in power dissipation, with
approximately the same transistor count. When compared to
the CPL encoder, our circuit is faster by 15% and achieves
about 50% improvement in power and transistor count.

(a)

III. PARTIAL-PRODUCT ADDER

(b)
Fig. 1. Proposed circuit implementations for control-bits (a) 0 and (b)
X and X.

Therefore, it can be expressed as


(1)

0
The control bit for X is high when

and

are

One common approach to partial-product addition is to use


regular adder array, which has a regular structure and is easy
to layout. However, it suffers from poor speed performance
and power wastage due to spurious transitions. For large
multipliers, another approach, the Wallace reduction technique,
is usually used. This approach leads to much better speed
performance due to the high-level of parallelism employed
in the Wallace tree-adder, constructed using multiple-input
compressors that can sum up several partial-products concurrently. The second approach was adopted in our circuit
implementation to obtain the best speed performance possible,
while PT logic circuits with NFS nodes were used to reduce
the power of the Wallace tree-adder.
In a 16 16-b multiplier utilizing the MBA, there are eight
partial-products to be added up. Thus, the 4-2 compressor was
chosen as the basic building block of the PPA. It receives five
and
), cominput bits of the same weight (
, and
).
presses them, and generates three output bits (
Various circuit implementations of the 4-2 compressor have
been reported. Full CMOS implementations usually suffer
from high transistor count and input gate capacitance, leading
to only moderate speed and power performance. The pseudoCMOS implementation proposed in [10] (using a 0.5- m

IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1999

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TABLE III
COMPARISIONS OF WALLACE TREE-ADDERS WITH
DIFFERENT 4-2 COMPRESSOR IMPLEMENTATIONS

Fig. 3. Input test pattern to trigger critical-path within multiplier.

Fig. 2. The improved 4-2 compressor with NFS nodes.

CMOS technology) utilized -channel PTs to reduce the


transistor count of the basic building gate (an XOR gate),
and an improvement of 12.5% in speed over the full CMOS
circuit has been reported. To further simplify the design, a
PT-multiplexer-based circuit comprising only of TGs, using
a 0.25- m CMOS, technology, was proposed in [6]. Using this
technique, a multiplication time of 4.4 ns has been reported.
Clearly, considerable efforts have been directed toward simplifying the design of the compressors and improving the speed
of the Wallace tree-adder. Its power dissipation, however, was
never a major consideration. We present a 4-2 compressor
circuit design (Fig. 2) which is an improved version of the
one proposed in [6], requiring fewer transistors to implement
and consuming less power. The proposed design takes full
advantage of the NFS nodes that are inherent in PT logic
circuits. As shown in Fig. 2, it consists of two types of PT
multiplexers, one providing NFS outputs (NFS MUX), and
the other providing full-swing (FS) outputs using two PMOS
pull-up devices (FS MUX). For each 4-2 compressor, only
,
,
, and
, and the output ,
the internal nodes
for logic high, while the rest only
are pulled up to
. Among the NFS nodes are
reaches approximately
) and internal nodes
both the output carry signals ( and

and . Special care is taken in routing the compressors


to form the PPA. Since the outputs of the compressors in
the first stage drive the inputs of those in the second stage,
of the first stage, being a NFS node, must be used to
drive
or
(which can accept NFS logic high) of the
second stage. While , being an FS node, can be used to
drive any of the second stage compressors inputs. With this
technique, about 50% of the nodes within the PPA are non
full swing. Furthermore, as only two of the 4-2 compressors
and
), only four of
inputs require full voltage swing (
the eight partial-products generated by PPG are required to
achieve full swing. This leads to significant power reduction
for the multiplier.
The PPA was implemented using the various 4-2 compressors discussed above and comparisons, in terms of speed,
power, power-delay product, and transistor count, were made
at 3.3 V. The simulation results are shown in Table III.
When compared to the pseudo-CMOS implementation, the
proposed implementation achieved significant improvements
in delay, power, and transistor count. The shorter delay in
the proposed implementation (2.2 ns) is due to its much
shorter critical-path (three PT multiplexers) compared to the
pseudo-CMOS implementation (two -channel XOR gates
and two CMOS complex gates). The presence of NFS nodes
and 48% cut in the transistor count has led to an improvement in power dissipation by 44%. Significant improvements
over the TG implementation in terms of power (62%) and
transistor count (37.5%) were also obtained. Although the
lower current drive capability of NFS nodes, as compared
to FS-nodes, has caused the proposed implementation to
suffer a 16% decrease in speed, the power-delay product
still improved by over 50%. In conclusion, the low-power
and low-transistor-count characteristics of the improved PT
4-2 compressor are very useful in the design of a lowpower high-performance PPA, with relatively small circuit
area.

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IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1999

Fig. 4. Worst case multiplication time and average power dissipation at 10 MHz of the test chip for supply range 2.5 to 5 V as compared to other
reported multipliers of the same width.

TABLE IV
CHARACTERISTICS OF FABRICATED 16

2 16-b MULTIPLIER

is compared to the one reported in [7] which is based on a


0.5- m CMOS process, where over 50% reduction in power
is obtained. The characteristics of the fabricated device are
shown in Table IV.
V. CONCLUSION

IV. FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION


The multiplier was fabricated on a test chip using a 0.8- m
double-metal double-poly BiCMOS process. To measure its
worst case multiplication time, input test patterns are applied to trigger its critical-path, which includes a Booths
encoder, a control-line buffer, a partial-product selector, two
4-2 compressors, a half-adder, and the 32-b two-operand carryselect adder, with carry propagation from the fourteenth to the
highest (thirty-first) bit-position. One such pattern is shown
in Fig. 3. The worst case (rise) delay is measured to be 10.4
ns. The average power dissipation of the test chip, inclusive
of the multiplier core, input/output pads, output multiplexers
and testing circuitry, with no probes at the outputs, is 38 mW.
The multiplication time and power dissipation of the fabricated
device are measured for the supply range of 2.5 V to 5 V, and
the results are compared with some of the reported multipliers
of the same width, as shown in Fig. 4. At 3.3 V, the multipliers
reported in [11] and [12], which used a 0.6- and 0.5- m
CMOS technology, respectively, achieved, as expected, better
multiplication time compared to our work. Our multiplier,
however, provides significant saving in power. At 10MHz, it
is less than half that of [11] and even less when compared to
[12]. Similar observation is made at 4 V when our multiplier

We have presented several low-power PT circuit techniques for parallel multiplication. Taking full advantage of the
low-transistor-count and NFS nature of PT logic, we have
successfully implemented low-power circuit blocks which
16-b multiplier,
serve as basic building units within a 16
including a new Booths encoder and a modified 4-2 compressor. Experimental measurements on the fabricated multiplier
and comparisons with other reported multipliers have verified
its low-power characteristics. The total power dissipation of
the test chip at 3.3 V is 38 mW at 10 MHz, with a worst case
multiplication time of 10.4 ns.
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