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Fact Finding Report: Independent Inquiry into


Muzaffarnagar Riots
Vol - XLIX No. 2, January 11, 2014 | Mohan Rao, Ish Mishra, Pragya Singh, and Vikas Bajpai Web Exclusives


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A team of independent academics and a journalist carried out an inquiry into the communal violence that shook
Muzaffarnagar district in UP this past September. The report (as a PDF) is based on the findings of the team during
its visit to Muzaffarnagar district on the 9 and 10 November and again on 27 November.
The authors are part of the independent fact-finding committee that was constituted to study the aftermath of the
communal riots in Muzaffarnagar.
A team of independent academics and a journalist carried out an inquiry into the communal violence that shook
Muzaffarnagar district in UP this past September. The report (as a PDF) is based on the findings of the team during
its visit to Muzaffarnagar district on the 9th and the 10th of November and again on the 27th November. The
members of the team were:

Dr. Mohan Rao, Professor, Centre for Social Medicine and Community Health, JNU.
Dr. Ish Misra, Professor, Department of Political Science, Hindu College, Delhi University.
Ms.Pragya Singh, Journalist, Outlook, and
Dr. Vikas Bajpai, Ph.D. Scholar, Centre for Social Medicine and Community Health, JNU.

The team also drew upon the assistance of Dr. Subhash Tyagi, Professor of Geography, Machra College, Meerut,
and Praveen Raj Tyagi, Principal Greenland Public School, Duhai, Ghaziabad, in the collection of some data and the
conduct of the visit.

OBJECTIVES OF OUR ENQUIRY:

1. To investigate the role of state agencies in either preventing or containing violence, in taking appropriate punitive
actions against the guilty and also to investigate some incidents of communal violence.
2. To investigate the role of the government in providing relief and rehabilitating the displaced and the progress made
in displaced people going back to their villages and homes.
3. To understand economic, social and political reasons that led to the recent spate of communal violence in this area
of Western Uttar Pradesh.

SALIENT FINDINGS:

Role of the agencies of the State

The fact that India is constitutionally mandated as Secular State makes it obligatory on the agencies of the State to
uphold secular values. However, the communal incidents in Muzaffarnagar, its aftermath and the continuing tragedy
of the riot affected persons have been the undoing of the Indian State in this regard. Regrettably, this has been the
outcome of deliberate and calculated decisions at different levels as is evident from the findngs:
The affidavits riot victims were made to sign for availing monetary compensation
The Uttar Pradesh (UP) government has made the riot affected Muslim families in relief camps to sign an affidavit
that enforced following conditions on the signatories in order to avail of financial relief:

That myself and members of my family have come leaving our village and home being terrorized due to violent
incidents in village and we will not now return to our original village and home under any circumstances.
That the lumpsum financial help being given for my family by the government will only be used by me to
rehabilitate my family. By this money I will live with my family voluntarily arranging for residence at appropriate place
elsewhere.
That in the condition of receiving lumpsum financial help amount, myself or members of my family will not demand
compensation relating to any damage to any immovable property in my village or elsewhere.

The State thus sought to impose a demographic change in the riot affect villages through a legal instrument. The
monetary relief being disbursed was not to rebuild the damaged property or lost means of livelihood. This has served
to reinforce the terror of communal violence in the minds of affected families besides driving a schism in the
composite culture of the area which mars the possibilities of gradual healing. Muslims are now being ghettoized in
towns and localities dominated by them.

These aspects were pointed out by the team members to the district administration, The officials however denied that
the government was preventing people from going back to the villages and told of an order stating that those who
wanted to return to their villages were free to do so. But a copy of the said order could not be provided by the
administration.

Nepotism, complicity and inaction of the police in incidents of violence

The shallow credibility of the law and order machinery in Muzaffarnagar is best reflected in the statement of senior
police officials that both the Jats and the Muslims are complaining against us, so the police must have done
something good. Police itself is at pain to enumerate pro-active and positive actions taken by them against the wrong
doers. Establishing credibility in the eyes of minorities becomes all the more difficult when in a region with around 27
percent Muslim population, as per senior police official of the district, the representation of Muslims in police force is
less than 3 percent. The officer however maintained that this did not matter for a policeman is a policeman and
religion was not a factor in discharge of his duties.

The residents at the camps however said that they did not want to go back to their villages as their tormentors were
still roaming free and that the government had done little that would have them repose their faith in the law and order
machinery. The frequent transfers of the senior police officials in the district have not helped matters either. In 2013
the SSP of the district has been changed five times.

In Qutba village, where from single largest number of Muslim killings has been reported (8 Muslim were killed) a
picket of PAC (provincial armed police) was posted in the village at the time of riots. These policemen were having
tea in the Pradhans house when mobs started rampaging Muslim households. The three Muslim men who rushed to
seek their help were said to have been locked up by these policemen in the Pradhans house.

The second incident of killings that took place with the police in vicinity was at the Mohammepur Raisingh village on
October 30. Three Muslim youth from the neighboring Hussainpur village were abducted from the fields and killed by
the Jats even as a picket of the state police was posted in the village. The Hussainpur villagers on learning of the
abduction of youth repeatedly rang the SHO of Bhaura Kalan police station, but their calls went unanswered. It was
told that the SHO had switched off his phone.

Pradhan of Hussainpur village later told that despite their best efforts many of those accused by name in the killings
have still not been arrested and are roaming free in Mohammedpur Raisingh. He further alleged that the police has
declared rates (of bribe) to weaken the cases against the accused or even let them go scot free.

It appears from the sequence and the circumstances of the incidents of violence in Muzaffarnagar that had the police
and the district administration acted with alacrity and a fair sense of judgment in the immediate aftermath of the
incidence of alleged eve teasing and related murders in Kawal village, the subsequent turn of events could have
been entirely avoided.

Outsourcing of relief to the Muslim communal organisations by the State

It would have been best if the State machinery was seen by the riot affected Muslims as a dependable, sincere and
caring source of succor and a guarantor of their safety. The State instead chose to outsource relief measures to
Muslim communal organizations, principally the Jamiat-Ulema e Hind of Deoband though some other NGOs were
also involved.

On being quizzed - why no state agency has a visible presence at the relief camps, the district administration told us
that this was in accordance with the policy of the state government. The Shiv Pal Singh Yadav committee set up by
the state government post riots had recommended that all relief be provided through community organizations.

This reflects redoubtable wisdom. Communal community organizations cannot be expected to be credible foot
soldiers for Secular ideals. The impact of this was evident in the camps. Apart from apprehensions regarding security
upon return to their villages, the people also said that they would prefer to live amidst the security of their own
people.

Different reports before ours have graphically highlighted the pitiable conditions at the camps. We would only
reiterate that even the least courtesies like essential medical or civil amenities such as drinking water or functioning
toilets have not been provided to the people in the camps despite visits by the mightiest VIPs in the country.

Jamiat dominated committees appeared to tightly control what the people said of the arrangements at the camps. At
the Bassi Kalan camp when the residents complained against the government, members of the managing committee
tried to stop them. Likewise at camp no 1 at Shahpur a local Maulvi expressed his displeasure when the residents
complained of the conditions. We were told by families in the relief camps that up to Rs 20,000 had been taken from
them by functionaries of the Jamiat for constructing alternative accommodation.

A close confidant of ours asked the leader of the Jamiat as to why they were not opposing the affidavits that
displaced Muslim families were being made to sign. Reply was there is nothing to worry about this and that all of
them will finally be allowed to return to their villages. Jamiat further claimed credit for getting handsome relief
package for the displaced families. Silence of the Jamiat over the claims of the Samajwadi Party leadership that the
Muslims in the camps were agents of the Congress and the BJP is equally deafening.

Any astute observer can note that the Samajwadi Party government of UP will now bank on the certifications of the
mullahs to clean up its abominable record of a number of communal riots / disturbances in the state during its rule.

Local administration was categorical in stating that there are no refugees in any relief camp and government aid has
stopped. Further insult to injury has been added by the statement of the UP home secretary that people do not die of
cold. These only undermine the secular credentials of the state.

The communal campaign and the Muzaffarnagar violence

The communal violence in Muzaffarnagar ought to be seen in the context of such violence in different parts of the
country in 2013 beginning from Kishthwar (J & K), Masoori and Meerut in UP, Indore and Harda in MP, Bettiah and
Nawada in Bihar and Rangpur in Cachar district of Assam. UP has witnessed a sustained campaign at
communalization may it be the chaurasi kos parikrama or innovations like love jihad, ever since Amit Shah took
over the reins of BJP in the state. This is pathognomonic of the communal forces represented by the Sangh Parivar.
The approaching Lok Sabha elections in 2014 provide the leitmotif of this campaign.

However, equally abominable is the complicity of supposedly secular forces in facilitating this communal campaign.
The track record of the Akhilesh Yadav government in dealing with communal forces, its attitude towards common
Muslims and history of hob-knobbing with Muslim communal forces is a case in the point.

The atmosphere in Muzaffarnagar has been vitiated over several months through sustained communal mobilization.
Muslims have been the worst sufferers of communal orgy that swept Muzaffarnagar. Senior Superintendent Police
informed that a total of 52 people died in Muzaffarnagar, of which 37 were Muslims and 15 were Hindus (in all
likelihood these were all Jats). Unofficial sources put the number of displaced Muslims at 100,000 while by the time of
our visit government acknowledged that 50,955 displaced persons had been accommodated in 11 relief camps. 540
FIRs have been registered in riot-related incidents, against approximately 6000 people.

There is an important distinction in the manner of Muslims and Jat deaths. Almost all the Jats who were killed were
those who had participated in the Mahapanchayat at Nangla Mandaur village on September 7th. There were
accounts of the Jats, in tractor trollies from different villages that went to take part in the Mahapanchayat, raising
provocative slogans as they passed by Muslim habitations. Provocations like dogs being dressed in burqa and
beaten with slippers were on display along with slogans like Musalmano ke do sthan Pakistan ya kabristan.
Even the Jats we talked to admitted that these youth have been taken in by the charisma of Modi and they raised
slogans in his support on way to the mahapanchayat.

Jats who died were killed in reaction to this deliberate provocation. Most of these deaths took place on the evening of
September 7th in attacks on Jat trollies as they returned from the Mahapanchayat or were of those Jats who got
injured in these attacks and died later. The only incident of a planned attack on Jats took place at Pur Baliyan on
September 7th in which some Mulle Jats wanted to attack the trolley of Jats from Sohram village out of rivalry borne
by a previous incident. However, in the melee of the violence the Jats in the trolley of Kakda village got killed. But
none of the Jats from Pur Baliyan village itself were attacked by Muslims.

The attacks and deaths of Muslims have taken place as part of a sustained campaign in different villages. The victims
were all innocent lower class Muslims who had no role in attacks on Jats. The handwork of the larger communal
design and organization was evident in the well-rehearsed and similar arguments which the Jats from different
villages forwarded to rationalize the killings and the displacement of the Muslims. A Jat teacher in Kakda village
described the communal violence in the region as Yeh hai Amit Shah ka jadoo. The Qutba village had been
witness to a panchayat that was attended by the BJP president Mr Rajnath Singh about 6 months back. This points to
the forces that have been at work in the area.

The Jats in villages like Kakda and Mohammedpur Raisingh put forth ludicrous arguments like the Muslims were
willing to come back to their villages, but decided to stick to the relief camps ever since the government announced
the 5 lakh relief package and that they themselves destroyed their property to claim inflated relief. Common
communal myths propagated by the Hindutva forces against Muslims they have large families and do not believe
in family planning; they are anti-national and that they will create a Kashmir like situation here as well were
liberally put forth.

Is it Jat versus Muslims or Hindus versus Muslims?

It has been reported that lower caste Hindus also participated in attacks on Muslims along with the Jats in different
villages. However, the Muslims whom we interviewed in the relief camps felt that wherever the lower caste Hindus
acted against them it was under the pressure of the Jats as the lower caste Hindus had little option but to follow the
diktat of the Jats. Distinct caste hierarchies were observed in the villages, and also in terms of the involvement of
different castes in the decision making processes. For example in the 35 biradari panchayat that was convened in
Mohammadpur Raisingh on the November 10, representatives of all the upper castes were invited but none from the
lower castes.

It is however noteworthy that no communal violence has been reported from any of the Muslim dominated villages.
Simultaneously, there were Jat dominated villages where the Jats took up the responsibility of protecting their Muslim
brethren. Some of these villages were Kheda Gani, Garhi Novabad, Garhi Jaitpur and Kurawa.

THE WAY FORWARD

Despite the constitutional and formal averments of the secular character of the Indian state, the de facto reality
remains that the state machinery has acted in a highly communal manner which undermines Indias secular
credentials. Even as the communal poison being spread by the Hindutva forces need be countered with full force, the
role played by the Samajwadi Party government in UP in connivance with the Muslim communal forces and the latest
act of forcibly evicting the riot displaced families from relief camps brings into question the advisability of forming
alliances with such parties to counter communalism. The stark reality is that despite the fact that Muslims constitute a
much larger share of UPs population as compared to Yadavs, the propensity of the Yadavization of administrative
structure is much stronger while the Muslims can at best expect their lives to be spared in the name of secularism.
Indias secularism ostensibly sways between Hindu Rule of the secular parties of the ruling classes and the Hindu
Rashtra of the saffron brigade.

Fighting communalism is not merely an electoral issue. The communal forces can be defeated only by ground
struggles built by an alliance of the minorities, the working masses, the dalits, the tribals, other oppressed castes and
progressive sections of the intelligentsia. In this regard the example held out by the people of Hussainpur, Kheda
Gani, Garhi Novabad, Garhi Jaitpur, Kurawa and other such villages is a ray of hope.

OUR DEMANDS

The following demands acquire top most priority in our opinion under the prevailing circumstances:
1. All the accused named in the FIRs should be arrested.
2. Decommunalize the state apparatus.
3. Restore all villagers back to their homes.
4. Scrap the affidavit which was taken against five lakh compensation amount.